BOLOGNA (/bəˈloʊnjə/ _bə-LOHN-yə_ ; Italian pronunciation:
(_ listen ); Emilian : Bulåggna_, pronounced ; Latin :
_Bŏnṓnĭa_) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna
Region in Northern
Italy . It is the seventh most populous city in
Italy, located in the heart of a metropolitan area (officially
recognised by the Italian government as a _città metropolitana _) of
about one million.
The first settlements date back to at least 1000 BC. The city has
been an urban centre, first under the
Etruscans (Velzna/Felsina) and
Celts (_Bona_), then under the Romans (_Bononia_), then again in
Middle Ages , as a free municipality (for one century it was the
fifth largest European city based on population). Home to the oldest
university in the world ,
University of Bologna , founded in
Bologna hosts thousands of students who enrich the social and
cultural life of the city. Famous for its towers and lengthy porticoes
Bologna has a well-preserved historical centre (one of the largest
in Italy) thanks to a careful restoration and conservation policy
which began at the end of the 1970s, on the heels of serious damage
done by the urban demolition at the end of the 19th century as well as
that caused by wars.
An important cultural and artistic centre, its importance in terms of
landmarks can be attributed to a varied mixture of monuments and
architectural examples (medieval towers, antique buildings, churches,
the layout of its historical centre) as well as works of art which are
the result of a first class architectural and artistic history.
Bologna is also an important transportation crossroad for the roads
and trains of Northern Italy, where many important mechanical,
electronic and nutritional industries have their headquarters.
According to the most recent data gathered by the European Regional
Economic Growth Index (E-REGI) of 2009,
Bologna is the first Italian
city and the 47th European city in terms of its economic growth rate.
Bologna is home to numerous prestigious cultural, economic and
political institutions as well as one of the most impressive trade
fair districts in Europe. In 2000 it was declared European capital of
culture and in 2006, a
UNESCO "city of music". The city of Bologna
was selected to participate in the Universal Exposition of Shanghai
2010 together with 45 other cities from around the world.
also one of the wealthiest cities in Italy, often ranking as one of
the top cities in terms of quality of life in the country: in 2011 it
ranked 1st out of 107 Italian cities.
* 1 History
* 1.2 Early modern
* 1.3 Late modern and contemporary
World War II
World War II
* 1.3.2 Post-war years
* 2 Geography
* 2.1 Territory
* 2.2 Climate
* 3 Government
* 4 Main sights
* 5 Economy
* 6 Transport
* 7 Demographics
* 8 Education
* 9 Culture
* 9.1 Entertainment and performing arts
* 9.2 Cuisine
* 10 Sport
* 11 People
* 12 Companies
* 13 International relations
* 14 See also
* 15 References
* 16 Further reading
* 16.1 Guide books
* 16.2 Older guides
* 17 External links
Timeline of Bologna
_ Porta Maggiore, one of the twelve medieval city gates of
Bologna. Depiction of a 14th-century fight between the militias
of the Guelf and Ghibelline factions in Bologna, from the Croniche_ of
Giovanni Sercambi of Lucca.
After a long decline,
Bologna was reborn in the 5th century under
Bishop Petronius . According to legend,
St. Petronius built the church
of S. Stefano. After the fall of
Bologna was a frontier
stronghold of the
Exarchate of Ravenna in the Po plain, and was
defended by a line of walls which did not enclose most of the ancient
ruined Roman city. In 728, the city was captured by the Lombard king
Liutprand , becoming part of the Lombard Kingdom. The Germanic
conquerors formed a district called "addizione longobarda" near the
complex of S. Stefano.
Charlemagne stayed in this district in 786.
In the 11th century, under the
Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire ,
Bologna began to
aspire to being a free commune , which it was able to do when Matilda
Tuscany died, in 1115, and the following year the city obtained
many judicial and economic concessions from Emperor Henry V . Bologna
Lombard League against
Frederick Barbarossa in 1164 which
ended with the
Peace of Constance in 1183; after which, the city began
to expand rapidly (this is the period in which its famous towers were
built) and it became one of the main commercial trade centres thanks
to a system of canals that allowed large ships to come and go.
