HOME
ListMoto - California


--- Advertisement ---



(i)

Native languages as of 2007

English 57.4%[2] Spanish 28.5%[3] Chinese 2.8%[3] Filipino 2.2%[3]

Demonym Californian

Capital Sacramento

Largest city Los Angeles

Largest metro Greater Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Area

Area Ranked 3rd

 • Total 163,696 sq mi (423,970 km2)

 • Width 250 miles (400 km)

 • Length 770 miles (1,240 km)

 • % water 4.7

 • Latitude 32°32′ N to 42° N

 • Longitude 114°8′ W to 124°26′ W

Population Ranked 1st

 • Total 39,536,653 (2017 est.)[4]

 • Density 240/sq mi  (92.6/km2) Ranked 11th

 • Median household income $63,636[5] (13th)

Elevation

 • Highest point Mount Whitney[6][7][8][9] 14,505 ft (4,421.0 m)

 • Mean 2,900 ft  (880 m)

 • Lowest point Badwater Basin[10] −279 ft (−85.0 m)

Before statehood California
California
Republic

Admission to Union September 9, 1850 (31st)

Governor Jerry Brown
Jerry Brown
(D)

Lieutenant Governor Gavin Newsom
Gavin Newsom
(D)

Legislature California
California
State Legislature

 • Upper house California
California
State Senate

 • Lower house California
California
State Assembly

U.S. Senators Dianne Feinstein
Dianne Feinstein
(D) Kamala Harris
Kamala Harris
(D)

U.S. House delegation 39 Democrats 14 Republicans (list)

Time zones Pacific Time Zone

 • Standard time PST (UTC−8)

 • Summer time (DST) PDT (UTC−7)

ISO 3166 US-CA

Abbreviations CA, Calif., Cal.

Website www.ca.gov

California
California
state symbols

The Flag of California

The Seal of California

Living insignia

Amphibian California
California
red-legged frog

Bird California
California
quail

Fish

Fresh water: Golden trout Marine: Garibaldi

Flower California
California
poppy

Grass Purple needlegrass

Insect California
California
dogface butterfly

Mammal

Land: California grizzly bear
California grizzly bear
(State animal)[1] Marine: Gray whale

Reptile Desert
Desert
tortoise

Tree California
California
redwood

Inanimate insignia

Colors Blue & gold [11]

Dance West Coast Swing

Folk dance Square dance

Fossil Sabre-toothed cat

Gemstone Benitoite

Mineral Native gold

Motto Eureka[1]

Nickname The Golden State

Rock Serpentine

Soil San Joaquin

Song "I Love You, California"

Tartan California
California
State Tartan

State route marker

State quarter

Released in 2005

Lists of United States
United States
state symbols

California
California
is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States
United States
of America. With 39.5 million residents, California
California
is the most populous state in the United States
United States
and the third most extensive by area. The state capital is Sacramento. The Greater Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 8.8 million residents respectively.[12] Los Angeles
Los Angeles
is California's most populous city, and the country's second-most populous, after New York City. California also has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County; its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; and its fifth most densely populated county, San Francisco. California's $2.75 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state.[13] If it were a country, California
California
would be the 5th largest economy in the world,[14] and the 36th most populous as of 2017.[15] The Greater Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Area and the San Francisco Bay Area
San Francisco Bay Area
are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies ($1,199 billion and $821 billion respectively as of 2016), after the New York City metropolitan area.[16] The San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay Area's combined statistical area had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2016 (~$94,000),[17] and is home to four of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization[18] and four of the world's ten richest people.[19] California
California
is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation, and politics. It is the origin of the film industry, the hippie counterculture, the Internet,[20] and the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area
San Francisco Bay Area
and the Greater Los Angeles Area are widely seen as the centers of the global technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California
California
has a very diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, government, real estate services, technology, and professional, scientific and technical business services.[21] Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy,[21] California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.S. state.[22][23][24][25] California
California
is bordered by Oregon
Oregon
to the north, Nevada
Nevada
and Arizona
Arizona
to the east, and the Mexican state of Baja California
Baja California
to the south. The state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada
Nevada
mountain range in the east, and from the redwood– Douglas fir
Douglas fir
forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert
Mojave Desert
in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Though California
California
is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. What is now California
California
was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries. The Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
then claimed it as part of Alta California
Alta California
in their New Spain
New Spain
colony. The area became a part of Mexico
Mexico
in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States
United States
in 1848 after the Mexican–American War. The western portion of Alta California
Alta California
then was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California
California
Gold
Gold
Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 The first inhabitants 2.2 Colonial and Spanish periods 2.3 California
California
under Mexican rule 2.4 California Republic
California Republic
and American invasion 2.5 Early American statehood period

2.5.1 Indigenous peoples under early American administration

2.6 20th century

3 Geography

3.1 Climate 3.2 Ecology 3.3 Flora and fauna 3.4 Rivers 3.5 Regions

4 Demography

4.1 Population 4.2 Cities and towns

4.2.1 Migration

4.3 National origins 4.4 Languages

5 Culture

5.1 Religion 5.2 Sports 5.3 Education 5.4 Twin region

6 Economy

6.1 State finances

7 Infrastructure

7.1 Energy 7.2 Transportation 7.3 Water

8 Government and politics

8.1 State government

8.1.1 Local government

8.1.1.1 Counties 8.1.1.2 City and town governments 8.1.1.3 School districts and special districts

8.2 Federal representation 8.3 Armed forces 8.4 Ideology

9 See also 10 Notes 11 References

11.1 Works cited

12 Further reading 13 External links

Etymology Main articles: Etymology of California
Etymology of California
and Island of California The word California
California
originally referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico; it was later extended to the entire region composed of the current United States
United States
states of California, Nevada, and Utah, and parts of Arizona, New Mexico, Texas
Texas
and Wyoming.[26] Spanish explorer Francisco de Ulloa's initial surveys of the Baja California
California
Peninsula exploring the western coast of North America
North America
led him to believe that it was an island rather than part of the larger continent.[27] The name likely derived from the mythical island California
California
in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo.[28] This work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula.[29][30][31][32] Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts.[28][33][34] In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible the name California
California
was meant to imply the island was a Caliphate.[28][35]

Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California, very close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, which was inhabited by black women without a single man among them, and they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with strong passionate hearts and great virtue. The island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the bold and craggy rocks. — Chapter CLVII of The Adventures of Esplandián[36]

The conventional wisdom that California
California
was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, lasted as late as the 18th century.[37] Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal., Calif., and US-CA. History Main article: History of California

A map of California
California
tribal groups and languages at the time of European contact.

The first inhabitants Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California
California
was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000.[38] The Indigenous peoples of California
California
included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California
California
groups also were diverse in their political organization with bands, tribes, villages, and on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash, Pomo and Salinan. Trade, intermarriage and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups. Colonial and Spanish periods

The coat of arms granted to The Californias
The Californias
by Viceroy
Viceroy
Antonio de Mendoza.

Mission San Diego de Alcalá
Mission San Diego de Alcalá
drawn as it was in 1848. Established in 1769, it was the first of the California
California
Missions.

The Russian Empire
Russian Empire
established their largest settlement in California at Fort Ross
Fort Ross
in 1812

The first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years later English explorer Francis Drake
Francis Drake
also explored and claimed an undefined portion of the California
California
coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their return trips from the Philippines
Philippines
beginning in 1565.[39] The first Asians to set foot on what would be the United States
United States
occurred in 1587, when Filipino sailors arrived in Spanish ships at Morro Bay.[40] Sebastián Vizcaíno explored and mapped the coast of California
California
in 1602 for New Spain. Despite the on-the-ground explorations of California
California
in the 16th century, Rodríguez's idea of California
California
as an island persisted. That depiction appeared on many European maps well into the 18th century.[41] After the Portolà expedition
Portolà expedition
of 1769–70, Spanish missionaries began setting up 21 California
California
Missions on or near the coast of Alta (Upper) California, beginning in San Diego. During the same period, Spanish military forces built several forts (presidios) and three small towns (pueblos). The San Francisco
San Francisco
Mission grew into the city of San Francisco, and two of the pueblos grew into the cities of Los Angeles and San Jose. Several other smaller cities and towns also sprang up surrounding the various Spanish missions and pueblos, which remain to this day. The Spanish colonization began the genocide of the indigenous Californian peoples, decimating their numbers through epidemics of various diseases for which the indigenous peoples had no natural immunity, such as measles and diphtheria.[42] The establishment of the Spanish systems of government and social structure, which the Spanish settlers had brought with them, also technologically and culturally overwhelmed the societies of the earlier indigenous peoples. During this same period, Russian ships also explored along the California
California
coast and in 1812 established a trading post at Fort Ross. Russia's early 19th-century coastal settlements in California
California
were positioned just north of the northernmost edge of the area of Spanish settlement in San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay, and were the southernmost Russian settlements in North America. The Russian settlements associated with Fort Ross
Fort Ross
were spread over an area stretching from Point Arena to Tomales Bay.[43] California
California
under Mexican rule

Map showing Alta California
Alta California
in 1838 when it was a sparsely populated Mexican province.[44]

In 1821, the Mexican War of Independence
Mexican War of Independence
gave Mexico
Mexico
(including California) independence from Spain. For the next 25 years, Alta California
California
remained as a remote, sparsely populated, northwestern administrative district of the newly independent country of Mexico. Cattle ranches, or ranchos, emerged as the dominant institutions of Mexican California. Soon after Mexican independence from Spain, the chain of missions became the property of the Mexican government and was secularized by 1834.[45] The ranchos developed under ownership by Californios
Californios
(Spanish-speaking Californians) who had received land grants, and traded cowhides and tallow with Boston merchants. From the 1820s, trappers and settlers from the United States
United States
and the future Canada arrived in Northern California. These new arrivals used the Siskiyou Trail, California
California
Trail, Oregon
Oregon
Trail and Old Spanish Trail to cross the rugged mountains and harsh deserts in and surrounding California. The early government of the newly independent Mexico
Mexico
was highly unstable, and in a reflection of this, from 1831 onwards, California also experienced a series of armed disputes, both between regional areas, and also revolts against the central Mexican government.[46] During this tumultuous political period Juan Bautista Alvarado
Juan Bautista Alvarado
was able to secure the governorship from 1836 - 1842.[47] The military action which first brought Alvarado to power had momentarily declared California
California
to be an independent state, and had been aided by American and British residents of California,[48] including Isaac Graham.[49] In 1840, one hundred of those residents who did not have passports were arrested, leading to the Graham affair.[48] One of the largest ranchers in California
California
was John Marsh. After failing to obtain justice against squatters on his land from the Mexican courts, he determined that California
California
should become part of the United States. Marsh conducted a letter-writing campaign espousing the California
California
climate, soil and other reasons to settle there, as well as the best route to follow, which became known as "Marsh's route." His letters were read, reread, passed around, and printed in newspapers throughout the country, and started the first wagon trains rolling to California.[50] He invited immigrants to stay on his ranch until they could get settled, and assisted in their obtaining passports.[51] After ushering in the period of organized emigration to California, Marsh helped end the rule of the last Mexican governor of California, thereby paving the way to California's ultimate acquisition by the United States.[52] California Republic
California Republic
and American invasion

The original of Todd's Bear Flag, photographed in 1890

In 1846, a group of American settlers in and around Sonoma rebelled against Mexican rule during the Bear Flag
Bear Flag
Revolt. Afterwards, rebels raised the Bear Flag
Bear Flag
(featuring a bear, a star, a red stripe and the words " California
California
Republic") at Sonoma. The Republic's only president was William B. Ide,[53] who played a pivotal role during the Bear Flag Revolt. This revolt by American settlers served as a prelude to the later American military invasion of California, and was closely coordinated with nearby American military commanders. The California Republic
California Republic
was short lived;[54] the same year marked the outbreak of the Mexican–American War
Mexican–American War
(1846–48).[55] When Commodore John D. Sloat
John D. Sloat
of the United States Navy
United States Navy
sailed into Monterey Bay
Monterey Bay
and began the military occupation of California
California
by the United States, Northern California
Northern California
capitulated in less than a month to the United States forces.[56] After a series of defensive battles in Southern California, the Treaty of Cahuenga
Treaty of Cahuenga
was signed by the Californios
Californios
on January 13, 1847, securing American control in California.[57] Early American statehood period

Miners during the California
California
Gold
Gold
Rush

California
California
is Admitted to the Union under the Compromise of 1850.

Merchant ships fill San Francisco
San Francisco
harbor; c. 1850-51.

Guidon of the California
California
100 Company (Company A) during the Civil War

Depiction of the 1869 completion of the first trans-continental railway. The Last Spike (1881) by Thomas Hill.

Following the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
(February 2, 1848) that ended the war, the westernmost portion of the old Mexican territory of Alta California
Alta California
soon became the American state of California, and the remainder of the old territory was then subdivided into the new American Territories of Arizona, Nevada, Colorado
Colorado
and Utah. The lightly populated and arid lower region of old Baja California remained as a part of Mexico. In 1846, the total settler population of the western part of the old Alta California
Alta California
had been estimated to be no more than 8,000, plus about 100,000 Native Americans, down from about 300,000 before Hispanic
Hispanic
settlement in 1769.[58] In 1848, only one week before the official American annexation of the area, gold was discovered in California, this being an event which was to forever alter both the state's demographics and its finances. Soon afterward, a massive influx of immigration into the area resulted, as prospectors and miners arrived by the thousands. The population burgeoned with United States
United States
citizens, Europeans, Chinese and other immigrants during the great California
California
Gold
Gold
Rush. By the time of California's application to the US Congress for statehood in 1850, the settler population of California
California
had multiplied to 100,000. By 1854 over 300,000 settlers had come.[59] Between 1847 and 1870, the population of San Francisco
San Francisco
increased from 500 to 150,000.[60] California
California
was suddenly no longer a sparsely populated backwater, but seemingly overnight it had grown into a major US population center. The seat of government for California
California
under Spanish and later Mexican rule had been located in Monterey from 1777 until 1845.[45] Pio Pico, last Mexican governor of Alta California, had briefly moved the capital to Los Angeles
Los Angeles
in 1845. The United States
United States
consulate had also been located in Monterey, under consul Thomas O. Larkin. In 1849, a state Constitutional Convention was first held in Monterey. Among the first tasks of the Convention was a decision on a location for the new state capital. The first full legislative sessions were held in San Jose (1850–1851). Subsequent locations included Vallejo (1852–1853), and nearby Benicia (1853–1854); these locations eventually proved to be inadequate as well. The capital has been located in Sacramento since 1854[61] with only a short break in 1862 when legislative sessions were held in San Francisco
San Francisco
due to flooding in Sacramento. Once the state's Constitutional Convention had finalized its state constitution, it applied to the US Congress for admission to statehood. On September 9, 1850, as part of the Compromise of 1850, California
California
was officially admitted into the United States
United States
as an undivided free state. Its status as a 'free state' prevented the expansion of slavery to the Pacific Coast, which question was then a foremost concern for the pre-Civil War US Congress. Within the state of California, Sep 9 remains as an annually celebrated legal holiday known as California
California
Admission Day. During the American Civil War
American Civil War
(1861–1865), California
California
was able to send gold shipments eastwards to Washington in support of the Union cause;[62] however, due to the existence of a large contingent of pro-South sympathizers within the state, the state was not able to muster any full military regiments to send eastwards to officially serve in the Union war effort. Still, several smaller military units within the Union army were unofficially associated with the state of California, such as the " California
California
100 Company", due to a majority of their members being from California. At the time of California's admission into the Union, travel between California
California
and the rest of the continental United States
United States
had been a time consuming and dangerous feat. Nineteen years afterwards, in 1869, shortly after the conclusion of the Civil War, a more direct connection was developed with the completion of the First Transcontinental Railroad at Promontory Summit, Utah. Once completed, hundreds of thousands of United States
United States
citizens were enabled to easily migrate westwards into the state. Upon their arrival in California, the new Californians were able to discover that if irrigated during the dry summer months, that much of California
California
was extremely well suited to fruit cultivation and agriculture in general. Vast expanses of wheat, other cereal crops, vegetable crops, cotton, and nut and fruit trees were grown (including oranges in Southern California), and the foundation was laid for the state's prodigious agricultural production in the Central Valley and elsewhere. Indigenous peoples under early American administration

Group of California
California
indigenous people.

Under earlier Spanish and Mexican rule, California's original native population had precipitously declined, above all, from Eurasian diseases to which the indigenous people of California
California
had not yet developed a natural immunity.[63] Under its new American administration, California's harsh governmental policies towards its own indigenous people did not improve. As in other American states, many of the native inhabitants were soon forcibly removed from their lands by incoming American settlers such as miners, ranchers, and farmers. Although California
California
had entered the American union as a free state, the "loitering or orphaned Indians" were de facto enslaved by their new Anglo-American masters under the 1853 Act for the Government and Protection of Indians.[64] There were also massacres in which hundreds of indigenous people were killed. Between 1850 and 1860, the California
California
state government paid around 1.5 million dollars (some 250,000 of which was reimbursed by the federal government)[65] to hire militias whose purpose was to protect settlers from the indigenous populations. In later decades, the native population was placed in reservations and rancherias, which were often small and isolated and without enough natural resources or funding from the government to sustain the populations living on them.[64] As a result, the rise of California
California
was a calamity for the native inhabitants. Several scholars and Native American activists, including Benjamin Madley and Ed Castillo, have described the actions of the California
California
government as a genocide.[66] 20th century

Hollywood
Hollywood
film studios, 1922

The "Birthplace of Silicon Valley" garage, where Stanford University graduates William Hewlett and David Packard
David Packard
developed their first product in the 1930s

Migration to California
California
accelerated during the early 20th century with the completion of major transcontinental highways like the Lincoln Highway and Route 66. In the period from 1900 to 1965, the population grew from fewer than one million to become the most populous state in the Union. In 1940, the Census Bureau reported California's population as 6.0% Hispanic, 2.4% Asian, and 89.5% non- Hispanic
Hispanic
white.[67] To meet the population's needs, major engineering feats like the California
California
and Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Aqueducts; the Oroville and Shasta Dams; and the Bay and Golden Gate
Golden Gate
Bridges were built across the state. The state government also adopted the California
California
Master Plan for Higher Education in 1960 to develop a highly efficient system of public education. Meanwhile, attracted to the mild Mediterranean climate, cheap land, and the state's wide variety of geography, filmmakers established the studio system in Hollywood
Hollywood
in the 1920s. California
California
manufactured 8.7 percent of total United States
United States
military armaments produced during World War II, ranking third (behind New York and Michigan) among the 48 states.[68] California
California
however easily ranked first in production of military ships during the war (transport, cargo, [merchant ships] such as Liberty ships, Victory ships, and warships) at drydock facilities in San Diego, Los Angeles, and the San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay Area.[69][70][71][72] After World War II, California's economy greatly expanded due to strong aerospace and defense industries,[73] whose size decreased following the end of the Cold War.[73][74] Stanford University and its Dean of Engineering Frederick Terman
Frederick Terman
began encouraging faculty and graduates to stay in California
California
instead of leaving the state, and develop a high-tech region in the area now known as Silicon Valley.[75] As a result of these efforts, California is regarded as a world center of the entertainment and music industries, of technology, engineering, and the aerospace industry, and as the United States
United States
center of agricultural production.[76] Just before the "Dot Com Bust" California
California
had the fifth-largest economy in the world among nations.[77] Yet since 1991, and starting in the late 1980s in Southern California, California
California
has seen a net loss of domestic migrants most years. This is often referred to by the media as the California
California
exodus.[78] During the 20th century, two great disasters happened in California. The 1906 San Francisco
San Francisco
earthquake and 1928 St. Francis Dam
St. Francis Dam
flood remain the deadliest in U.S history.[79] Geography Main article: Geography of California

