Brahmaputra (/ˌbrɑːməˈpuːtrə/ is one of the major rivers of
Asia, a trans-boundary river which flows through China,
Bangladesh. As such, it is known by various names in the region:
Assamese: ব্ৰহ্মপুত্ৰ নদ ('নদ' nôd,
masculine form of 'নদী' nôdi "river") Brôhmôputrô
[bɹɔɦmɔputɹɔ]; Sanskrit: ब्रह्मपुत्र,
IAST: Brahmaputra; Tibetan:
ཡར་ཀླུངས་གཙང་པོ་, Wylie: yar
klung gtsang po Yarlung Tsangpo; simplified Chinese:
布拉马普特拉河; traditional Chinese: 布拉馬普特拉河;
pinyin: Bùlāmǎpǔtèlā Hé. It is also called Tsangpo-Brahmaputra
(when referring to the whole river including the stretch within
Tibet). The Manas River, which runs through Bhutan, joins it at
Jogighopa, in India. It is the tenth largest river in the world by
discharge, and the 15th longest.
With its origin in the Angsi glacier, located on the northern side of
Burang County of
Tibet as the Yarlung Tsangpo
River, it flows across southern
Tibet to break through the
Himalayas in great gorges (including the
Yarlung Tsangpo Grand Canyon)
Arunachal Pradesh (India). It flows southwest through the
Assam Valley as
Brahmaputra and south through
Bangladesh as the Jamuna
(not to be mistaken with
Yamuna of India). In the vast
it merges with the Padma, the popular name of the river
Bangladesh, and finally the Meghna and from here it is known as Meghna
before emptying into the Bay of Bengal.
About 3,848 km (2,391 mi) long, the
Brahmaputra is an
important river for irrigation and transportation. The average depth
of the river is 38 m (124 ft) and maximum depth is
120 m (380 ft). The river is prone to catastrophic flooding
in the spring when
Himalayas snow melts. The average discharge of the
river is about 19,800 m3/s (700,000 cu ft/s), and
floods can reach over 100,000 m3/s
(3,500,000 cu ft/s). It is a classic example of a braided
river and is highly susceptible to channel migration and avulsion.
It is also one of the few rivers in the world that exhibit a tidal
bore. It is navigable for most of its length.
The river drains the Himalaya east of the Indo-Nepal border,
south-central portion of the Tibetan plateau above the
south-eastern portion of Tibet, the Patkai-Bum hills, the northern
slopes of the
Meghalaya hills, the
Assam plains, and the northern
portion of Bangladesh. The basin, especially south of Tibet, is
characterized by high levels of rainfall.
Kangchenjunga (8,586 m) is
the only peak above 8,000 m, hence is the highest point within the
The Brahmaputra's upper course was long unknown, and its identity with
Yarlung Tsangpo was only established by exploration in 1884–86.
This river is often called Tsangpo-
The lower reaches are sacred to Hindus. While most rivers on the
Indian subcontinent have female names, this river has a rare male
name, as it means "son of Brahma" in
Sanskrit (putra means "son").
Assam and adjoining region
1.2 Basin characteristics
1.4 Channel morphology
1.4.1 River engineering
2.1 Earlier history
2.2 International cooperation
2.3 Significance to people
3.2 National Waterway 2
4.1 See also
4.2 External links
4.3 Further reading
Main article: Yarlung Tsangpo
Yarlung Tsangpo River in Tibet.
Brahmaputra River, also called
Yarlung Tsangpo in Tibetan
language, originates on the
Angsi Glacier located on the northern side
Burang County of Tibet. The source of the river
was earlier thought to be on the Chemayungdung glacier, which covers
the slopes of the
Himalayas about 97 km (60 mi) southeast of
Lake Manasarovar in southwestern Tibet. The river is 3,848 km
(2,391 mi) long, and its drainage area is 712,035 km2
(274,918 sq mi) according to the new findings, while
previous documents showed its length varied from 2,900 to
3,350 km and its drainage area between 520,000 and
1.73 million km2. This finding has been given by Liu Shaochuang,
a researcher with the Institute of Remote Sensing Applications under
the analysis using expeditions and satellite imagery from the Chinese
Academy of Sciences (CAS).