Traditionally said to be founded in 1088, the University of Bologna
is widely considered to be the first university . The university
originated as an international centre of study of medieval Roman law
under major glossators , including
Irnerius . It numbered
Boccaccio and Petrarca among its students. The medical school is
In the 12th century, the city's families engaged in continual
Bologna in 1640. Walls and gates of Bologna.
Pope Julius II
Pope Julius II besieged
Bologna and sacked the artistic
treasures of his palace. From that point on, until the 18th century,
Bologna was part of the
Papal States , ruled by a cardinal legato and
by a Senate which every two months elected a gonfaloniere (judge),
assisted by eight elder consuls. In 1530, in front of Saint Petronio
Church , Charles V was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Clement VII
Then a plague at the end of the 16th century reduced the population
from 72,000 to 59,000, and another in 1630 to 47,000. The population
later recovered to a stable 60,000–65,000. However, there was also
great progress during this era: in 1564, the Piazza del Nettuno and
Palazzo dei Banchi were built, along with the
Archiginnasio , the
centre of the University. The period of Papal rule saw the
construction of many churches and other religious establishments, and
the reincarnation of older ones. At this time,
Bologna had ninety-six
convents, more than any other Italian city. Artists working during
this period in
Bologna established the
Bolognese School which includes
Annibale Carracci ,
Guercino and others of European
LATE MODERN AND CONTEMPORARY
Piazza del Nettuno in 1855, looking towards Piazza Maggiore.
Napoleon conquered Bologna, making it the capital of the
Cispadane Republic . After the fall of Napoleon, the
Congress of Vienna of 1815 placed
Bologna once again under the
sovereignty of the
Papal States , leading to the uprisings of 1831 and
1848, when the Austrian garrisons which controlled the city were
temporarily expelled. Eventually, during the Second War of Italian
Independence , on 11 and 12 March 1860 the city voted in favour of
annexation by the
Kingdom of Sardinia , soon to become the new Kingdom
World War II
Bologna suffered extensive damage during
World War II
World War II . The strategic
importance of the city as industrial and railway hub connecting
northern and central
Italy made it a strategic target for the Allied
forces. On 16 July 1943 a massive aerial bombardment destroyed much of
the historic city centre and killed scores of people. The main railway
station and adjoining areas were severely hit, and 44% of the
buildings in the centre were listed as having been destroyed or
severely damaged. The city was heavily bombed again on 25 September.
The raids, which this time were not confined to the city centre, left
936 people dead and thousands injured.
During the war, the city became a key centre of the Italian
resistance movement . On 7 November 1944, a pitched battle around
Porta Lame , waged by partisans of the 7th Brigade of the _Gruppi
d'Azione Patriottica_ against Fascist and Nazi occupation forces, did
not succeed in triggering a general uprising, despite being one of the
largest resistance-led urban conflicts in the European theatre.
Resistance forces entered
Bologna on the morning of 21 April 1945. By
this time, the Germans had already largely left the city in the face
of the Allied advance, spearheaded by Polish forces advancing from the
east during the
Battle of Bologna which had been fought since 9 April.
First to arrive in the centre was the 87th Infantry Regiment of the
Friuli Combat Group under general Arturo Scattini , who entered the
centre from _Porta Maggiore_ to the south. Since the soldiers were
dressed in British outfits, they were initially thought to be part of
the allied forces; when the local inhabitants heard the soldiers were
speaking Italian, they poured out on to the streets to celebrate.
Aftermath of the 1980 terrorist bombing.
In the post-war years,
Bologna became a thriving industrial centre as
well as a political stronghold of the
Italian Communist Party .
Between 1945 and 1999, the city had an uninterrupted series of
left-wing mayors , the first of whom was Giuseppe
Bologna was the scene of rioting linked to the Movement of
1977 , a spontaneous political movement of the time. The alleged
police shooting of a far-left activist,
Francesco Lorusso , sparked
two days of street clashes. On 2 August 1980, at the height of the
"years of lead ", a terrorist bomb was set off in the central railway
Bologna killing 85 people and wounding 200, an event which
is known in
Italy as the
Bologna massacre . In 1995, members of the
Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari were convicted for
carrying out the attack, while
Licio Gelli —Grand Master of the
underground Freemason lodge
Propaganda Due (P2) —was convicted for
hampering the investigation, together with three agents of the secret
military intelligence service
Francesco Pazienza and
Pietro Musumeci ). Commemorations take place in
Bologna on 2 August
each year, culminating in a concert in the main square.
