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The Bureau of Indian Affairs
Bureau of Indian Affairs
(BIA) is an agency of the federal government of the United States within the U.S. Department of the Interior. It is responsible for the administration and management of 55,700,000 acres (225,000 km2) of land held in trust by the United States for Native Americans in the United States, Native American Tribes and Alaska Natives. The BIA is one of two bureaus under the jurisdiction of the Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs: the Bureau of Indian Affairs
Bureau of Indian Affairs
and the Bureau of Indian Education, which provides education services to approximately 48,000 Native Americans. The BIA’s responsibilities include providing health care to American Indians and Alaska Natives. In 1954 that function was transferred to the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (now known as the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services), and it is now known as the Indian Health Service.


1 Organization 2 History

2.1 Early US agencies and legislation: Intercourse Acts 2.2 Office of Indian Trade (1806–1822) 2.3 Bureau of Indian Affairs
Bureau of Indian Affairs
(1824–present) 2.4 20th century 2.5 21st century

3 Legal issues

3.1 Employee overtime 3.2 Trust assets

4 Mission 5 Commissioners and Assistant Secretaries

5.1 Heads of the Bureau of Indian Affairs 5.2 Commissioners of Indian Affairs 5.3 Assistant Secretaries of the Interior for Indian Affairs

6 See also 7 References 8 Sources

8.1 Primary sources

9 External links

Organization[edit] Located in Washington, D.C., the BIA is headed by a bureau director who reports to the Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs. The current director is Michael S. Black. The current assistant secretary (acting) is Lawrence S. Roberts, an enrolled member of the Oneida Nation of Wisconsin. On January 1, 2016, Roberts succeeded Kevin K. Washburn, an enrolled member of the Chickasaw Nation
Chickasaw Nation
in Oklahoma, who served from October 9, 2012, to December 31, 2015.[1] The BIA oversees 567 federally recognized tribes through 4 offices:

Office of Indian Services: operates the BIA’s general assistance, disaster relief, Indian child welfare, tribal government, Indian Self-Determination, and Indian Reservation Roads Program. Office of Justice Services (OJS): directly operates or funds law enforcement, tribal courts, and detention facilities on federal Indian lands. OJS funded 208 law enforcement agencies, consisting of 43 BIA-operated police agencies, and 165 tribally operated agencies under contract, or compact with the OJS. The office has seven areas of activity: Criminal Investigations and Police Services, Detention/Corrections, Inspection/Internal Affairs, Tribal Law Enforcement and Special
Initiatives, the Indian Police Academy, Tribal Justice Support, and Program Management. The OJS also provides oversight and technical assistance to tribal law enforcement programs when and where requested. It operates four divisions: Corrections, Drug Enforcement, the Indian Police Academy, and Law Enforcement.[2] Office of Trust Services: works with tribes and individual American Indians and Alaska Natives
Alaska Natives
in the management of their trust lands, assets, and resources. The Office of Field Operations: oversees 12 regional offices; Alaska, Great Plains, Northwest, Southern Plains, Eastern, Navajo, Pacific, Southwest, Eastern Oklahoma, Midwest, Rocky Mountain, and Western; and 83 agencies, which carry out the mission of the Bureau at the tribal level.


Ely S. Parker
Ely S. Parker
was the first Native American to be appointed as Commissioner of Indian affairs (1869–1871).

Cato Sells, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1913.

Early US agencies and legislation: Intercourse Acts[edit] Main article: Nonintercourse Act Agencies to relate to Native Americans had existed in the U.S. government since 1775, when the Second Continental Congress created a trio of Indian-related agencies. Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
and Patrick Henry
Patrick Henry
were appointed among the early commissioners to negotiate treaties with Native Americans to obtain their neutrality during the American Revolutionary War.[3] Office of Indian Trade (1806–1822)[edit] In 1789, the U.S. Congress placed Native American relations within the newly formed War Department. By 1806 the Congress had created a Superintendent of Indian Trade, or "Office of Indian Trade"[4] within the War Department, who was charged with maintaining the factory trading network of the fur trade. The post was held by Thomas L. McKenney
Thomas L. McKenney
from 1816 until the abolition of the factory system in 1822. The government licensed traders to have some control in Indian territories and gain a share of the lucrative trade. Bureau of Indian Affairs
Bureau of Indian Affairs
(1824–present)[edit] The abolition of the factory system left a vacuum within the U.S. government regarding Native American relations. The Bureau of Indian Affairs was formed on March 11, 1824, by Secretary of War John C. Calhoun, who created the agency as a division within his department, without authorization from the United States Congress. He appointed McKenney as the first head of the office, which went by several names. McKenney preferred to call it the "Indian Office", whereas the current name was preferred by Calhoun. In 1832 Congress established the position of Commissioner of Indian Affairs. In 1849 Indian Affairs was transferred to the U.S. Department of the Interior. In 1869, Ely Samuel Parker was the first Native American to be appointed as commissioner of Indian affairs. One of the most controversial policies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs was the late 19th to early 20th century decision to educate native children in separate boarding schools, with an emphasis on assimilation that prohibited them from using their indigenous languages, practices, and cultures. It emphasized being educated to European-American culture.[5] Some were beaten for praying to their own creator god.[6][relevant? – discuss] 20th century[edit]