From its source, the river runs for nearly 1,100 km (680 mi)
in a generally easterly direction between the main range of the
Himalayas to the south and the
Kailas Range to the north. Throughout
its upper course, the river is generally known as the Tsangpo
(“Purifier”); it is also known by its Chinese name (Yarlung
Zangbo) and by other local Tibetan names.
In Tibet, the Tsangpo receives a number of tributaries. The most
important left-bank tributaries are the Raka Zangbo (Raka Tsangpo),
which joins the river west of Xigazê (Shigatse), and the Lhasa (Kyi),
which flows past the Tibetan capital of Lhasa and joins the Tsangpo at
Qüxü. The Nyang Qu (Gyamda) River joins the river from the north at
Zela (Tsela Dzong). On the right bank, a second river called the Nyang
Qu (Nyang Chu) meets the Tsangpo at Xigazê.
After passing Pi (Pe) in Tibet, the river turns suddenly to the north
and northeast and cuts a course through a succession of great narrow
gorges between the mountainous massifs of
Gyala Peri and Namcha Barwa
in a series of rapids and cascades. Thereafter, the river turns south
and southwest and flows through a deep gorge (the “Grand Canyon”
of the Tsangpo) across the eastern extremity of the
canyon walls that extend upward for 5,000 m (16,000 ft) and
more on each side. During that stretch, the river enters northern
Arunachal Pradesh state in northeastern India, where it is known as
the Dihang (or Siang) River, and turns more southerly.
Assam and adjoining region
Brahmaputra basin in India
A view of sunset in the
Brahmaputra from Dibrugarh
India in the state of Arunachal Pradesh, where
it is called Siang. It makes a very rapid descent from its original
height in Tibet, and finally appears in the plains, where it is called
Dihang. It flows for about 35 km (22 mi) and is joined by
Dibang River and the
Lohit River at the head of the
Below the Lohit, the river is called
Brahmaputra and Burlung-Buthur by
native Bodo tribals, it then enters the state of Assam, and becomes
very wide—as wide as 20 km (12 mi) in parts of Assam.
The Dihang, winding out of the mountains, turns toward the southeast
and descends into a low-lying basin as it enters northeastern Assam
state. Just west of the town of Sadiya, the river again turns to the
southwest and is joined by two mountain streams, the Lohit and the
Dibang. Below that confluence, about 1,450 km (900 mi) from
the Bay of Bengal, the river becomes known conventionally as the
Brahmaputra ("Son of Brahma"). In Assam, the river is mighty, even in
the dry season, and during the rains, its banks are more than
8 km (5.0 mi) apart. As the river follows its braided
700 m (2,300 ft) course through the valley, it receives
several rapidly rushing Himalayan streams, including the Subansiri,
Kameng, Bhareli, Dhansiri, Manas, Champamati, Saralbhanga, and Sankosh
Rivers. The main tributaries from the hills and from the plateau to
the south are the Burhi Dihing, the Disang, the Dikhu, and the Kopili.
Dibrugarh and Lakhimpur Districts, the river divides into two
channels—the northern Kherkutia channel and the southern Brahmaputra
channel. The two channels join again about 100 km (62 mi)
downstream, forming the
Majuli island, which is the largest river
island in the world. At Guwahati, near the ancient pilgrimage
centre of Hajo, the
Brahmaputra cuts through the rocks of the Shillong
Plateau, and is at its narrowest at 1 km (1,100 yd)
bank-to-bank. Because of the river's narrow width, the Battle of
Saraighat was fought here in March 1671. The first combined rail/road
bridge across the
Brahmaputra was opened to traffic in April 1962 at
The environment of the
Brahmaputra floodplains in
Assam have been
described as the
Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests
Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests ecoregion.
