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The Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
(/ˌbrɑːməˈpuːtrə/ is one of the major rivers of Asia, a trans-boundary river which flows through China, India
India
and Bangladesh. As such, it is known by various names in the region: Assamese: ব্ৰহ্মপুত্ৰ নদ ('নদ' nôd, masculine form of 'নদী' nôdi "river") Brôhmôputrô [bɹɔɦmɔputɹɔ]; Sanskrit: ब्रह्मपुत्र, IAST: Brahmaputra; Tibetan: ཡར་ཀླུངས་གཙང་པོ་, Wylie: yar klung gtsang po Yarlung Tsangpo; simplified Chinese: 布拉马普特拉河; traditional Chinese: 布拉馬普特拉河; pinyin: Bùlāmǎpǔtèlā Hé. It is also called Tsangpo-Brahmaputra (when referring to the whole river including the stretch within Tibet).[3] The Manas River, which runs through Bhutan, joins it at Jogighopa, in India. It is the tenth largest river in the world by discharge, and the 15th longest. With its origin in the Angsi glacier, located on the northern side of the Himalayas
Himalayas
in Burang County
Burang County
of Tibet
Tibet
as the Yarlung Tsangpo River,[1] it flows across southern Tibet
Tibet
to break through the Himalayas
Himalayas
in great gorges (including the Yarlung Tsangpo
Yarlung Tsangpo
Grand Canyon) and into Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
(India).[4] It flows southwest through the Assam
Assam
Valley as Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
and south through Bangladesh
Bangladesh
as the Jamuna (not to be mistaken with Yamuna
Yamuna
of India). In the vast Ganges
Ganges
Delta, it merges with the Padma, the popular name of the river Ganges
Ganges
in Bangladesh, and finally the Meghna and from here it is known as Meghna before emptying into the Bay of Bengal.[5] About 3,848 km (2,391 mi)[1] long, the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
is an important river for irrigation and transportation. The average depth of the river is 38 m (124 ft) and maximum depth is 120 m (380 ft). The river is prone to catastrophic flooding in the spring when Himalayas
Himalayas
snow melts. The average discharge of the river is about 19,800 m3/s (700,000 cu ft/s),[4] and floods can reach over 100,000 m3/s (3,500,000 cu ft/s).[6] It is a classic example of a braided river and is highly susceptible to channel migration and avulsion.[7] It is also one of the few rivers in the world that exhibit a tidal bore. It is navigable for most of its length. The river drains the Himalaya east of the Indo-Nepal border, south-central portion of the Tibetan plateau above the Ganga
Ganga
basin, south-eastern portion of Tibet, the Patkai-Bum hills, the northern slopes of the Meghalaya
Meghalaya
hills, the Assam
Assam
plains, and the northern portion of Bangladesh. The basin, especially south of Tibet, is characterized by high levels of rainfall. Kangchenjunga
Kangchenjunga
(8,586 m) is the only peak above 8,000 m, hence is the highest point within the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
basin. The Brahmaputra's upper course was long unknown, and its identity with the Yarlung Tsangpo
Yarlung Tsangpo
was only established by exploration in 1884–86. This river is often called Tsangpo- Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
river. The lower reaches are sacred to Hindus. While most rivers on the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
have female names, this river has a rare male name, as it means "son of Brahma" in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
(putra means "son").[8]

Contents

1 Geography

1.1 Course

1.1.1 Tibet 1.1.2 Assam
Assam
and adjoining region 1.1.3 Bangladesh

1.2 Basin characteristics 1.3 Discharge

1.3.1 Climate 1.3.2 Hydrology 1.3.3 Floodplain
Floodplain
evolution 1.3.4 Flooding

1.4 Channel morphology

1.4.1 River engineering

2 History

2.1 Earlier history 2.2 International cooperation 2.3 Significance to people

3 Development

3.1 Bridges 3.2 National Waterway 2

4 References

4.1 See also 4.2 External links 4.3 Further reading 4.4 Notes 4.5 Citations

Geography[edit] Course[edit] Tibet[edit] Main article: Yarlung Tsangpo

Yarlung Tsangpo
Yarlung Tsangpo
River in Tibet.

The Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
River, also called Yarlung Tsangpo
Yarlung Tsangpo
in Tibetan language, originates on the Angsi Glacier located on the northern side of the Himalayas
Himalayas
in Burang County
Burang County
of Tibet. The source of the river was earlier thought to be on the Chemayungdung glacier, which covers the slopes of the Himalayas
Himalayas
about 97 km (60 mi) southeast of Lake Manasarovar
Lake Manasarovar
in southwestern Tibet. The river is 3,848 km (2,391 mi) long, and its drainage area is 712,035 km2 (274,918 sq mi) according to the new findings, while previous documents showed its length varied from 2,900 to 3,350 km and its drainage area between 520,000 and 1.73 million km2. This finding has been given by Liu Shaochuang, a researcher with the Institute of Remote Sensing Applications under the analysis using expeditions and satellite imagery from the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS).[1][9] From its source, the river runs for nearly 1,100 km (680 mi) in a generally easterly direction between the main range of the Himalayas
Himalayas
to the south and the Kailas Range to the north. Throughout its upper course, the river is generally known as the Tsangpo (“Purifier”); it is also known by its Chinese name (Yarlung Zangbo) and by other local Tibetan names. In Tibet, the Tsangpo receives a number of tributaries. The most important left-bank tributaries are the Raka Zangbo (Raka Tsangpo), which joins the river west of Xigazê (Shigatse), and the Lhasa (Kyi), which flows past the Tibetan capital of Lhasa and joins the Tsangpo at Qüxü. The Nyang Qu (Gyamda) River joins the river from the north at Zela (Tsela Dzong). On the right bank, a second river called the Nyang Qu (Nyang Chu) meets the Tsangpo at Xigazê. After passing Pi (Pe) in Tibet, the river turns suddenly to the north and northeast and cuts a course through a succession of great narrow gorges between the mountainous massifs of Gyala Peri
Gyala Peri
and Namcha Barwa in a series of rapids and cascades. Thereafter, the river turns south and southwest and flows through a deep gorge (the “Grand Canyon” of the Tsangpo) across the eastern extremity of the Himalayas
Himalayas
with canyon walls that extend upward for 5,000 m (16,000 ft) and more on each side. During that stretch, the river enters northern Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
state in northeastern India, where it is known as the Dihang (or Siang) River, and turns more southerly. Assam
Assam
and adjoining region[edit]

Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
basin in India

A view of sunset in the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
from Dibrugarh

The Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
enters India
India
in the state of Arunachal Pradesh, where it is called Siang. It makes a very rapid descent from its original height in Tibet, and finally appears in the plains, where it is called Dihang. It flows for about 35 km (22 mi) and is joined by the Dibang River and the Lohit River
Lohit River
at the head of the Assam
Assam
Valley. Below the Lohit, the river is called Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
and Burlung-Buthur by native Bodo tribals, it then enters the state of Assam, and becomes very wide—as wide as 20 km (12 mi) in parts of Assam. The Dihang, winding out of the mountains, turns toward the southeast and descends into a low-lying basin as it enters northeastern Assam state. Just west of the town of Sadiya, the river again turns to the southwest and is joined by two mountain streams, the Lohit and the Dibang. Below that confluence, about 1,450 km (900 mi) from the Bay of Bengal, the river becomes known conventionally as the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
("Son of Brahma"). In Assam, the river is mighty, even in the dry season, and during the rains, its banks are more than 8 km (5.0 mi) apart. As the river follows its braided 700 m (2,300 ft) course through the valley, it receives several rapidly rushing Himalayan streams, including the Subansiri, Kameng, Bhareli, Dhansiri, Manas, Champamati, Saralbhanga, and Sankosh Rivers. The main tributaries from the hills and from the plateau to the south are the Burhi Dihing, the Disang, the Dikhu, and the Kopili. Between Dibrugarh
Dibrugarh
and Lakhimpur Districts, the river divides into two channels—the northern Kherkutia channel and the southern Brahmaputra channel. The two channels join again about 100 km (62 mi) downstream, forming the Majuli
Majuli
island, which is the largest river island in the world.[10] At Guwahati, near the ancient pilgrimage centre of Hajo, the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
cuts through the rocks of the Shillong Plateau, and is at its narrowest at 1 km (1,100 yd) bank-to-bank. Because of the river's narrow width, the Battle of Saraighat
Saraighat
was fought here in March 1671. The first combined rail/road bridge across the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
was opened to traffic in April 1962 at Saraighat. The environment of the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
floodplains in Assam
Assam
have been described as the Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests
Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests
ecoregion. Bangladesh[edit]

