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CALABRIA (Italian pronunciation: ; Calàbbria in Calabrian , Calavría in Calabrian Greek , Καλαβρία in Greek , Kalavrì in Arbëresh/Albanian ), known in antiquity as BRUTTIUM, is a region in Southern Italy
Italy
.

The capital city of Calabria
Calabria
is Catanzaro . The Regional Council of Calabria
Calabria
is based at the Palazzo Campanella
Palazzo Campanella
in the city of Reggio Calabria
Calabria
. The region is bordered to the north by the Basilicata Region, to the west by the Tyrrhenian Sea
Tyrrhenian Sea
, and to the east by the Ionian Sea
Ionian Sea
. The region covers 15,080 km2 (5,822 sq mi) and has a population of just under 2 million. The demonym of Calabria
Calabria
is calabrese in Italian and Calabrian in English.

In ancient times the name Calabria
Calabria
referred, not as in modern times to the toe, but to the heel of Italy, from Tarentum southwards, a region nowadays known as Salento
Salento
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 Geography * 3 Climate * 4 Geology

* 5 History

* 5.1 Antiquity * 5.2 Middle Ages * 5.3 Early modern period

* 6 Economy

* 6.1 Manufacturing * 6.2 Tourism * 6.3 Agriculture

* 7 Infrastructure and transport * 8 Demographics

* 9 Government and politics

* 9.1 Sister jurisdictions

* 10 Administrative divisions

* 10.1 Tourism * 10.2 Language * 10.3 Religion

* 11 Cuisine

* 12 Transportation

* 12.1 Airports * 12.2 Seaports * 12.3 Bridges

* 13 Universities * 14 Notable people * 15 See also * 16 References * 17 Further reading * 18 External links

ETYMOLOGY

Starting in the third century BC, the name Calabria
Calabria
was originally given to the Adriatic coast of the Salento
Salento
peninsula in modern Apulia . In the late first century BC this name came to extend to the entirety of the Salento, when the Roman emperor Augustus
Augustus
divided Italy into regions. The whole region of Apulia
Apulia
received the name Regio II Apulia
Apulia
et Calabria. By this time modern Calabria
Calabria
was still known as Bruttium, after the Bruttians
Bruttians
who inhabited the region. Later in the seventh century AD, the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
created the Duchy of Calabria from the Salento
Salento
and the Ionian part of Bruttium. Even though the Calabrian part of the duchy was conquered by the Longobards during the eighth and ninth centuries AD, the Byzantines continued to use the name Calabria
Calabria
for their remaining territory in Bruttium.

The modern name Italy
Italy
derives from Italia, which was first used as a name for the southern part of modern Calabria. Over time the Greeks started to use it for the rest of the southern Italian peninsular as well. After the Roman conquest of the region, the name was used for the entire Italian peninsula and eventually the Alpine region too.

GEOGRAPHY

Cliff at Tropea Pollino National Park La Sila National Park Calabria, photography taken from the ISS
ISS

The region is generally known as the “toe” of the “boot” of Italy
Italy
and is a long and narrow peninsula which stretches from north to south for 248 km (154 mi), with a maximum width of 110 km (68 mi). Some 42% of Calabria's area, corresponding to 15,080 km2, is mountainous, 49% is hilly, while plains occupy only 9% of the region's territory. It is surrounded by the Ionian and Tyrrhenian seas. It is separated from Sicily
Sicily
by the Strait of Messina , where the narrowest point between Capo Peloro
Capo Peloro
in Sicily
Sicily
and Punta Pezzo in Calabria
Calabria
is only 3.2 km (2 mi).

Three mountain ranges are present: Pollino , La Sila and Aspromonte
Aspromonte
. All three mountain ranges are unique with their own flora and fauna. The Pollino Mountains in the north of the region are rugged and form a natural barrier separating Calabria
Calabria
from the rest of Italy. Parts of the area are heavily wooded, while others are vast, wind-swept plateaus with little vegetation. These mountains are home to a rare Bosnian Pine variety, and are included in the Pollino National Park .

La Sila , which has been referred to as the "Great Wood of Italy", is a vast mountainous plateau about 1,200 metres (3,900 feet) above sea level and stretches for nearly 2,000 square kilometres (770 square miles) along the central part of Calabria. The highest point is Botte Donato , which reaches 1,928 metres (6,325 feet). The area boasts numerous lakes and dense coniferous forests. La Sila also has some of the tallest trees in Italy
Italy
which are called the "Giants of the Sila" and can reach up to 40 metres (130 feet) in height. The Sila National Park is also known to have the purest air in Europe.

The Aspromonte
Aspromonte
massif forms the southernmost tip of the Italian peninsula bordered by the sea on three sides. This unique mountainous structure reaches its highest point at Montalto, at 1,995 metres (6,545 feet), and is full of wide, man-made terraces that slope down towards the sea.

In general, most of the lower terrain in Calabria
Calabria
has been agricultural for centuries, and exhibits indigenous scrubland as well as introduced plants such as the prickly pear cactus . The lowest slopes are rich in vineyards and citrus fruit orchards. The Diamante citron is one of the citrus fruits. Moving upwards, olives and chestnut trees appear while in the higher regions there are often dense forests of oak, pine, beech and fir trees.

CLIMATE

Calabria's climate is influenced by the sea and mountains. The Mediterranean climate is typical of the coastal areas with considerable differences in temperature and rainfall between the seasons, with an average low of 8 °C (46 °F) during the winter months and an average high of 30 °C (86 °F) during the summer months. Mountain areas have a typical mountainous climate with frequent snow during winter. Erratic behavior of the Tyrrhenian Sea can bring heavy rainfall on the western slopes of the region, while hot air from Africa makes the east coast of Calabria
Calabria
dry and warm. The mountains that run along the region also influence the climate and temperature of the region. The east coast is much warmer and has wider temperature ranges than the west coast. The geography of the region causes more rain to fall along the west coast than that of the east coast, which occurs mainly during winter and autumn and less during the summer months.

GEOLOGY

Geotectonic map of the Central Mediterranean Area and the Calabrian Arc. The blue trace indicates the position of the geotectonic cross section depicted below. From van Dijk (1992) Geotectonic Cross Section of the Calabrian Arc. Left: NW; Right: SE. From van Dijk (1992)

When describing the geology of Calabria, it is commonly considered as part of the "Calabrian Arc", an arc-shaped geographic domain extending from the southern part of the Basilicata Region to the northeast of Sicily
Sicily
, and including the Peloritano Mountains (although some authors extend this domain from Naples
Naples
in the North up to Palermo
Palermo
in the Southwest). The Calabrian area shows basement (crystalline and metamorphic rocks) of Paleozoic and younger ages, covered by (mostly Upper) Neogene
Neogene
sediments. Studies have revealed that these rocks comprise the upper Unit of a pile of thrust sheets which dominate the Apennines
Apennines
and the Sicilian Maghrebides .

The Neogene
Neogene
evolution of the Central Mediterranean system is dominated by the migration of the Calabrian Arc to the southeast, overriding the African Plate and its promontories (Argand, 1922; Boccaletti and Guazzone, 1972 ). The main tectonic elements of the Calabrian Arc are the Southern Apennines
Apennines
fold-and-thrust belt, the "Calabria-Peloritani", or simply Calabrian block and the Sicilian Maghrebides fold-and-thrust belt. The foreland area is formed by the Apulia
Apulia
Platform, which is part of the Adriatic Plate, and the Ragusa or Iblean Platform, which is an extension of the African Plate. These platforms are separated by the Ionian Basin . The Tyrrhenian oceanized basin is regarded as the back-arc basin . This subduction system therefore shows the southern plates of African affinity subducting below the northern plates of European affinity.