A topographic map of California

A forest of redwood trees in Redwood National Park

Köppen climate types in California

Mount Shasta

Aerial view of the California
California
Central Valley

Big Sur
Big Sur
coast, south of Monterey at Bixby Bridge

Yosemite National Park

Snow on the Sierra Nevada
Nevada
in eastern California

Death Valley, in the Mojave Desert

Potato Harbor, named for its distinctive ovular and bumpy shape,[80] on Santa Cruz Island

The coastline along Laguna Beach
Laguna Beach
in Southern California

Cylindropuntia bigelovii
Cylindropuntia bigelovii
in the Joshua Tree National Park

Mojave National Preserve

The Sacramento– San Joaquin River
San Joaquin River
Delta viewed from above, with the Sacramento River
Sacramento River
above and San Joaquin River
San Joaquin River
below

California
California
is the 3rd largest state in the United States
United States
in area, after Alaska
Alaska
and Texas.[81] California
California
is often geographically bisected into two regions, Southern California, comprising the 10 southernmost counties,[82][83] and Northern California, comprising the 48 northernmost counties.[84][85] It is bordered by Oregon
Oregon
to the north, Nevada
Nevada
to the east and northeast, Arizona
Arizona
to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
to the west and it shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California
Baja California
to the south (with which it makes up part of The Californias
The Californias
region of North America, alongside Baja California
California
Sur). In the middle of the state lies the California
California
Central Valley, bounded by the Sierra Nevada
Nevada
in the east, the coastal mountain ranges in the west, the Cascade Range
Cascade Range
to the north and by the Tehachapi Mountains
Tehachapi Mountains
in the south. The Central Valley is California's productive agricultural heartland. Divided in two by the Sacramento- San Joaquin River
San Joaquin River
Delta, the northern portion, the Sacramento Valley
Sacramento Valley
serves as the watershed of the Sacramento River, while the southern portion, the San Joaquin Valley is the watershed for the San Joaquin River. Both valleys derive their names from the rivers that flow through them. With dredging, the Sacramento and the San Joaquin Rivers have remained deep enough for several inland cities to be seaports. The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta
Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta
is a critical water supply hub for the state. Water is diverted from the delta and through an extensive network of pumps and canals that traverse nearly the length of the state, to the Central Valley and the State Water Projects and other needs. Water from the Delta provides drinking water for nearly 23 million people, almost two-thirds of the state's population as well as water for farmers on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley. Suisun Bay
Suisun Bay
lies at the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers. The water is drained by the Carquinez Strait, which flows into San Pablo Bay, a northern extension of San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay, which then connects to the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
via the Golden Gate
Golden Gate
strait. The Channel Islands are located off the Southern coast, while the Farallon Islands
Farallon Islands
lie west of San Francisco. The Sierra Nevada
Nevada
(Spanish for "snowy range") includes the highest peak in the contiguous 48 states, Mount Whitney, at 14,505 feet (4,421 m).[6][7][8] The range embraces Yosemite Valley, famous for its glacially carved domes, and Sequoia National Park, home to the giant sequoia trees, the largest living organisms on Earth, and the deep freshwater lake, Lake Tahoe, the largest lake in the state by volume. To the east of the Sierra Nevada
Nevada
are Owens Valley
Owens Valley
and Mono Lake, an essential migratory bird habitat. In the western part of the state is Clear Lake, the largest freshwater lake by area entirely in California. Though Lake Tahoe
Lake Tahoe
is larger, it is divided by the California/ Nevada
Nevada
border. The Sierra Nevada
Nevada
falls to Arctic temperatures in winter and has several dozen small glaciers, including Palisade Glacier, the southernmost glacier in the United States. About 45 percent of the state's total surface area is covered by forests,[86] and California's diversity of pine species is unmatched by any other state. California
California
contains more forestland than any other state except Alaska. Many of the trees in the California
California
White Mountains are the oldest in the world; an individual bristlecone pine is over 5,000 years old.[87][88] In the south is a large inland salt lake, the Salton Sea. The south-central desert is called the Mojave; to the northeast of the Mojave lies Death Valley, which contains the lowest and hottest place in North America, the Badwater Basin
Badwater Basin
at −279 feet (−85 m).[10] The horizontal distance from the bottom of Death Valley to the top of Mount Whitney
Mount Whitney
is less than 90 miles (140 km). Indeed, almost all of southeastern California
California
is arid, hot desert, with routine extreme high temperatures during the summer. The southeastern border of California
California
with Arizona
Arizona
is entirely formed by the Colorado
Colorado
River, from which the southern part of the state gets about half of its water. A majority of California's cities are located in either the San Francisco Bay Area or the Sacramento metropolitan area
Sacramento metropolitan area
in Northern California; or the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
area, the Riverside-San Bernardino-Inland Empire, or the San Diego metropolitan area
San Diego metropolitan area
in Southern California. The Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Area, the Bay Area, and the San Diego metropolitan area are among several major metropolitan areas along the California
California
coast. As part of the Ring of Fire, California
California
is subject to tsunamis, floods, droughts, Santa Ana winds, wildfires, landslides on steep terrain, and has several volcanoes. It has many earthquakes due to several faults running through the state, in particular, the San Andreas Fault. About 37,000 earthquakes are recorded each year, but most are too small to be felt.[89] Climate Main article: Climate of California Although most of the state has a Mediterranean climate, due to the state's large size, the climate ranges from polar to subtropical. The cool California Current
California Current
offshore often creates summer fog near the coast. Farther inland, there are colder winters and hotter summers. The maritime moderation results in the shoreline summertime temperatures of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
and San Francisco
San Francisco
being the coolest of all major metropolitan areas of the United States
United States
and uniquely cool compared to areas on the same latitude in the interior and on the east coast of the North American continent. Even the San Diego
San Diego
shoreline bordering Mexico
Mexico
is cooler in summer than most areas in the contiguous United States. Just a few miles inland, summer temperature extremes are significantly higher, with downtown Los Angeles
Los Angeles
being several degrees warmer than at the coast. The same microclimate phenomenon is seen in the climate of the Bay Area, where areas sheltered from the sea experience significantly hotter summers than nearby areas that are close to the ocean. Northern parts of the state have more rain than the south. California's mountain ranges also influence the climate: some of the rainiest parts of the state are west-facing mountain slopes. Northwestern California
California
has a temperate climate, and the Central Valley has a Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
but with greater temperature extremes than the coast. The high mountains, including the Sierra Nevada, have an alpine climate with snow in winter and mild to moderate heat in summer. California's mountains produce rain shadows on the eastern side, creating extensive deserts. The higher elevation deserts of eastern California
California
have hot summers and cold winters, while the low deserts east of the Southern California
Southern California
mountains have hot summers and nearly frostless mild winters. Death Valley, a desert with large expanses below sea level, is considered the hottest location in the world; the highest temperature in the world,[90][91] 134 °F (56.7 °C), was recorded there on July 10, 1913. The lowest temperature in California
California
was −45 °F (−43 °C) in 1937 in Boca. The table below lists average temperatures for January and August in a selection of places throughout the state; some highly populated and some not. This includes the relatively cool summers of the Humboldt Bay region around Eureka, the extreme heat of Death Valley, and the mountain climate of Mammoth in the Sierra Nevadas.

Average temperatures and precipitation for selected communities in California[92]

Location August (°F) August (°C) January (°F) January (°C) Annual Precipitation (mm/in)

Los Angeles 83/64 29/18 66/48 20/8 377/15

LAX/LA Beaches 75/64 23/18 65/49 18/9 326/13

San Diego 76/67 24/19 65/49 18/9 262/10

San Jose 82/58 27/14 58/42 14/5 401/16

San Francisco 67/54 20/12 56/46 14/8 538/21

Fresno 97/66 34/19 55/38 12/3 292/11

Sacramento 91/58 33/14 54/39 12/3 469/18

Oakland 73/58 23/14 58/44 14/7 588/23

Bakersfield 96/69 36/21 56/39 13/3 165/7

Riverside 94/60 35/18 67/39 19/4 260/10

Eureka 62/53 16/11 54/41 12/5 960/38

Death Valley 113/84 45/29 64/37 18/3   53/2

Mammoth Lakes 77/45 25/7 40/15 4/ -9 583/23

Ecology Main article: Ecology of California See also: Environment of California

Mount Whitney
Mount Whitney
(top) is less than 90 miles (140 km) away from Badwater Basin
Badwater Basin
in Death Valley
Death Valley
(bottom)

California
California
is one of the richest and most diverse parts of the world, and includes some of the most endangered ecological communities. California
California
is part of the Nearctic ecozone
Nearctic ecozone
and spans a number of terrestrial ecoregions.[93] California's large number of endemic species includes relict species, which have died out elsewhere, such as the Catalina ironwood (Lyonothamnus floribundus). Many other endemics originated through differentiation or adaptive radiation, whereby multiple species develop from a common ancestor to take advantage of diverse ecological conditions such as the California
California
lilac (Ceanothus). Many California endemics have become endangered, as urbanization, logging, overgrazing, and the introduction of exotic species have encroached on their habitat. Flora and fauna Main articles: Fauna of California
Fauna of California
and California
California
Floristic Province See also: List of California
California
native plants See also: List of invertebrates of California California
California
boasts several superlatives in its collection of flora: the largest trees, the tallest trees, and the oldest trees. California's native grasses are perennial plants.[94] After European contact, these were generally replaced by invasive species of European annual grasses; and, in modern times, California's hills turn a characteristic golden-brown in summer.[95] Because California
California
has the greatest diversity of climate and terrain, the state has six life zones which are the lower Sonoran (desert); upper Sonoran (foothill regions and some coastal lands), transition (coastal areas and moist northeastern counties); and the Canadian, Hudsonian, and Arctic Zones, comprising the state's highest elevations.[96] Plant life in the dry climate of the lower Sonoran zone contains a diversity of native cactus, mesquite, and paloverde. The Joshua tree is found in the Mojave Desert. Flowering plants include the dwarf desert poppy and a variety of asters. Fremont cottonwood
Fremont cottonwood
and valley oak thrive in the Central Valley. The upper Sonoran zone includes the chaparral belt, characterized by forests of small shrubs, stunted trees, and herbaceous plants. Nemophila, mint, Phacelia, Viola, and the California
California
poppy (Eschscholzia californica) – the state flower – also flourish in this zone, along with the lupine, more species of which occur here than anywhere else in the world.[96] The transition zone includes most of California's forests with the redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and the "big tree" or giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum), among the oldest living things on earth (some are said to have lived at least 4,000 years). Tanbark oak, California
California
laurel, sugar pine, madrona, broad-leaved maple, and Douglas-fir
Douglas-fir
also grow here. Forest floors are covered with swordfern, alumnroot, barrenwort, and trillium, and there are thickets of huckleberry, azalea, elder, and wild currant. Characteristic wild flowers include varieties of mariposa, tulip, and tiger and leopard lilies.[97] The high elevations of the Canadian zone allow the Jeffrey pine, red fir, and lodgepole pine to thrive. Brushy areas are abundant with dwarf manzanita and ceanothus; the unique Sierra puffball is also found here. Right below the timberline, in the Hudsonian zone, the whitebark, foxtail, and silver pines grow. At about 10,500 feet (3,200 m), begins the Arctic zone, a treeless region whose flora include a number of wildflowers, including Sierra primrose, yellow columbine, alpine buttercup, and alpine shooting star.[96][98] Common plants that have been introduced to the state include the eucalyptus, acacia, pepper tree, geranium, and Scotch broom. The species that are federally classified as endangered are the Contra Costa wallflower, Antioch Dunes evening primrose, Solano grass, San Clemente Island larkspur, salt marsh bird's beak, McDonald's rock-cress, and Santa Barbara Island liveforever. As of December 1997[update], 85 plant species were listed as threatened or endangered.[96] In the deserts of the lower Sonoran zone, the mammals include the jackrabbit, kangaroo rat, squirrel, and opossum. Common birds include the owl, roadrunner, cactus wren, and various species of hawk. The area's reptilian life include the sidewinder viper, desert tortoise, and horned toad. The upper Sonoran zone boasts mammals such as the antelope, brown-footed woodrat, and ring-tailed cat. Birds unique to this zone are the California
California
thrasher, bushtit, and California condor.[96][99][100][101] In the transition zone, there are Colombian black-tailed deer, black bears, gray foxes, cougars, bobcats, and Roosevelt elk. Reptiles such as the garter snakes and rattlesnakes inhabit the zone. In addition, amphibians such as the water puppy and redwood salamander are common too. Birds such as the kingfisher, chickadee, towhee, and hummingbird thrive here as well.[96][102] The Canadian zone mammals include the mountain weasel, snowshoe hare, and several species of chipmunks. Conspicuous birds include the blue-fronted jay, Sierra chickadee. Sierra hermit thrush, water ouzel, and Townsend's solitaire. As one ascends into the Hudsonian zone, birds become scarcer. While the Sierra rosy finch is the only bird native to the high Arctic region, other bird species such as the hummingbird and Clark's nutcracker. Principal mammals found in this region include the Sierra coney, white-tailed jackrabbit, and the bighorn sheep. As of April 2003[update], the bighorn sheep was listed as endangered by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The fauna found throughout several zones are the mule deer, coyote, mountain lion, northern flicker, and several species of hawk and sparrow.[96] Aquatic life in California
California
thrives, from the state's mountain lakes and streams to the rocky Pacific coastline. Numerous trout species are found, among them rainbow, golden, and cutthroat. Migratory species of salmon are common as well. Deep-sea life forms include sea bass, yellowfin tuna, barracuda, and several types of whale. Native to the cliffs of northern California
California
are seals, sea lions, and many types of shorebirds, including migratory species.[96] As of April 2003, 118 California
California
animals were on the federal endangered list; 181 plants were listed as endangered or threatened. Endangered animals include the San Joaquin kitfox, Point Arena mountain beaver, Pacific pocket mouse, salt marsh harvest mouse, Morro Bay kangaroo rat (and five other species of kangaroo rat), Amargosa vole, California
California
least tern, California
California
condor, loggerhead shrike, San Clemente sage sparrow, San Francisco
San Francisco
garter snake, five species of salamander, three species of chub, and two species of pupfish. Eleven butterflies are also endangered[103] and two that are threatened are on the federal list.[104][105] Among threatened animals are the coastal California
California
gnatcatcher, Paiute cutthroat trout, southern sea otter, and northern spotted owl. California
California
has a total of 290,821 acres (1,176.91 km2) of National Wildlife Refuges.[96] As of September 2010[update], 123 California
California
animals were listed as either endangered or threatened on the federal list provided by the US Fish & Wildlife Service.[106] Also, as of the same year[update], 178 species of California
California
plants were listed either as endangered or threatened on this federal list.[106] Rivers Main article: List of rivers of California The vast majority of rivers in California
California
are dammed as part of two massive water projects: the Central Valley Project, providing water to the agricultural Central Valley, and the California
California
State Water Project diverting water from northern to southern California. The state's coasts, rivers, and other bodies of water are regulated by the California
California
Coastal Commission. The two most prominent rivers within California
California
are the Sacramento River and the San Joaquin River, which drain the Central Valley and the west slope of the Sierra Nevada
Nevada
and flow to the Pacific Ocean through San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay. Several major tributaries feed into the Sacramento and the San Joaquin, including the Pit River, the Tuolumne River, and the Feather River. The Eel River and Salinas River each drain portions of the California coast, north and south of San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay, respectively, and the Eel River is the largest river in the state to remain in its natural un-dammed state. The Mojave River
Mojave River
is the primary watercourse in the Mojave Desert, and the Santa Ana River
Santa Ana River
drains much of the Transverse Ranges as it bisects Southern California. Some other important rivers are the Klamath River
Klamath River
and the Trinity River in the far north coast, and the Colorado
Colorado
River on the southeast border with Arizona. Regions Further information: List of regions of California
List of regions of California
and List of places in California

Coastal California

North Coast Greater Bay Area Central Coast South Coast

Greater Los Angeles Greater San Diego

Channel Islands

Northern California

Cascade Range Klamath Mountains North Coast Greater Sacramento Sacramento– San Joaquin River
San Joaquin River
Delta Northern Sacramento Valley Central California North Coast (California) Greater Bay Area Northern Sierra

Central California

Greater Sacramento Northern Sacramento Valley San Joaquin Valley Sacramento– San Joaquin River
San Joaquin River
Delta Central Coast

Eastern California

Central Sierra Inland Empire

Southern California

South Coast

Greater Los Angeles

Channel Islands Inland Empire Southern Border Region

Greater San Diego–Tijuana Greater El Centro

Demography Main article: Demography of California Population

Historical population

Census Pop.

1850 92,597

1860 379,994

310.4%

1870 560,247

47.4%

1880 864,694

54.3%

1890 1,213,398

40.3%

1900 1,485,053

22.4%

1910 2,377,549

60.1%

1920 3,426,861

44.1%

1930 5,677,251

65.7%

1940 6,907,387

21.7%

1950 10,586,223

53.3%

1960 15,717,204

48.5%

1970 19,953,134

27.0%

1980 23,667,902

18.6%

1990 29,760,021

25.7%

2000 33,871,648

13.8%

2010 37,253,956

10.0%

Est. 2017 39,536,653

6.1%

Sources: 1790–1990, 2000, 2010, 2016[107][108][109] Chart does not include Indigenous population figures. Studies indicate that the Native American population in California
California
in 1850 was close to 150,000 before declining to 15,000 by 1900.[64][110]

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
is the second-most populous city in the U.S., after New York City.

The population density of California

The United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
estimates that the population of California
California
was 39,250,017 on July 1, 2016, a 5.4% increase since the 2010 United States
United States
Census. The population is projected to reach 40 million by 2018 and 50 million by 2055.[111] Between 2000 and 2009, there was a natural increase of 3,090,016 (5,058,440 births minus 2,179,958 deaths).[112] During this time period, international migration produced a net increase of 1,816,633 people while domestic migration produced a net decrease of 1,509,708, resulting in a net in-migration of 306,925 people.[112] The state of California's own statistics show a population of 38,292,687 for January 1, 2009.[113] However, according to the Manhattan Institute for Policy Research, since 1990 almost 3.4 million Californians have moved to other states, with most leaving to Texas, Nevada, and Arizona.[114] California
California
is the 2nd-most populous subnational entity in the Western Hemisphere and the Americas, with a population second to that of the state of São Paulo in Brazil.[115] California's population is greater than that of all but 34 countries of the world.[116][117] The Greater Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Area is the 2nd-largest metropolitan area in the United States, after the New York metropolitan area, while Los Angeles, with nearly half the population of New York City, is the second-largest city in the United States. Also, Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County has held the title of most populous United States
United States
county for decades, and it alone is more populous than 42 United States
United States
states.[118][119] Including Los Angeles, four of the top 15 most populous cities in the U.S. are in California: Los Angeles
Los Angeles
(2nd), San Diego
San Diego
(8th), San Jose (10th), and San Francisco
San Francisco
(13th). The center of population of California
California
is located in the town of Buttonwillow, Kern County.[note 1] Cities and towns See also: List of cities and towns in California
List of cities and towns in California
and List of largest California
California
cities by population The state has 482 incorporated cities and towns, of which 460 are cities and 22 are towns. Under California
California
law, the terms "city" and "town" are explicitly interchangeable; the name of an incorporated municipality in the state can either be "City of (Name)" or "Town of (Name)".[121] Sacramento became California's first incorporated city on February 27, 1850.[122] San Jose, San Diego
San Diego
and Benicia tied for California's second incorporated city, each receiving incorporation on March 27, 1850.[123][124][125] Jurupa Valley became the state's most recent and 482nd incorporated municipality on July 1, 2011.[126][127] The majority of these cities and towns are within one of five metropolitan areas: the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Metropolitan Area, the San Francisco Bay Area, the Riverside-San Bernardino Area, the San Diego metropolitan area, or the Sacramento metropolitan area.