Rivers of Bangladesh, including the Brahmaputra

In Bangladesh, the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
is joined by the Teesta River
Teesta River
(or Tista), one of its largest tributaries. Below the Tista, the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
splits into two distributary branches. The western branch, which contains the majority of the river's flow, continues due south as the Jamuna (Jomuna) to merge with the lower Ganga, called the Padma River (Pôdda). The eastern branch, formerly the larger, but now much smaller, is called the lower or old Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
(Brommoputro). It curves southeast to join the Meghna River
Meghna River
near Dhaka. The Padma and Meghna converge near Chandpur and flow out into the Bay of Bengal. This final part of the river is called Meghna. The Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
enters the plains of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
after turning south around the Garo Hills below Dhuburi, India. After flowing past Chilmari, Bangladesh, it is joined on its right bank by the Tista River and then follows a 240 km (150-mi) course due south as the Jamuna River. (South of Gaibanda, the Old Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
leaves the left bank of the main stream and flows past Jamalpur and Mymensingh
Mymensingh
to join the Meghna River
Meghna River
at Bhairab Bazar.) Before its confluence with the Ganga, the Jamuna receives the combined waters of the Baral, Atrai, and Hurasagar Rivers on its right bank and becomes the point of departure of the large Dhaleswari River
Dhaleswari River
on its left bank. A tributary of the Dhaleswari, the Buriganga (“Old Ganga”), flows past Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, and joins the Meghna River
Meghna River
above Munshiganj. The Jamuna joins with the Ganga
Ganga
north of Goalundo Ghat, below which, as the Padma, their combined waters flow to the southeast for a distance of about 120 km (75 mi). After several smaller channels branch off to feed the Ganga- Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
delta to the south, the main body of the Padma reaches its confluence with the Meghna River near Chandpur and then enters the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
through the Meghna estuary and lesser channels flowing through the delta. The growth of the Ganga- Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
Delta is dominated by tidal processes. The Ganga
Ganga
Delta, fed by the waters of numerous rivers, including the Ganga
Ganga
and Brahmaputra, is 59,570 square kilometres (23,000 sq mi) the largest river deltas in the world.[11] Basin characteristics[edit]

The Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
River from Space

The basin of the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
river is 651 334 km2 and it is a good example of a braided river and meanders quite a bit and frequently forms temporary sand bars. A region of significant tectonic activity has developed in the Jamuna River and is associated with the Himalayan uplift and development of the Bengal
Bengal
foredeep. Several researchers has hypothesized that the underlying structural control on the location of the major river systems of Bangladesh. A zone of 'structural weakness' along the present course of the Ganga-Jamuna-Padma Rivers due to either a subsiding trough or a fault at depth has been observed by Morgan and Melntire.(1959). Scijmonsbergen (1999) contends that width changes in the Jamuna may respond to these faults and they may also cause increased sedimentation upstream of the fault. He presented a few images to argue that a fault downstream of the Bangabandhu Multipurpose Bridge has affected channel migration. Huge accumulations of sediment that have been fed from Himalayan erosion has been produced due to the deepening of the Bengal
Bengal
Basin, with the thickness of sediment above the Precambrian basement increasing from a few hundred metres in the shelf region to over 18 km in the Bengal
Bengal
foredeep to the south. The tectonic and climatic context for the large water and sediment discharges in the rivers of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
was set by the ongoing subsidence in the Bengal
Bengal
Basin, combined with high rates of Himalayan uplift. The control of uplift and subsidence is, however, clear. The courses of the Jamuna and Ganga
Ganga
Rivers are first-order controls due to the fact that they are most influenced by the uplifted Plcistoccnc[clarification needed] terraces of the Barind and Madhupur tracts.[12] Discharge[edit] The Ganga- Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
system has the third-greatest average discharge of the world’s rivers—roughly 30,770 m3 (1,086,500 ft3) per second; and the river Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
alone supplies about 19,800 m3 (700,000 ft3) per second of the total discharge. The rivers’ combined suspended sediment load of about 1.87 billion tonnes (1.84 billion tons) per year is the world’s highest.[4][13] In the past, the lower course of the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
was different and passed through the Jamalpur and Mymensingh
Mymensingh
districts. In a 7.5 magnitude earthquake on 2 April 1762, however, the main channel of the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
at Bhahadurabad point was switched southwards and opened as Jamuna due to the result of tectonic uplift of the Madhupur tract.[14] Climate[edit] Rising temperature is one of the major cause of snow-melting at the upper Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
catchment.[15] The discharge of the river Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
is highly affected by the melting of snow at the upper part of its catchment. The attenuation of river flow due to the melting of snow in the river Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
basin affects the downstream discharge of the river. This increase in discharge due to significant retreat of snow gives rise to severe catastrophic problems such as flood and erosion. Hydrology[edit] The hydrology of the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
River is characterized by its significant rates of sediment discharge, the large and variable flows, along with its rapid channel aggradations and accelerated rates of basin denudation. Over time, the deepening of the Bengal
Bengal
Basin caused by erosion will results in the increase in hydraulic radius, and hence allowing for the huge accumulation of sediments fed from the Himalayan erosion by efficient sediment transportation. The thickness of the sediment accumulated above the Precambrian basement has increased over the years from a few hundred meters to over 18 km in the Bengal fore-deep to the south. The ongoing subsidence of the Bengal
Bengal
Basin and the high rate of Himalayan uplift continues to contribute to the large water and sediment discharges of fine sand and silt, with 1% clay, in the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
River. Climatic change plays a crucial role in affecting the basin hydrology. Throughout the year, there is a significant rise in hydrograph, with a broad peak between July and September. The Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
River experiences two high-water seasons, one in early summer caused by snow melt in the mountains, and one in late summer caused by runoff from monsoon rains. The river flow is strongly influenced by snow and ice melting of the glaciers, which are located mainly on the eastern Himalaya regions in the upstream parts of the basin. The snow and glacier melt contribution to the total annual runoff is about 27%, while the annual rainfall contributes to about 1.9m and 19,830 m3 /s of discharge. The highest recorded daily discharge in the Brahmaputra at Pandu was 72,726 m3 /s August 1962 while the lowest was 1,757 m3 /s in February 1968. The increased rates of snow and glacial melt are likely to increase summer flows in some river systems for a few decades, followed by a reduction in flow as the glaciers disappear and snowfall diminishes. This is particularly true for the dry season when water availability is crucial for the irrigation systems. Floodplain
Floodplain
evolution[edit] The course of the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
River has changed drastically in the past two and a half centuries, moving its river course westwards for a distance of about 80 km (50 mi), leaving its old river course, appropriately named the old Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
river, behind. In the past, the floodplain of the old river course had soils which were more properly formed compared to graded sediments on the operating Jamuna river. This change of river course resulted in modifications to the soil-forming process, which include acidification, breakdown of clays and buildup of organic matter, with the soils showing an increasing amount of biotic homogenization, mottling, coating arounds Peds and maturing soil arrangement, shape and pattern. In the future, the consequences of local ground subsidence coupled with flood prevention propositions, for instance localised breakwaters, that increase flood-plain water depths outside the water breakers, may alter the water levels of the floodplains. Throughout the years, bars, scroll bars and sand dunes are formed at the edge of the flood plain by deposition. The height difference of the channel topography is often not more than 1m-2m. Furthermore, flooding over history of the river has caused the formation of river levees due to deposition from overbank flow. The height difference between the levee top and the surrounding floodplains is typically 1m along small channels and 2-3m along major channels. Crevasse splay, a sedimentary fluvial deposit which forms when a stream breaks its natural or artificial levees and deposits sediment on a floodplain, are often formed due to a breach in levee, forming a lobe of sediments which progrades onto the adjacent floodplain. Lastly, flood basins are often formed between the levees of adjacent rivers. Flooding[edit]