The geology of Calabria
Calabria
has been studied for more than a century. For details concerning the older literature, i.e. from before 1973, the reader is referred to the review of Ogniben (1973). Ippolito (1959) presented a complete bibliography of the literature on the Calabrian geology as published up until that moment. Books, reviews and important "mile¬stones" concerning the geology of the Calabrian Arc are the following: Cortese (1895), Limanowski (1913), Quitzow (1935), Caire et al. (1960), Caire (1961), Grandjacquet et al. (1961), Ogniben (1969, 1973 ), Caire (1970, 1975, 1978 ), Burton (1971), Amodio-Morelli et al. (1976), Dubois (1976), Grandjacquet and Mascle (1978), Moussat (1983), van Dijk (1992), and van Dijk et al. (2000). The earlier works were mainly dedicated to the evolution of the basement rocks of the area. The Neogene
Neogene
sedimentary successions were merely regarded as "post-orogenic" infill of "neo-tectonic" tensional features. In the course of time, however, a shift can be observed in the temporal significance of these terms, from post-Eocene to post-Early Miocene
Miocene
to post-middle Pleistocene
Pleistocene
.

The area is seismically and volcanically highly active. This is generally ascribed to the re-establishment of an equilibrium after the latest (mid-Pleistocene) deformation phase. Some authors believe that the subduction process is still ongoing, which is a matter of debate (van Dijk "> Magna Grecia around 280 BC

Calabria
Calabria
has one of the oldest records of human presence in Italy, which date back to around 700,000 BC when a type of Homo erectus evolved leaving traces around coastal areas. During the Paleolithic period stone age man created the "Bos Primigenius", a figure of a bull on a cliff which dates back around 12,000 years in the Cave of Romito in the town of Papasidero
Papasidero
. When the Neolithic period came the first villages were founded around 3,500 BC.

ANTIQUITY

Around 1500 BC a tribe called the Oenotri ("vine-cultivators"), settled in the region. According to Greek mythology they were Greeks who were led to the region by their king, Oenotrus . The Greeks used the term 'italoi', which according to some ancient Greek writers was derived from a legendary king of the Oenotri, Italus and according to others from the bull. Originally the Greeks used 'italoi' to indicate Calabria
Calabria
and later it became synonymous with the rest of the peninsula. Calabria
Calabria
therefore was the first region to be called Italia (Italy).

During the eighth and seventh centuries BC, Greek settlers founded many colonies (settlements) on the coast of southern Italy
Italy
(Magna Grecia ). In Calabria
Calabria
they founded Chone ( Pallagorio ), Cosentia ( Cosenza ), Clampetia ( Amantea
Amantea
), Scyllaeum ( Scilla
Scilla
), Sybaris (Sibari ), Hipponion ( Vibo Valentia ), Locri Epizefiri ( Locri
Locri
), Kaulon ( Monasterace ), Krimisa ( Cirò Marina
Cirò Marina
), Kroton ( Crotone
Crotone
), Laüs (comune of Santa Maria del Cedro
Santa Maria del Cedro
), Medma ( Rosarno
Rosarno
), Metauros
Metauros
(Gioia Tauro ), Petelia ( Strongoli ), Rhégion ( Reggio Calabria
Reggio Calabria
), Scylletium (Borgia ), Temesa ( Campora San Giovanni
Campora San Giovanni
), Terina ( Nocera Terinese ), Pandosia ( Acri ) and Thurii , (Thurio, comune of Corigliano Calabro
Corigliano Calabro
).

Rhegion
Rhegion
was the birthplace of one of the famed nine lyric poets , Ibycus . Metauros
Metauros
was the birthplace of another of the nine lyric poets , Stesichorus
Stesichorus
, who was the first lyric poet of the western world. Kroton spawned many victors during the ancient Olympics and other Panhellenic Games. Amongst the most famous were Milo of Croton , who won six wrestling events in six Olympics in a row, along with seven events in the Pythian Games, nine events in the Nemean Games and ten events in the Isthmian Games and also Astylos of Croton , who won six running events in three Olympics in a row. Through Alcmaeon of Croton (a philosopher and medical theorist) and Pythagoras
Pythagoras
(a mathematician and philosopher), who moved to Kroton in 530 BC, the city became a renowned center of philosophy, science and medicine. The Greeks of Sybaris created "Intellectual Property." Sybaris benefited from "vinoducts" which were a series of pipes that carried wine to the homes of its citizens. The Sybarite founded at least 20 other colonies, including Poseidonia ( Paestum in Latin, on the Tyrrhenian coast of Lucania), Laüs
Laüs
(on the border with Lucania) and Scidrus (on the Lucanian coast in the Gulf of Taranto ). Locri
Locri
was renowned for being the town where Zaleucus created the first Western Greek law, the "Locrian Code" and the birthplace of ancient epigrammist and poet Nossis .

The Itali were the first established people of Calabria. Later came the Bruttii
Bruttii
from Lucania. These occupied Calabria
Calabria
and called it Bruttium. The Bruttii
Bruttii
were very advanced culturally. The Greek cities of Calabria
Calabria
came under the pressure from these Lucanians , an Oscan people who lived in the present day region of Basilicata . They conquered the north of Calabria
Calabria
and pushed further south, taking over part of the interior, probably after they defeated the Thurians near Laus in 390 BC. A few decades later Calabria
Calabria
came under pressure from the Bruttii
Bruttii
. They were Lucanian slaves and other fugitives who were seeking refuge on the steep mountains of Calabria. Their name was Lucanian and meant rebels. They took advantage of the weakening of the Greek cites caused by wars between them. They took over Hipponium, Terina and Thurii. They helped the Lucanians to fight Alexander of Epirus (334–32 BC), who had come to the aid of Tarentum (in Apulia ), which was also pressured by the Lucanians. After this, Agathocles of Syracuse ravaged the coast of Calabria
Calabria
with his fleet, took Hipponium and forced the Bruttii
Bruttii
into unfavourable peace terms. However, they soon seized Hipponium again. After Agathloces' death in 289 BC the Lucanians and Bruttii
Bruttii
pushed into the territory of Thurii and ravaged it. The city sent envoys to Rome to ask for help in 285 BC and 282 BC. On the second occasion, the Romans sent forces to garrison the city. This was part of the episode which sparked the Pyrrhic war.

During the Pyrrhic War (280–275 BC) the Lucanians and Bruttii
Bruttii
sided with Pyrrhus and provided contingents which fought with his army. When Pyrrhus landed in Italy
Italy
the people of Rhegion
Rhegion
were worried about their safety and asked Rome for protection. The Romans sent soldiers from Campania
Campania
to garrison the city. Coveting the wealth of the city, the soldiers killed its prominent men, sent away the rest and seized their property. The Romans could not do much about it because they were engaged in the war. A few years after the end of the war, in 271 BC, the Romans retook the city, arrested the soldiers and took them to Rome, where they were executed. After Pyrrhus was defeated, to avoid Roman revenge, the Bruttii
Bruttii
submitted willingly and gave up half of the Sila, a mountainous plateau which was valuable for its pitch and timber. The timber here was sold all over Italy
Italy
and the resin of the area was of the highest quality.

During the Second Punic War (218–201 BC) the Bruttii
Bruttii
allied with Hannibal
Hannibal
, who sent Hanno , one of his commanders, to Calabria. Hanno marched towards Capua
Capua
(in Campania) with Bruttian soldiers to take them to Hannibal's headquarters there twice, but he was defeated on both occasions. When his campaign in Italy
Italy
came to a dead end, Hannibal
Hannibal
took refuge in Calabria, whose steep mountains provided protection against the Roman legions. He set up his headquarters in Kroton and stayed there for four years until he was recalled to Carthage. The Romans fought a battle with him near Kroton, but its details are unknown. Many Calabrian cities surrendered. Calabria
Calabria
was put under a military commander. Nearly a decade after the war, the Romans set up colonies in Calabria: at Tempsa and Kroton (Croto in Latin) in 194 BC, Copiae in the territory of Thurii (Thurium in Latin) in 193 BC, and Vibo Valentia in the territory of Hipponion in 192 BC. The Romans called Calabria
Calabria
Bruttium. Later, during the reign of Augustus
Augustus
it became part of the third region of Italy, the 'Regio III Lucania et Brettium.