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in California Source:[128]

Rank Name County Pop.

Los Angeles

San Diego 1 Los Angeles Los Angeles 3,976,322

San Jose

San Francisco

2 San Diego San Diego 1,406,630

3 San Jose Santa Clara 1,025,350

4 San Francisco San Francisco 870,887

5 Fresno Fresno 522,053

6 Sacramento Sacramento 495,234

7 Long Beach Los Angeles 470,130

8 Oakland Alameda 420,005

9 Bakersfield Kern 376,380

10 Anaheim Orange 351,043

Migration Starting in the year 2010, for the first time since the California Gold
Gold
Rush, California-born residents make up the majority of the state's population.[129] Along with the rest of the United States, California's immigration pattern has also shifted over the course of the late 2000s-early 2010s.[130] Immigration from Latin American countries has dropped significantly with most immigrants now coming from Asia.[131] In total for 2011, there were 277,304 immigrants. 57% came from Asian countries vs. 22% from Latin American countries.[131] Net immigration
Net immigration
from Mexico, previously the most common country of origin for new immigrants, has dropped to zero/less than zero since more Mexican nationals are departing for their home country than immigrating.[130] As a result it is projected that Hispanic
Hispanic
citizens will constitute 49% of the population by 2060, instead of the previously projected 2050, due primarily to domestic births.[130][132] The state's population of undocumented immigrants has been shrinking in recent years, due to increased enforcement and decreased job opportunities for lower-skilled workers.[133] The number of migrants arrested attempting to cross the Mexican border in the Southwest decreased from a high of 1.1 million in 2005 to 367,000 in 2011.[134] Despite these recent trends, illegal aliens constituted an estimated 7.3 percent of the state's population, the third highest percentage of any state in the country,[135][note 2] totaling nearly 2.6 million.[136] In particular, illegal immigrants tended to be concentrated in Los Angeles, Monterey, San Benito, Imperial, and Napa Counties – the latter four of which have significant agricultural industries that depend on manual labor.[137] More than half of illegal immigrants originate from Mexico.[136] National origins According to the United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
in 2016 the population self-identifies as (alone or in combination):[138]

72.7% White (including Non- Hispanic
Hispanic
whites/Anglos and Hispanics) 14.8% Asian 6.5% Black or African American 3.8% Two or More Races 1.7% Native American and Alaska
Alaska
Native 0.5% Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
or Pacific Islander

By ethnicity, in 2016 the population was 61.1% non- Hispanic
Hispanic
(of any race) and 38.9% Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino (of any race).[138] Non-Hispanic whites constituted 37.7% of the state's population.[138] As of 2011, 75.1% of California's population younger than age 1 were minorities, meaning that they had at least one parent who was not non- Hispanic
Hispanic
white (white Hispanics are counted as minorities).[139] In terms of total numbers, California
California
has the largest population of White Americans
Americans
in the United States, an estimated 22,200,000 residents. The state has the 5th largest population of African Americans
Americans
in the United States, an estimated 2,250,000 residents. California's Asian American
Asian American
population is estimated at 4.4 million, constituting a third of the nation's total. California's Native American population of 285,000 is the most of any state.[140] According to estimates from 2011, California
California
has the largest minority population in the United States
United States
by numbers, making up 60% of the state population.[109] Over the past 25 years, the population of non- Hispanic
Hispanic
whites has declined, while Hispanic
Hispanic
and Asian populations have grown. Between 1970 and 2011, non- Hispanic
Hispanic
whites declined from 80% of the state's population to 40%, while Hispanics grew from 32% in 2000 to 38% in 2011.[141] It is currently projected that Hispanics will rise to 49% of the population by 2060, primarily due to domestic births rather than immigration.[132] With the decline of immigration from Latin America, Asian Americans
Americans
now constitute the fastest growing racial/ethnic group in California; this growth is primarily driven by immigration from China, India
India
and the Philippines, respectively.[142]

California
California
Racial Breakdown of Population

Racial composition 1970[143] 1990[143] 2000[144] 2010[145]

White 89.0% 69.0% 59.5% 57.6%

Asian 2.8% 9.6% 10.9% 13.0%

Black 7.0% 7.4% 6.7% 6.2%

Native 0.5% 0.8% 1.0% 1.0%

Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
and other Pacific Islander – – 0.3% 0.4%

Some other race 0.7% 13.2% 16.8% 17.0%

Two or more races – – 4.8% 4.9%

Estimated ancestries of Californians[146]

Ancestry[fn 1] 2013 population Margin of error (+/-)

Total 43,071,506 33,741

Afghan 38,136 3,075

Albanian 4,792 681

Alsatian 730 163

American 1,124,070 10,956

Arab: 277,573 6,191

Egyptian[fn 2] 45,540 2,737

Iraqi[fn 2] 20,551 1,969

Jordanian[fn 2] 14,142 1,731

Lebanese[fn 2] 57,008 2,372

Moroccan[fn 2] 8,953 959

Palestinian[fn 2] 16,340 1,571

Syrian[fn 2] 23,298 1,749

Arab[fn 2] 44,851 2,645

Arab other[fn 2] 48,890 2,692

Armenian 258,260 5,292

Assyrian/Chaldean/Syriac 35,690 2,687

Australian 18,803 1,253

Austrian 77,113 2,205

Basque 18,413 1,252

Belgian 25,581 1,354

Brazilian 34,776 1,964

British 146,221 3,425

Bulgarian 13,093 1,304

Cajun 3,752 858

Canadian 88,244 2,687

Carpatho Rusyn 462 151

Celtic 5,910 593

Croatian 48,160 1,859

Cypriot 557 204

Czech 88,563 2,557

Czechoslovakian 23,097 1,164

Danish 182,221 3,432

Dutch 392,589 6,088

Eastern European 66,301 2,688

English 2,330,057 15,509

Estonian 4,210 636

European 542,475 8,588

Finnish 50,937 2,012

French[fn 3] 726,569 8,629

French Canadian 111,298 2,978

German 3,315,493 16,348

German Russian 2,094 328

Greek 131,110 3,050

Guyanese 2,947 468

Hungarian 125,280 3,639

Icelander 6,169 777

Iranian 213,661 6,417

Irish 2,612,782 13,767

Israeli 28,639 1,889

Italian 1,525,214 12,309

Latvian 10,974 916

Lithuanian 48,883 1,811

Luxemburger 3,040 387

Macedonian 3,093 471

Maltese 7,883 1,035

New Zealander 5,047 763

Northern European 46,409 2,030

Norwegian 394,056 5,827

Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
German 6,217 609

Polish 504,770 7,165

Portuguese 354,823 5,044

Romanian 66,942 2,927

Russian 433,384 6,662

Scandinavian 64,166 2,299

Scotch-Irish 240,268 4,345

Scottish 520,575 7,414

Serbian 17,739 1,434

Slavic 11,335 948

Slovak 24,732 1,564

Slovene 8,628 727

Soviet Union 195 111

Subsaharan African: 269,781 7,329

Cape Verdean[fn 4] 2,549 532

Ethiopian[fn 4] 28,007 2,467

Ghanaian[fn 4] 3,392 647

Kenyan[fn 4] 4,713 970

Liberian[fn 4] 1,069 400

Nigerian[fn 4] 25,498 2,414

Senegalese[fn 4] 585 296

Sierra Leonean[fn 4] 537 223

Somalian[fn 4] 7,066 1,440

South African[fn 4] 10,095 917

Sudanese[fn 4] 2,095 510

Ugandan[fn 4] 1,694 516

Zimbabwean[fn 4] 585 244

African[fn 4] 174,347 6,255

Other Subsaharan African[fn 4] 7,549 1,148

Swedish 425,092 5,332

Swiss 103,574 2,660

Turkish 23,206 1,214

Ukrainian 99,583 4,046

Welsh 168,463 3,482

West Indian[fn 5] 79,125 727

Bahamian[fn 6] 596 215

Barbadian[fn 6] 1,362 308

Belizean[fn 6] 21,331 1,459

Bermudan[fn 6] 370 170

British West Indian[fn 6] 1,858 485

Dutch West Indian[fn 6] 1,960 329

Haitian[fn 6] 7,363 1,046

Jamaican[fn 6] 28,675 1,877

Trinidadian and Tobagonian[fn 6] 5,357 716

U.S. Virgin Islander[fn 6] 756 288

West Indian[fn 6] 9,221 1,247

Other West Indian[fn 6] 276 124

Yugoslavian 33,363 1,830

Other groups 24,394,120 29,987

footnotes =

^ Underlined entries have sub-ancestries ^ a b c d e f g h i Arab sub-ancestry ^ except Basque ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Subsaharan African sub-ancestry ^ except Hispanic
Hispanic
groups ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l West Indian sub-ancestry

Ancestry 2010 Population[147] Percentage of Total Population

White, not Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino 15,763,625 42.3%

Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino (of any race) 14,013,719 37.6%

Mexican 11,423,146 30.6%

Salvadoran 573,956 1.5%

Guatemalan 332,737 0.8%

Puerto Rican 189,945 0.5%

Colombian 164,416 0.4%

Spaniard 142,194 0.3%

Nicaraguan 100,790 0.2%

Peruvian 91,511 0.2%

Cuban 88,607 0.2%

Honduran 72,795 0.1%

Argentinean 44,410 0.1%

Ecuadorian 35,750 0.09%

Chilean 24,006 0.06%

Costa Rican 22,469 0.06%

Panamanian 17,768 0.04%

Bolivian 13,351 0.03%

Dominican 11,455 0.03%

Venezuelan 11,100 0.02%

Uruguayan 4,110 0.01%

Paraguayan 1,228 0.003%

Asian 5,556,592 14.9%

Filipino 1,474,707 3.9%

Chinese (except Taiwanese) 1,349,111 3.6%

Vietnamese 647,589 1.7%

Indian 590,445 1.5%

Korean 505,225 1.3%

Japanese 428,014 1.1%

Okinawan 1,377 0.003%

Taiwanese 109,928 0.2%

Cambodian 102,317 0.2%

Hmong 91,224 0.2%

Laotian 69,303 0.2%

Thai 67,707 0.1%

Pakistani 53,474 0.1%

Indonesian 39,506 0.1%

Sri Lankan 11,929 0.03%

Bangladeshi 10,494 0.02%

Nepalese 6,231 0.01%

Malaysian 5,595 0.01%

Mongolian 4,993 0.01%

Singaporean 1,513 0.004%

Black or African American 2,683,914 7.2%

Multiracial (two or more races) 1,815,384 4.8%

American Indian and Alaska
Alaska
Native 723,225 1.9%

Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
and Other Pacific Islander 286,145 0.7%

Polynesian 157,104 0.4%

Native Hawaiian 74,932 0.2%

Samoan 60,876 0.1%

Tongan 22,893 0.06%

Micronesian 49,197 0.1%

Guamanian or Chamorro 44,425 0.1%

Melanesian 24,203 0.06%

Fijian 24,059 0.06%

Total 37,253,956 100%

Languages

Non-English Languages Spoken in California
California
by more than 100,000 persons

Language Population (as of 2016)[148]

Spanish 10,672,610 speakers

Chinese 1,231,425

Tagalog 796,451

Vietnamese 559,932

Korean 367,523

Persian 203,770

Armenian 192,980

Arabic 191,954

Hindi 189,646

Russian 155,746

Punjabi 140,128

Japanese 139,430

French 123,956

English serves as California's de jure and de facto official language. In 2010, the Modern Language Association of America
Modern Language Association of America
estimated that 57.02% (19,429,309) of California
California
residents age 5 and older spoke only English at home, while 42.98% spoke another primary language at home. According to the 2007 American Community Survey, 73% of people who speak a language other than English at home are able to speak English well or very well, with 9.8% not speaking English at all.[2] Like most U.S. states (32 out of 50), California
California
law enshrines English as its official language, and has done so since the passage of Proposition 63 by California
California
voters. Various government agencies do, and are often required to, furnish documents in the various languages needed to reach their intended audiences.[149][150][151] In total, 16 languages other than English were spoken as primary languages at home by more than 100,000 persons, more than any other state in the nation. New York State, in second place, had 9 languages other than English spoken by more than 100,000 persons.[152] The most common language spoken besides English was Spanish, spoken by 28.46% (9,696,638) of the population.[132][130] With Asia
Asia
contributing most of California's new immigrants, California
California
had the highest concentration nationwide of Vietnamese and Chinese speakers, the second highest concentration of Korean, and the third highest concentration of Tagalog speakers.[2] California
California
has historically been one of the most linguistically diverse areas in the world, with more than 70 indigenous languages derived from 64 root languages in 6 language families.[153][154] A survey conducted between 2007 and 2009 identified 23 different indigenous languages of Mexico
Mexico
that are spoken among California farmworkers.[155] All of California's indigenous languages are endangered, although there are now efforts toward language revitalization.[note 3] As a result of the state's increasing diversity and migration from other areas across the country and around the globe, linguists began noticing a noteworthy set of emerging characteristics of spoken American English
American English
in California
California
since the late 20th century. This variety, known as California
California
English, has a vowel shift and several other phonological processes that are different from varieties of American English
American English
used in other regions of the United States.[156] Culture Main article: Culture of California

The Hollywood
Hollywood
Sign, a symbol of the American film industry

The culture of California
California
is a Western culture
Western culture
and most clearly has its modern roots in the culture of the United States, but also, historically, many Hispanic
Hispanic
influences. As a border and coastal state, Californian culture has been greatly influenced by several large immigrant populations, especially those from Latin America
Latin America
and Asia.[157][not in citation given] California
California
has long been a subject of interest in the public mind and has often been promoted by its boosters as a kind of paradise. In the early 20th century, fueled by the efforts of state and local boosters, many Americans
Americans
saw the Golden State as an ideal resort destination, sunny and dry all year round with easy access to the ocean and mountains. In the 1960s, popular music groups such as The Beach Boys promoted the image of Californians as laid-back, tanned beach-goers. The California
California
Gold
Gold
Rush of the 1850s is still seen as a symbol of California's economic style, which tends to generate technology, social, entertainment, and economic fads and booms and related busts. Religion Main article: Religion in California

Mission San Diego
San Diego
de Alcalá, one of the first Spanish missions in California

Religion in California
Religion in California
(2014)[158]

religion

percent

Protestantism

32%

Roman Catholicism

28%

No religion

27%

Judaism

2%

Buddhism

2%

Hinduism

2%

Islam

1%

Mormonism

1%

Other

5%

The largest religious denominations by number of adherents as a percentage of California's population in 2014 were the Catholic Church with 28 percent, Evangelical Protestants with 20 percent, and Mainline Protestants with 10 percent. Together, all kinds of Protestants accounted for 32 percent. Those unaffiliated with any religion represented 27 percent of the population. The breakdown of other religions is 1% Muslim, 2% Hindu and 2% Buddhist.[158] This is a change from 2008, when the population identified their religion with the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
with 31 percent; Evangelical Protestants with 18 percent; and Mainline Protestants with 14 percent. In 2008, those unaffiliated with any religion represented 21 percent of the population. The breakdown of other religions in 2008 was 0.5% Muslim, 1% Hindu and 2% Buddhist.[159] The American Jewish Year Book placed the total Jewish population of California
California
at about 1,194,190 in 2006.[160] According to the Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA) the largest denominations by adherents in 2010 were the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
with 10,233,334; The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 763,818; and the Southern Baptist Convention with 489,953.[161] The first priests to come to California
California
were Roman Catholic missionaries from Spain. Roman Catholics founded 21 missions along the California
California
coast, as well as the cities of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
and San Francisco. California
California
continues to have a large Roman Catholic population due to the large numbers of Mexicans and Central Americans living within its borders. California
California
has twelve dioceses and two archdioceses, the Archdiocese of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
and the Archdiocese of San Francisco, the former being the largest archdiocese in the United States. A Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center
survey revealed that California
California
is somewhat less religious than the rest of the US: 62 percent of Californians say they are "absolutely certain" of their belief in God, while in the nation 71 percent say so. The survey also revealed 48 percent of Californians say religion is "very important", compared to 56 percent nationally.[162] Sports Main articles: Sports in California
Sports in California
and List of professional sports teams in California California
California
has twenty major professional sports league franchises, far more than any other state. The San Francisco Bay Area
San Francisco Bay Area
has seven major league teams spread in its three major cities: San Francisco, San Jose, and Oakland. While the Greater Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Area is home to ten major league franchises. San Diego
San Diego
and Sacramento each have one major league team. The NFL Super Bowl
Super Bowl
has been hosted in California
California
11 times at four different stadiums: Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Memorial Coliseum, the Rose Bowl, Stanford Stadium, and San Diego's Qualcomm Stadium. A twelfth, Super Bowl
Super Bowl
50, was held at Levi's Stadium
Levi's Stadium
in Santa Clara on February 7, 2016.[163] California
California
has long had many respected collegiate sports programs. California
California
is home to the oldest college bowl game, the annual Rose Bowl, among others. California
California
is the only U.S. state
U.S. state
to have hosted both the Summer and Winter Olympics. The 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics
1984 Summer Olympics
were held in Los Angeles. Squaw Valley Ski Resort
Squaw Valley Ski Resort
in the Lake Tahoe
Lake Tahoe
region hosted the 1960 Winter Olympics. Los Angeles
Los Angeles
will host the 2028 Summer Olympics, marking the fourth time California
California
hosts the Olympic Games.[164] Multiple games during the 1994 FIFA World Cup
1994 FIFA World Cup
took place in California, with the Rose Bowl hosting eight matches including the final, while Stanford Stadium
Stanford Stadium
hosted six matches.

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Memorial Coliseum hosted the Olympic Games in 1932 and 1984

Below is a list of major league sports teams in California:

Team Sport League

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Rams American football National Football League
National Football League
(NFL)

Oakland Raiders American football National Football League

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Chargers American football National Football League

San Francisco
San Francisco
49ers American football National Football League

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Dodgers Baseball Major League Baseball
Baseball
(MLB)

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Angels of Anaheim Baseball Major League Baseball

Oakland Athletics Baseball Major League Baseball

San Diego
San Diego
Padres Baseball Major League Baseball

San Francisco
San Francisco
Giants Baseball Major League Baseball

Golden State Warriors Basketball National Basketball
Basketball
Association (NBA)

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Clippers Basketball National Basketball
Basketball
Association

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Lakers Basketball National Basketball
Basketball
Association

Sacramento Kings Basketball National Basketball
Basketball
Association

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Sparks Basketball Women's National Basketball
Basketball
Association (WNBA)

Anaheim Ducks Ice hockey National Hockey League
National Hockey League
(NHL)

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Kings Ice hockey National Hockey League

San Jose Sharks Ice hockey National Hockey League

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Galaxy Soccer Major League Soccer
Major League Soccer
(MLS)

San Jose Earthquakes Soccer Major League Soccer

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Football Club Soccer Major League Soccer

Education

Torrance High School
Torrance High School
is one of the oldest high schools in continuous use in California
California
and a popular location for television and motion picture production.