1940 Indians at Work magazine, published by the Office of Indian Affairs, predecessor agency to the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

The bureau was renamed from Office of Indian Affairs to Bureau of Indian Affairs in 1947. With the rise of American Indian activism in the 1960s and 1970s and increasing demands for enforcement of treaty rights and sovereignty, the 1970s were a particularly turbulent period of BIA history.[7] The rise of activist groups such as the American Indian Movement (AIM) worried the U.S. government; the FBI responded both overtly and covertly (by creating COINTELPRO
and other programs) to suppress possible uprisings among native peoples.[8] As a branch of the U.S. government with personnel on Indian reservations, BIA police were involved in political actions such as:

The occupation of BIA headquarters in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
in 1972: On November 3, 1972, a group of around 500 American Indians with the AIM took over the BIA building, the culmination of their Trail of Broken Treaties walk. They intended to bring attention to American Indian issues, including their demands for renewed negotiation of treaties, enforcement of treaty rights and improvement in living standards. They occupied the Department of Interior headquarters from November 3 to November 9, 1972.[9]

Feeling the government was ignoring them, the protesters vandalized the building. After a week, the protesters left, having caused $700,000 in damages. Many records were lost, destroyed or stolen, including irreplaceable treaties, deeds, and water rights records, which some Indian officials said could set the tribes back 50 to 100 years.[10][11][citation needed]

The Wounded Knee Incident of 1973, where activists at the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation occupied land for more than two months. The Pine Ridge shootout (for which Leonard Peltier
Leonard Peltier
was convicted of killing two FBI

The BIA was implicated in supporting controversial tribal presidents, notably Dick Wilson, who was charged with being authoritarian; using tribal funds for a private paramilitary force, the Guardians of the Oglala Nation (or "GOON squad"), which he employed against opponents; intimidation of voters in the 1974 election; misappropriation of funds, and other misdeeds.[13] Many native peoples continue to oppose policies of the BIA. In particular, problems in enforcing treaties, handling records and trust land incomes were disputed. 21st century[edit] In 2013 the Bureau was greatly affected by sequestration funding cuts of $800 million, which particularly affected the already-underfunded Indian Health Service.[14][15] Legal issues[edit] Employee overtime[edit] The Bureau of Indian Affairs
Bureau of Indian Affairs
has been sued four times in class action overtime lawsuits brought by the Federation of Indian Service Employees,[16][dead link] a union which represents the federal civilian employees of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the Bureau of Indian Education, the Assistant Secretary of Indian Affairs and the Office of the Special
Trustee for Indian Affairs. The union is represented by the Law Offices of Snider & Associates, LLC,[17] which concentrates in FLSA overtime class actions against the federal government and other large employers. The grievances allege widespread violations of the Fair Labor Standards Act
Fair Labor Standards Act
and claim tens of millions of dollars in damages. Trust assets[edit] Cobell vs. Salazar, a major class action case related to trust lands, was settled in December 2009. The suit was filed against the U.S. Department of Interior, of which the BIA is a part. A major responsibility has been the management of the Indian trust accounts. This was a class-action lawsuit regarding the federal government's management and accounting of more than 300,000 individual American Indian and Alaska Native trust accounts. A settlement fund totaling $3.4 billion is to be distributed to class members. This is to compensate for claims that prior U.S. officials had mismanaged the administration of Indian trust assets. In addition, the settlement establishes a $2 billion fund enabling federally recognized tribes to voluntarily buy back and consolidate fractionated land interests.[18] Mission[edit] The Bureau is currently trying to evolve from a supervisory to an advisory role. However, this has been a difficult task as the BIA is known by many Native Americans as playing a police role in which the U.S. government historically dictated to tribes and their members what they could and could not do in accordance with treaties signed by both.[19] Commissioners and Assistant Secretaries[edit] Commissioners and Assistant Secretaries of Indian Affairs include:[20] Heads of the Bureau of Indian Affairs[edit]