Flooded villages along the Brahmaputra

During the monsoon season (June–October), floods are a very common occurrence. Deforestation in the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
watershed has resulted in increased siltation levels, flash floods, and soil erosion in critical downstream habitat, such as the Kaziranga National Park
Kaziranga National Park
in middle Assam. Occasionally, massive flooding causes huge losses to crops, life, and property. Periodic flooding is a natural phenomenon which is ecologically important because it helps maintain the lowland grasslands and associated wildlife. Periodic floods also deposit fresh alluvium, replenishing the fertile soil of the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
River Valley. Thus flooding, agriculture, and agricultural practices are closely connected.[16][17][18] The effects of flooding can be devastating and cause significant damage to crops and houses, serious bank erosive with consequent loss of homesteads, school and land, and loss of many lives, livestock and fisheries. During the 1998 flood, over 70% of the land area of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
was inundated, affecting 31 million people and 1 million homesteads. In the 1998 flood which had an unusually long duration from July to September, claimed 918 human lives and was responsible for damaging 16 00 and 6000 km of roads and embankments respectively, and affecting 6000 km2 of standing crops. The 2004 floods, over 25% of the population of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
or 36 million people, was affected by the floods; 800 lives were lost; 952 000 houses were destroyed and 1.4 million were badly damaged; 24 000 educational institutions were affected including the destruction of 1200 primary schools, 2 million governments and private tubewells were affected, over 3 million latrines were damaged or washed away, this increases the risks of waterborne diseases including diarrhea and cholera. Also, 1.1 M ha of rice crop was submerged and lost before it could be harvested, with 7% of the yearly aus (early season) rice crop lost; 270 000 ha of grazing land was affected, 5600 livestock perished together with 254 00 poultry and 63 MT of lost fish production. Flood-control measures are taken by water resource department and the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
Board, but until now the flood problem remains unsolved. At least a third of the land of Majuli
Majuli
island has been eroded by the river. Recently, it is suggested that a highway protected by concrete mat along the river bank and excavation of the river bed can curb this menace. This project, named the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
River Restoration Project, is yet to be implemented by the government.Recently the Central Government approved the construction of Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
Express Highways. Channel morphology[edit] The course of the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
River has changed dramatically over the past 250 years, with evidence of large-scale avulsion, in the period 1776–1850, of 80 km from east of the Madhupur tract to the west of it. Prior to 1843, the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
flowed within the channel now termed the "old Brahmaputra". The banks of the river are mostly weakly cohesive sand and silts, which usually erodes through large scale slab failure, where previously deposited materials undergo scour and bank erosion during flood periods. Presently, the river’s erosion rate has decreased to 30m per year as compared to 150m per year from 1973 to 1992. This erosion has, however, destroyed so much land that it has caused 0.7 million people to become homeless due to loss of land. Several studies have discussed the reasons for the avulsion of the river into its present course, and have suggested a number of reasons including tectonic activity, switches in upstream course of the Teesta River, the influence of increased discharge, catastrophic floods and river capture into an old river course. From an analysis of maps of the river between 1776 and 1843, it was concluded in a study that the river avulsion was more likely gradual than catastrophic and sudden, and may have been generated by bank erosion, perhaps around a large mid-channel bar, causing a diversion of the channel into the existing floodplain channel. The Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
channel is governed by the peak and low flow periods during which its bed undergoes tremendous modification. The Brahmaputra's bankline migration is inconsistent with time. The Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
river bed has widened significantly since 1916 and appears to be shifting more towards the south than towards the north. Together with the contemporary slow migration of the river, the left bank is being eroded away faster than the right bank. [19] River engineering[edit] The Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
River experiences high levels of bank erosion (usually via slab failure) and channel migration caused by its strong current, lack of river bank vegetation, and loose sand and silt which compose its banks. It is thus difficult to build permanent structures on the river, and protective structures designed to limit the river’s erosional effects often face numerous issues during and after construction. In fact, a 2004 report[20] by the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Disaster and Emergency Sub-Group (BDER) has stated that several of such protective systems have 'just failed'. However, some progress has been made in the form of construction works which stabilize sections of the river, albeit the need for heavy maintenance. The Bangabandhu Bridge, the only bridge to span the river's major distributary, the Jamuna, was thus opened in June 1998. Constructed at a narrow braid belt of the river, it is 4.8 km long with a platform 18.5 m wide, and it is used to carry railroad traffic as well as gas, power and telecommunication lines. Due to the variable nature of the river, prediction of the river’s future course is crucial in planning upstream engineering to prevent flooding on the bridge. China
China
had built the Zangmu Dam
Zangmu Dam
in the upper course of the Brahmaputra River in the Tibet
Tibet
region and it was operationalised on 13 October 2015.[21] The main purpose of the dam was to generate electricity for China
China
and its operation has caused concerns for downstream neighbours like India
India
as the presence of dams in the upper course of the river will mean unpredictability in the dynamics of downstream flows. History[edit]

Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
River seen from a spot satellite

The Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
and its tributaries in northeastern India
India
and Bangladesh

James Rennell's 1776 map shows the Brahmaputra's flow before an earthquake on 2 April 1762 and the Teesta River
Teesta River
flowing in three channels to the Ganga
Ganga
before a flood in 1787.

Earlier history[edit] Early accounts give its name as Dyardanes.[22] In the past, the course of the lower Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
was different and passed through the Jamalpur and Mymensingh
Mymensingh
districts. Some water still flows through that course, now called the Old Brahmaputra, as a distributary of the main channel. A question about the river system in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
is when and why the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
changed its main course, at the site of the Jamuna and the "Old Brahmaputra" fork that can be seen by comparing modern maps to historic maps before the 1800s.[23] The Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
likely flowed directly south along its present main channel for much of the time since the last glacial maximum, switching back and forth between the two courses several times throughout the Holocene. One idea about the most recent avulsion is that the change in the course of the main waters of the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
took place suddenly in 1787, the year of the heavy flooding of the river Tista. In the middle of the 18th century, at least three fair-sized streams flowed between the Rajshahi
Rajshahi
and Dhaka
Dhaka
Divisions, viz., the Daokoba, a branch of the Tista, the Monash or Konai, and the Salangi. The Lahajang and the Elengjany were also important rivers. In Renault's time, the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
as a first step towards securing a more direct course to the sea by leaving the Mahdupur Jungle to the east began to send a considerable volume of water down the Jinai or Jabuna from Jamalpur into the Monash and Salangi. These rivers gradually coalesced and kept shifting to the west till they met the Daokoba, which was showing an equally rapid tendency to cut towards the east. The junction of these rivers gave the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
a course worthy of her immense power, and the rivers to right and left silted up. In Renault's Altas they very much resemble the rivers of Jessore, which dried up after the hundred-mouthed Ganga
Ganga
had cut her new channel to join the Meghna at the south of the Munshiganj
Munshiganj
subdivision. In 1809, Francis Buchanan-Hamilton
Francis Buchanan-Hamilton
wrote that the new channel between Bhawanipur and Dewanranj "was scarcely inferior to the mighty river, and threatens to sweep away the intermediate country". By 1830, the old channel had been reduced to its present insignificance. It was navigable by country boats throughout the year and by launches only during rains, but at the point as low as Jamalpur it was formidable throughout the cold weather. Similar was the position for two or three months just below Mymensingh
Mymensingh
also. International cooperation[edit] The waters of the River Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
are shared by China, India, and Bangladesh. In the 1990s and 2000s, there was repeated speculation that mentioned Chinese plans to build a dam at the Great Bend, with a view to divert the waters to the north of the country. This has been denied by the Chinese government for many years.[24] At the Kathmandu Workshop of Strategic Foresight Group in August 2009 on Water Security in the Himalayan Region, which brought together in a rare development leading hydrologists from the basin countries, the Chinese scientists argued that it was not feasible for China
China
to undertake such a diversion.[25] However, on 22 April 2010, China
China
confirmed that it was indeed building the Zangmu Dam
Zangmu Dam
on the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
in Tibet,[24] but assured India
India
that the project would not have any significant effect on the downstream flow to India.[26] This claim has also been reiterated by the Government of India, in an attempt to assuage domestic criticism of Chinese dam construction on the river, but is one that remains hotly debated.[27] Recent years have seen an intensification of grassroots opposition, especially in the state of Assam, against Chinese upstream dam building, as well as growing criticism of the Indian government for its perceived failure to respond appropriately to Chinese hydropower plans.[28] In a meeting of scientists at Dhaka
Dhaka
at 2010, 25 leading experts from the basin countries issued a Dhaka
Dhaka
Declaration on Water Security[29] calling for exchange of information in low-flow periods, and other means of collaboration. Even though the 1997 UN Watercourses Convention does not prevent any of the basin countries from building a dam upstream, customary law offers some relief to the lower riparian countries. There is also potential for China, India, and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to cooperate on transboundary water navigation. Significance to people[edit]