Main article: Education in California See also: List of colleges and universities in California Public secondary education consists of high schools that teach elective courses in trades, languages, and liberal arts with tracks for gifted, college-bound and industrial arts students. California's public educational system is supported by a unique constitutional amendment that requires a minimum annual funding level for grades K–12 and community colleges that grow with the economy and student enrollment figures.[165] California
California
had over 6.2 million school students in the 2005–06 school year. Funding and staffing levels in California
California
schools lag behind other states. In expenditure per pupil, California
California
ranked 29th (of the 50 states and the District of Columbia) in 2005–06. In teaching staff expenditure per pupil, California
California
ranked 49th of 51. In overall teacher-pupil ratio, California
California
was also 49th, with 21 students per teacher. Only Arizona
Arizona
and Utah
Utah
were lower.[166] A 2007 study concluded that California's public school system was "broken" in that it suffered from over-regulation.[167] California's public postsecondary education offers three separate systems:

The research university system in the state is the University of California
California
(UC), a public university system. As of fall 2011, the University of California
University of California
had a combined student body of 234,464 students.[168] There are ten general UC campuses, and a number of specialized campuses in the UC system, as the UC San Francisco, which is entirely dedicated to graduate education in health care, and is home to the UCSF Medical Center, the highest ranked hospital in California.[169] The system was originally intended to accept the top one-eighth of California
California
high school students, but several of the schools have become even more selective.[170][171][172] The UC system was originally given exclusive authority in awarding Ph.Ds, but this has since changed and the CSU is also able to award several Doctoral degrees. The California State University
California State University
(CSU) system has almost 430,000 students. The CSU was originally intended to accept the top one-third of California
California
high school students, but several of the schools have become much more selective.[172][173] The CSU was originally set up to award only bachelor's and master's degrees, but has since been granted the authority to award several Doctoral degrees. The California Community Colleges System
California Community Colleges System
provides lower division coursework as well as basic skills and workforce training. It is the largest network of higher education in the US, composed of 112 colleges serving a student population of over 2.6 million.

California
California
is also home to such notable private universities as Stanford University, the University of Southern California, the California
California
Institute of Technology, and the Claremont Colleges. California
California
has hundreds of other private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions. Twin region California
California
has a twinning arrangement with the region of Catalonia
Catalonia
in Spain[174] Economy Main article: Economy of California See also: California
California
locations by per capita income

A tree map depicting the distribution of occupations across the state of California

The economy of California
California
is large enough to be comparable to that of the largest of countries. As of 2017[update], the gross state product (GSP) is about $2.75 trillion($70,000 per capita), the largest in the United States.[175] California
California
is responsible for 13.9 percent of the United States' approximate $18.1 trillion gross domestic product (GDP).[176] California's GSP is larger than the GDP of all but 5 countries in dollar terms (the United States, China, Japan, Germany, and the United Kingdom),[177][178] larger than Brazil, France, Russia, Italy, India, Canada, Australia, Spain
Spain
and Turkey. In Purchasing Power Parity,[179] it is larger than all but 10 countries (the United States, China, India, Japan, Germany, Russia, Brazil, France, the United Kingdom, and Indonesia), larger than Italy, Mexico, Spain, South Korea, Saudi Arabia, Canada and Turkey.[180] The five largest sectors of employment in California
California
are trade, transportation, and utilities; government; professional and business services; education and health services; and leisure and hospitality. In output, the five largest sectors are financial services, followed by trade, transportation, and utilities; education and health services; government; and manufacturing.[181] As of September 2016[update], California
California
has an unemployment rate of 5.5%. California's economy is dependent on trade and international related commerce accounts for about one-quarter of the state's economy. In 2008, California
California
exported $144 billion worth of goods, up from $134 billion in 2007 and $127 billion in 2006.[182] Computers and electronic products are California's top export, accounting for 42 percent of all the state's exports in 2008.[182] Agriculture
Agriculture
is an important sector in California's economy. Farming-related sales more than quadrupled over the past three decades, from $7.3 billion in 1974 to nearly $31 billion in 2004.[183] This increase has occurred despite a 15 percent decline in acreage devoted to farming during the period, and water supply suffering from chronic instability. Factors contributing to the growth in sales-per-acre include more intensive use of active farmlands and technological improvements in crop production.[183] In 2008, California's 81,500 farms and ranches generated $36.2 billion products revenue.[184] In 2011, that number grew to $43.5 billion products revenue.[185] The Agriculture
Agriculture
sector accounts for two percent of the state's GDP and employs around three percent of its total workforce.[186] According to the USDA in 2011, the three largest California
California
agricultural products by value were milk and cream, shelled almonds, and grapes.[187] Per capita GDP in 2007 was $38,956, ranking eleventh in the nation.[188] Per capita income varies widely by geographic region and profession. The Central Valley is the most impoverished, with migrant farm workers making less than minimum wage. According to a 2005 report by the Congressional Research Service, the San Joaquin Valley
San Joaquin Valley
was characterized as one of the most economically depressed regions in the United States, on par with the region of Appalachia.[189] California has a poverty rate of 23.5%, the highest of any state in the country.[190] Many coastal cities include some of the wealthiest per-capita areas in the United States. The high-technology sectors in Northern California, specifically Silicon Valley, in Santa Clara and San Mateo counties, have emerged from the economic downturn caused by the dot-com bust. In 2010, there were more than 663,000 millionaires in the state, more than any other state in the nation.[191] In 2010, California
California
residents were ranked first among the states with the best average credit score of 754.[192]

California
California
GDP by sector in 2015.[193] 

Had California
California
been an independent country in 2008 its gross domestic product would have been ranked between eighth and eleventh in the world.[194] 

California
California
per capita personal income by county in 2016.[193] 

State finances Main articles: California state finances and 2008–12 California budget crisis

Economic regions of California

State spending increased from $56 billion in 1998 to $127 billion in 2011.[195][196] California, with 12% of the United States
United States
population, has one-third of the nation's welfare recipients.[197] California
California
has the third highest per capita spending on welfare among the states, as well as the highest spending on welfare at $6.67 billion.[198] In January 2011 the California's total debt was at least $265 billion.[199] On June 27, 2013, Governor Jerry Brown
Jerry Brown
signed a balanced budget (no deficit) for the state, its first in decades; however the state's debt remains at $132 billion.[200][201] With the passage of Proposition 30 in 2012, California
California
now levies a 13.3% maximum marginal income tax rate with ten tax brackets, ranging from 1% at the bottom tax bracket of $0 annual individual income to 13.3% for annual individual income over $1,000,000. California
California
has a state sales tax of 7.5%, though local governments can and do levy additional sales taxes. Many of these taxes are temporary for a seven-year period (as stipulated in Proposition 30) and afterwards will revert to a previous maximum marginal income tax bracket of 10.3% and state sales tax rate of 7.25%.[202] All real property is taxable annually; the tax is based on the property's fair market value at the time of purchase or new construction. Property tax
Property tax
increases are capped at 2% annually, per Proposition 13. Infrastructure Energy

Moss Landing Power Plant, the state's largest power production source (presently shut down)

Part of the 354 MW SEGS
SEGS
solar complex in northern San Bernardino County, California

Main article: Energy use in California Because it is the most populous state in the United States, California is one of the country's largest users of energy. However because of its high energy rates, conservation mandates, mild weather in the largest population centers and strong environmental movement, its per capita energy use is one of the smallest of any United States state.[203] Due to the high electricity demand, California
California
imports more electricity than any other state, primarily hydroelectric power from states in the Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest
(via Path 15
Path 15
and Path 66) and coal- and natural gas-fired production from the desert Southwest via Path 46.[204] As a result of the state's strong environmental movement, California has some of the most aggressive renewable energy goals in the United States, with a target for California
California
to obtain a third of its electricity from renewables by 2020.[205] Currently, several solar power plants such as the Solar Energy Generating Systems
Solar Energy Generating Systems
facility are located in the Mojave Desert. California's wind farms include Altamont Pass, San Gorgonio Pass, and Tehachapi Pass. Several dams across the state provide hydro-electric power. It would be possible to convert the total supply to 100% renewable energy, including heating, cooling and mobility, by 2050.[206] The state's crude oil and natural gas deposits are located in the Central Valley and along the coast, including the large Midway-Sunset Oil Field. Natural gas-fired power plants typically account for more than one-half of state electricity generation. California
California
is also home to two major nuclear power plants: Diablo Canyon and San Onofre, the latter having been shut down in 2013. Voters banned the approval of new nuclear power plants since the late 1970s because of concerns over radioactive waste disposal.[207][note 4] In addition, several cities such as Oakland, Berkeley and Davis have declared themselves as nuclear-free zones. Transportation Main article: Transportation in California

The Golden Gate Bridge
Golden Gate Bridge
in San Francisco, one of California's most famous landmarks

Caltrans
Caltrans
builds tall "stack" interchanges with soaring ramps that offer impressive views

California's vast terrain is connected by an extensive system of controlled-access highways ('freeways'), limited-access roads ('expressways'), and highways. California
California
is known for its car culture, giving California's cities a reputation for severe traffic congestion. Construction and maintenance of state roads and statewide transportation planning are primarily the responsibility of the California
California
Department of Transportation, nicknamed "Caltrans". The rapidly growing population of the state is straining all of its transportation networks, and California
California
has some of the worst roads in the United States.[209][210] The Reason Foundation's 19th Annual Report on the Performance of State Highway Systems ranked California's highways the third-worst of any state, with Alaska
Alaska
second, and Rhode Island first.[211] The state has been a pioneer in road construction. One of the state's more visible landmarks, the Golden Gate
Golden Gate
Bridge, was the longest suspension bridge main span in the world at 4,200 feet (1,300 m) between 1937 (when it opened) and 1964. With its orange paint and panoramic views of the bay, this highway bridge is a popular tourist attraction and also accommodates pedestrians and bicyclists. The San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge (often abbreviated the "Bay Bridge"), completed in 1936, transports about 280,000 vehicles per day on two-decks. Its two sections meet at Yerba Buena Island
Yerba Buena Island
through the world's largest diameter transportation bore tunnel, at 76 feet (23 m) wide by 58 feet (18 m) high.[212] The Arroyo Seco Parkway, connecting Los Angeles
Los Angeles
and Pasadena, opened in 1940 as the first freeway in the Western United States.[213] It was later extended south to the Four Level Interchange
Four Level Interchange
in downtown Los Angeles, regarded as the first stack interchange ever built.[214] Los Angeles
Los Angeles
International Airport (LAX), the 6th busiest airport in the world, and San Francisco
San Francisco
International Airport (SFO), the 23rd busiest airport in the world, are major hubs for trans-Pacific and transcontinental traffic. There are about a dozen important commercial airports and many more general aviation airports throughout the state. California
California
also has several important seaports. The giant seaport complex formed by the Port of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
and the Port of Long Beach in Southern California
Southern California
is the largest in the country and responsible for handling about a fourth of all container cargo traffic in the United States. The Port of Oakland, fourth largest in the nation, also handles trade entering from the Pacific Rim to the rest of the country. The Port of Stockton
Port of Stockton
is the easternmost port on the west coast of the United States.[215] The California Highway Patrol
California Highway Patrol
is the largest statewide police agency in the United States
United States
in employment with over 10,000 employees. They are responsible for providing any police-sanctioned service to anyone on California's state-maintained highways and on state property. The California
California
Department of Motor Vehicles is by far the largest in North America. By the end of 2009, the California
California
DMV had 26,555,006 driver's licenses and ID cards on file.[216] In 2010, there were 1.17 million new vehicle registrations in force.[217] Inter-city rail
Inter-city rail
travel is provided by Amtrak California; the three routes, the Capitol Corridor, Pacific Surfliner, and San Joaquin, are funded by Caltrans. These services are the busiest intercity rail lines in the United States
United States
outside the Northeast Corridor
Northeast Corridor
and ridership is continuing to set records. The routes are becoming increasingly popular over flying, especially on the LAX-SFO route.[218] Integrated subway and light rail networks are found in Los Angeles (Metro Rail) and San Francisco
San Francisco
(MUNI Metro). Light rail systems are also found in San Jose (VTA), San Diego
San Diego
(San Diego Trolley), Sacramento (RT Light Rail), and Northern San Diego
San Diego
County (Sprinter). Furthermore, commuter rail networks serve the San Francisco Bay Area (ACE, BART, Caltrain, SMART), Greater Los Angeles (Metrolink), and San Diego
San Diego
County (Coaster). The California High-Speed Rail
California High-Speed Rail
Authority was created in 1996 by the state to implement an extensive 800-mile (1,300 km) rail system. Construction was approved by the voters during the November 2008 general election,[219] with the first phase of construction estimated to cost $64.2 billion.[220] Nearly all counties operate bus lines, and many cities operate their own city bus lines as well. Intercity bus travel is provided by Greyhound, Megabus, and Amtrak Thruway Motorcoach. Water Main article: Water in California

An aerial view of the Delta–Mendota Canal
Delta–Mendota Canal
(left) and the California Aqueduct (right), at the Interstate 205 crossing west of Tracy, conveying water from Northern to Southern California

California's interconnected water system is the world's largest, managing over 40,000,000 acre feet (49 km3) of water per year, centered on six main systems of aqueducts and infrastructure projects.[221] Water use and conservation in California
California
is a politically divisive issue, as the state experiences periodic droughts and has to balance the demands of its large agricultural and urban sectors, especially in the arid southern portion of the state. The state's widespread redistribution of water also invites the frequent scorn of environmentalists. The California
California
Water Wars, a conflict between Los Angeles
Los Angeles
and the Owens Valley
Owens Valley
over water rights, is one of the most well-known examples of the struggle to secure adequate water supplies.[222] Former California
California
Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger
Arnold Schwarzenegger
said: "We've been in crisis for quite some time because we're now 38 million people and not anymore 18 million people like we were in the late 60s. So it developed into a battle between environmentalists and farmers and between the south and the north and between rural and urban. And everyone has been fighting for the last four decades about water."[223] Government and politics State government Main article: Government of California

The California
California
State Capitol; in Sacramento, which has served as California's capital since 1854.

Democrats Jerry Brown
Jerry Brown
and Eric Garcetti, serving as Governor of California
California
and Mayor of Los Angeles

The state's capital is Sacramento. California
California
is organized into three branches of government – the executive branch consisting of the Governor and the other independently elected constitutional officers; the legislative branch consisting of the Assembly and Senate; and the judicial branch consisting of the Supreme Court of California
Supreme Court of California
and lower courts. The state also allows ballot propositions: direct participation of the electorate by initiative, referendum, recall, and ratification. Before the passage of California
California
Proposition 14 (2010), California
California
allowed each political party to choose whether to have a closed primary or a primary where only party members and independents vote. After June 8, 2010, when Proposition 14 was approved, excepting only the United States President and county central committee offices,[224] all candidates in the primary elections are listed on the ballot with their preferred party affiliation, but they are not the official nominee of that party.[225] At the primary election, the two candidates with the top votes will advance to the general election regardless of party affiliation.[225] If at a special primary election, one candidate receives more than 50% of all the votes cast, they are elected to fill the vacancy and no special general election will be held.[225]

Executive branch

The California executive branch consists of the Governor of California and seven other elected constitutional officers: Lieutenant Governor, Attorney General, Secretary of State, State Controller, State Treasurer, Insurance Commissioner, and State Superintendent of Public Instruction. They serve four-year terms and may be re-elected only once.[226]

Legislative branch

The California
California
State Legislature
Legislature
consists of a 40-member Senate and 80-member Assembly. Senators serve four-year terms and Assembly members two. Members of the Assembly are subject to term limits of three terms, and members of the Senate are subject to term limits of two terms.

Judicial branch

California's legal system is explicitly based upon English common law[227] (as is the case with all other states except Louisiana) but carries a few features from Spanish civil law, such as community property. California's prison population grew from 25,000 in 1980 to over 170,000 in 2007.[228] Capital punishment is a legal form of punishment and the state has the largest "Death Row" population in the country (though Oklahoma
Oklahoma
and Texas
Texas
are far more active in carrying out executions).[229][230] California's judiciary system is the largest in the United States (with a total of 1,600 judges, while the federal system has only about 840). At the apex is the seven Justices of the Supreme Court of California, while the California Courts of Appeal
California Courts of Appeal
serve as the primary appellate courts and the California Superior Courts serve as the primary trial courts. Justices of the Supreme Court and Courts of Appeal are appointed by the Governor, but are subject to retention by the electorate every 12 years. The administration of the state's court system is controlled by the Judicial Council, composed of the Chief Justice of the California
California
Supreme Court, 14 judicial officers, four representatives from the State Bar of California, and one member from each house of the state legislature. Local government Main article: Local government in California Counties See also: List of counties in California California
California
is divided into 58 counties. Per Article 11, Section 1, of the Constitution of California, they are the legal subdivisions of the state. The county government provides countywide services such as law enforcement, jails, elections and voter registration, vital records, property assessment and records, tax collection, public health, health care, social services, libraries, flood control, fire protection, animal control, agricultural regulations, building inspections, ambulance services, and education departments in charge of maintaining statewide standards.[231][232] In addition, the county serves as the local government for all unincorporated areas. Each county is governed by an elected board of supervisors.[233] City and town governments Incorporated cities and towns in California
California
are either charter or general-law municipalities.[121] General-law municipalities owe their existence to state law and are consequently governed by it; charter municipalities are governed by their own city or town charters. Municipalities incorporated in the 19th century tend to be charter municipalities. All ten of the state's most populous cities are charter cities. Most small cities have a council-manager form of government, where the elected city council appoints a city manager to supervise the operations of the city. Some larger cities have a directly-elected mayor who oversees the city government. In many council-manager cities, the city council selects one of its members as a mayor, sometimes rotating through the council membership—but this type of mayoral position is primarily ceremonial. The Government of San Francisco
San Francisco
is the only consolidated city-county in California, where both the city and county governments have been merged into one unified jurisdiction. The San Francisco
San Francisco
Board of Supervisors also acts as the city council and the Mayor of San Francisco also serves as the county administrative officer. School districts and special districts See also: List of school districts in California About 1,102 school districts, independent of cities and counties, handle California's public education.[234] California
California
school districts may be organized as elementary districts, high school districts, unified school districts combining elementary and high school grades, or community college districts.[234] There are about 3,400 special districts in California.[235] A special district, defined by California
California
Government Code § 16271(d) as "any agency of the state for the local performance of governmental or proprietary functions within limited boundaries", provides a limited range of services within a defined geographic area. The geographic area of a special district can spread across multiple cities or counties, or could consist of only a portion of one. Most of California's special districts are single-purpose districts, and provide one service. Federal representation See also: California's congressional districts The state of California
California
sends 53 members to the House of Representatives,[236] the nation's largest congressional state delegation. Consequently California
California
also has the largest number of electoral votes in national presidential elections, with 55. California's U.S. Senators are Dianne Feinstein, a native and former mayor of San Francisco, and Kamala Harris, a native, former District Attorney from San Francisco
San Francisco
and former Attorney General of California. In 1992, California
California
became the first state to have a Senate delegation entirely composed of women. Armed forces In California, as of 2009[update], the U.S. Department of Defense had a total of 117,806 active duty servicemembers of which 88,370 were Sailors or Marines, 18,339 were Airmen, and 11,097 were Soldiers, with 61,365 Department of Defense civilian employees. Additionally, there were a total of 57,792 Reservists and Guardsman in California.[237] In 2010, Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County was the largest origin of military recruits in the United States
United States
by county, with 1,437 individuals enlisting in the military.[238] However, as of 2002, Californians were relatively under-represented in the military as a proportion to its population.[239] In 2000, California, had 2,569,340 veterans of United States
United States
military service: 504,010 served in World War II, 301,034 in the Korean War, 754,682 during the Vietnam War, and 278,003 during 1990–2000 (including the Persian Gulf War).[240] As of 2010[update], there were 1,942,775 veterans living in California, of which 1,457,875 served during a period of armed conflict, and just over four thousand served before World War II
World War II
(the largest population of this group of any state).[241] California's military forces consist of the Army and Air National Guard, the naval and state military reserve (militia), and the California
California
Cadet Corps.