Rivers of Bangladesh, including the Brahmaputra
In Bangladesh, the
Brahmaputra is joined by the
Teesta River (or
Tista), one of its largest tributaries. Below the Tista, the
Brahmaputra splits into two distributary branches. The western branch,
which contains the majority of the river's flow, continues due south
as the Jamuna (Jomuna) to merge with the lower Ganga, called the Padma
River (Pôdda). The eastern branch, formerly the larger, but now much
smaller, is called the lower or old
Brahmaputra (Brommoputro). It
curves southeast to join the
Meghna River near Dhaka. The Padma and
Meghna converge near Chandpur and flow out into the Bay of Bengal.
This final part of the river is called Meghna.
Brahmaputra enters the plains of
Bangladesh after turning south
around the Garo Hills below Dhuburi, India. After flowing past
Chilmari, Bangladesh, it is joined on its right bank by the Tista
River and then follows a 240 km (150-mi) course due south as the
Jamuna River. (South of Gaibanda, the Old
Brahmaputra leaves the left
bank of the main stream and flows past Jamalpur and
Mymensingh to join
Meghna River at Bhairab Bazar.) Before its confluence with the
Ganga, the Jamuna receives the combined waters of the Baral, Atrai,
and Hurasagar Rivers on its right bank and becomes the point of
departure of the large
Dhaleswari River on its left bank. A tributary
of the Dhaleswari, the Buriganga (“Old Ganga”), flows past Dhaka,
the capital of Bangladesh, and joins the
Meghna River above
The Jamuna joins with the
Ganga north of Goalundo Ghat, below which,
as the Padma, their combined waters flow to the southeast for a
distance of about 120 km (75 mi). After several smaller
channels branch off to feed the Ganga-
Brahmaputra delta to the south,
the main body of the Padma reaches its confluence with the Meghna
River near Chandpur and then enters the
Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal through the
Meghna estuary and lesser channels flowing through the delta. The
growth of the Ganga-
Brahmaputra Delta is dominated by tidal processes.
Ganga Delta, fed by the waters of numerous rivers, including the
Ganga and Brahmaputra, is 59,570 square kilometres
(23,000 sq mi) the largest river deltas in the world.
Brahmaputra River from Space
The basin of the
Brahmaputra river is 651 334 km2 and it is a
good example of a braided river and meanders quite a bit and
frequently forms temporary sand bars. A region of significant tectonic
activity has developed in the Jamuna River and is associated with the
Himalayan uplift and development of the
Bengal foredeep. Several
researchers has hypothesized that the underlying structural control on
the location of the major river systems of Bangladesh. A zone of
'structural weakness' along the present course of the
Ganga-Jamuna-Padma Rivers due to either a subsiding trough or a fault
at depth has been observed by Morgan and Melntire.(1959).
Scijmonsbergen (1999) contends that width changes in the Jamuna may
respond to these faults and they may also cause increased
sedimentation upstream of the fault. He presented a few images to
argue that a fault downstream of the Bangabandhu Multipurpose Bridge
has affected channel migration. Huge accumulations of sediment that
have been fed from Himalayan erosion has been produced due to the
deepening of the
Bengal Basin, with the thickness of sediment above
the Precambrian basement increasing from a few hundred metres in the
shelf region to over 18 km in the
Bengal foredeep to the south.
The tectonic and climatic context for the large water and sediment
discharges in the rivers of
Bangladesh was set by the ongoing
subsidence in the
Bengal Basin, combined with high rates of Himalayan
uplift. The control of uplift and subsidence is, however, clear. The
courses of the Jamuna and
Ganga Rivers are first-order controls due to
the fact that they are most influenced by the uplifted
Plcistoccnc[clarification needed] terraces of the Barind and Madhupur
Brahmaputra system has the third-greatest average discharge
of the world’s rivers—roughly 30,770 m3 (1,086,500 ft3) per
second; and the river
Brahmaputra alone supplies about 19,800 m3
(700,000 ft3) per second of the total discharge. The rivers’
combined suspended sediment load of about 1.87 billion tonnes (1.84
billion tons) per year is the world’s highest.