People fishing in the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
River

The lives of many millions of Indian and Bangladeshi citizens are reliant on the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
river. Its delta is home to 130 million people and 600 000 people live on the riverine islands. These people rely on the annual 'normal' flood to bring moisture and fresh sediments to the floodplain soils, hence providing the necessities for agricultural and marine farming. In fact, two of the three seasonal rice varieties (aus and aman) cannot survive without the floodwater. Furthermore, the fish caught both on the floodplain during flood season and from the many floodplain ponds are the main source of protein for many rural populations. Development[edit] Bridges[edit]

Current

Bogibeel Bridge Dr. Bhupen Hazarika Setu Kolia Bhomora Setu Naranarayan Setu Saraighat

Planned (under-construction, approved, proposed, etc.): Nitin Gadkari announced following 5 new bridges in Dec 2017.[30]

Jorhat-Nematighat[30] Disangmukh-Tekeliphuta[30] Louit-Khablu[30] Numaligarh-Gohpur[30] North Guwahati-Guwahati[30]

National Waterway 2[edit] National Waterway 2 (NW2) is 891 km long Sadiya- Dhubri
Dhubri
stretch of Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
River in Assam.[31][32] References[edit] See also[edit]

BrahMos (missile)
BrahMos (missile)
– A missile named partly after the Brahmaputra River Brahmaputra-class frigate Dhola- Sadiya
Sadiya
bridge List of rivers of Asia List of rivers of Assam List of rivers of Bangladesh List of rivers of China List of rivers of India

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Brahmaputra.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Brahmaputra.

Further reading[edit]

Bibliography on Water Resources and International Law. Peace Palace Library Rivers of Dhemaji and Dhakuakhana Background to Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
Flood Scenario The Mighty Brahmaputra Principal Rivers of Assam "The Brahmaputra", a detailed study of the river by renowned writer Arup Dutta. (Published by National Book Trust, New Delhi, India)

Notes[edit]