United States
United States
Armed Forces in California. From left to right: Fort Irwin, Camp Pendleton, NAS North Island, Beale Air Force Base, and Coast Guard Island

Ideology Main articles: Politics of California
Politics of California
and Elections in California

California
California
registered voters as of January 2, 2018[242]

Party Number of Voters Percentage

Democratic 8,471,371 44.6%

Republican 4,827,973 25.4%

No Party Preference 4,734,847 25.0%

American Independent 503,955 2.7%

Libertarian 140,001 0.7%

Green 91,631 0.5%

Peace and Freedom 75,094 0.4%

Other 115,205 0.6%

Total 25,076,348 100%

Presidential elections results[243]

Year Republican Democratic

2016 31.62% 4,483,810 61.73% 8,753,788

2012 37.12% 4,839,958 60.24% 7,854,285

2008 36.91% 5,011,781 60.94% 8,274,473

2004 44.36% 5,509,826 54.40% 6,745,485

2000 41.65% 4,567,429 53.45% 5,861,203

1996 38.21% 3,828,380 51.10% 5,119,835

1992 32.61% 3,630,574 46.01% 5,121,325

1988 51.13% 5,054,917 47.56% 4,702,233

1984 57.51% 5,467,009 41.27% 3,922,519

1980 52.69% 4,524,858 35.91% 3,083,661

1976 49.35% 3,882,244 47.57% 3,742,284

1972 55.01% 4,602,096 41.54% 3,475,847

1968 47.82% 3,467,664 44.74% 3,244,318

1964 40.79% 2,879,108 59.11% 4,171,877

1960 50.10% 3,259,722 49.55% 3,224,099

California
California
has an idiosyncratic political culture compared to the rest of the country, and is sometimes regarded as a trendsetter.[244] In socio-cultural mores and national politics, Californians are perceived as more liberal than other Americans, especially those who live in the inland states. Among the political idiosyncrasies and trendsetting, California
California
was the second state to recall their state governor, the second state to legalize abortion, and the only state to ban marriage for gay couples twice by voters (including Proposition 8 in 2008). Voters also passed Proposition 71 in 2004 to fund stem cell research, and Proposition 14 in 2010 to completely change the state's primary election process. California
California
has also experienced disputes over water rights; and a tax revolt, culminating with the passage of Proposition 13 in 1978, limiting state property taxes. The state's trend towards the Democratic Party and away from the Republican Party can be seen in state elections. From 1899 to 1939, California
California
had Republican governors. Since 1990, California
California
has generally elected Democratic candidates to federal, state and local offices, including current Governor Jerry Brown; however, the state has elected Republican Governors, though many of its Republican Governors, such as Arnold Schwarzenegger, tend to be considered moderate Republicans and more centrist than the national party. The Democrats also now hold a majority in both houses of the state legislature. There are 56 Democrats and 24 Republicans in the Assembly; and 26 Democrats and 12 Republicans in the Senate. The trend towards the Democratic Party is most obvious in presidential elections; Republicans have not won California's electoral votes since 1988. In the United States
United States
House, the Democrats held a 34–19 edge in the CA delegation of the 110th United States
United States
Congress in 2007. As the result of gerrymandering, the districts in California
California
were usually dominated by one or the other party, and few districts were considered competitive. In 2008, Californians passed Proposition 20 to empower a 14-member independent citizen commission to redraw districts for both local politicians and Congress. After the 2012 elections, when the new system took effect, Democrats gained 4 seats and held a 38–15 majority in the delegation.

Treemap
Treemap
of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election.

In general, Democratic strength is centered in the populous coastal regions of the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
metropolitan area and the San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay Area. Republican strength is still greatest in eastern parts of the state. Orange County also remains mostly Republican. One study ranked Berkeley, Oakland, Inglewood and San Francisco
San Francisco
in the top 20 most liberal American cities; and Bakersfield, Orange, Escondido, Garden Grove, and Simi Valley in the top 20 most conservative cities.[245] In October 2012, out of the 23,802,577 people eligible to vote, 18,245,970 people were registered to vote.[246] Of the people registered, the three largest registered groups were Democrats (7,966,422), Republicans (5,356,608), and Decline to State (3,820,545).[246] Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County had the largest number of registered Democrats (2,430,612) and Republicans (1,037,031) of any county in the state.[246] See also

Index of California-related articles Outline of California
Outline of California
– organized list of topics about California

California
California
portal USA portal

Notes

^ The coordinates of the center of population are at 35°27′31″N 119°21′19″W / 35.458606°N 119.355165°W / 35.458606; -119.355165.[120] ^ behind Nevada
Nevada
and Arizona ^ The following are a list of the indigenous languages: Root languages of California: Athabaskan Family: Hupa, Mattole, Lassik, Wailaki, Sinkyone, Cahto, Tolowa, Nongatl, Wiyot, Chilula; Hokan Family: Pomo, Shasta, Karok, Chimiriko; Algonquian Family: Whilkut, Yurok; Yukian Family: Wappo; Penutian Family: Modok, Wintu, Nomlaki, Konkow, Maidu, Patwin, Nisenan, Miwok, Coast Miwok, Lake Miwok, Ohlone, Northern Valley Yokuts, Southern Valley Yokuts, Foothill Yokuts; Hokan Family: Esselen, Salinan, Chumash, Ipai, Tipai, Yuma, Halchichoma, Mohave; Uto-Aztecan Family: Mono Paiute, Monache, Owens Valley
Owens Valley
Paiute, Tubatulabal, Panamint Shoshone, Kawaisu, Kitanemuk, Tataviam, Gabrielino, Juaneno, Luiseno, Cuipeno, Cahuilla, Serrano, Chemehuevi ^ Minnesota
Minnesota
also has a moratorium on construction of nuclear power plants, which has been in place since 1994.[208]