MIDDLE AGES

After sacking Rome in 410, Alaric I (King of the Visigoths) went to Calabria
Calabria
with the intention of sailing to Africa. He contracted malaria and died in Cosentia (Cosenza), probably of fever. Legend has it that he along with the treasure of Rome were buried under the bed of the River Busento. With the fall of the western part of the Roman Empire, Italy
Italy
was taken over by the Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
and became part of the Ostrogothic Kingdom
Ostrogothic Kingdom
in the late fifth century. During the sixth century, under the Ostrogoths, Cassiodorus emerged as one of the most prominent men of his time. He was an administrator, politician, scholar and historian who was born in Scylletium
Scylletium
(near Catanzaro). He spent most of his career trying to bridge the divides of East and West, Greek and Latin cultures, Romans and Goths, and official Christianity and Arian Christianity , which was the form of Christianity of the Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
and which had earlier been banned. He set up his Vivarium monastery (monastery school) in Scylletium. He oversaw the collation of three editions of the Bible in Latin. Seeing the practicality of uniting all the books of the Bible in one volume, he was the first who produced Latin Bibles in single volumes. The most well-known of them was the Codex Grandior which was the ancestor of all modern western Bibles.

Cassiodorus was at the heart of the administration of the Ostrogothic kingdom. Theodoric made him quaestor sacri palatii (quaestor of the sacred palace, the senior legal authority) in 507, governor of Lucania and Bruttium, consul in 514 and magister officiorum (master of offices, one of the most senior administrative officials) in 523. He was praetorian prefect (chief minister) under the successors of Theodoric: under Athalaric (Theodoric's grandson, reigned 526–34) in 533 and, between 535 and 537, under Theodahad (Theodoric's nephew, reigned 534–36) and Witiges (Theodoric's grandson-in-law, reigned, 536–40). The major works of Cassiodorus, besides the mentioned bibles, were the Historia Gothorum, a history of the Goths, the Variae and account of his administrative career and the Institutiones divinarum et saecularium litterarum, an introduction to the study of the sacred scriptures and the liberal arts which was very influential in the Middle Ages.

Byzantine
Byzantine
(Eastern Roman) emperor Justinian I, retook Italy
Italy
from the Ostrogoths. They soon lost much of Italy
Italy
to the Lombards
Lombards
, but they retained the south, where they thrived. In Calabria
Calabria
and towns such as Stilo and Rossano
Rossano
achieved great religious status. From the 7th Century many monasteries were built in the Amendolea and Stilaro Valleys and Stilo was the destination of hermits and Basilian monks. Many beautiful Byzantine
Byzantine
churches are still seen in the region. The 10th-century church in Rossano
Rossano
is considered one of the best preserved Byzantine
Byzantine
churches in Italy. It was built by St. Nilus the Younger as a retreat for the monks who lived in the tufa grottos underneath. The present name of Calabria
Calabria
comes from the duchy of Calabria.

Around the year 800, Saracens began invading the shores of Calabria, attempting to wrest control of the area from the Byzantines. This group of Arabs had already been successful in Sicily
Sicily
and knew that Calabria
Calabria
was another key spot. The people of Calabria
Calabria
retreated into the mountains for safety. Although the Arabs never really got a stronghold on the whole of Calabria, they did control some villages while enhancing trade relations with the eastern world. In 918, Saracens captured Reggio (which was renamed Rivà) and sold the majority of its population in the slave markets of Sicily
Sicily
and North Africa. It is during this time of Arab invasions that many staples of today's Calabrian cuisine came into fashion: citrus fruits and eggplants for example. Exotic spices such as cloves and nutmeg were also introduced.

In the 1060s the Normans
Normans
from their duchy in France, under the leadership of Robert Guiscard
Robert Guiscard
's brother, Roger I of Sicily
Sicily
, established a presence in this borderland , and organized a government modeled on the Eastern Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and was run by the local magnates of Calabria. Of note is that the Normans
Normans
established their presence here, in southern Italy
Italy
(namely Calabria), 6 years prior to their conquest of England, see The Battle of Hastings
The Battle of Hastings
, a fact that has been totally missed in many history texts. The purpose of this strategic presence in Calabria
Calabria
was to lay the foundations for the Crusades 30 years later, and for the creation of two Kingdoms: the Kingship of Jerusalem, and the Kingdom of Sicily. Ships would sail from Calabria to the Holy Land. This made Calabria
Calabria
one of the richest regions in Europe as princes from the noble families of England, France and other regions, constructed secondary residences and palaces here, on their way to the Holy Land. Guiscard's son Bohemond , who was born in San Marco Argentano , would be one of the leaders in the first crusade.

In 1098, Roger I of Sicily
Sicily
was named the equivalent of an apostolic legate by Pope Urban II
Urban II
and later his son Roger II of Sicily
Sicily
became the first King of Sicily
Sicily
and formed what would become the Kingdom of Sicily
Sicily
which lasted nearly 700 years. Under the Normans
Normans
Southern Italy was united as one region and started a feudal system of land ownership in which the Normans
Normans
were made lords of the land while peasants performed all the work on the land.

In 1194 the Swabians took control under Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor . He created a kingdom that blended cultures, philosophy and customs and would build several castles while fortifying existing ones which the Normans
Normans
previously constructed. After the death of Frederick II in 1250, Calabria
Calabria
was controlled by the French once more, the Angevins, under the rule of Charles d’Anjou after being granted the crown by Pope Clement IV. Under Charles d’Anjou the Kingdom of Sicily
Sicily
was changed to the Kingdom of Naples
Naples
in 1282 after he lost Sicily
Sicily
due to the rebellion of the Sicilian Vespers . During the 14th century, would emerge Barlaam of Seminara who would be Petrarch
Petrarch
's Greek teacher and his disciple Leonzio Pilato , who would translate Homer's works for Giovanni Boccaccio .

EARLY MODERN PERIOD

In 1442 the Aragonese took control under Alfonso V of Aragon who became ruler under the Crown of Aragon . In 1501 Calabria
Calabria
came under the control of Ferdinand II of Aragon
Ferdinand II of Aragon
who is famed for sponsoring the first voyage of Christopher Columbus in 1492. Calabria
Calabria
suffered greatly under Aragonese rule with heavy taxes, feuding landlords, starvation and sickness. After a brief period in the early 1700s under the Austrian Hapsburgs, Calabria
Calabria
came into the control of the Bourbons in 1735. It was during Spanish rule that Calabria
Calabria
would contribute to modern world history with the creation of the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
by the Calabrian doctor and astronomer Luigi Lilio
Luigi Lilio
.

In 1563 philosopher and natural scientist Bernardino Telesio wrote "On the Nature of Things according to their Own Principles" and pioneered early modern empiricism. He would also influence the works of Francis Bacon, René Descartes, Giordano Bruno, Tommaso Campanella and Thomas Hobbes. In 1602 philosopher and poet Tommaso Campanella wrote his most famous work, " The City of the Sun " and would later defend Galileo Galilei during his first trial with his work "A Defense of Galileo", which was written in 1616 and published in 1622. In 1613 philosopher and economist Antonio Serra wrote "A Short Treatise on the Wealth and Poverty of Nations" and was a pioneer in the Mercantilist tradition.

At the end of the 18th century the French took control and in 1808 Napoleon Bonaparte gave the Kingdom of Naples
Naples
to his brother-in-law Joachim Murat
Joachim Murat
. Murat controlled the kingdom until the return of the Bourbons in 1815.

Calabria
Calabria
experienced a series of peasant revolts as part of the European Revolutions of 1848
Revolutions of 1848
. This set the stage for the eventual unification with the rest of Italy
Italy
in 1861, when the Kingdom of Naples was brought into the union by Giuseppe Garibaldi . The unification was orchestrated by Great Britain in an attempt to nationalize the production of sulfur from the two volcanoes located in Naples
Naples
and Sicily
Sicily
respectively. The Aspromonte
Aspromonte
was the scene of a famous battle of the unification of Italy. During the late 19th or early 20th century, pianist and composer Alfonso Rendano invented the "Third Pedal", which augmented the interpretative resources of the piano.