In the past, the lower course of the
Brahmaputra was different and
passed through the Jamalpur and
Mymensingh districts. In a 7.5
magnitude earthquake on 2 April 1762, however, the main channel of the
Brahmaputra at Bhahadurabad point was switched southwards and opened
as Jamuna due to the result of tectonic uplift of the Madhupur
Rising temperature is one of the major cause of snow-melting at the
Brahmaputra catchment. The discharge of the river
Brahmaputra is highly affected by the melting of snow at the upper
part of its catchment. The attenuation of river flow due to the
melting of snow in the river
Brahmaputra basin affects the downstream
discharge of the river. This increase in discharge due to significant
retreat of snow gives rise to severe catastrophic problems such as
flood and erosion.
The hydrology of the
Brahmaputra River is characterized by its
significant rates of sediment discharge, the large and variable flows,
along with its rapid channel aggradations and accelerated rates of
basin denudation. Over time, the deepening of the
Bengal Basin caused
by erosion will results in the increase in hydraulic radius, and hence
allowing for the huge accumulation of sediments fed from the Himalayan
erosion by efficient sediment transportation. The thickness of the
sediment accumulated above the Precambrian basement has increased over
the years from a few hundred meters to over 18 km in the Bengal
fore-deep to the south. The ongoing subsidence of the
Bengal Basin and
the high rate of Himalayan uplift continues to contribute to the large
water and sediment discharges of fine sand and silt, with 1% clay, in
Climatic change plays a crucial role in affecting the basin hydrology.
Throughout the year, there is a significant rise in hydrograph, with a
broad peak between July and September. The
experiences two high-water seasons, one in early summer caused by snow
melt in the mountains, and one in late summer caused by runoff from
monsoon rains. The river flow is strongly influenced by snow and ice
melting of the glaciers, which are located mainly on the eastern
Himalaya regions in the upstream parts of the basin. The snow and
glacier melt contribution to the total annual runoff is about 27%,
while the annual rainfall contributes to about 1.9m and 19,830 m3 /s
of discharge. The highest recorded daily discharge in the Brahmaputra
at Pandu was 72,726 m3 /s August 1962 while the lowest was 1,757 m3 /s
in February 1968. The increased rates of snow and glacial melt are
likely to increase summer flows in some river systems for a few
decades, followed by a reduction in flow as the glaciers disappear and
snowfall diminishes. This is particularly true for the dry season when
water availability is crucial for the irrigation systems.
The course of the
Brahmaputra River has changed drastically in the
past two and a half centuries, moving its river course westwards for a
distance of about 80 km (50 mi), leaving its old river
course, appropriately named the old
Brahmaputra river, behind. In the
past, the floodplain of the old river course had soils which were more
properly formed compared to graded sediments on the operating Jamuna
river. This change of river course resulted in modifications to the
soil-forming process, which include acidification, breakdown of clays
and buildup of organic matter, with the soils showing an increasing
amount of biotic homogenization, mottling, coating arounds Peds and
maturing soil arrangement, shape and pattern. In the future, the
consequences of local ground subsidence coupled with flood prevention
propositions, for instance localised breakwaters, that increase
flood-plain water depths outside the water breakers, may alter the
water levels of the floodplains. Throughout the years, bars, scroll
bars and sand dunes are formed at the edge of the flood plain by
deposition. The height difference of the channel topography is often
not more than 1m-2m. Furthermore, flooding over history of the river
has caused the formation of river levees due to deposition from
overbank flow. The height difference between the levee top and the
surrounding floodplains is typically 1m along small channels and 2-3m
along major channels. Crevasse splay, a sedimentary fluvial deposit
which forms when a stream breaks its natural or artificial levees and
deposits sediment on a floodplain, are often formed due to a breach in
levee, forming a lobe of sediments which progrades onto the adjacent
floodplain. Lastly, flood basins are often formed between the levees
of adjacent rivers.