1824–1830 Thomas L. McKenney 1830–1831 Samuel S. Hamilton 2002-2004 Terry Virden[21] 2004-2005 Brian Pogue[22] 2005-2007 Patrick Rasdale[23] 2007-2010 Jerold L. Gidner[24] 2010-2016 Michael S. Black[25] 2016-2017 Weldon Loudermilk[26] 2017-present Bryan C. Rice[27]

Commissioners of Indian Affairs[edit]

1832–1836 Elbert Herring 1836–1838 Carey A. Harris 1838–1845 Thomas Hartley Crawford 1845–1849 William Medill 1849–1850 Orlando Brown 1850–1853 Luke Lea 1853–1857 George Washington Manypenny 1857–1858 James W. Denver 1858–1858 Charles E. Mix 1858–1859 James W. Denver 1859–1861 Alfred B. Greenwood 1861–1865 William P. Dole 1865–1866 Dennis N. Cooley 1866–1867 Lewis V. Bogy 1867–1869 Nathaniel G. Taylor 1869–1871 Ely S. Parker 1871–1872 Francis A. Walker 1873–1875 Edward Parmelee Smith 1875–1877 John Q. Smith 1877–1880 Ezra A. Hayt 1880–1881 Rowland E. Trowbridge 1881–1885 Hiram Price 1885–1888 John D. C. Atkins 1888–1889 John H. Oberly 1889–1893 Thomas Jefferson Morgan 1893–1897 Daniel M. Browning 1897–1904 William Arthur Jones 1904–1909 Francis E. Leupp 1909–1913 Robert G. Valentine 1913–1921 Cato Sells 1921–1929 Charles H. Burke 1929–1933 Charles J. Rhoads 1933–1945 John Collier 1945–1948 William A. Brophy 1948–1949 William R. Zimmerman (acting) 1949–1950 John R. Nichols 1950–1953 Dillon S. Myer 1953–1961 Glenn L. Emmons 1961 John O. Crow (acting)[28][29] 1961–1966 Philleo Nash 1966–1969 Robert L. Bennett 1969–1972 Louis R. Bruce 1973–1976 Morris Thompson 1976–1977 Dr. Benjamin Reifel

Assistant Secretaries of the Interior for Indian Affairs[edit]

1977–1978 Forrest Gerard 1979–1981 William E. Hallett 1981–1984 Kenneth L. Smith 1985–1989 Ross Swimmer 1989–1993 Eddie Frank Brown 1993–1997 Ada E. Deer 1997–2001 Kevin Gover 2001–2001 James H. McDivitt (acting) 2001–2003 Neal A. McCaleb 2003–2004 Aurene M. Martin (acting) 2004–2005 Dave Anderson 2005–2007 Jim Cason (acting) 2007–2008 Carl J. Artman 2008–2009 George T. Skibine (acting) 2009–2012 Larry Echo Hawk 2012–2012 Donald "Del" Laverdure (acting) 2012–2015 Kevin K. Washburn 2016–2017 Lawrence S. Roberts (acting)[30] 2017-2017 Michael S. Black (acting)[31] 2017-present John Tahsuda (acting)[32]

See also[edit]

Indigenous peoples of North America portal Government of the United States portal

Title 25 of the Code of Federal Regulations Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada Administration for Native Americans British Indian Department American Indian Movement Bureau of Indian Affairs
Bureau of Indian Affairs
Police Indian agent Indian Claims Commission Indian Department Indian reservations National Indian Gaming Commission Outline of United States federal Indian law and policy


Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bureau of Indian Affairs (United States).