The ancient Greek colonies from Naples
Naples
and to the south, had been completely Latinized , but from the fifth century AD onward Greeks had once again emigrated there when pressed out of their homeland by invasions. This Greek Diaspora
Diaspora
allowed the ancient Greek dialects to continue in Southern Italy, much in the same way that the Italian Diaspora
Diaspora
allowed long-lost dialects from Italy
Italy
to thrive in countries where Italians
Italians
emigrated to. Greek texts were also valued in monasteries and places of learning. However it was Charlemagne
Charlemagne
in the 8th century, who made Latin the 'official' language of study and communication for Europe. For the sake of uniformity, he supplanted much of the Greek spoken, read or taught in Europe. It was through language (Latin) and education (Latin texts) that Charlemagne
Charlemagne
united Europe.

During the 13th century a French chronicler who traveled through Calabria
Calabria
stated that "the peasants of Calabria
Calabria
spoke nothing but Greek" given he had traveled to areas where Greek was still available. But the educated classes spoke Italian. Indeed, formal Italian has been taught in schools throughout Italy
Italy
for nearly two centuries, causing the ancient languages and dialects to continually disappear, much to the chagrin of the cultural community. These lost dialects continue to thrive to this day in North America and Australia, places where Italians
Italians
emigrated to, on account of the Diaspora
Diaspora
.

ECONOMY

Calabria
Calabria
enjoys a diversified economy comparable to western nations in various categories, as shown in these statistics: the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Calabria
Calabria
is subdivided as follows: service industry (28.94%), financial activities and real estate (21.09%), trade, tourism, transportation and communication (19.39%), taxation (11.49%), manufacturing (8.77%), construction (6.19%) and agriculture (4.13%). It is one of the least (resort) developed regions in Italy. Its economy is hampered by corruption, tax evasion and organized crime which is mainly run by the \ 'Ndrangheta (the local Mafia syndicate), the latter has deep connections with some of the local authorities.

MANUFACTURING

Food and textile industries are the most developed and vibrant. Within the industrial sector, manufacturing contributes to a gross value added of 7.2%. In the manufacturing sector the main branches are foodstuff, beverage and tobacco with a contribution to the sector very close to the national average. Over the recent decades have emerged some petrochemical, engineering and chemical industries, within the areas of Crotone
Crotone
, Vibo Valentia and Reggio Calabria
Reggio Calabria
.

TOURISM

Ski trails near Gambarie overlooking the Strait of Messina

Calabria
Calabria
attracts year-round tourism, offering both summer and winter activities, in addition to its cultural, historical, artistic heritage, it has an abundance of protected natural habitats and 'green' zones. The 485 miles (781 kilometres) of its coast make Calabria
Calabria
a popular tourist destination during the summer. The low industrial development and the lack of major cities in much of its territory have allowed the maintenance of indigenous marine life.

The most sought-after seaside destinations are: Tropea , Pizzo Calabro , Capo Vaticano , Reggio Calabria
Reggio Calabria
, Soverato , Scilla, Scalea , Sellia Marina , Montepaone , Montauro , Copanello (comune of Staletti ), Tonnara di Palmi , Diamante , Paola , Fiumefreddo Bruzio
Fiumefreddo Bruzio
, Amantea
Amantea
, Praia a Mare
Praia a Mare
, Belvedere Marittimo , Roseto Capo Spulico , Corigliano Calabro
Corigliano Calabro
, Cirò Marina
Cirò Marina
, Amendolara , Roccella Ionica , Bagnara Calabra
Bagnara Calabra
, Nicotera , Cariati
Cariati
, Zambrone
Zambrone
, Isola di Capo Rizzuto , Caminia (comune of Staletti ), Siderno , Parghelia
Parghelia
, Ricadi and San Nicola Arcella
San Nicola Arcella
.

In addition to the coastal tourist destinations, the interior of Calabria
Calabria
is rich in history, traditions, art and culture. Cosenza is among the most important cultural cities of Calabria, with a rich historical and artistic patrimony. Medieval castles, towers, churches, monasteries and other French castles and structures from the Norman to the Aragonese periods are common elements in both the interior and coastline of Calabria.

The mountains offer skiing and other winter activities: Sila , Pollino and Aspromonte
Aspromonte
are three national parks that offer facilities for winter sports, especially in the towns of Camigliatello (comune of Spezzano della Sila
Spezzano della Sila
), Lorica (comune of San Giovanni in Fiore ), Gambarie and Monte Sant'Elia (comune of Palmi ).

AGRICULTURE

Calabrian olive tree plantations

A typical feature is agricultural richness in Calabria. The region boasts the second highest number of organic farmers only after Sicily . The olive tree, representing 29.6% of UAA and represents approximately 70% of tree crops. The region is the second-highest for olive oil production. The Bergamot orange
Bergamot orange
is intensively cultivated, since the 18th century, exclusively in coastal area nearby to Reggio , where it found its optimal geological and weather conditions: essence oil from Calabrian Bergamot reach the best quality in the world. Calabria
Calabria
is also the largest producer of Porcini Mushrooms in Italy.

INFRASTRUCTURE AND TRANSPORT

The seaport of Gioia Tauro
Gioia Tauro

The main Calabrian ports are in Reggio and in Gioia Tauro
Gioia Tauro
. The Reggio port is equipped with five loading docks of a length of 1,530 metres (5,020 feet). The Gioia Tauro
Gioia Tauro
port has seven loading docks with an extension of 4,646 metres (15,243 feet); it is the largest in Italy and the seventh largest container port in Europe, with a 2007 throughput of 3.7 million TEUs from more than 3,000 ships.

The region is served by three heavily used roads: two national highways along the coasts (SS18 Napoli -Reggio and SS106 Reggio - Taranto ) and the A2 motorway , which links Salerno
Salerno
and Reggio , passing by Cosenza along the old inland route.

In Calabria
Calabria
there are two main airports: one is situated in Reggio , a few kilometres from city centre, built in 1939 is chronologically the first airport in Calabria; another is located in Lamezia Terme municipality area, currently being the first airport in Calabria concerning the number of passengers per year.

DEMOGRAPHICS

HISTORICAL POPULATION

YEAR POP. ±%

1861 1,155,000 —

1871 1,219,000 +5.5%

1881 1,282,000 +5.2%

1901 1,439,000 +12.2%

1911 1,526,000 +6.0%

1921 1,627,000 +6.6%

1931 1,723,000 +5.9%

1936 1,772,000 +2.8%

1951 2,044,000 +15.3%

1961 2,045,000 +0.0%

1971 1,988,000 −2.8%

1981 2,061,000 +3.7%

1991 2,070,000 +0.4%

2001 2,011,000 −2.9%

2011 1,959,000 −2.6%

2017 1,965,128 +0.3%

Source: ISTAT 2001

The following is a list of Calabrian municipalities with a population of over 20,000:

* Reggio Calabria
Reggio Calabria
– 186,013 inhabitants * Catanzaro – 93,265 * Lamezia Terme – 71,123 * Cosenza – 69,827 * Crotone
Crotone
– 61,529 * Corigliano Calabro
Corigliano Calabro
– 40,533 * Rossano
Rossano
– 38,280 * Rende – 35,352 * Vibo Valentia – 33,857 * Castrovillari
Castrovillari
– 22,518 * Acri – 21,263 * Montalto Uffugo
Montalto Uffugo
– 20,553

GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS

Main article: Politics of Calabria
Politics of Calabria

SISTER JURISDICTIONS

* Burwood , Australia. * State of West Virginia
West Virginia
, United States.