Flooded villages along the Brahmaputra
During the monsoon season (June–October), floods are a very common
occurrence. Deforestation in the
Brahmaputra watershed has resulted in
increased siltation levels, flash floods, and soil erosion in critical
downstream habitat, such as the
Kaziranga National Park
Kaziranga National Park in middle
Assam. Occasionally, massive flooding causes huge losses to crops,
life, and property. Periodic flooding is a natural phenomenon which is
ecologically important because it helps maintain the lowland
grasslands and associated wildlife. Periodic floods also deposit fresh
alluvium, replenishing the fertile soil of the
Valley. Thus flooding, agriculture, and agricultural practices are
The effects of flooding can be devastating and cause significant
damage to crops and houses, serious bank erosive with consequent loss
of homesteads, school and land, and loss of many lives, livestock and
fisheries. During the 1998 flood, over 70% of the land area of
Bangladesh was inundated, affecting 31 million people and 1 million
homesteads. In the 1998 flood which had an unusually long duration
from July to September, claimed 918 human lives and was responsible
for damaging 16 00 and 6000 km of roads and embankments
respectively, and affecting 6000 km2 of standing crops. The 2004
floods, over 25% of the population of
Bangladesh or 36 million people,
was affected by the floods; 800 lives were lost; 952 000 houses were
destroyed and 1.4 million were badly damaged; 24 000 educational
institutions were affected including the destruction of 1200 primary
schools, 2 million governments and private tubewells were affected,
over 3 million latrines were damaged or washed away, this increases
the risks of waterborne diseases including diarrhea and cholera. Also,
1.1 M ha of rice crop was submerged and lost before it could be
harvested, with 7% of the yearly aus (early season) rice crop lost;
270 000 ha of grazing land was affected, 5600 livestock perished
together with 254 00 poultry and 63 MT of lost fish production.
Flood-control measures are taken by water resource department and the
Brahmaputra Board, but until now the flood problem remains unsolved.
At least a third of the land of
Majuli island has been eroded by the
river. Recently, it is suggested that a highway protected by concrete
mat along the river bank and excavation of the river bed can curb this
menace. This project, named the
Brahmaputra River Restoration Project,
is yet to be implemented by the government.Recently the Central
Government approved the construction of
Brahmaputra Express Highways.
The course of the
Brahmaputra River has changed dramatically over the
past 250 years, with evidence of large-scale avulsion, in the period
1776–1850, of 80 km from east of the
Madhupur tract to the west
of it. Prior to 1843, the
Brahmaputra flowed within the channel now
termed the "old Brahmaputra". The banks of the river are mostly weakly
cohesive sand and silts, which usually erodes through large scale slab
failure, where previously deposited materials undergo scour and bank
erosion during flood periods. Presently, the river’s erosion rate
has decreased to 30m per year as compared to 150m per year from 1973
to 1992. This erosion has, however, destroyed so much land that it has
caused 0.7 million people to become homeless due to loss of land.
Several studies have discussed the reasons for the avulsion of the
river into its present course, and have suggested a number of reasons
including tectonic activity, switches in upstream course of the Teesta
River, the influence of increased discharge, catastrophic floods and
river capture into an old river course. From an analysis of maps of
the river between 1776 and 1843, it was concluded in a study that the
river avulsion was more likely gradual than catastrophic and sudden,
and may have been generated by bank erosion, perhaps around a large
mid-channel bar, causing a diversion of the channel into the existing
Brahmaputra channel is governed by the peak and low flow periods
during which its bed undergoes tremendous modification. The
Brahmaputra's bankline migration is inconsistent with time. The
Brahmaputra river bed has widened significantly since 1916 and appears
to be shifting more towards the south than towards the north. Together
with the contemporary slow migration of the river, the left bank is
being eroded away faster than the right bank. 
Brahmaputra River experiences high levels of bank erosion (usually
via slab failure) and channel migration caused by its strong current,
lack of river bank vegetation, and loose sand and silt which compose
its banks. It is thus difficult to build permanent structures on the
river, and protective structures designed to limit the river’s
erosional effects often face numerous issues during and after
construction. In fact, a 2004 report by the
and Emergency Sub-Group (BDER) has stated that several of such
protective systems have 'just failed'. However, some progress has been
made in the form of construction works which stabilize sections of the
river, albeit the need for heavy maintenance. The Bangabandhu Bridge,
the only bridge to span the river's major distributary, the Jamuna,
was thus opened in June 1998. Constructed at a narrow braid belt of
the river, it is 4.8 km long with a platform 18.5 m wide, and it
is used to carry railroad traffic as well as gas, power and
telecommunication lines. Due to the variable nature of the river,
prediction of the river’s future course is crucial in planning
upstream engineering to prevent flooding on the bridge.