References

^ a b c "Government Code Section 420-429.8". State of California Legislative Council. Archived from the original on March 25, 2014. Retrieved December 24, 2009.  ^ a b c Hyon B. Shin; Robert A. Kominski (April 2010). "Language Use in the United States: 2007" (PDF). United States
United States
Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. Retrieved May 27, 2013.  ^ a b c "Appendix Table A for Figures 5A-5H. Percentage Speaking a Language Other Than English at Home by English-Speaking Ability by State: 2007". Language Use in the United States: 2007 (ACS-12): Appendix Tables. United States
United States
Census Bureau. 2007. Retrieved May 26, 2013.  ^ "California: Population estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. December 21, 2017. Retrieved December 21, 2017.  ^ "Median Annual Household Income". The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved December 9, 2016.  ^ a b "Whitney". NGS data sheet. U.S. National Geodetic Survey. Retrieved October 20, 2011.  ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey. 2001. Archived from the original on October 15, 2011. Retrieved October 21, 2011.  ^ a b Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988. ^ The summit of Mount Whitney
Mount Whitney
is the highest point in the Contiguous United States. ^ a b "USGS National Elevation Dataset (NED) 1 meter Downloadable Data Collection from The National Map 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) – National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) National Elevation Data Set (NED)". United States
United States
Geological Survey. September 21, 2015. Retrieved September 22, 2015.  ^ "Government Code Section 424". State of California
California
Legislative Council. Retrieved July 25, 2014.  ^ Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder – Results". factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved October 24, 2017.  ^ Analysis, US Department of Commerce, BEA, Bureau of Economic. "Bureau of Economic Analysis". www.bea.gov. Retrieved 2018-03-13.  ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". www.imf.org. Retrieved 2017-11-29.  ^ "World Population Prospects – Population Division – United Nations". esa.un.org. Retrieved October 24, 2017.  ^ Analysis, US Department of Commerce, BEA, Bureau of Economic. "Bureau of Economic Analysis". www.bea.gov. Retrieved 2018-03-13.  ^ Analysis, US Department of Commerce, BEA, Bureau of Economic. "Bureau of Economic Analysis". www.bea.gov. Retrieved October 24, 2017.  ^ PricewaterhouseCoopers. "Global top 100 companies 2017". PwC. Retrieved October 24, 2017.  ^ "Bloomberg Billionaires Index". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved October 24, 2017.  ^ "Happy 25th anniversary, World Wide Web". CalWatchdog.com.  ^ a b " California
California
Gross domestic product (GDP) (millions of current dollars)". U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved July 19, 2015.  ^ "Fruits and Vegetables, America Eats, from Life in the USA: The Complete Guide for Immigrants and Americans". Life in the USA. Retrieved August 23, 2011.  ^ http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/explainer/2013/07/california_grows_all_of_our_fruits_and_vegetables_what_would_we_eat_without.html ^ https://www.cdfa.ca.gov/statistics/ ^ https://www.ocregister.com/2017/07/27/california-farms-produce-a-lot-of-food-but-what-and-how-much-might-surprise-you/ ^ Stewart, George (1945). Names on the Land: A Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States. New York: Random House. pp. 11–17. ^ Strange But True, Tooele Transcript-Bulletin, August 11, 2016, p. C3 ^ a b c Gudde, Erwin G. (2010). California
California
Place Names: The Origin and Etymology of Current Geographical Names. University of California Press. p. 60. ISBN 978-0-520-26619-3.  ^ Gudde, Erwin G. and William Bright. 2004. California
California
Place Names: The Origin and Etymology of Current Geographical Names. pp. 59–60 ^ Lavender, David (1987). California: Land of New Beginnings. University of Nebraska
Nebraska
Press. p. 27. ISBN 0-8032-7924-8. OCLC 15315566.  ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. June 24, 1957. Retrieved July 2, 2010.  ^ "What bizarre error gave California
California
its name? - Everything After Z by Dictionary.com". Everything After Z by Dictionary.com. 2010-12-27. Retrieved 2018-02-20.  ^ Putnam, Ruth (1917). "Appendix A: Etymology of the Word "California": Surmises and Usage". In Herbert Ingram Priestley. California: the name. Berkeley: University of California. pp. 356–361.  ^ Vogeley, Nancy (April 20, 2001). "How Chivalry Formed the Myth of California". Modern Language Quarterly. University of Washington. 62 (2): 165–188. doi:10.1215/00267929-62-2-165.  ^ Forsyth, Mark (2011). The Etymologicon: A Circular Stroll Through the Hidden Connections of the English Language. New York NY: Penguin Group/Berkley Books. p. 223. ISBN 978-0-425-26079-1.  ^ Putnam, 1917, p. 306 ^ "unknown facts".  ^ Starr 2007, p. 13. ^ "Page 1580 of the 1778 edition of Encyclopædia Britannica (second edition)". Hyzercreek.com. July 15, 2011. Retrieved October 28, 2011.  Carlson, Jon D. (2011). Myths, State Expansion, and the Birth of Globalization: A Comparative Perspective. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 40. ISBN 978-1-137-01045-2. Retrieved August 21, 2014.  Brooke Hoover, Mildred; Kyle, Douglas E., eds. (1990). Historic Spots in California. Stanford University
Stanford University
Press. p. 359. ISBN 978-0-8047-1734-2. Retrieved August 21, 2014.  ^ Tillman, Linda C.; Scheurich, James Joseph (August 21, 2013). The Handbook of Research on Educational Leadership for Equity and Diversity. Routledge. p. 202. ISBN 978-1-135-12843-2.  Huping Ling (April 29, 2009). Asian America: Forming New Communities, Expanding Boundaries. Rutgers University Press. p. 109. ISBN 978-0-8135-4867-8.  ^ " California
California
as an Island in Maps – Online Exhibits". Stanford University Libraries. Retrieved June 15, 2016.  ^ " California
California
Indian History – Native American Caucus". www.nativeamericancaucus.org.  ^ Historical Atlas of California ^ source: Encyclopædia Britannica 7th edition, 1842, "Mexico" ^ a b "Introduction". Early History of the California
California
Coast. National Park Service. Retrieved August 26, 2012.  ^ Altman, Linda Jacobs (2005). California. Marshall Cavendish. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-7614-1737-8. Retrieved March 16, 2013.  Testimonios: Early California
California
Through the Eyes of Women, 1815–1848. Heyday. 2006. p. 425. ISBN 978-1-59714-033-1. Retrieved March 16, 2013.  ^ Starr, Kevin (2007). California: A History. Modern Library. pp. 17–. ISBN 978-0-8129-7753-0.  Hoover, Mildred Brooke; Kyle, Douglas E., eds. (2002). Historic Spots in California. Historic Spots in California. p. 316. ISBN 978-0-8047-7817-6. Retrieved March 16, 2013.  Conway, J.D. (2003). Monterey: Presidio, Pueblo, and Port. Arcadia Publishing. The Making of America Series. pp. 53–55. ISBN 978-0-7385-2423-8. Retrieved March 16, 2013.  ^ a b Billington, Ray Allen; Ridge, Martin (2001). Westward Expansion: A History of the American Frontier. University of New Mexico
Mexico
Press. p. 203. ISBN 978-0-8263-1981-4. Retrieved February 16, 2013.  ^ Hart, James David (1987). A Companion to California. University of California
California
Press. p. 315. ISBN 978-0-520-05544-5. Retrieved March 16, 2013.  Harlow, Neal (1989). California
California
Conquered: The Annexation of a Mexican Province, 1846–1850. University of California
University of California
Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-520-06605-2. Retrieved March 16, 2013.  ^ Lyman, George D. and John Marsh, Pioneer: The Life Story of a Trail-Blazer on Six Frontiers, pp. 237–39, The Chautauqua Press, Chautauqua, New York, 1931. ^ Lyman and Marsh, pp. ix, 209, 231, 238–39, 246–51, 266–67, 268–71. ^ Lyman and Marsh 1931, pp. 250–62. ^ " William B. Ide
William B. Ide
Adobe SHP". California
California
State Parks. Retrieved December 25, 2009.  ^ " Bear Flag
Bear Flag
Revolt". History.com. 2015. Retrieved June 5, 2015.  "The United States
United States
and California". Early California
California
History: An Overview. Library of Congress. 1998. Retrieved June 5, 2015.  ^ "The U.S. Mexican War". The Border. KPBS. 1999. Retrieved June 5, 2015.  Matthew Kachur; Jon Sterngass (July 1, 2006). The Mexican-American War. World Almanac Library. pp. 25–26. ISBN 978-0-8368-7290-3.  Thomas M. Leonard (2001). James K. Polk: A Clear and Unquestionable Destiny. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 141–143. ISBN 978-0-8420-2647-5.  ^ Spencer Tucker (Militärhistoriker) (2013). The Encyclopedia of the Mexican-American War: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. pp. 55–56. ISBN 978-1-85109-853-8.  ^ The Quarterly. Historical Society of Southern California. 1907. pp. 199–201.  Hunt Janin; Ursula Carlson (April 20, 2015). The California
California
Campaigns of the U.S.-Mexican War, 1846–1848. McFarland. pp. 149–151. ISBN 978-1-4766-2093-0.  ^ Osborne, Thomas J. (November 29, 2012). Pacific Eldorado: A History of Greater California. Wiley. ISBN 978-1-118-29217-4.  ^ " California
California
Gold
Gold
Rush, 1848–1864". Learn California.org, a site designed for the California
California
Secretary of State. Archived from the original on July 27, 2011. Retrieved July 22, 2008.  ^ "1870 Fast Facts". U.S. Census Bureau. ^ Wilson, Dotson; Ebbert, Brian S. (2006). California's Legislature (PDF) (2006 ed.). Sacramento: California
California
State Assembly. OCLC 70700867.  ^ 10 Facts: California
California
during the Civil War Civil War Trust. Downloaded September 9, 2017. ^ "Destruction of the California
California
Indians". California
California
Secretary of State. Archived from the original on December 7, 2011. Retrieved April 15, 2012.  ^ a b c "INDIANS of CALIFORNIA – American Period". Cabrillo.edu. Retrieved March 21, 2012. [unreliable source?] ^ " California
California
Militia and Expeditions Against the Indians, 1850–1859". Militarymuseum.org. Retrieved March 21, 2012.  ^ see also Benjamin Madley, American Genocide: The California
California
Indian Catastrophe, 1846–1873, Yale University Press, 2012. Archived May 11, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. ^ " California
California
– Race and Hispanic
Hispanic
Origin: 1850 to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 24, 2014.  ^ Peck, Merton J. & Scherer, Frederic M. The Weapons Acquisition Process: An Economic Analysis (1962) Harvard Business School
Harvard Business School
p. 111 ^ "Shipbuilding Essay— World War II
World War II
in the San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay Area: A National Register of Historic Places Travel Itinerary". www.nps.gov.  ^ "Richmond Shipyard Number Three: World War II
World War II
in the San Francisco Bay Area: A National Register of Historic Places Travel Itinerary". www.nps.gov.  ^ "ROSIE THE RIVETER NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK, KAISER SHIPYARDS" (PDF).  ^ KQED (August 11, 2010). "Saving the Bay – The Greatest Shipbuilding Center in the World" – via YouTube.  ^ a b Bill Watkins (October 10, 2012). "How California
California
Lost its Mojo". Fox and Hound Daily. Retrieved June 25, 2013.  Nancy Kleniewski; Alexander R. Thomas (March 1, 2010). Cities, Change, and Conflict: A Political Economy of Urban Life. Cengage Learning. pp. 91–92. ISBN 978-0-495-81222-7. Retrieved June 26, 2013.  ^ Rosa Maria Moller (May 2008). "Aerospace States' Incentives to Attract The Industry" (PDF). library.ca.gov. California
California
Research Bureau. pp. 24–25. Retrieved June 25, 2013.  Robert A. Kleinhenz; Kimberly Ritter-Martinez; Rafael De Anda; Elizabeth Avila (August 2012). "The Aerospace Industry in Southern California" (PDF). laedc.org. p. 10. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 12, 2013. Retrieved June 25, 2013. In 1987, California accounted for one in four aerospace jobs nationally, and in Los Angeles County, the share was one in ten. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, the Department of Defense (DOD) sharply curtailed procurement spending. In 1995, DOD spending fell below $50 billion for the first time since 1982. Nowhere in the country were the changes in Pentagon outlays more apparent than in Southern California.  Eric John Heikkila; Rafael Pizarro (January 1, 2002). Southern California
California
and the World. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-275-97112-0. Retrieved June 25, 2013.  James Flanigan (2009). Smile Southern California, You're the Center of the Universe: The Economy and People of a Global Region. Stanford University Press. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-8047-5625-9. Retrieved June 25, 2013.  ^ Markoff, John (April 17, 2009). "Searching for Silicon Valley". The New York Times. Retrieved February 26, 2011.  ^ Cohen 2003, pp. 115–116. ^ Clark Davis; David Igler (August 1, 2002). The Human Tradition in California. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-4616-4431-6.  Treanor, Jill (July 17, 2001). "Pink slip season in Silicon Valley". The Guardian. United Kingdom. Retrieved April 22, 2015. This micro-economy – the world's fifth largest economy in its own right – started to feel the pain of the new technology meltdown first.  ^ Taylor, Lisa (March 30, 1997). "Getting Out: The Great California Exodus : Remember us? We left Southern California
Southern California
looking for cheaper housing, employment opportunities and a better way of life. Well ... We're Ba-aack!". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times. Retrieved April 22, 2015.  ^ Shepard Krech, III; J. R. McNeill; Carolyn Merchant (2004). Encyclopedia of world environmental history: O-Z, Index. Taylor & Francis Group. pp. 540–. ISBN 978-0-415-93734-4. Retrieved November 23, 2012.  ^ Riedel, Monique (2009). Best Easy Day Hikes Ventura. Falcon Guides. Pages 35–38. ISBN 978-0-7627-5121-1. ^ "2000 Census of Population and Housing" (PDF). US Census Bureau. April 2004. p. 29. Retrieved December 25, 2009.  ^ "Figures Show California's Motoring Supremacy". Touring Topics. Los Angeles, California: Automobile Club of Southern California. 8 (2): 38–9. March 1916.  ^ Cooley, Timothy J. (2014). Surfing about Music. University of California
California
Press. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-520-95721-3.  ^ Morgan, Neil (April 19, 1963). "Westward Tilt: Northern California". Lodi News-Sentinel. Lodi, California. Retrieved September 7, 2014.  ^ John E. Kent, eds. (1917). Kent Guide Manual (Harrison Narcotic Law) and Professional Registry. San Francisco: The Service Press. p. 6. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ Laaksonen-Craig, Susanna; Goldman, George; McKillop, William (2003). Forestry, Forest Products, and Forest Products Consumption in California
California
(PDF). Davis, California: University of California
University of California
– Division of Agriculture
Agriculture
and Natural Resources. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-60107-248-1.  ^ Lanner, RM (2007). The Bristlecone Book. Mountain Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-87842-538-9.  ^ "Oldlist". Rocky Mountain Tree Ring Research. Retrieved January 8, 2013.  ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". Seismo.berkeley.edu. Retrieved April 22, 2011.  ^ El Fadli, KI; et al. (September 2012). "World Meteorological Organization Assessment of the Purported World Record 58°C Temperature Extreme at El Azizia, Libya
Libya
(13 September 1922)". Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 94 (2): 199. Bibcode:2013BAMS...94..199E. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00093.1.  (The 136.4 °F (58 °C), claimed by 'Aziziya, Libya, on September 13, 1922, has been officially deemed invalid by the World Meteorological Organization.) ^ " World Meteorological Organization
World Meteorological Organization
World Weather / Climate Extremes Archive". Archived from the original on January 4, 2013. Retrieved January 10, 2013.  ^ " California
California
climate averages". Weatherbase. Retrieved January 26, 2018.  ^ "Checklist of the Scarabaeoidea of the Nearctic Realm" (PDF). digitalcommons.unl.edu (University of Nebraska
Nebraska
State: Papers in Entomology). 2003. Retrieved October 5, 2010.  ^ David Elstein (May 2004). "Restoring California's Native Grasses". Agricultural Research magazine. 52 (5): 17. Retrieved December 25, 2009.  ^ "The California
California
Invasive Species List" (PDF). iscc.ca.gov ( California
California
Invasive Species Advisory Committee). April 21, 2010. Retrieved October 5, 2010.  ^ a b c d e f g h i "California: flora and fauna". city-data.com. 2010. Retrieved September 7, 2010.  ^ " Sequoia sempervirens
Sequoia sempervirens
(D. Don) Endl". fed.us (U.S. Forest Service). Retrieved October 7, 2010.  ^ "Life Zones of the Central Sierra Nevada". sierrahistorical.org. Archived from the original on March 1, 2012. Retrieved October 5, 2010.  ^ " California
California
Condor". The Cornell Lab of Ornithology. 2009. Retrieved October 3, 2010.  ^ "CalPhotos: Browse Mammal Common Names". calphotos.berkeley.edu (BSCIT University of California, Berkeley). October 2, 2010. Retrieved October 3, 2010.  ^ "Quail Ridge Reserve: UC Davis Natural Reserve System". nrs.ucdavis.edu ( University of California
University of California
at Davis: Natural Reserve System). April 5, 2007. Retrieved October 5, 2010.  ^ "Black-tailed Deer of California". westernhunter.com. 2000. Retrieved October 7, 2010.  ^ "California's Endangered Insects – Formally Listed Insects". berkeley.edu. Retrieved August 25, 2015.  ^ California, State of. "Threatened and Endangered Invertebrates – California
California
Department of Fish and Wildlife". www.dfg.ca.gov. Retrieved May 8, 2017.  ^ Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife. "Species Search Results". ecos.fws.gov. Retrieved May 8, 2017.  ^ a b "U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service: Species Reports: Listings and occurrences for California". ecos.fws.gov. September 7, 2010. Retrieved September 7, 2010.  ^ "CALIFORNIA GREW BY 356,000 RESIDENTS IN 2013" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on May 2, 2014. Retrieved September 26, 2016.  ^ "1990 Census of Population and Housing, Unit Counts, United States, 1990 CPH-2-1" (PDF). Population and Housing Unit Counts, Population Estimates 1790–1990, pages 26–27. United States
United States
Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce Economics and Statistics Administration. August 20, 1993. Retrieved January 1, 2012.  ^ a b " California
California
QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau:". US Census Bureau. Retrieved December 26, 2009.  ^ "American Indian Civics Project: Indians of Northern California: A Case Study of Federal, State, and Vigilante Intervention, 1850–1860". Americanindiantah.com. Archived from the original on March 17, 2012. Retrieved March 21, 2012.  ^ California, Department of Finance
Finance
State of. "Demographic Projections". www.dof.ca.gov. Retrieved August 17, 2017.  ^ a b "Table 4. Cumulative Estimates of the Components of Resident Population Change for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009". US Census Bureau. December 22, 2009. Archived from the original (CSV) on June 9, 2010. Retrieved December 26, 2009.  ^ "E-4 Population Estimates for Cities, Counties and the State, 2001–2009, with 2000 Benchmark". Sacramento, California: State of California, Department of Finance. May 2009. Archived from the original on November 22, 2009. Retrieved December 24, 2009.  ^ Gray, Tom; Scardamalia, Robert (September 2012). "The Great California
California
Exodus: A Closer Look". Manhattan-institute.org. Retrieved April 30, 2013.  ^ "Censo 2010: população do Brasil é de 190.732.694 pessoas". Retrieved September 19, 2011.  ^ "International Database – County Rankings". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 8, 2010. Retrieved December 26, 2009.  ^ "Table A.1. Total Population by Sex in 2009 and Sex Ratio by Country in 2009" (PDF). World Population Prospects: The 2008 Edition, Highlights. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. 2009. pp. 31–35. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 29, 2010. Retrieved December 26, 2009.  ^ "About Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County Department of Public Social Services". Los Angeles County Department of Public Social Services. December 2005. Archived from the original on April 17, 2010. Retrieved December 26, 2009.  ^ Barrett, Beth (September 19, 2003). "Baby Slump In L.A. County". Los Angeles Daily News. Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Newspaper Group. pp. N4. Archived from the original on July 15, 2010. Retrieved December 26, 2009.  ^ "Population and Population Centers by State: 2000". United States Census 2000. US Census Bureau
US Census Bureau
Geography Division. May 20, 2002. Archived from the original (TXT) on June 22, 2013. Retrieved December 26, 2009.  ^ a b "CA Codes (gov:34500-34504)". California
California
State Senate. Archived from the original on August 27, 2009. Retrieved January 29, 2010.  ^ "Instant City: Sacramento". California
California
State Library. Archived from the original on January 28, 2010. Retrieved January 29, 2010.  ^ "San Jose at a Glance". City of San Jose. Retrieved January 29, 2010.  ^ "A History of San Diego
San Diego
Government". City of San Diego. Archived from the original on May 28, 2010. Retrieved January 29, 2010.  ^ " California
California
State Parks: 1846 to 1854". California
California
State Parks. May 23, 2007. Retrieved January 29, 2010.  ^ "Jurupa Valley Becomes California's 482nd City". League of California
California
Cities. March 11, 2011. Archived from the original on May 6, 2012. Retrieved August 21, 2011.  ^ Stokley, Sandra (June 14, 2011). "JURUPA VALLEY: Rushing to meet a July 1 incorporation". The Press-Enterprise. Archived from the original on September 7, 2012. Retrieved August 21, 2011.  ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015". US Census. May 7, 2016. Archived from the original on July 14, 2016. Retrieved January 7, 2017.  ^ Teresa Watanabe; Hector Becerra (April 1, 2010). "Native-born Californians regain majority status". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times. Retrieved January 19, 2013.  ^ a b c d "Net Migration from Mexico
Mexico
Falls to Zero—and Perhaps Less" (PDF). Pew Hispanic
Hispanic
Center. Retrieved July 19, 2015.  ^ a b Stephen Magagnini; Phillip Reese (January 17, 2013). "Census shows Asians eclipse Latino arrivals to California". Sacramento Bee. Archived from the original on January 18, 2013. Retrieved January 19, 2013.  ^ a b c "Latino mojo". The Economist. June 20, 2015.  ^ "Unauthorized Immigrants: 11.1 Million in 2011". Pew Research Center's Hispanic
Hispanic
Trends Project. December 6, 2012. Retrieved August 25, 2015.  ^ California's Illegal Immigrant Shortage, Bloomberg BusinessWeek, May 3, 2012 ^ Slevin, Peter (April 30, 2010). "New Arizona
Arizona
law puts police in 'tenuous' spot". The Washington Post. Washington, DC. pp. A4.  ^ a b Michael Gardner (April 19, 2011). "Cutting services to illegal immigrants isn't easy". The San Diego
San Diego
Union-Tribune. Retrieved August 8, 2017.  ^ Johnson, Hans; Hill, Laura (July 2011). "Illegal Immigration" (PDF). Publications. Public Policy Institute of California. Retrieved January 15, 2013.  ^ a b c 2016 U.S. Census QuickFacts, United States
United States
Census Bureau, 2016. ^ Exner, Rich. " Americans
Americans
under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot". cleveland.com. Advance Ohio. Retrieved September 20, 2016.  ^ " California
California
– ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates: 2006–2008". American Fact Finder. US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on April 30, 2011. Retrieved March 8, 2016.  ^ "Whites in state 'below the replacement' level". San Francisco Chronicle. June 5, 2010. ^ Wendell Cox. "ASIANS: AMERICA'S FASTEST GROWING MINORITY". NewsGeography. Retrieved July 19, 2015.  ^ a b Campbell Gibson; Kay Jung (September 2002). "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States". Population Division. United States
United States
Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 25, 2008. Retrieved December 27, 2014.  ^ "California: 2000" (PDF). Census 2000 Profile. United States
United States
Census Bureau. August 2002. Retrieved December 27, 2014.  ^ "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010". 2010 Census Summary File
File
1. United States
United States
Census Bureau. 2010. Retrieved December 27, 2014.  ^ "Total Ancestry Reported". 2009–2013 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates. United States
United States
Census Bureau. 2013. Retrieved January 1, 2015.  ^ "Total Population". 2010 Census, United States
United States
Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. 2010. Retrieved May 1, 2013.  ^ "California". Modern Language Association. Retrieved August 11, 2013.  ^ "What other languages is the written or audio test available in?//Driver License and Identification (ID) Card Information". California
California
Department of Motor Vehicles.  ^ Wesson, Herb (July 17, 2001). "AB 800 Assembly Bill – Bill Analysis". California
California
State Assembly. p. 3. Archived from the original on November 23, 2010. Retrieved December 27, 2009. In 1986, California
California
voters amended the state constitution to provide that the: The [sic] Legislature
Legislature
and officials of the State of California
California
shall take all steps necessary to insure that the role of English as the common language of the State of California
California
is preserved and enhanced. The Legislature
Legislature
shall make no law which diminishes or ignores the role of English as the common language of California."  ^ Hull, Dana (May 20, 2006). "English already is "official" in California". San Jose Mercury News. San Jose, California.  ^ "MLA Data Center". Archived from the original on June 19, 2006. Retrieved August 10, 2013.  ^ Native Tribes, Groups, Language Families and Dialects of California in 1770 (Map) (1966 ed.). Coyote
Coyote
Press. Retrieved December 27, 2009.  ^ California
California
Indians Root Languages and Tribal Groups (Map) (1994 ed.). California
California
State Parks. Retrieved December 27, 2009.  ^ "Indigenous Farmworker Study – Indigenous Mexicans in California Agriculture. Section V. Language and Culture" (PDF). 2013. Retrieved July 1, 2013.  ^ Bucholtz, Mary; et all (December 2007). "Hella Nor Cal or Totally So Cal? : The Perceptual Dialectology of California". Journal of English Linguistics. 35 (4): 325–352. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.516.3682 . doi:10.1177/0075424207307780. Retrieved November 4, 2010.  ^ Park, Bborie (December 2003). "A World of Opportunity – Which New Languages Davis Students Would Like to Study and Why" (PDF). UC Davis Student
Student
Affairs Research and Information. Retrieved December 27, 2009.  ^ a b "America's Changing Religious Landscape, Appendix D: Detailed Tables" (PDF). Pew Research Center. May 12, 2015. Retrieved June 5, 2015.  ^ "Religious Affiliation by State in the U.S" (PDF). U.S Religious Landscape Study. Pew Research Center. p. 103. Retrieved June 24, 2010.  ^ Ira M. Sheskin and Arnold Dashefsky, "Jewish Population of the United States, 2006", American Jewish Year Book 2006, Volume 106 [1] ^ "The Association of Religion Data Archives State Membership Report". thearda.com. Retrieved December 16, 2013.  ^ Helfand, Duke (June 24, 2008). "State has a relaxed view on religion – Survey finds Californians are less certain about the existence of God than others in the U.S". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times. Retrieved December 27, 2009.  ^ Naranjo, Candice. "The Super Bowl
Super Bowl
is Coming to Levi's Stadium
Levi's Stadium
in 2016". KRON 4. Retrieved March 28, 2014.  ^ NAGOURNEY, Adam; LONGMAN, JERÉ (July 31, 2017). " Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Makes Deal to Host the 2028 Summer Olympics". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 2, 2017.  ^ "Proposition 98 Primer". Legislative Analyst's Office of California. February 2005. Retrieved January 29, 2010.  ^ " California
California
Comparison". Education Data Partnership. Retrieved January 29, 2010.  ^ Marshall, Carolyn (March 16, 2007). "Report Says Public Schools in California
California
Are 'Broken' – New York Times". The New York Times. California. Retrieved August 23, 2011.  ^ "About the University of California".  ^ "America's Best Hospitals 2007". U.S.News & World Report. July 15, 2007. Archived from the original on July 11, 2007. Retrieved July 15, 2007.  ^ Gilmore, Janet (December 19, 2016). "85,000 students seek admission to Berkeley's 2017–18 freshman class". Berkeley News. Retrieved May 8, 2017.  ^ Kendall, Rebecca. "UCLA breaks several records with 2017 freshman applications". UCLA Newsroom. Retrieved May 8, 2017.  ^ a b Powell, Farran. " California
California
Students Face Competition for College Options." U.S. News & World Report. N.p., February 6, 2017. Web. May 7, 2017. ^ "Rising number of rejections raises fears that Long Beach is becoming 'elite' university". EdSource. Retrieved May 8, 2017.  ^ "Senate Concurrent Resolution No. 71". Senate Office of International Relations.  ^ https://www.bea.gov/newsreleases/regional/gdp_state/qgdpstate_newsrelease.htm ^ Cite error: The named reference gdp-by-state was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Comparison between U.S. states and countries by GDP (nominal) ^ " California
California
Poised to Move Up in World Economy Rankings in 2013" (PDF). Center for Continuing Study of the California
California
Economy. July 2013. Retrieved June 14, 2014.  ^ "Calif. retains economy that would be 8th largest". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. December 2, 2010. Retrieved September 2, 2012.  ^ "GDP, PPP (current international $)". World Bank, International Comparison Program database. Retrieved June 14, 2014.  ^ "2011 CalFacts". Lao.ca.gov. Retrieved April 22, 2011.  ^ a b "Trade Statistics". California
California
Chamber of Commerce. Archived from the original on February 9, 2010. Retrieved January 29, 2010.  ^ a b "Cal Facts 2006 State Economy". Legislative Analyst's Office of California. August 6, 2007. Retrieved January 29, 2010.  ^ " California
California
Agricultural Production Statistics 2009–2010". cdfa.ca.gov ( California
California
Department of Food and Agriculture). 2010. Retrieved October 5, 2010.  ^ " California
California
Agricultural Production Statistics 2011". cdfa.ca.gov ( California
California
Department of Food and Agriculture). 2013. Retrieved May 18, 2013.  ^ Venton, Danielle (June 5, 2015). "A Better Way for California
California
to Water Its Farms". Wired. Retrieved June 5, 2015.  ^ Vic Tolomeo; Kelly Krug; Doug Flohr; Jason Gibson (October 31, 2012). " California
California
Agricultural Statistics: 2011 Crop Year" (PDF). National Agricultural Statistics Service. United States
United States
Department of Agriculture. Retrieved July 1, 2013.  ^ "State Personal Income 2006" (Press release). Bureau of Economic Analysis. March 27, 2007. Retrieved January 29, 2010.  ^ Cowan, Tadlock (December 12, 2005). "California's San Joaquin Valley: A Region in Transition" (PDF). Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 24, 2009. Retrieved January 29, 2010.  ^ Berlinger, Joshua (November 12, 2012). "A New Poverty Calculation Yields Some Surprising Results". Business Insider. Retrieved October 7, 2013.  ^ Scott, Walter (May 2, 2010). "Personality Parade". Parade Magazine. p. 2.  ^ Bukszpan, Daniel (March 29, 2012). "States With the Best Credit Scores".  ^ a b " California
California
GDP". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved July 10, 2017.  ^ "Country Comparison :: GDP (purchasing power parity)". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved January 31, 2010.  ^ Nunes, Devin (January 10, 2009). "California's Gold
Gold
Rush Has Been Reversed". The Wall Street Journal. p. A9. Retrieved January 29, 2010.  ^ "California's Brown proposes 'painful' budget cuts". Reuters. January 10, 2011. ^ "California's Greek Tragedy". The Wall Street Journal. March 13, 2012.  Del Beccaro, Thomas (August 19, 2014). "California's Economic Collision Course: Immigration and Water". Forbes. Retrieved August 21, 2014.  ^ Michael Gardner (July 28, 2012). "Is California
California
the welfare capital?: Delving into why California
California
has such a disproportionate share of the nation's recipients". U-T San Diego. Retrieved August 6, 2012.  ^ "How much does California
California
owe?". San Francisco
San Francisco
Chronicle. January 19, 2011. ^ Gov. Brown proudly signs balanced state budget. SFGate (June 27, 2013). Retrieved July 29, 2013. ^ "California's current debt load: $132 billion".  ^ " California
California
Proposition 30, Sales and Income Tax Increase (2012)". Ballotpedia. Retrieved January 16, 2013.  ^ Mufson, Steven (February 17, 2007). "In Energy Conservation, Calif. Sees Light". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 28, 2010.  ^ " California
California
– U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)". Tonto.eia.doe.gov. October 20, 2011. Retrieved October 28, 2011.  ^ California
California
OKs new transmission for renewables Reuters, December 17, 2009. ^ Mark Z. Jacobson et al.: A roadmap for repowering California
California
for all purposes with wind, water, and sunlight. In: Energy 73 (2014), 875–889, doi:10.1016/j.energy.2014.06.099. ^ Doyle, Jim (March 9, 2009). " Nuclear power
Nuclear power
industry sees opening for revival". San Francisco
San Francisco
Chronicle. Hearst Communications. p. A-1. Retrieved January 29, 2010.  ^ Brunswick, Mark (April 30, 2009). " Minnesota
Minnesota
House says no to new nuclear power plants". Star Tribune. Minnesota: Chris Harte. Archived from the original on October 16, 2012. Retrieved January 29, 2010.  ^ Mieszkowski, Katharine (September 2, 2010). " California
California
Is Tops in Worst Roads – Pulse of the Bay". The Bay Citizen. Retrieved April 22, 2011.  ^ "A bridge too far gone". The Economist. August 9, 2007.  ^ "19th Annual Report on the Performance of State Highway Systems (1984–2008)" (PDF).  ^ "The San Francisco
San Francisco
– Oakland Bay Bridge Facts at a glance". California
California
Department of Transportation. Retrieved April 5, 2012.  ^ Pool, Bob (June 25, 2010). "Pasadena Freeway getting a new look and a new name". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times. Retrieved April 5, 2012.  ^ "L.A.'s Famous Four-Level Freeway Interchange, 'The Stack,' Turns 58". KCET. September 22, 2011. Retrieved April 5, 2012.  ^ Chawkins, Steve (July 18, 2005). "Stockton Seeking to Capture Battleship". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times. Retrieved October 7, 2016.  ^ "State of California
California
– DEPARTMENT OF MOTOR VEHICLES, STATISTICS FOR PUBLICATION, JANUARY THROUGH DECEMBER 2010" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 29, 2011. Retrieved February 13, 2011.  ^ " California
California
new-car sales up 13.1 percent in 2010". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved April 22, 2011.  ^ Cabanatuan, Michael (January 8, 2011). "Calif. Amtrak ridership rising on state trains". The San Francisco
San Francisco
Chronicle.  ^ Cabanatuan, Michael (August 17, 2010). "Plan for high-speed rail system released". The San Francisco
San Francisco
Chronicle.  ^ "2016 Draft Business Plan" (PDF). www.hsr.ca.gov. California
California
High Speed Rail. Retrieved July 19, 2017.  ^ Hundley, N. (2001). The great thirst: Californians and water. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California
University of California
Press. ^ Reisner, Marc (1993). Cadillac Desert: The American West and its Disappearing Water. Penguin.  ^ "Why California
California
Is Running Dry". CBS News. December 27, 2009. ^ Bowen, Debra. "Voter-Nominated Offices Information" (PDF). California
California
Secretary of State. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 24, 2013. Retrieved March 16, 2014.  ^ a b c Bowen, Debra. "Voter-Nominated Offices Information". California
California
Secretary of State. Archived from the original on June 26, 2014. Retrieved March 16, 2014.  ^ California
California
Constitution. "Article 5". Archived from the original on January 8, 2011.  ^ " California
California
Codes, Civil Code Section 22-22.2". California
California
Civil Codes. Legislative Counsel of the State of California. Retrieved January 29, 2010.  ^ Thompson, Don (December 8, 2007). "Calif. Struggles with sentencing reform". USA Today. Retrieved January 29, 2010.  ^ " Death Row
Death Row
Inmates by State and Size of Death Row
Death Row
by Year Death Penalty Information Center". deathpenaltyinfo.org. Retrieved May 8, 2017.  ^ "State Execution Rates Death Penalty Information Center". deathpenaltyinfo.org. Retrieved May 8, 2017.  ^ Baldassare, Mark (1998). When Government Fails: The Orange County Bankruptcy. Public Policy Institute of California/University of California
California
Press. pp. 67–68. ISBN 0-520-21486-2. LCCN 97032806.  ^ Janiskee, Brian P.; Masugi, Ken (2011). Democracy in California: Politics and Government in the Golden State (3rd ed.). Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 105. ISBN 978-1-4422-0338-9. LCCN 2011007585.  ^ Baldassare 1998, p. 50. ^ a b Individual State Descriptions: 2007 (PDF), 2007 Census of Governments, United States
United States
Census Bureau, November 2012, pp. 25–26  ^ Mizany, Kimia; Manatt, April. What's So Special
Special
About Special Districts? A Citizen's Guide to Special
Special
Districts in California
Districts in California
(PDF) (3 ed.). California
California
Senate Local Government Committee.  ^ "Directory of Representatives". House.gov. Retrieved March 25, 2014.  ^ "Table 508. Military and Civilian Personnel in Installations: 2009" (PDF). United States
United States
Census Bureau. United States
United States
Department of Commerce. 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 17, 2011. Retrieved June 15, 2013.  ^ "Military recruitment 2010". National Priorities Project. June 30, 2011. Retrieved June 15, 2013.  ^ Segal, David R.; Segal, Mady Wechsler (2004). "America's Military Population" (PDF). Population Bulletin. Population Research Bureau. 59 (4): 10. ISSN 0032-468X. Retrieved June 15, 2013.  ^ " California
California
– Armed forces". city-data.com. Retrieved December 26, 2009.  ^ "Table 7L: VETPOP2011 Living Veterans By State, Period Of Service, Gender, 2010–2040". Veteran Population. Department of Veterans Affairs. September 30, 2010. Retrieved June 15, 2013.  ^ "pdf Report of Registration as of January 2, 2018 Registration by County" (PDF). Retrieved March 12, 2018.  ^ Leip, David. "Presidential General Election Results Comparison – California". US Election Atlas. Retrieved November 22, 2016.  ^ " California
California
Is A Political Trendsetter". CBS News. October 30, 2006. Retrieved February 22, 2011.  ^ "Study Ranks America's Most Liberal and Conservative Cities". Bay Area Center for Voting Research. August 16, 2005. Archived from the original on May 1, 2011. Retrieved February 20, 2011.  ^ a b c "Voter Registration by County" (PDF). Elections. California Secretary of State. October 22, 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 17, 2013. Retrieved January 12, 2013. 