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

Calabria
Calabria
is divided into five provinces:

PROVINCE POPULATION

Province of Cosenza 734,260

Province of Reggio Calabria
Reggio Calabria
565,813

Province of Catanzaro 368,318

Province of Crotone
Crotone
174,076

Province of Vibo Valentia 166,760

TOURISM

The Riace bronzes , Greek bronzes, about 460–430 BC The Byzantine
Byzantine
church known as the Cattolica

Tourism in Calabria
Calabria
has increased over the years. The main tourist attractions are the coastline and the mountains. The coastline alternates between rugged cliffs and sandy beaches, and is sparsely interrupted by development when compared to other European seaside destinations. The sea around Calabria
Calabria
is clear, and there is a good level of tourist accommodation. The poet Gabriele D\'Annunzio called the coast facing Sicily
Sicily
near Reggio Calabria
Reggio Calabria
"... the most beautiful kilometer in Italy" (il più bel chilometro d'Italia). The primary mountain tourist draws are Aspromonte
Aspromonte
and La Sila , with its national park and lakes. Some other prominent destinations include:

* Reggio Calabria
Reggio Calabria
is on the strait between the mainland and Sicily
Sicily
, the largest and oldest city in Calabria
Calabria
dating from the 8th century BC, renowned for its panoramic seaside with botanical gardens between the art nouveau buildings and the beautiful beaches, and its 3,000 years of history with its Aragonese Castle and the Museo Nazionale della Magna Grecia where the famous Riace bronzes (Bronzi di Riace) are located. * Cosenza , birthplace of scientist and philosopher Bernardino Telesio and seat of the Cosentian Academy
Cosentian Academy
, renowned for its cultural institutions, the beautiful old quarter, a Hohenstaufen Castle, an open-air museum and an 11th-century Romanesque-Gothic Cathedral. On 12 October 2011, the Cathedral of Cosenza received UNESCO World Heritage status for being "Heritage Witness to a Culture of Peace". This is the first award given by UNESCO to the region of Calabria. * Scilla
Scilla
, on the Tyrrhenian Sea
Tyrrhenian Sea
, "pearl" of the "Violet Coast", has a delightful panorama and is the site of some of Homer
Homer
's tales. * Tropea , on the Tyrrhenian Sea
Tyrrhenian Sea
coast, is home to a dramatic seaside beach, and the Santa Maria dell'Isola sanctuary. It is also renowned for its sweet red onions (mainly produced in Ricadi
Ricadi
). * Capo Vaticano , on the Tyrrhenian Sea, is a very famous wide bathing place near Tropea. * Gerace
Gerace
, near Locri
Locri
, is a beautiful medieval city with a Norman Castle and Norman Cathedral. * Squillace
Squillace
, a seaside resort and important archaeological site. Nearby is the birthplace of Cassiodorus . * Stilo , the birthplace of philosopher Tommaso Campanella
Tommaso Campanella
, with its Norman Castle and beautiful Byzantine
Byzantine
church, the Cattolica . * Pizzo Calabro
Pizzo Calabro
, on the Tyrrhenian Sea
Tyrrhenian Sea
coast, known for its ice cream called "Tartufo". Interesting places in Pizzo are Piazza Repubblica and the Aragonese castle where Murat was shot. * Paola , a town situated on the Tyrrhenian Sea
Tyrrhenian Sea
coast, renowned for being the birthplace of St. Francis of Paola, patron saint of Calabria and Italian sailors, and for the old Franciscan sanctuary built during the last hundred years of the Middle Ages by the will of St. Francis. * Sibari , on the Ionian coast, a village situated near the archaeological site of the ancient city of Sybaris , a Greek colony of the 8th century BC. * Lamezia Terme , the main transportation hub of the region with its international airport which links it to many destinations in Europe plus Canada and Israel and the train station . Several are the historical sights of the city, like the Norman-Swabian castle, the Jewish
Jewish
historical quarter and the Casa del Libro Antico (House of the Ancient Book) where books from the 16th to the 19th centuries, as well as old globes and ancient maps reproduction are well preserved and available to be seen by the public. * Catanzaro , an important silk center since the time of the Byzantines, is located at the centre of the narrowest point of Italy, from where the Ionian Sea
Ionian Sea
and Tyrrhenian Sea
Tyrrhenian Sea
are both visible, but not from Catanzaro. Of note are the well-known one-arch bridge (Viaduct Morandi-Bisantis, one of the tallest in Europe), the Cathedral (rebuilt after World War II bombing), the castle, the promenade on the Ionian sea, the park of biodiversity and the archaeological park. * Soverato on the Ionian Sea
Ionian Sea
, also known as the "Pearl" of the Ionian Sea. Especially renowned for its beaches, boardwalk and nightlife. * Badolato near Soverato is a well-preserved medieval hilltop village with 13 churches. It was selected as one of the 1000 marvels of Italy
Italy
to mark the anniversary of the unification of Italy. It is increasingly popular with wealthy foreigners who have renovated the old houses. * Nicotera on the Tyrrhenian Sea, is a beautiful little medieval town with an ancient Ruffo's castle. * Ancient temples of the Roman gods on the sun-kissed hills of Catanzaro still stand as others are swept beneath the earth. Many excavations are going on along the east coast, digging up what seems to be an ancient burial ground. * Samo , a village on the foot of the Aspromonte, is well known for its spring water and ruins of the old village destroyed in the 1908 Messina earthquake . * Mammola
Mammola
, art center, tourist and gastronomic, boasts an ancient history. Well worth a visit, the old town, with its small houses attached to each other, the ancient churches and noble palaces. Of particular interest is the Museum Park Santa Barbara, a place of art and cultural events of many international artists and the Shrine of St. Nicodemo of the 10th century, in the highlands of Limina. Its renowned gastronomy with the "Stocco" typical of Mammola, cooked in various ways, other typical products are smoked ricotta and goat cheese, salami pepper and wild fennel, bread "pizza" (corn bread) and wheat bread baked in a wood oven. * Praia a Mare
Praia a Mare
on the Tyrrhenian Sea, is a well-known tourist city, thanks to the Isola di Dino and the seaside beach.

LANGUAGE

Main article: Calabrian languages
Calabrian languages

Although the official national language of Calabria
Calabria
has been Standard Italian since before unification in 1861, as a consequence of its deep and colourful history, Calabrian dialects have developed that have been spoken in the region for centuries. The Calabrian language is a direct derivative of the Latin language, and is closer to the words spoken in Latin than the standard Italian. Most linguists divide the various dialects into two different language groups. In the northern one-third of the region, the Calabrian dialects are considered part of the Neapolitan language
Neapolitan language
(or Southern Italian) and are grouped as Northern Calabrian or Cosentino. In the southern two-thirds of the region, the Calabrian dialects are often grouped as Central and Southern Calabrian. In many respects, the Calabrian dialect is considered very similar to the Puglian/Salentine dialects spoken in Salento, the region situated on the "heel" of Italy. However, in isolated pockets, as well as some quarters of Reggio Calabria
Reggio Calabria
a variety of Occitan
Occitan
can also be found in certain communities and French has had an influence on many Calabrian words and phrases. In addition, since Calabria
Calabria
was once ruled by the Spanish, some Calabrian dialects exhibit Spanish derivatives.

RELIGION

See also: History of the Jews in Calabria Cathedral of Reggio Calabria
Calabria

The majority of Calabrians are Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
. There are also communities of Evangelicals in the region. Calabria
Calabria
has also been called "The Land of Saints" as the region was the birthplace of many saints spanning nearly 2,000 years. The most famous saint in Calabria
Calabria
and also the patron saint of the region is St. Francis of Paola . Calabria
Calabria
also has another patron saint called Saint Bruno of Cologne who was the founder of the Carthusian Order. Saint Bruno would build the charterhouse of Serra San Bruno
Serra San Bruno
, a town which bears his name, in 1095 and later die there in 1101.

Even though it is currently a very small community, there has been a long history of the presence of Jews
Jews
in Calabria. The Jews
Jews
have had a presence in the region for at least 1600 years and possibly as much as 2300 years. Calabrian Jews
Jews
have had notably influence on many areas of Jewish
Jewish
life and culture. Although virtually identitical to the Jews
Jews
of Sicily, the Jews
Jews
of Calabria
Calabria
are considered a distinct Jewish population due to historical and geographic considerations. There is a small community of Italian Anusim who have resumed the Jewish
Jewish
faith.