China had built the
Zangmu Dam in the upper course of the Brahmaputra
River in the
Tibet region and it was operationalised on 13 October
2015. The main purpose of the dam was to generate electricity for
China and its operation has caused concerns for downstream neighbours
India as the presence of dams in the upper course of the river
will mean unpredictability in the dynamics of downstream flows.
Brahmaputra River seen from a spot satellite
Brahmaputra and its tributaries in northeastern
James Rennell's 1776 map shows the Brahmaputra's flow before an
earthquake on 2 April 1762 and the
Teesta River flowing in three
channels to the
Ganga before a flood in 1787.
Early accounts give its name as Dyardanes. In the past, the course
of the lower
Brahmaputra was different and passed through the Jamalpur
Mymensingh districts. Some water still flows through that course,
now called the Old Brahmaputra, as a distributary of the main channel.
A question about the river system in
Bangladesh is when and why the
Brahmaputra changed its main course, at the site of the Jamuna and the
"Old Brahmaputra" fork that can be seen by comparing modern maps to
historic maps before the 1800s. The
Brahmaputra likely flowed
directly south along its present main channel for much of the time
since the last glacial maximum, switching back and forth between the
two courses several times throughout the Holocene.
One idea about the most recent avulsion is that the change in the
course of the main waters of the
Brahmaputra took place suddenly in
1787, the year of the heavy flooding of the river Tista.
In the middle of the 18th century, at least three fair-sized streams
flowed between the
Dhaka Divisions, viz., the Daokoba, a
branch of the Tista, the Monash or Konai, and the Salangi. The
Lahajang and the Elengjany were also important rivers. In Renault's
Brahmaputra as a first step towards securing a more direct
course to the sea by leaving the Mahdupur Jungle to the east began to
send a considerable volume of water down the Jinai or Jabuna from
Jamalpur into the Monash and Salangi. These rivers gradually coalesced
and kept shifting to the west till they met the Daokoba, which was
showing an equally rapid tendency to cut towards the east. The
junction of these rivers gave the
Brahmaputra a course worthy of her
immense power, and the rivers to right and left silted up. In
Renault's Altas they very much resemble the rivers of Jessore, which
dried up after the hundred-mouthed
Ganga had cut her new channel to
join the Meghna at the south of the
Francis Buchanan-Hamilton wrote that the new channel between
Bhawanipur and Dewanranj "was scarcely inferior to the mighty river,
and threatens to sweep away the intermediate country". By 1830, the
old channel had been reduced to its present insignificance. It was
navigable by country boats throughout the year and by launches only
during rains, but at the point as low as Jamalpur it was formidable
throughout the cold weather. Similar was the position for two or three
months just below
The waters of the River
Brahmaputra are shared by China, India, and
Bangladesh. In the 1990s and 2000s, there was repeated speculation
that mentioned Chinese plans to build a dam at the Great Bend, with a
view to divert the waters to the north of the country. This has been
denied by the Chinese government for many years. At the Kathmandu
Strategic Foresight Group in August 2009 on Water Security
in the Himalayan Region, which brought together in a rare development
leading hydrologists from the basin countries, the Chinese scientists
argued that it was not feasible for
China to undertake such a
diversion. However, on 22 April 2010,
China confirmed that it was
indeed building the
Zangmu Dam on the
Brahmaputra in Tibet, but
India that the project would not have any significant effect
on the downstream flow to India. This claim has also been
reiterated by the Government of India, in an attempt to assuage
domestic criticism of Chinese dam construction on the river, but is
one that remains hotly debated. Recent years have seen an
intensification of grassroots opposition, especially in the state of
Assam, against Chinese upstream dam building, as well as growing
criticism of the Indian government for its perceived failure to
respond appropriately to Chinese hydropower plans.