^ http://www.indianaffairs.gov/cs/groups/public/documents/text/idc1-032765.pdf ^ "Who We Are", BIA ^ Henson, C.L. "From War to Self-Determination: a history of the Bureau of Indian Affairs". American Resources on the Net. Retrieved May 6, 2016.  ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=P2HKD9PgC6wC&lpg=PA236&ots=Rwg0QOTYWX&dq=%22Office%20of%20Indian%20Trade%22&pg=PA236#v=onepage&q=%22Office%20of%20Indian%20Trade%22&f=false Atlas of the North American Indian By Carl Waldman, Molly Braun, ISBN 978-0-8160-6858-6, 2009, Infobase Publishing p. 236 "in 1806, an Office of Indian Trade was created within the War Department" ^ Dennis Banks, "Ojibwa Warrior," 2004: 29–28 ^ Dennis Banks, "Ojibwa Warrior," 2004: 24 ^ Philip Worchel, Philip G. Hester and Philip S. Kopala, "Collective Protest and Legitimacy of Authority: Theory and Research," The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 18 (1) 1974): 37–54 ^ The COINTELPRO
– AIM Archived July 23, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Paul Smith and Robert Warrior, Like a Hurricane: The Indian Movement from Alcatraz to Wounded Knee, New York: The New Press, 1996. ^ "Stop bandwidth theft!". Maquah.net. Retrieved 2012-06-08.  ^ "Stop bandwidth theft!". Maquah.net. Retrieved 2012-06-08.  ^ "American Indian Rights Activist Vernon Bellecourt", Washington Post, 14 October 2007 ^ Ward Churchill, Jim Vander Wall, Agents of Repression: The FBI's Secret Wars Against the Black Panther Party and the American Indian Movement, South End Press, 2002. ^ Gale Courey Toensing (March 27, 2013). "Sequestration Grounds Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs". Indian Country Today. Retrieved March 28, 2013.  ^ Editorial Board (March 20, 2013). "The Sequester Hits the Reservation" (Editorial). The New York Times. Retrieved March 28, 2013.  ^ "FEDERATION OF INDIAN SERVICE EMPLOYEES - AFT - AFL/CIO, Local 4524 - Home". Ief.aft.org. Retrieved 2012-06-08.  ^ "Overtime Lawyer Website". Overtime.com. Archived from the original on 2012-01-11. Retrieved 2012-06-08.  ^ “ Cobell vs. Salazar
Cobell vs. Salazar
Lawsuit”. doi.gov/tribes/special-trustee.cfm. Office of Special
Trustee, n.d. Web. April 24, 2011 ^ author (2011-05-25). "From War to Self-Determination: the Bureau of Indian Affairs". Americansc.org.uk. Retrieved 2012-06-08.  ^ "U.S. government departments and offices, etc". Rulers.org. Retrieved 2012-06-08.  ^ https://www.doi.gov/sites/doi.gov/files/archive/news/archive/03_News_Releases/030210a.htm ^ https://www.doi.gov/sites/doi.gov/files/archive/news/archive/04_News_Releases/040528b.htm ^ https://www.doi.gov/sites/doi.gov/files/archive/news/archive/05_News_Releases/050207d.htm ^ http://www.cherokeeobserver.org/PDF/Apr08/co0408pg6.pdf ^ https://www.bia.gov/sites/bia_prod.opengov.ibmcloud.com/files/assets/public/press_release/pdf/idc009014.pdf ^ https://indiancountrymedianetwork.com/news/native-news/interior-picks-two-for-key-bia-bie-leadership-jobs/ ^ https://www.doi.gov/pressreleases/secretary-zinke-names-bryan-rice-director-bureau-indian-affairs ^ "John O. Crow Named Acting Commissioner of Indian Affairs and Member of Advisory Board on Indian Affairs" (PDF). Bureau of Indian Affairs. February 10, 1961. Retrieved 2015-07-30.  ^ "Nash Nominated as Commissioner of Indian Affairs; Crow Appointed Deputy Commissioner" (PDF). Bureau of Indian Affairs. August 1, 1961. Retrieved 2015-07-30.  ^ http://www.indianaffairs.gov/cs/groups/public/documents/text/idc1-032765.pdf ^ https://www.indianaffairs.gov/WhoWeAre/Leadership/index.htm ^ "Kiowa citizen John Tahsuda set to join Bureau of Indian Affairs leadership team". 


Belko, William S. "' John C. Calhoun
John C. Calhoun
and the Creation of the Bureau of Indian Affairs: An Essay on Political Rivalry, Ideology, and Policymaking in the Early Republic," South Carolina Historical Magazine 2004 105(3): 170–97. ISSN 0038-3082 Cahill, Cathleen D. Federal Fathers and Mothers: A Social History of the United States Indian Service, 1869–1933 (U of North Carolina Press, 2011) 368 pp. online review Deloria, Jr., Vine, and David E. Wilkins, Tribes, Treaties, & Constitutional Tribulations (Austin, 1999) Jackson, Helen H. A Century of Dishonor: A Sketch of the U. S. Government's Dealings with Some of the Indian Tribes (1881) online edition Leupp, F. E. The Indian and His Problem (1910) online edition Meriam, Lewis, et al., The Problem of Indian Administration, Studies in Administration, 17 (Baltimore, 1928) Pevar, Stephen L. The Rights of Indians and Tribes (Carbondale, 2002) Prucha, Francis P. Atlas of American Indian Affairs (Lincoln, 1990) Prucha, Francis P. The Great Father: The United States Government and the American Indians (Abridged Edition 1986) excerpt and text search Schmeckebier, L. F. Office of Indian Affairs: History, Activities,and Organization, Service Monograh 48 (Baltimore 1927) Sutton, I. "Indian Country and the Law: Land Tenure, Tribal Sovereignty, and the States," ch. 36 in Law in the Western United States, ed. G. M. Bakken (Norman, 2000)