It is important to highlight the presence of Calabrians in Renaissance humanism
Renaissance humanism
and in the Renaissance
Renaissance
. Indeed, the Hellenistics in this period frequently came from Calabria
Calabria
maybe because of the Greek influence. The rediscovery of Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
was very difficult because this language had been almost forgotten. In this period the presence of Calabrian humanists or refugees from Constantinople was fundamental. The study of Ancient Greek, in this period, was mainly a work of two monks of the monastery of Seminara : Barlaam , bishop of Gerace
Gerace
, and his disciple, Leonzio Pilato . Leonzio Pilato , in particular, was a Calabrian born near Reggio Calabria
Reggio Calabria
. He was an important teacher of Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
and translator, and he helped Giovanni Boccaccio in the translations of Homer
Homer
's works.

CUISINE

See also: Calabrian wine \ 'Nduja
'Nduja

The cuisine is a typical southern Italian Mediterranean cuisine with a balance between meat-based dishes (pork, lamb, goat), vegetables (especially eggplant ), and fish. Pasta (as in Central Italy
Italy
and the rest of Southern Italy) is also very important in Calabria. In contrast to most other Italian regions, Calabrians have traditionally placed an emphasis on the preservation of their food and packing vegetables and meats in olive oil . Also making sausages and cold cuts ( Sopressata , \ 'Nduja
'Nduja
, Capocollo ), along the coast curing fish – especially swordfish , sardines (sardelle rosamarina) and cod ( Baccalà ). Local desserts are typically fried, honey-sweetened pastries Cudduraci, Nacatole, Scalille or scalidde or baked biscotti -type treats (such as 'nzudda).

Some local specialties include Caciocavallo
Caciocavallo
Cheese, Cipolla rossa di Tropea (red onion), Frìttuli
Frìttuli
and Curcùci
Curcùci
(fried pork), Liquorice (liquirizia), Lagane e Cicciari (a pasta dish with chickpeas ), Pecorino Crotonese
Pecorino Crotonese
(Cheese of Sheep), and Pignolata
Pignolata
.

In ancient times Calabria
Calabria
was referred to as Enotria (from Ancient Greek Οἰνωτρία, Oenotria , "land of wine"). According to ancient Greek tradition, Οἴνωτρος ( Oenotrus ), the youngest of the sons of Lycaon , was the eponym of Oenotria. Some vineyards have origins dating back to the ancient Greek colonists. The best known DOC wines are Cirò (Province of Crotone
Crotone
) and Donnici (Province of Cosenza ). 3% of the total annual production qualifies as DOC. Important grape varieties are the red Gaglioppo and white Greco . Many producers are resurrecting local, ancient grape varieties which have been around for as long as 3000 years.

TRANSPORTATION

AIRPORTS

* Lamezia Terme International Airport (Airport IATA code: SUF) * Reggio Calabria
Reggio Calabria
Airport (Airport IATA code: REG) * Crotone
Crotone
Airport (Airport IATA code: CRV)

SEAPORTS

* Port of Gioia Tauro
Gioia Tauro
(the busiest container port in Italy
Italy
and seventh-busiest in mainland Europe) * Port of Reggio
Port of Reggio
Calabria * Port of Vibo Valentia * Port of Villa San Giovanni * Port of Corigliano Calabro * Port of Crotone

BRIDGES

Calabria
Calabria
has the two highest bridges in Italy
Italy

* Italia Viaduct
Italia Viaduct
* Sfalassa Viaduct
Sfalassa Viaduct
(also the highest and longest span frame bridge in the world)

UNIVERSITIES

There are 3 public universities in the region of Calabria
Calabria

* University of Calabria (Cosenza) * Magna Graecia University (Catanzaro) * Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria
Reggio Calabria

There is also the private University for Foreigners "Dante Alighieri" in Reggio Calabria
Reggio Calabria
.