In a meeting of scientists at
Dhaka at 2010, 25 leading experts from
the basin countries issued a
Dhaka Declaration on Water Security
calling for exchange of information in low-flow periods, and other
means of collaboration. Even though the 1997 UN Watercourses
Convention does not prevent any of the basin countries from building a
dam upstream, customary law offers some relief to the lower riparian
countries. There is also potential for China, India, and
cooperate on transboundary water navigation.
Significance to people
People fishing in the
The lives of many millions of Indian and Bangladeshi citizens are
reliant on the
Brahmaputra river. Its delta is home to 130 million
people and 600 000 people live on the riverine islands. These people
rely on the annual 'normal' flood to bring moisture and fresh
sediments to the floodplain soils, hence providing the necessities for
agricultural and marine farming. In fact, two of the three seasonal
rice varieties (aus and aman) cannot survive without the floodwater.
Furthermore, the fish caught both on the floodplain during flood
season and from the many floodplain ponds are the main source of
protein for many rural populations.
Dr. Bhupen Hazarika Setu
Kolia Bhomora Setu
Planned (under-construction, approved, proposed, etc.): Nitin Gadkari
announced following 5 new bridges in Dec 2017.
National Waterway 2
National Waterway 2 (NW2) is 891 km long Sadiya-
Dhubri stretch of
Brahmaputra River in Assam.
BrahMos (missile) – A missile named partly after the Brahmaputra
List of rivers of Asia
List of rivers of Assam
List of rivers of Bangladesh
List of rivers of China
List of rivers of India
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Brahmaputra.
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article
Bibliography on Water Resources and International Law. Peace Palace
Rivers of Dhemaji and Dhakuakhana
Brahmaputra Flood Scenario
The Mighty Brahmaputra
Principal Rivers of Assam
"The Brahmaputra", a detailed study of the river by renowned writer
Arup Dutta. (Published by National Book Trust, New Delhi, India)
^ a b c d e f "Scientists pinpoint sources of four major international
rivers". Xinhua News Agency. 22 August 2011. Retrieved 8 September
^ Krishnan, Ananth (23 August 2011). "
China maps Brahmaputra, Indus".
The Hindu. Retrieved 8 September 2015.
^ Michael Buckley (2015-03-30). "The Price of Damming Tibet's Rivers".
The New York Times. p. A25. Archived from the original on
2015-03-31. Retrieved 2015-04-01. Two of the continent’s wildest
rivers have their sources in Tibet: the Salween and the Brahmaputra.
Though they are under threat from retreating glaciers, a more
immediate concern is Chinese engineering plans. A cascade of five
large dams is planned for both the Salween, which now flows freely,
and the Brahmaputra, where one dam is already operational.
^ a b c "
Brahmaputra River". Encyclopædia Britannica.
Brahmaputra River Flowing Down From
Himalayas Towards Bay of
Bengal". Retrieved 22 November 2011.
^ "Water Resources of Bangladesh". FAO. Archived from the original on
2009-08-06. Retrieved 2010-11-18.
^ Catling, David (1992). Rice in deep water. International Rice
Research Institute. p. 177. ISBN 978-971-22-0005-2.
^ Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam, ed.
India through the ages.
Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting,
Government of India. p. 80.
Brahmaputra source, course".
Assam Tribune. 24 August
2011. Archived from the original on 2012-07-22. Retrieved
^ Majuli, River Island. "Largest river island". Guinness World
Records. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
^ Singh, Vijay P.; Sharma, Nayan; C. Shekhar; P. Ojha (2004). The
Brahmaputra Basin Water Resources. Springer. p. 113.
^ Gupta, Avijit (2008). Large Rivers: Geomorphology and Management.
John Wiley & Sons. pp. 5–.
^ The Geography of India: Sacred and Historic Places. Britannica
Educational Publishing. 2010. pp. 85–.
^ Suess, Eduard (1904). The face of the earth: (Das antlitz der erde).
Clarendon press. pp. 50–.