Works cited

Cohen, Saul Bernard (2003). Geopolitics of the World System. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-8476-9907-0.  Starr, Kevin (2007). California: A History. Modern Library Chronicles. 23. Random House Digital, Inc. ISBN 978-0-8129-7753-0. 

Further reading

Chartkoff, Joseph L.; Chartkoff, Kerry Kona (1984). The archaeology of California. Stanford: Stanford University
Stanford University
Press. ISBN 0-8047-1157-7. OCLC 11351549.  Fagan, Brian (2003). Before California: An archaeologist looks at our earliest inhabitants. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 0-7425-2794-8. OCLC 226025645.  Hart, James D. (1978). A Companion to California. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-502400-1.  Matthews, Glenna. The Golden State in the Civil War: Thomas Starr King, the Republican Party, and the Birth of Modern California. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012. Moratto, Michael J.; Fredrickson, David A. (1984). California archaeology. Orlando: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-506182-X. OCLC 228668979. 

External links

Find more aboutCaliforniaat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

State of California California
California
State Guide, from the Library of Congress Geographic data related to California
California
at OpenStreetMap data.ca.gov: open data portal from California
California
state agencies California
California
State Facts from USDA California
California
Drought: Farm and Food Impacts from USDA, Economic Research Service California
California
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) 1973 documentary featuring aerial views of the California
California
coastline from Mt. Shasta to Los Angeles Time-Lapse Tilt-Shift Portrait of California
California
by Ryan and Sheri Killackey

Preceded by Wisconsin List of U.S. states by date of statehood Admitted on September 9, 1850 (31st) Succeeded by Minnesota

Topics related to California The Golden State

v t e

 State of California

Sacramento (capital)

Topics

Culture

Food Music Myth Sports

Demographics Earthquakes Economy Education Environment Geography

Climate Ecology Flora Fauna

Government

Capitol Districts Governor Legislature Supreme Court

Healthcare History Law National Historic Landmarks National Natural Landmarks NRHP listings Politics

Congressional delegations Elections

People Protected areas

State Parks State Historic Landmarks

Symbols Transportation Water Index of articles

Regions

Antelope Valley Big Sur California
California
Coast Ranges Cascade Range Central California Central Coast Central Valley Channel Islands Coachella Valley Coastal California Conejo Valley Cucamonga Valley Death Valley East Bay (SF Bay Area) East County (SD) Eastern California Emerald Triangle Gold
Gold
Country Great Basin Greater San Bernardino Inland Empire Klamath Basin Lake Tahoe Greater Los Angeles Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Basin Lost Coast Mojave Desert Mountain Empire North Bay (SF) North Coast North Coast (SD) Northern California Owens Valley Oxnard Plain Peninsular Ranges Pomona Valley Sacramento Valley Salinas Valley San Fernando Valley San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay Area San Francisco
San Francisco
Peninsula San Gabriel Valley San Joaquin Valley Santa Clara Valley Santa Clara River Valley Santa Clarita Valley Santa Ynez Valley Shasta Cascade Sierra Nevada Silicon Valley South Bay (LA) South Bay (SD) South Bay (SF) South Coast Southern Border Region Southern California Transverse Ranges Tri-Valley Victor Valley Wine Country

Metro regions

Metropolitan Fresno Los Angeles
Los Angeles
metropolitan area Greater Sacramento San Bernardino-Riverside metropolitan area San Francisco
San Francisco
metropolitan area San Diego–Tijuana

Counties

Alameda Alpine Amador Butte Calaveras Colusa Contra Costa Del Norte El Dorado Fresno Glenn Humboldt Imperial Inyo Kern Kings Lake Lassen Los Angeles Madera Marin Mariposa Mendocino Merced Modoc Mono Monterey Napa Nevada Orange Placer Plumas Riverside Sacramento San Benito San Bernardino San Diego San Francisco San Joaquin San Luis Obispo San Mateo Santa Barbara Santa Clara Santa Cruz Shasta Sierra Siskiyou Solano Sonoma Stanislaus Sutter Tehama Trinity Tulare Tuolumne Ventura Yolo Yuba

Most populous cities

Los Angeles San Diego San Jose San Francisco Fresno Sacramento Long Beach Oakland Bakersfield Anaheim

v t e

Mayors of cities with populations exceeding 100,000 in California

Eric Garcetti (Los Angeles) Kevin Faulconer (San Diego) Sam Liccardo (San Jose) Mark Farrell (San Francisco) Lee Brand (Fresno) Darrell Steinberg (Sacramento) Robert Garcia (Long Beach) Libby Schaaf (Oakland) Karen Goh (Bakersfield) Tom Tait (Anaheim) Miguel A. Pulido (Santa Ana) Rusty Bailey (Riverside) Anthony Silva (Stockton) Mary Salas (Chula Vista) Don Wagner (Irvine) Lily Mei (Fremont) R. Carey Davis (San Bernardino) Garrad Marsh (Modesto) Acquanetta Warren (Fontana) Tim Flynn (Oxnard) Jesse Molina (Moreno Valley)* Mike Posey (Huntington Beach)* Paula Devine (Glendale)* Marsha McLean (Santa Clarita)* Jim Wood (Oceanside) Steven R. Jones (Garden Grove) L. Dennis Michael (Rancho Cucamonga) John Sawyer (Santa Rosa)* Paul S. Leon (Ontario) Gary Davis (Elk Grove) Eugene Montanez (Corona)* R. Rex Parris (Lancaster) James C. Ledford Jr. (Palmdale) Barbara Halliday (Hayward) Joe Gunter (Salinas) Elliot Rothman (Pomona) Jim Griffith (Sunnyvale) Sam Abed (Escondido) Patrick J. Furey (Torrance) Terry Tornek (Pasadena) Teresa Smith (Orange) Greg Sebourn (Fullerton)* Carol Garcia (Roseville) Steve Nelsen (Visalia) Al Adam (Thousand Oaks)* Edi E. Birsan (Concord)* Bob Huber (Simi Valley) Jamie L. Matthews (Santa Clara) Gloria Garcia (Victorville) Bob Sampayan (Vallejo) Jesse Arreguín (Berkeley) Andre Quintero (El Monte) Luis H. Marquez (Downey)* Matt Hall (Carlsbad) Stephen Mensinger (Costa Mesa)* Harry T. Price (Fairfield) Jeff Comerchero (Temecula) James T. Butts Jr. (Inglewood) Wade Harper (Antioch) Harry Ramos (Murrieta) Cheryl Heitmann (Ventura)* Tom Butt (Richmond) Fredrick Sykes (West Covina)* Luigi Vernola (Norwalk)* Raymond A. Buenaventura (Daly City) Bob Frutos (Burbank)* Alice Patino (Santa Maria) Nathan Magsig (Clovis)* Bill Wells (El Cajon) Maureen Freschet (San Mateo)* Judy Ritter (Vista) Brad Hancock (Jurupa Valley)

^* Mayor selected from city council

v t e

Protected areas of California

National Park System

National Parks

Channel Islands Death Valley Joshua Tree Kings Canyon Lassen Volcanic Pinnacles Redwood Sequoia Yosemite

National Preserves

Mojave

National Monuments

Cabrillo Castle Mountains Cesar E. Chavez Devils Postpile Lava Beds Muir Woods World War II
World War II
Valor in the Pacific

National Seashores

Point Reyes

National Historical Parks

Rosie the Riveter/ World War II
World War II
Home Front San Francisco
San Francisco
Maritime

National Historic Sites

Eugene O'Neill Fort Point John Muir Manzanar

National Memorials

Port Chicago Naval Magazine

National Recreation Areas

Golden Gate Santa Monica Mountains Whiskeytown

State Parks

State Parks

Ahjumawi Lava Springs Andrew Molera Angel Island Annadel Año Nuevo Anza-Borrego Desert Arthur B. Ripley Desert
Desert
Woodland Bidwell–Sacramento River Big Basin Redwoods Border Field Bothe-Napa Valley Burton Creek Butano Calaveras Big Trees Castle Crags Castle Rock Caswell Memorial China
China
Camp Chino Hills Clear Lake Crystal Cove Cuyamaca Rancho D. L. Bliss Del Norte Coast Redwoods Donner Memorial Ed Z'berg Sugar Pine Point Emerald Bay The Forest of Nisene Marks Fort Ord
Fort Ord
Dunes Fremont Peak Garrapata Gaviota Great Valley Grasslands Grizzly Creek Redwoods Grover Hot Springs Hearst San Simeon Hendy Woods Henry Cowell Redwoods Henry W. Coe Humboldt Lagoons Humboldt Redwoods Jedediah Smith Redwoods Julia Pfeiffer Burns Leo Carrillo Limekiln MacKerricher Malibu Creek Manchester McArthur–Burney Falls Memorial McLaughlin Eastshore Mendocino Headlands Mendocino Woodlands Montaña de Oro Morro Bay Mount Diablo Mount San Jacinto Mount Tamalpais Navarro River Redwoods Pacheco Palomar Mountain Patrick's Point Pfeiffer Big Sur Placerita Canyon Plumas-Eureka Point Mugu Portola Redwoods Prairie Creek Redwoods Red Rock Canyon Richardson Grove Rio de Los Angeles Robert Louis Stevenson Russian Gulch Saddleback Butte Salt Point Samuel P. Taylor San Bruno Mountain Sinkyone Wilderness South Yuba River Sugarloaf Ridge Sutter Buttes Tolowa Dunes Tomales Bay Topanga Van Damme Washoe Meadows Wilder Ranch

State Natural Reserves

Antelope Valley
Antelope Valley
California
California
Poppy Armstrong Redwoods Azalea Caspar Headlands John B. Dewitt John Little Jug Handle Kruse Rhododendron Los Osos Oaks Mailliard Redwoods Mono Lake
Mono Lake
Tufa Montgomery Woods Point Lobos Smithe Redwoods Torrey Pines Tule Elk

State Marine Reserves

Albany Big Creek Carmel Pinnacles Del Mar Landing Emeryville Crescent Estero de Limantour Fitzgerald Laguna Beach Lovers Point Montara Moro Cojo Slough Natural Bridges Point Lobos Point Sur Russian River Stewarts Point

State Historic Parks

Anderson Marsh Antelope Valley
Antelope Valley
Indian Museum Bale Grist Mill Benicia Capitol Bidwell Mansion Bodie California
California
Citrus California
California
State Indian Museum Chumash Painted Cave Colonel Allensworth Columbia Cowell Ranch/John Marsh El Presidio
Presidio
de Santa Barbara Empire Mine Folsom Powerhouse Fort Humboldt Fort Ross Fort Tejon Governor's Mansion Hearst San Simeon Indian Grinding Rock Jack London La Purísima Mission Leland Stanford Mansion Los Angeles Los Encinos Malakoff Diggins Marconi Conference Center Marshall Gold
Gold
Discovery Monterey Old Sacramento Old Town San Diego Olompali Petaluma Adobe Pigeon Point Light Station Pío Pico Point Sur Railtown 1897 San Juan Bautista San Pasqual Battlefield Santa Cruz Mission Santa Susana Pass Shasta Sonoma Sutter's Fort Tomo-Kahni Wassama Round House Watts Towers of Simon Rodia Weaverville Joss House Will Rogers William B. Ide
William B. Ide
Adobe Woodland Opera House

State Beaches

Asilomar Bean Hollow Bolsa Chica Cardiff Carlsbad Carmel River Carpinteria Caspar Headlands Cayucos Corona del Mar Dockweiler Doheny El Capitán Emma Wood Gray Whale Cove Greenwood Half Moon Bay Huntington Leucadia Lighthouse Field Little River Malibu Lagoon Mandalay Manresa Marina McGrath Montara Monterey Moonlight Morro Strand Moss Landing Natural Bridges New Brighton Pacifica Pelican Pescadero Pismo Point Dume Point Sal Pomponio Refugio Robert H. Meyer Memorial Robert W. Crown Memorial Salinas River San Buenaventura San Clemente San Elijo San Gregorio San Onofre Santa Monica Schooner Gulch Seacliff Silver Strand Sonoma Coast South Carlsbad Sunset Thornton Torrey Pines Trinidad Twin Lakes Westport-Union Landing Will Rogers William Randolph Hearst Memorial Zmudowski

State Recreation Areas

Admiral William Standley Auburn Austin Creek Benbow Lake Benicia Bethany Reservoir Brannan Island Candlestick Point Castaic Lake Colusa-Sacramento River Folsom Lake Franks Tract George J. Hatfield Harry A. Merlo Kenneth Hahn Kings Beach Lake Del Valle Lake Oroville Lake Perris Lake Valley Martial Cottle Park McConnell Millerton Lake Picacho Providence Mountains Salton Sea San Luis Reservoir Silverwood Lake Standish-Hickey Tahoe Turlock Lake Woodson Bridge