^ a b c d e f "Scientists pinpoint sources of four major international rivers". Xinhua News Agency. 22 August 2011. Retrieved 8 September 2015.  ^ Krishnan, Ananth (23 August 2011). " China
China
maps Brahmaputra, Indus". The Hindu. Retrieved 8 September 2015.  ^ Michael Buckley (2015-03-30). "The Price of Damming Tibet's Rivers". The New York Times. p. A25. Archived from the original on 2015-03-31. Retrieved 2015-04-01. Two of the continent’s wildest rivers have their sources in Tibet: the Salween and the Brahmaputra. Though they are under threat from retreating glaciers, a more immediate concern is Chinese engineering plans. A cascade of five large dams is planned for both the Salween, which now flows freely, and the Brahmaputra, where one dam is already operational.  ^ a b c " Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
River". Encyclopædia Britannica.  ^ " Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
River Flowing Down From Himalayas
Himalayas
Towards Bay of Bengal". Retrieved 22 November 2011.  ^ "Water Resources of Bangladesh". FAO. Archived from the original on 2009-08-06. Retrieved 2010-11-18.  ^ Catling, David (1992). Rice in deep water. International Rice Research Institute. p. 177. ISBN 978-971-22-0005-2.  ^ Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam, ed. India
India
through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 80.  ^ " China
China
maps Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
source, course". Assam
Assam
Tribune. 24 August 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-07-22. Retrieved 2011-11-09.  ^ Majuli, River Island. "Largest river island". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 6 September 2016.  ^ Singh, Vijay P.; Sharma, Nayan; C. Shekhar; P. Ojha (2004). The Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
Basin Water Resources. Springer. p. 113. ISBN 978-1-4020-1737-7.  ^ Gupta, Avijit (2008). Large Rivers: Geomorphology and Management. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 5–. ISBN 978-0-470-72371-5.  ^ The Geography of India: Sacred and Historic Places. Britannica Educational Publishing. 2010. pp. 85–. ISBN 978-1-61530-202-4.  ^ Suess, Eduard (1904). The face of the earth: (Das antlitz der erde). Clarendon press. pp. 50–.  ^ "Change in snow cover area of Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
river basin and its sensitivity to temperature". Environmental Systems Research. 4. doi:10.1186/s40068-015-0043-0.  ^ Das, D.C. 2000. Agricultural Landuse and Productivity Pattern in Lower Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
valley (1970–71 and 1994–95). Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Geography, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong. ^ Mipun, B.S. 1989. Impact of Migrants and Agricultural Changes in the Lower Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
Valley : A Case Study of Darrang District. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Geography, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong. ^ Shrivastava, R.J.; Heinen, J.T. (2005). "Migration and Home Gardens in the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
Valley, Assam, India". Journal of Ecological Anthropology. 9: 20–34. doi:10.5038/2162-4593.9.1.2.  ^ [1] ^ Monsoon Floods 2004: Post Flood Needs Assessment Summary Report (PDF). Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Disaster and Emergency Sub-Group (BDER) (Report). Dhaka, Bangladesh. 2004. p. 23.  ^ " China
China
operationalizes biggest dam on Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
in Tibet". The Times of India. 13 October 2015.  ^ A compendium of ancient and modern geography: for the use of Eton School By Aaron Arrowsmith, page 56 ^ e.g. Rennell, 1776; Rennel, 1787 ^ a b " China
China
admits to Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
project". The Economic Times. 22 April 2010.  ^ MacArthur Foundation, Asian Security Initiative Archived 27 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Chinese dam will not impact flow of Brahmaputra: Krishna". The Indian Express. 22 April 2010.  ^ BBC. "Megadams: Battle on the Brahmaputra". Retrieved 10 June 2017.  ^ Yeophantong, Pichamon (2017). "River activism, policy entrepreneurship and transboundary water disputes in Asia". Water International. 42 (2). doi:10.1080/02508060.2017.1279041. Retrieved 10 June 2017.  ^ The New Nation, Bangladesh, 17 January 2010 ^ a b c d e f Nitin Gadkari
Nitin Gadkari
flags off cargo movement on Brahmaputra, Economic Times, 29 Dec 2017. ^ http://egazette.nic.in/WriteReadData/2016/168716.pdf ^ "Press Information Bureau". www.pib.nic.in. Government of India. Retrieved 30 January 2017. 

Citations[edit]

Rahaman, M. M.; Varis, O. (2009). "Integrated Water Management of the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
Basin: Perspectives and Hope for Regional Development". Natural Resources Forum. 33 (1): 60–75. doi:10.1111/j.1477-8947.2009.01209.x.  Sarma, J N (2005). "Fluvial process and morphology of the Brahmaputra River in Assam, India". Geomorphology. 70 (3–4): 226–256. doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2005.02.007.  Ribhaba Bharali. The Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
River Restoration Project. Published in Assamese Pratidin, Amar Assam
Assam
in October 2012.

v t e

Hydrography of the Indian subcontinent

Inland rivers

Beas Betwa Bhagirathi Brahmaputra Chambal Chenab Damodar Godavari Gandaki Ganges Ghaghara Indus Jhelum Kali Kaveri Kosi Krishna Luni Mahanadi Mahaweli Meghna Narmada Padma Ravi Sarasvati Sankosh Sharda Son Sutlej Tapti Yamuna

Inland lakes, deltas, etc.

Ganges
Ganges
Basin Ganges
Ganges
Delta Indus Delta Dal Lake Pookode Lake Skeleton Lake Chilika Lake Lake Powai Borith Lake Saiful Muluk Gosaikunda Nizam Sagar Red Hills Lake Malampuzha Kerala backwaters Pulicat Lake

Coastal

Indian Ocean Arabian Sea Bay of Bengal Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Mannar Laccadive Sea Palk Strait

Categories

Lakes of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
/ India
India
/ Nepal / Pakistan Reservoirs and dams in India Rivers of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
/ Bhutan
Bhutan
/ India
India
/ Nepal / Pakistan

v t e

Hydrography of India

Inland

Alaknanda Beas Betwa Bhāgīrathī Bharatapuzha Brahmaputra Burhi Gandak Chambal Chenab Chilika Lake Dal Lake Damodar Dibang Ganges Ganges
Ganges
Basin Ganges
Ganges
Delta Ghaghara Godavari Gomti Hooghly Indira Gandhi Canal Indus Indus Delta Indus Basin Jhelum Kali Kaveri Ken Kerala backwaters Koshi Krishna Kushiyara Luni Mahanadi Malampuzha Narmada Nizam Sagar Padma Pamba Periyar Pookode Lake Powai Lake Ramganga Ravi Red Hills Lake Roopkund
Roopkund
(Skeleton Lake) Sambhar Salt Lake Sapt Koshi Sabarmati River Sarasvati Sharda Someshwari Son Sutlej Tamsa Tapti Tons Vaigai Yamuna