Primary sources[edit]

Francis P. Prucha, ed. Documents of United States Indian Policy (3rd ed. 2000) excerpt and text search

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bureau of Indian Affairs (United States).

Official website Bureau of Indian Affairs
Bureau of Indian Affairs
in the Federal Register A History of the Bureau of Indian Affairs Background information about the Cobell Litigation Indian Schools papers, 1929–1945, in the Southwest Collection/ Special
Collections Library at Texas Tech University Bureau of Indian Affairs-collection of letters at Texas Tech University Broken Promises: Evaluating the Native American Health Care System by the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, September 2004 Bureau of Indian Affairs
Bureau of Indian Affairs
Indian Relocation Records at Newberry Library Bureau of Indian Affairs
Bureau of Indian Affairs
correspondence, MSS SC 785 at L. Tom Perry Special
Collections, Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University

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Case law

Johnson v. M'Intosh
Johnson v. M'Intosh
(1823) Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
(1831) Worcester v. Georgia
Worcester v. Georgia
(1832) Fellows v. Blacksmith
Fellows v. Blacksmith
(1857) New York ex rel. Cutler v. Dibble
New York ex rel. Cutler v. Dibble
(1858) Standing Bear v. Crook
Standing Bear v. Crook
(D. Neb. 1879) Ex parte Crow Dog
Ex parte Crow Dog
(1883) Elk v. Wilkins
Elk v. Wilkins
(1884) Seneca Nation of Indians v. Christy
Seneca Nation of Indians v. Christy
(1896) Talton v. Mayes
Talton v. Mayes
(1896) Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock
Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock
(1903) United States v. Santa Fe Pacific Railroad Co.
United States v. Santa Fe Pacific Railroad Co.
(1941) Tee-Hit-Ton Indians v. United States
Tee-Hit-Ton Indians v. United States
(1955) Williams v. Lee
Williams v. Lee
(1959) Federal Power Commission v. Tuscarora Indian Nation
Federal Power Commission v. Tuscarora Indian Nation
(1960) Menominee Tribe v. United States
Menominee Tribe v. United States
(1968) McClanahan v. Arizona State Tax Commission
McClanahan v. Arizona State Tax Commission
(1973) Oneida Indian Nation of New York v. County of Oneida
Oneida Indian Nation of New York v. County of Oneida
(1974) Bryan v. Itasca County
Bryan v. Itasca County
(1976) United States v. Antelope
United States v. Antelope
(1977) Santa Clara Pueblo v. Martinez
Santa Clara Pueblo v. Martinez
(1978) Merrion v. Jicarilla Apache Tribe
Merrion v. Jicarilla Apache Tribe
(1982) Solem v. Bartlett
Solem v. Bartlett
(1984) County of Oneida v. Oneida Indian Nation of New York State
County of Oneida v. Oneida Indian Nation of New York State
(1985) South Carolina v. Catawba Indian Tribe, Inc.
South Carolina v. Catawba Indian Tribe, Inc.
(1986) Hodel v. Irving
Hodel v. Irving
(1987) Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians v. Holyfield
Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians v. Holyfield
(1989) South Dakota v. Bourland
South Dakota v. Bourland
(1993) Idaho v. Coeur d'Alene Tribe of Idaho
Idaho v. Coeur d'Alene Tribe of Idaho
(1997) Idaho v. United States
Idaho v. United States
(2001) United States v. Lara
United States v. Lara
(2004) City of Sherrill v. Oneida Indian Nation of New York
City of Sherrill v. Oneida Indian Nation of New York
(2005) Cobell v. Salazar
Cobell v. Salazar
(D.C. Cir. 2009) Adoptive Couple v. Baby Girl
Adoptive Couple v. Baby Girl


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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 129644504 LCCN: n79071198 ISNI: 0000 0004 0405 986X GND: 1081799-2 SUDOC: 084441399 BNF: cb11988156b (data) BIBSYS: 13051445 ULAN: 500281412 NLA: 35563563


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