State Vehicular Recreation Areas

Carnegie Clay Pit Heber Dunes Hollister Hills Hungry Valley Oceano Dunes Ocotillo Wells Prairie City

Other

Burleigh H. Murray Ranch California
California
State Mining and Mineral Museum California State Capitol
California State Capitol
Museum California
California
State Railroad Museum Castro Adobe Delta Meadows Estero Bay Hatton Canyon Indio Hills Palms Point Cabrillo Light Station Point Lobos
Point Lobos
Ranch Point Montara Light Station Reynolds Wayside Campground San Timoteo Canyon Stone Lake Verdugo Mountains Ward Creek Wildwood Canyon

National Forests and Grasslands

National Forests and Grasslands

Angeles Butte Valley NG Cleveland Eldorado Humboldt-Toiyabe Inyo Klamath Lake Tahoe
Lake Tahoe
Basin Lassen Los Padres Mendocino Modoc Plumas Rogue River – Siskiyou San Bernardino Sequoia Shasta–Trinity Sierra Six Rivers Stanislaus Tahoe

National Wilderness Preservation System

Agua Tibia Ansel Adams Bucks Lake Caribou Carson-Iceberg Castle Crags Cucamonga Desolation Dick Smith Dinkey Lakes Emigrant Golden Trout Hoover Inyo Mountains Ishi Jennie Lakes John Muir Kaiser Marble Mountain Mokelumne Mount Shasta
Mount Shasta
Wilderness North Fork Pine Creek San Gabriel Sanhedrin San Jacinto San Rafael Sespe Siskiyou Snow Mountain South Fork Eel River South Sierra South Warner Thousand Lakes Trinity Alps Ventana Yolla Bolly–Middle Eel Yuki

National Monuments and Recreation Areas

Giant Sequoia National Monument San Gabriel Mountains National Monument Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument Smith River National Recreation Area Shasta–Trinity National Recreation Area Sand to Snow National Monument

State Forests

Boggs Mountain Demonstration Ellen Pickett Jackson Demonstration Las Posadas LaTour Demonstration Mount Zion Mountain Home Demonstration Soquel Demonstration

National Wildlife Refuges

Antioch Dunes Bitter Creek Blue Ridge Butte Sink Castle Rock Clear Lake Coachella Valley Colusa Delevan Don Edwards San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay Ellicott Slough Farallon Guadalupe-Nipomo Dunes Hopper Mountain Humboldt Bay Kern Lower Klamath Marin Islands Merced Modoc Pixley Sacramento Sacramento River Salinas River San Diego
San Diego
Bay San Diego San Joaquin River San Luis San Pablo Bay Seal Beach Sonny Bono Salton Sea Stone Lakes Sutter Tijuana Slough Tule Lake

State Wildlife Areas

Wildlife Areas

Antelope Valley Ash Creek Bass Hill Battle Creek Big Lagoon Big Sandy Biscar Butte Valley Buttermilk Country Cache Creek Camp Cady Cantara/Ney Springs Cedar Roughs Cinder Flats Collins Eddy Colusa Bypass Coon Hollow Cottonwood Creek Crescent City Marsh Crocker Meadows Daugherty Hill Decker Island Doyle Dutch Flat Eastlker River Eel River Elk Creek Wetlands Elk River Fay Slough Feather River Fitzhugh Creek Fremont Weir Grass Lake Gray Lodge Green Creek Grizzly Island Hallelujah Junction Heenan Lake Hill Slough Hollenbeck Canyon Honey Lake Hope Valley Horseshoe Ranch Imperial Indian Valley Kelso Peak and Old Dad Mountains Kinsman Flat Knoxville Laguna Lake Berryessa Lake Earl Lake Sonoma Little Panoche Reservoir Los Banos Lower Sherman Island Mad River Slough Marble Mountains Mendota Merrill's Landing Miner Slough Monache Meadows Morro Bay Moss Landing Mouth of Cottonwood Creek Napa-Sonoma Marshes North Grasslands O'Neill Forebay Oroville Petaluma Marsh Pickel Meadow Pine Creek Point Edith Putah Creek Rector Reservoir Red Lake Rhode Island Sacramento River San Felipe Valley San Jacinto San Luis Obispo San Luis Reservoir San Pablo Bay Santa Rosa Shasta Valley Silver Creek Slinkard/Little Antelope Smithneck Creek South Fork Spenceville Surprise Valley Sutter Bypass Tehama Truckee River Upper Butte Basin Volta Warner Valley Waukell Creek West Hilmar Westlker River White Slough Willow Creek Yolo Bypass

Ecological Reserves

Albany Mudflats Alkali Sink Allensworth Atascadero Creek Marsh Bair Island Baldwin Lake Batiquitos Lagoon Blue Sky Boden Canyon Boggs Lake Bolsa Chica Bonny Doon Buena Vista Lagoon Butler Slough Butte Creek Canyon Butte Creek House Buttonwillow By Day Creek Calhoun Cut Canebrake Carlsbad Highlands Carmel Bay Carrizo Canyon Carrizo Plains China
China
Point Clover Creek Coachella Valley Coal Canyon Corte Madera Marsh Crestridge Dairy Mart Ponds Dales Lake Del Mar Landing Eden Landing Elkhorn Slough Estelle Mountain Fall River Mills Fish Slough Fremont Valley Goleta Slough Indian Joe Spring Kaweah Kerman King Clone Laguna Laurel Loch Lomond Vernal Pool Lokern Magnesia Spring Marin Islands Mattole River McGinty Mountain Morro Dunes Morro Rock Napa River North Table Mountain Oasis Spring Panoche Hills Peytonia Slough Pine Hill Piute Creek Pleasant Valley Rancho Jamul Redwood Shores River Springs Lakes Saline Valley San Dieguito Lagoon San Elijo Lagoon San Felipe Creek San Joaquin River Santa Rosa Plateau Springville Stone Corral Sycamore Canyon Sycuan Peak Thomes Creek Tomales Bay Upper Newport Bay Watsonville Slough West Mojave Desert Woodbridge Yaudanchi

Marine Protected Areas

Abalone Cove Albany Mudflats Anacapa Anacapa Año Nuevo Asilomar Atascadero Beach Bair Island Batiquitos Lagoon Big Creek Big Creek Big Sycamore Canyon Bodega Bolsa Chica Cambria Cardiff and San Elijo Carmel Bay Carmel Pinnacles Carrington Point Catalina Marine Science Center Corte Madera Marsh Crystal Cove Dana Point Del Mar Landing Doheny Doheny Duxbury Reef Edward F. Ricketts Elkhorn Slough Elkhorn Slough Encinitas Estero de Limantour Fagan Marsh Farallon Islands Farnsworth Bank Fort Ross Gerstle Cove Goleta Slough Greyhound Rock Gull Island Harris Point Heisler Park Hopkins Irvine Coast James V. Fitzgerald Judith Rock Julia Pfeiffer Burns La Jolla Laguna Beach Lovers Cove (Catalina Island) Lovers Point MacKerricher Manchester and Arena Rock Marin Islands Mia J. Tegner Moro Cojo Slough Morro Bay Morro Bay Morro Beach Natural Bridges Niguel Pacific Grove Marine Gardens Painted Cave Peytonia Slough Piedras Blancas Piedras Blancas Pismo Pismo-Oceano Beach Point Buchon Point Buchon Point Cabrillo Point Fermin Point Lobos Point Reyes Headlands Point Sur Point Sur Portuguese Ledge Punta Gorda Redwood Shores Refugio Richardson Rock Robert E. Badham Robert W. Crown Russian Gulch Russian River Salt Point San Diego-Scripps San Dieguito Lagoon San Elijo Lagoon Santa Barbara Island Scorpion Skunk Point Sonoma Coast Soquel Canyon South Laguna Beach South Point Swami’s Tomales Bay Upper Newport Bay Van Damme Vandenberg White Rock (Cambria)

Bureau of Land Management
Bureau of Land Management
National Landscape Conservation System

National Monuments

Berryessa Snow Mountain California
California
Coastal Carrizo Plain Cascade-Siskiyou Fort Ord Mojave Trails Sand to Snow Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains

National Conservation Areas

California
California
Desert King Range

Wilderness Areas

Argus Range Big Maria Mountains Bigelow Cholla Garden Bighorn Mountain Black Mountain Bright Star Bristol Mountains Cadiz Dunes Carrizo Gorge Chemehuevi Mountains Chimney Peak Chuckwalla Mountains Chumash Cleghorn Lakes Clipper Mountain Coso Range Coyote
Coyote
Mountains Darwin Falls Dead Mountains Dick Smith El Paso Mountains Fish Creek Mountains Funeral Mountains Golden Valley Grass Valley Headwaters Forest Reserve Hollow Hills Ibex Indian Pass Inyo Mountains Jacumba Kelso Dunes Kiavah Kingston Range Little Chuckwalla Mountains Little Picacho Machesna Mountain Matilija Malpais Mesa Manly Peak Mecca Hills Mesquite Newberry Mountains Nopah Range North Algodones Dunes North Mesquite Mountains Old Woman Mountains Orocopia Mountains Otay Mountain Owens Peak Pahrump Valley Palen/McCoy Palo Verde Mountains Picacho Peak Piper Mountain Piute Mountains Red Buttes Resting Spring Range Rice Valley Riverside Mountains Rodman Mountains Sacatar Trail Saddle Peak Hills San Gorgonio Santa Lucia Santa Rosa Sawtooth Mountains Sespe Sheephole Valley South Nopah Range Stateline Stepladder Mountains Surprise Canyon Sylvania Mountains Trilobite Turtle Mountains Whipple Mountains

National Marine Sanctuaries

Channel Islands Cordell Bank Greater Farallones Monterey Bay

National Estuarine Research Reserves

Elkhorn Slough San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay Tijuana River Estuary

University of California
University of California
Natural Reserve System

Angelo Coast Range Reserve Año Nuevo Island Blue Oak Ranch Reserve Bodega Marine Box Springs Boyd Deep Canyon Desert
Desert
Research Center Burns Piñon Ridge Carpinteria Salt Marsh Chickering American River Coal Oil Point Dawson Los Monos Canyon Eagle Lake Field Station Elliott Chaparral Emerson Oaks Fort Ord Hastings James San Jacinto Mountains Jenny Pygmy Forest Jepson Prairie Kendall-Frost Mission Bay Marsh Kenneth S. Norris Rancho Marino Landels-Hill Big Creek McLaughlin Motte Rimrock Quail Ridge Sagehen Creek Field Station San Joaquin Freshwater Marsh Santa Cruz Island Scripps Coastal Sedgwick Stebbins Cold Canyon Steele Burnand Anza-Borrego Stunt Ranch Santa Monica Mountains Sweeney Granite Mountains Desert
Desert
Research Center Valentine Eastern Sierra Younger Lagoon

Heritage registers National Natural Landmarks

v t e

Western United States

Regions

Rocky Mountains Great Basin West Coast Pacific Northwest Mountain States

States

Alaska Arizona California Colorado Hawaii Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Wyoming

Major metropolitan areas

Los Angeles Phoenix San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay Area San Bernardino-Riverside Seattle San Diego Denver Portland Las Vegas Sacramento

Major cities

Anchorage Albuquerque Denver Honolulu Las Vegas Los Angeles Long Beach Oakland Phoenix Portland Reno Riverside Sacramento San Bernardino San Diego San Francisco San Jose Salt Lake City Seattle Spokane Tucson

State capitals

Boise Carson City Cheyenne Denver Helena Honolulu Juneau Olympia Phoenix Sacramento Salem Salt Lake City Santa Fe

v t e

New Spain
New Spain
(1521–1821)

Conflicts

Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire
Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire
Spanish conquest of Guatemala
Spanish conquest of Guatemala
Spanish conquest of Yucatán
Spanish conquest of Yucatán
Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604)
Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604)
Anglo-Spanish War (1625–30)
Anglo-Spanish War (1625–30)
Dutch Revolt
Dutch Revolt
Anglo-Spanish War (1654–60)
Anglo-Spanish War (1654–60)
Piracy in the Caribbean
Piracy in the Caribbean
Queen Anne's War
Queen Anne's War
War of Jenkins' Ear
War of Jenkins' Ear
→ Seven Years' War → Spanish involvement in the American Revolutionary War

Conflicts with indigenous peoples during colonial rule

Mixtón War
Mixtón War
Yaqui Wars
Yaqui Wars
Chichimeca War
Chichimeca War
→ Philippine revolts against Spain
Spain
Acaxee Rebellion
Acaxee Rebellion
Spanish–Moro conflict
Spanish–Moro conflict
Acoma Massacre
Acoma Massacre
Tepehuán Revolt
Tepehuán Revolt
→ Tzeltal Rebellion → Pueblo Revolt
Pueblo Revolt
Pima Revolt
Pima Revolt
→ Spanish American wars of independence

Government and administration

Central government

Habsburg Spain

Charles I Joanna of Castile Philip II Philp III Philip IV Charles II

Bourbon Spain

Philip V (also reigned after Louis I) Louis I Ferdinand VI Charles III Charles IV Ferdinand VII of Spain
Spain
(also reigned after Joseph I)

Viceroys of New Spain

List of viceroys of New Spain

Audiencias

Guadalajara Captaincy General of Guatemala Manila Mexico Santo Domingo

Captancies General

Cuba Guatemala Philippines Puerto Rico Santo Domingo Yucatán Provincias Internas

Intendancy

Havana New Orleans State of Mexico Chiapas Comayagua Nicaragua Camagüey Santiago de Cuba Guanajuato Valladolid Guadalajara Zacatecas San Luis Potosí Veracruz Puebla Oaxaca Durango Sonora Mérida, Yucatán

Politics

Viceroy Gobernaciones Adelantado Captain general Corregidor (position) Cabildo Encomienda

Treaties

Treaty of Tordesillas Treaty of Zaragoza Peace of Westphalia Treaty of Ryswick Treaty of Utrecht Congress of Breda Treaty of Fontainebleau (1762) Treaty of Paris (1783) Treaty of Córdoba Adams–Onís Treaty

Notable cities, provinces, & territories

Cities

Mexico
Mexico
City Veracruz Xalapa Puebla Toluca Cuernavaca Oaxaca Morelia Acapulco Campeche Mérida Guadalajara Durango Monterrey León Guanajuato Zacatecas Pachuca Querétaro Saltillo San Luis Potosí Los Ángeles Yerba Buena (San Francisco) San José San Diego Santa Fe Albuquerque El Paso Los Adaes San Antonio Tucson Pensacola St. Augustine Havana Santo Domingo San Juan Antigua Guatemala Cebu Manila

Provinces & territories

La Florida Las Californias Santa Fe de Nuevo México Alta California Baja California Tejas Nueva Galicia Nueva Vizcaya Nueva Extremadura New Kingdom of León Cebu Bulacan Pampanga

Other areas

Spanish Formosa

Explorers, adventurers & conquistadors

Pre-New Spain explorers

Christopher Columbus Ferdinand Magellan Juan Sebastián Elcano Vasco Núñez de Balboa Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar

Explorers & conquistadors

Hernán Cortés Juan Ponce de León Nuño de Guzmán Bernal Díaz del Castillo Pedro de Alvarado Pánfilo de Narváez Hernando de Soto Francisco Vásquez de Coronado Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo Miguel López de Legazpi Ángel de Villafañe Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Luis de Carabajal y Cueva Juan de Oñate Juan José Pérez Hernández Gaspar de Portolà Manuel Quimper Cristóbal de Oñate Andrés de Urdaneta Ruy López de Villalobos Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (Yucatán conquistador) Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (founder of Nicaragua) Gil González Dávila Francisco de Ulloa Juan José Pérez Hernández Dionisio Alcalá Galiano Bruno de Heceta Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra Alonso de León Ignacio de Arteaga y Bazán José de Bustamante y Guerra José María Narváez Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa Antonio Gil Y'Barbo Alexander von Humboldt Thomas Gage

Catholic Church in New Spain

Spanish missions in the Americas

Spanish missions in Arizona Spanish missions in Baja California Spanish missions in California Spanish missions in the Carolinas Spanish missions in Florida Spanish missions in Georgia Spanish missions in Louisiana Spanish missions in Mexico Spanish missions in New Mexico Spanish missions in the Sonoran Desert Spanish missions in Texas Spanish missions in Virginia Spanish missions in Trinidad

Friars, fathers, priests, & bishops

Pedro de Gante Gerónimo de Aguilar Toribio de Benavente Motolinia Bernardino de Sahagún Juan de Zumárraga Alonso de Montúfar Vasco de Quiroga Bartolomé de las Casas Alonso de Molina Diego Durán Diego de Landa Gerónimo de Mendieta Juan de Torquemada Juan de Palafox y Mendoza Carlos de Sigüenza y Góngora Eusebio Kino Francisco Javier Clavijero Junípero Serra Francisco Palóu Fermín Lasuén Esteban Tápis José Francisco de Paula Señan Mariano Payeras Sebastián Montero Marcos de Niza Francisco de Ayeta Antonio Margil Francisco Marroquín Manuel Abad y Queipo Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla José María Morelos

Other events

Suppression of the Jesuits California
California
mission clash of cultures Cargo system Indian Reductions

Society and culture

Indigenous peoples

Mesoamerican

Aztec Maya Huastec Mixtec P'urhépecha Totonac Pipil Kowoj K'iche' Kaqchikel Zapotec Poqomam Mam

Caribbean

Arawak Ciboney Guanajatabey

California

Mission Indians Cahuilla Chumash Cupeño Juaneño Kumeyaay Luiseño Miwok Mohave Ohlone Serrano Tongva

Southwestern

Apache Coahuiltecan Cocopa Comanche Hopi Hualapai La Junta Navajo Pima Puebloan Quechan Solano Yaqui Zuni

North-Northwest Mexico

Acaxee Chichimeca Cochimi Kiliwa Ópata Tepehuán

Florida
Florida
& other Southeastern tribes

Indigenous people during De Soto's travels Apalachee Calusa Creek Jororo Pensacola Seminole Timucua Yustaga

Filipino people

Negrito Igorot Mangyan Peoples of Palawan Ati Panay Lumad Bajau Tagalog Cebuano

Others

Taiwanese aborigines Chamorro people

Architecture

Spanish Colonial style by country Colonial Baroque style Forts Missions

Trade & economy

Real Columbian Exchange Manila galleon Triangular trade

People & classes

Casta

Peninsulars

Criollo Indios Mestizo Castizo Coyotes Pardos Zambo Negros

People

Juan Bautista de Anza Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo Francis Drake Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla Eusebio Kino La Malinche Fermín Lasuén Limahong Moctezuma II Junípero Serra Hasekura Tsunenaga

New Spain
New Spain
Portal

v t e

Political divisions of the United States

States

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

Federal district

Washington, D.C.

Insular areas

American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico U.S. Virgin Islands

Outlying islands

Baker Island Howland Island Jarvis Island Johnston Atoll Kingman Reef Midway Atoll Navassa Island Palmyra Atoll Wake Island

Indian reservations

List of Indian reservations

Coordinates: 37°N 120°W / 37°N 120°W / 37; -120

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 147680367 LCCN: n79041717 GND: 4029307-5 SUDOC: 026363275 BNF: cb118625808 (d

.