NOTABLE PEOPLE

* Achille Falcone (16th-century composer) * Acrion (Pythagorean philosopher) * Ada Dondini (actress) * Alcmaeon of Croton (ancient philosopher/medical theorist who pioneered anatomical dissection) * Alessandro De Rose (Champion Italian Cliff Diver) * Alessandro Longo (19th-century composer and musicologist) * Alexis (ancient comic poet) * Alfonso Rendano (19th-century pianist and composer who invented the "third pedal") * Alfredo Costanzo (Australian motor racing driver born in Calabria) * Aloysius Lilius (16th-century astronomer who created the Gregorian Calendar ) * Amyris of Sybaris (consulted the Delphic oracle) * Annalisa Insarda
Annalisa Insarda
(Italian film, television, theatre and voice actress) * Andy Varipapa (professional bowler called "the greatest one-man bowling show on Earth") * Angelo Arciglione (international prize-winning pianist) * Angelo Maria Mazzia (19th-century artist and Knight in the Order of the Crown of Italy) * Anna Maria Maiolino (Italian-Brazilian artist) * Anselmo Lorecchio
Anselmo Lorecchio
(lawyer, journalist, politician, poet, writer & newspaper founder) * Antonio Cantafora (film and television actor) * Antonio Diego Voci
Antonio Diego Voci
(figurative artist and sculptor) * Antonio Fuoco (motor racing driver) * Antonio Maria Magro
Antonio Maria Magro
(actor, director & screenwriter) * Antonio Porchia (poet) * Antonio Pujía
Antonio Pujía
(Italian-Argentine artist and sculptor) * Antonio Rodotà
Antonio Rodotà
(former Director General of the European Space Agency) * Antonio Serra (late 16th-century philosopher and economist) * Antonio Siciliano (film editor) * Antonio Strati (Italian organizational theorist & artist) * Antony Carbone (film and television actor) * Arignote (pythagorean philosopher) * Aristomachus of Croton (ancient party leader of Croton during the Hannibalian war) * Aroldo Tieri (actor) * Astylos of Croton (ancient olympic athlete) * Autoleon (ancient war hero) * Baldassarre Squitti (teacher of law and politician) * Barlaam of Seminara (14th-century humanist Greek teacher to Petrarch
Petrarch
and Boccaccio) * Benito Carbone (football manager) * Bernardino Telesio (16th-century philosopher and first of the modern scientists) * Blessed Camillus Costanzo (16th-century Jesuit missionary & Roman Catholic martyr) * Blessed Elena Aiello (founder of "Sister Minims of The Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ") * Blessed Francesco Maria Greco
Francesco Maria Greco
(co-founder of "Little Workers of the Sacred Hearts") * Blessed Maria Candida of the Eucharist
Maria Candida of the Eucharist
(Discalced Carmelite nun and mystic) * Bohemond I of Antioch
Bohemond I of Antioch
(Prince of Taranto and Antioch) * Calliphon of Croton (pythagorean physician) * Carlo Carlei (Italian film director) * Carmelo Zito (journalist & newspaper editor) * Carmine Abate (writer and novelist) * Cassiodorus (founder of the Vivarium Monastery who put together the first western bible) * Cesare Lanza
Cesare Lanza
(Italian journalist & author) * Charles Atlas (bodybuilder) * Cicco Simonetta ( Renaissance
Renaissance
statesman who composed a treatise on cryptography) * Clearchus of Rhegium (ancient sculptor) * Clinomachus (Megarian philosopher) * Corrado Alvaro (writer and journalist) * Cylon of Croton (led a revolt against the Pythagoreans) * Damo (Pythagorean philosopher) * Democedes (ancient physician that Herodotus called "the most skillful physician of his time") * Dick Danello (Singer & Composer) * Diego Carpitella (Professor of ethnomusicology) * Diognetus of Croton (ancient athlete) * Domenico Siciliani (Italian General and Deputy Governor of Cyrenaica) * Vinjay (Musician and Record Producer) * Domenico Berardi (Youngest footballer to score 4 goals in a "Serie A" match since 1931) * Domenico Caruso
Domenico Caruso
(writer, poet and scholar of Calabrian dialects) * Domingo F. Periconi (20th-century artist) * Donatella Versace
Donatella Versace
(Vice-President and Chief Designer of Versace Group) * El Presidente (Musician/Singer/Record Producer) * Eleuterio Francesco Fortino (Awarded Catholic priest who improved relations between the Catholic & Orthodox churches during his service) * Elisabetta Gregoraci
Elisabetta Gregoraci
(model and television personality) * Emilio Bulgarelli (won gold team medal in water polo at the 1948 London Olympics) * Enrico Salfi
Enrico Salfi
(19th-century painter of biblical/Roman subjects) * Enzo Mirigliani (patron of Miss Italy
Italy
beauty contest) * Eratosthenes of Croton
Eratosthenes of Croton
(ancient athlete) * Erminio Blotta
Erminio Blotta
(sculptor) * Eugene De Rosa
Eugene De Rosa
(20th-century Italian-American architect) * Eugene Gaudio (cinematographer for 1916 version of "20,000 Leagues Under the Sea") * Eugenio Tano (19th-century painter) * Fabrizio Ruffo (Italian cardinal and politician who led the Sanfedismo movement) * Fausto Torrefranca (Italian musicologist & critic) * Ferdinando di Diano
Ferdinando di Diano
(mathematician, abbot, philosopher & theologist) * Ferruccio Baffa Trasci
Ferruccio Baffa Trasci
(17th-century bishop, theologian and philosopher) * Filippo De Nobili (writer and poet) * Flavia Fortunato (singer, actress & television presenter) * Florestano Pepe (19th-century Italian patriot) * Fortunato Arena (actor & stuntman) * Francesco Acri (19th-century philosopher and historian of philosophy) * Francesco Amico ( Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
theologian, professor & chancellor) * Francesco Anile (opera tenor) * Francesco Antonio Santori (19th-century writer, poet and playwright) * Francesco Cilea
Francesco Cilea
(19th-century opera composer) * Francesco Colelli (baroque painter) * Francesco Cozza (17th-century Baroque artist) * Francesco Domenico Chiarello (Knight of Vittorio Veneto who saw action in both World Wars) * Francesco Fiorentino (philosopher and historiographer) * Francesco Florimo (19th-century archivist, musicologist, music historian and composer) * Francesco Jacomoni (20th-century Italian diplomat and governor of Albania) * Francesco Jerace
Francesco Jerace
(sculptor) * Francesco Manuel Bongiorno
Francesco Manuel Bongiorno
(professional cyclist) * Francesco Mottola (venerated priest) * Francesco Panetta (champion long-distance runner) * Francesco Pianeta (heavyweight boxer) * Francesco Pignata (Italian champion javelin thrower) * Francesco Raffaello Santoro (painter) * Francesco Reda (professional road bicycle racer) * Francesco Repaci (politician, socialist & anti-fascist) * Francesco Sambiasi (16th-century Catholic missionary to China) * Francesco Saverio Mergalo (18th-century painter) * Francesco Saverio Salfi
Francesco Saverio Salfi
(writer, politician & librettist) * Francesco Smalto ( Italian fashion designer) * Fran Hauser (Venture Capitalist, Digital Media Executive & Philanthropist) * Gaetano Scorza (mathematician who inspired the theory of "Scorza varieties ") * Gemelli Careri (17th-century Italian adventurer and traveler) * Gennaro Gattuso (footballer) * Giandomenico Martoretta (16th-century Baroque composer) * Gianna Maria Canale (model and actress) * Gianni Amelio (Italian film director) * Gianni De Luca (comic book artist, illustrator, painter and etcher) * Gianni Versace (fashion designer and founder of Versace
Versace
Group) * Gigi Peronace (football agent) * Gioachino Greco (17th-century champion chess player) * Giacomo Marramao (Italian philosopher and teacher) * Giorgio Miceli (opera composer) * Giovanni Andrea Serrao
Giovanni Andrea Serrao
(intellectual who supported the Parthenopaean Republic of 1799) * Giovanni Angelo Criscuolo (16th-century Renaissance
Renaissance
painter) * Giovanni Battista Palatino
Giovanni Battista Palatino
(16th-century Renaissance
Renaissance
master calligrapher whose name was given to the Palatino typeface) * Giovanni Battista Zupi
Giovanni Battista Zupi
(16th-century astronomer who discovered that the planet Mercury had orbital phases) * Giovanni De Gennaro (Police Officer & Chairman of Defense Group Leonardo ) * Giovanni Francesco Mormando (15th-century Italian architect) * Giovanni Leonardo di Bona
Giovanni Leonardo di Bona
(first international chess tournament winner) * Giovanni Lorenzo d\'Anania (16th-century geographer and theologian) * Giovanni Luca Conforti (16th-century composer & prominent falsetto singer) * Giovanni Nicotera (19th-century Italian patriot and politician) * Giovanni Parisi (gold medal winning boxer at the 1988 Seoul Olympics) * Giovanni Tocci
Giovanni Tocci
(professional diver) * Giovanni Valentino Gentile (16th-century humanist and non-Trinitarian) * Giovanni Vincenzo Gravina
Giovanni Vincenzo Gravina
(17th-century author, academic and jurist) * Girolamo de Rada (19th-century writer of Italo-Albanian literature) * Giulio Variboba (18th-century poet and priest) * Giuseppe Albanese (classical pianist) * Giuseppe Antonio Sorbilli (sculptor) * Giuseppe Coniglio
Giuseppe Coniglio
(poet) * Giuseppe Faraca (won young rider classification in the 1981 Giro d'Italia) * Giuseppe Filianoti
Giuseppe Filianoti
(lyric tenor) * Giuseppe Leuzzi (journalist, essayist, writer & author) * Giuseppe Musolino
Giuseppe Musolino
(outlaw/folk hero) * Giuseppe Petitto
Giuseppe Petitto
(award-winning film director) * Giuseppe Sensi (Cardinal & Vatican diplomat) * Giuseppe Vincenzo Ciaccio (anatomist whose name is associated with lacrimal glands called "Ciaccio\'s glands ") * Giuseppina Macrì (won bronze medal at the 2001 World Judo Championships in Munich) * Glycon of Croton
Glycon of Croton