^ "Change in snow cover area of
Brahmaputra river basin and its
sensitivity to temperature". Environmental Systems Research. 4.
^ Das, D.C. 2000. Agricultural Landuse and Productivity Pattern in
Brahmaputra valley (1970–71 and 1994–95). Ph.D. Thesis,
Department of Geography, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong.
^ Mipun, B.S. 1989. Impact of Migrants and Agricultural Changes in the
Brahmaputra Valley : A Case Study of Darrang District.
Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Geography, North Eastern Hill
^ Shrivastava, R.J.; Heinen, J.T. (2005). "Migration and Home Gardens
Brahmaputra Valley, Assam, India". Journal of Ecological
Anthropology. 9: 20–34. doi:10.5038/2162-4518.104.22.168.
^ Monsoon Floods 2004: Post Flood Needs Assessment Summary Report
Bangladesh Disaster and Emergency Sub-Group (BDER) (Report).
Dhaka, Bangladesh. 2004. p. 23.
China operationalizes biggest dam on
Brahmaputra in Tibet". The
Times of India. 13 October 2015.
^ A compendium of ancient and modern geography: for the use of Eton
School By Aaron Arrowsmith, page 56
^ e.g. Rennell, 1776; Rennel, 1787
^ a b "
China admits to
Brahmaputra project". The Economic Times. 22
^ MacArthur Foundation, Asian Security Initiative Archived 27 July
2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Chinese dam will not impact flow of Brahmaputra: Krishna". The
Indian Express. 22 April 2010.
^ BBC. "Megadams: Battle on the Brahmaputra". Retrieved 10 June
^ Yeophantong, Pichamon (2017). "River activism, policy
entrepreneurship and transboundary water disputes in Asia". Water
International. 42 (2). doi:10.1080/02508060.2017.1279041. Retrieved 10
^ The New Nation, Bangladesh, 17 January 2010
^ a b c d e f
Nitin Gadkari flags off cargo movement on Brahmaputra,
Economic Times, 29 Dec 2017.
^ "Press Information Bureau". www.pib.nic.in. Government of India.
Retrieved 30 January 2017.
Rahaman, M. M.; Varis, O. (2009). "Integrated Water Management of the
Brahmaputra Basin: Perspectives and Hope for Regional Development".
Natural Resources Forum. 33 (1): 60–75.
Sarma, J N (2005). "Fluvial process and morphology of the Brahmaputra
River in Assam, India". Geomorphology. 70 (3–4): 226–256.
Ribhaba Bharali. The
Brahmaputra River Restoration Project. Published
in Assamese Pratidin, Amar
Assam in October 2012.
Hydrography of the Indian subcontinent
Inland lakes, deltas, etc.
Red Hills Lake
Bay of Bengal
Gulf of Kutch
Gulf of Khambhat
Gulf of Mannar
India / Nepal / Pakistan
Reservoirs and dams in India
India / Nepal / Pakistan
Hydrography of India
Indira Gandhi Canal
Red Hills Lake
Roopkund (Skeleton Lake)
Sambhar Salt Lake
Bay of Bengal
Gulf of Khambhat
Gulf of Kutch
Gulf of Mannar
Lakes of India
Reservoirs and dams in India
Rivers of India
Hydrography of Northeast India
Kameng or Jia Bhoreli
Manas/ Drangme Chhu
Sankosh or Puna Tsang Chhu
Simsang or Someshwari
Meghna River System
Hydrography of surrounding areas
Rivers in and around Bengal
Meghalaya / Tripura
Titas / Haora
Raidak or Wong Chhu
Country boats in Bangladesh
Haors in Bangladesh
List of rivers of Bangladesh
Waters of South Asia
Damodar Valley Corporation
River bank erosion along the
Ganges in Malda and Murshidabad districts
Hydrography of surrounding areas
Buxa Tiger Reserve
Gorumara National Park
Manas National Park
Chapramari Wildlife Sanctuary
Jaldapara National Park
Mahananda Wildlife Sanctuary
Bengal State Transport Corporation
Assam State Transport Corporation
Cooch Behar Airport