Coastal

Arabian Sea Bay of Bengal Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Mannar Indian Ocean Laccadive Sea Palk Strait Ilog Pasig

Categories

Lakes of India Reservoirs and dams in India Rivers of India

v t e

Hydrography of Northeast India

Rivers

Bhogdoi Siang/Dihang/Brahmaputra Dhansiri Dihing Diphlu Feni Gumti Haora Iril Kaladan Kameng or Jia Bhoreli Karnaphuli Khowai Kolong Lohit Manas/ Drangme Chhu Manu Mora Dhansiri Muhuri Myntdu Mora Diphlu Sankosh or Puna Tsang Chhu Simsang or Someshwari Surma Surma- Meghna River
Meghna River
System Thega River Tirap

Lakes

Kamalasagar Loktak Umiam Lake

Waterfalls

Bishop Kynrem Langshiang Nohkalikai Nohsngithiang Vantawng

Fluvial islands

Majuli

Hydrography of surrounding areas

Bhutan Bengal Mizoram

v t e

Rivers in and around Bengal

Southeast Bangladesh

Dakatia Halda Karnaphuli Naf Sangu Thega Feni

Assam
Assam
/ Meghalaya
Meghalaya
/ Tripura

Barak Brahmaputra Dhalai Feni Juri Kangsha Khawthlangtuipui Kushiyara Longai Manu Meghna Muhuri Myntdu Someshwari Surma Surma-Meghna Titas / Haora Gumti Khowai

Northern Bangladesh North Bengal

Atrai Balason Bangali Baral Chiri Dharla Dhepa Jaldhaka Karala Karatoya Karotoa Kazipur Khong Khola Mahananda Mechi Nagar Punarbhaba Raidak or Wong Chhu Rangeet Small Jamuna Shiba Sree Tangon Teesta Torsa/Machu/Amo Chhu

Central Bangladesh

Balu Bangshi Buriganga Chiknai Dhaleshwari Dhanu Gorai-Madhumati Jamuna Jinai Louhajang Padma Shitalakhya Turag

Rarh region

Ajay Bakreshwar Bansloi Barakar Brahmani Dakatia Damodar Dwarka Dwarakeswar Gandheswari Haldi Hinglo Kangsabati Keleghai Kopai Kosai Kumar Kunur Mayurakshi Mundeswari Rasulpur Rupnarayan Sali Shilabati Subarnarekha

South Bengal Ganges
Ganges
Delta

Adi Ganga Baleshwar Bhairab Bhodra Bidyadhari Bishkhali Bura Gauranga Churni Choita Dhanshiri Garai Gosaba Hariabhanga Hooghly Ichamati Jalangi Jamuna Kaliganga Kalindi Kirtankhola Kopothakho Makunda Mathabhanga Matla Muri Ganga Nabaganga Pasur Piyali Raimangal Rupsha Saptamukhi Saraswati Thakuran

Related topics

Beel Country boats in Bangladesh Chalan Beel Ganges Haor Haors in Bangladesh List of rivers of Bangladesh of India Waters of South Asia Damodar Valley Corporation River bank erosion along the Ganges
Ganges
in Malda and Murshidabad districts

Hydrography of surrounding areas

Odisha Jharkhand Bihar Mizoram Nepal Sikkim Bhutan North-east India

v t e

Dooars

Places

Alipurduar Barpeta Bindu Binnaguri Birpara Bongaigaon Buxa Chalsa Cooch Behar Dhubri Gairkata Goalpara Hasimara Jalpaiguri Jayanti Jhalong Lataguri Madarihat Malbazar Mongpong Murti Phuentsholing Rajabhatkhawa Rasikbeel Samsing Sevoke Siliguri Suntalekhola Totopara

Geography

Districts

Alipurduar Barpeta Bongaigaon Cooch Behar Darjeeling Dhubri Goalpara Jalpaiguri Kokrajhar

Rivers

Brahmaputra Manas Teesta Torsha Sankosh Dyna Jaldhaka Raidak Karatoya Kaljani

Other

Jayanti Hills

Peoples

Bengalis Bodo Gurkha Koch Lepcha Limbus Oraons Munda Kharia Mahali Mech Lohar Chik Baraik Rajbongsi Rabha Toto

Protected areas

Buxa Tiger Reserve Gorumara National Park Manas National Park Chapramari Wildlife Sanctuary Jaldapara National Park Mahananda Wildlife Sanctuary Chilapata Forests

Transport

North Bengal
Bengal
State Transport Corporation Assam
Assam
State Transport Corporation Bagdogra Airport Cooch Behar
Cooch Behar
Airport

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 246543

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