(ancient athlete) * Goffredo Zehender (Racing Driver) * Gregorio Carafa (Prince and Grand Master of the Order of Malta) * Gregorio Preti (17th-century Baroque artist and brother of Mattia Preti) * Guglielmo Pepe
Guglielmo Pepe
(19th-century Italian general and patriot) * Gugliemo Sirleto (16th-century cardinal and scholar) * Guido Daniele (internationally renowned body painting artist) * Henry Aristippus (Religious Scholar and writer in Norman Kingdom of Sicily) * Hippostratus of Croton
Hippostratus of Croton
(ancient athlete) * Ibycus (ancient lyric poet) * Isabela de Rosis (religious sister and congregation founder) * Isomachus of Croton
Isomachus of Croton
(ancient athlete) * Janus Parrhasius (16th-century humanist who founded the Cosentian Academy in 1511) * Joachim of Fiore (12th-century mystic and theologian) * John Italus (11th-century Byzantine
Byzantine
philosopher) * John XVI (10th-century antipope) * Karmel Kandreva (writer & poet) * Leonardo Vinci (18th-century composer) * Leonida Rèpaci (writer, poet, playwright and political activist) * Leonzio Pilato (14th-century humanist and Western Europe's first Professor of Greek) * Leopoldo Trieste (actor, film director and script writer) * Linda Lanzillotta (Vice-President of Italian Senate) * Loredana Bertè (singer) * Louiselle (singer) * Luciano Rispoli (television/radio writer & presenter) * Lucio Parrillo
Lucio Parrillo
(fantasy artist) * Luigi Miceli (19th-century Italian patriot, politician and military figure) * Luigi Ruffo- Scilla
Scilla
(Catholic Cardinal and Archbishop of Naples) * Luigi Tripepi (Catholic Cardinal and poet) * Lycinus of Croton (ancient athlete) * Marcello Guido (deconstructivist architect) * Marco Aurelio Severino
Marco Aurelio Severino
(Italian surgeon, anatomist & author) * Marco Cardisco
Marco Cardisco
(16th-century Renaissance
Renaissance
artist) * Maria Antonia Braile (writer who was the first Albanian woman to ever publish literature in Albanian language) * Maria Latella
Maria Latella
(multimedia journalist, columnist, TV anchor woman & interviewer) * Maria Perrotta (classical pianist) * Maria Perrusi
Maria Perrusi
(Miss Italia 2009) * Mariangela Perrupato (synchronized swimmer) * Mario Alicata (Italian Partisan, literary critic & politician) * Mario Tricoci (hairstylist-entrepreneur) * Marion A. Trozzolo
Marion A. Trozzolo
(inventor of the Teflon coated frying pan) * Matilde Ciccia (actress and professional ice dancer) * Mattia Preti
Mattia Preti
(17th-century Baroque artist) * Mauro Fiore (Academy Award Winning Cinematographer for the movie "Avatar") * Mia Martini (singer) * Michelangelo Falvetti (17th-century Baroque composer) * Michele Pane (19th–20th-century symbolist poet and journalist) * Milo of Croton (ancient olympic athlete) * Mimmo Calopresti
Mimmo Calopresti
(Italian film director, screenwriter, producer and actor) * Mimmo Rotella (20th-century poet and contemporary artist who invented the Decollage) * Mino Reitano
Mino Reitano
(singer-songwriter and actor) * Natuzza Evolo (Catholic mystic) * Niccolò Lapiccola (18th-century artist) * Nicholas Musuraca (Cinematographer & pioneer of film noir) * Nicholas of Crotone
Crotone
(13th-century bilingual bishop known for his role in the reconciliation of the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches) * Nick Mancuso (actor of stage and screen) * Nick Nostro (Italian film director) * Nicola Antonio Manfroce (19th-century composer) * Nicola Calipari (military intelligence officer) * Nicola Squitti (Italian senator and diplomat) * Ninetto Davoli (actor) * Nossis (ancient epigrammist and poet) * Ofelia Giudicissi Curci (poet and archeologist) * Oreste Moricca (gold medal winning fencer at the 1924 Paris Olympics) * Otello Profazio (folk singer-songwriter & author) * Paolo Antonio Foscarini (16th-century scientist who wrote about the mobility of the earth) * Paolo Serrao (teacher of musical theory and composition) * Pasquale Carpino (celebrity chef) * Pasquale Galluppi
Pasquale Galluppi
(19th-century philosopher) * Paul Néri (professional cyclist) * Peppino Mazzotta (actor) * Peter Carravetta (philosopher, poet, literary theorist and translator) * Phayllos of Croton (ancient athlete who outfitted and commanded a ship at the Battle of Salamis
Battle of Salamis
) * Philippus of Croton (ancient olympic athlete and war hero) * Philistion of Locri
Locri
(ancient physician and writer on medicine) * Philolaus
Philolaus
(pythagorean and presocratic philosopher) * Phintys (Pythagorean philosopher) * Pier Francesco Pingitore (director, screenwriter, playwright & author) * Pierpaolo Parisio (Cardinal who was one of the Presidents of the Council of Trent at its first session in 1542) * Pietro Negroni
Pietro Negroni
(16th-century Renaissance
Renaissance
artist) * Pino Arlacchi
Pino Arlacchi
(sociologist & politician) * Polissena Ruffo (Princess and first wife to Francesco Sforza
Francesco Sforza
) * Pope Anterus (3rd-century pope & saint) * Pope John VII (8th-century pope) * Pope Telesphorus (2nd-century pope & saint) * Pope Zachary (8th-century pope & saint) * Pope Zosimus (5th-century pope & saint) * Proclus of Rhegium (ancient physician) * Raf Vallone (actor and international film star) * Raffaele Conflenti (Italian aeronautical engineer & aircraft designer) * Raffaele Piria (19th-century chemist who discovered the major component of Aspirin) * Regina Catrambone (philanthropist & co-founder of Migrant Offshore Aid Station ) * Renato Dulbecco (Nobel Prize winning virologist) * Renato Turano (politician/businessman and founder of Turano Baking Company) * Rhys Coiro (film, television and stage actor) * Rino Barillari (King of Paparazzi) * Rino Gaetano (singer-songwriter) * Roberto Sgambelluri (Italian former professional racing cyclist) * Rocco B. Commisso
Rocco B. Commisso
(founder of Mediacom Communications Corporation) * Rocco Granata (singer-songwriter who wrote the hit song "Marina") * Rocky Gattellari (professional boxer & businessman) * Roger II of Sicily
Sicily
(Duke of Apulia
Apulia
and Calabria
Calabria
and 1st King of Sicily) * Rosalba Forciniti (won bronze medal in Judo at the 2012 London Olympics) * Rosario Rubbettino (founded publishing house Rubbettino Editore) * Saint Bartholomew the Younger (970–1055, abbot of Grottaferrata) * Saint Fantinus
Saint Fantinus
(927–1000) * Saint Francis of Paola (1416–1507, patron saint of Calabria) * Saint Gaetano Catanoso (1879–1963) * Saint Gregor von Burtscheid (940–999) * Saint Himerius of Cremona
Himerius of Cremona
(Italian Bishop – died 560) * Saint Humilis of Bisignano (1582–1637) * Saint Luca Antonio Falcone (1669–1739) * Saint Nicodemus of Mammola
Mammola
(900–990) * Saint Nicola Saggio
Nicola Saggio
(born 1650 Longobardi – died 1709 Rome) * Saint Nilo of Rossano
Rossano
(910–1005, founded the monastery of Grottaferrata) * Salvatore Albano
Salvatore Albano
(sculptor) * Salvatore Petruolo (painter) * Salvatore Pisani (sculptor) * Sandra Savaglio (Award-winning astrophysicist & author) * Santi Paladino (journalist, politician & writer) * Santo Versace
Versace
(President and Co-CEO of Versace
Versace
Group) * Scilla
Scilla
Sclanizza (actress of stage and screen) * Sergio Cammariere
Sergio Cammariere
(jazz singer-songwriter) * Silvio Vigliaturo
Silvio Vigliaturo
(glassfusion maestro) * Simone Borrelli (actor, director, singer-songwriter & musician) * Simone Rosalba (volleyball player and member of the 1998 World Championship Gold Medal Team) * Stefano Rodotà (jurist, politician, academic & author) * Stesichorus
Stesichorus
(ancient poet) * Steve Conte (actor) * Tatiana Trouvé (contemporary visual artist & sculptor) * Teresa Macrì (art critic, curator & writer) * Theagenes of Rhegium (ancient literary critic) * Timaeus of Locri
Locri
(pythagorean philosopher) * Tisicrates of Croton (ancient athlete) * Tito Minniti (Italian Royal Air Force Hero of World War 2) * Tobia Giuseppe Loriga (Italian & IBF International Light Middleweight Boxing Champion) * Tommaso Campanella
Tommaso Campanella
(16th-century Renaissance
Renaissance
philosopher, theologian, astrologer & poet) * Tommaso Martini (late-Baroque painter) * Tony Gaudio (Academy Award Winning Cinematographer for the movie "Anthony Adverse") * Tony Nardi (actor, playwright, director and producer) * Tony Parisi (former WWWF & WWF wrestling champion) * Uluj Ali (16th-century Ottoman admiral) * Umberto Boccioni (20th-century futurist, painter and sculptor) * Vincenzo Caglioti (chemist and academician) * Vincenzo Di Benedetto (classical philologist) * Vincenzo Fondacaro (sailor, navy captain & merchant officer) * Vincenzo Iaquinta (footballer) * Vincenzo Lauro (Italian Papal diplomat, Bishop & Cardinal) * Vincenzo Milione (painter) * Vincenzo Musolino
Vincenzo Musolino
(actor, director, producer -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">

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FURTHER READING

* Dal Lago, Enrico, and Rick Halpern, eds. The American South and the Italian Mezzogiorno: Essays in Comparative History (2002) ISBN 0-333-73971-X * Dunston, Lara, and Terry Carter. Travellers Calabria
Calabria
(Travellers – Thomas Cook) (2009), guidebook * Moe, Nelson. The View from Vesuvius: Italian Culture and the Southern Question (2002) * Schneider, Jane. Italy's 'Southern Question': Orientalism in One Country (1998)

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Calabria.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article CALABRIA .

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for CALABRIA .

* Calabria
Calabria
Exchange * Calabria\'s History,

.