In 1999 the long tradition of left-wing mayors was interrupted by the
victory of the independent candidate Giorgio Guazzaloca, who led a
centre-right coalition; this brief experience ended in 2004 when
Sergio Cofferati , a former trade union leader, was elected. The next
Flavio Delbono , elected in June 2009, resigned in
January 2010 after being involved in a corruption scandal. After a
15-month period in which the city was administered under Anna Maria
Cancellieri (as a state-appointed prefect ),
Virginio Merola was
elected as mayor, leading a left-wing coalition comprising the
Democratic Party ,
Left Ecology Freedom and
Italy of Values .
Aerial photograph of
Bologna (from East to West).
Bologna is situated on the edge of the Po Plain at the foot of the
Apennine Mountains , at the meeting of the Reno and
valleys. As Bologna's two main watercourses flow directly to the sea,
the town lies outside of the drainage basin of the River Po . The
Province of Bologna stretches from the western edge of the Po Plain on
the border with
Ferrara to the Tuscan-Emilian Apennines. The centre of
the town is 54 metres (177 ft) above sea level (while elevation within
the municipality ranges from 29 metres (95 ft) in the suburb of
Corticella to 300 metres (980 ft) in Sabbiuno and the Colle della
Province of Bologna stretches from the Po Plain into the
Apennines; the highest point in the province is the peak of Corno alle
Lizzano in Belvedere ) at 1,945 metres (6,381 ft) above sea
Bologna has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen : Cfa, Trewartha :
Annual precipitation oscillates between around 450 mm (18 in) and 900
mm (35 in), with the majority generally falling in spring and autumn.
Snow occasionally falls during winter and heavy snowfalls; the last
major event was in February 2012 , when almost a meter of snow fell in
CLIMATE DATA FOR BOLOGNA (1971–2000, EXTREMES 1946–PRESENT)
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 1.0 MM)
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%)
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
Source: Servizio Meteorologico (sun and humidity 1961–1990)
List of mayors of Bologna
Bologna City Council
Consiglio Comunale di
Virginio Merola , PD
Since 16 May 2011
* PD 21
* CCA 1
* LN 4
* M5S 4
* FI 2
* IB 2
* CC 2
Party-list proportional representation
5–19 June 2016
Palazzo d\'Accursio , Bologna
Palazzo D'Accursio, Bologna's City Hall.
The legislative body of the municipality is the City Council
(_Consiglio Comunale_), which is composed of 36 councillors elected
every five years with a proportional system, contextually to the
mayoral elections. The executive body is the City Committee (_Giunta
Comunale_), composed by 7 assessors , that is nominated and presieded
over by a directly elected Mayor . The current mayor of
Virginio Merola (PD ), elected on 16 May 2011 with the 50.5% of the
The municipality of
Bologna was subdivided into nine administrative
Boroughs (_Quartieri_) until 2015. Each Borough is governed by a
Council (_Consiglio_) and a President, elected contextually to the
city Mayor. The urban organization is governed by the Italian
Constitution (art. 114). The Boroughs have the power to advise the
Mayor with nonbinding opinions on a large spectrum of topics
(environment, construction, public health, local markets) and exercise
the functions delegated to them by the City Council; in addition they
are supplied with an autonomous founding in order to finance local
activities. Of the nine boroughs, eight were governed by the
Democratic Party and one by the
Lega Nord . In July 2015 has been
approved a reform to reduce the Boroughs from nine to six, as a result
of the spending review to save up to 200.000 euros.
_ Panoramic view of central
Piazza Maggiore ,
San Petronio Basilica and the City Hall . For a complete list,
see Buildings and structures in
Bologna ._ _ The iconic Due
Torri_ Antiques market and porticoes in
Piazza Santo Stefano .
Sanctuary of the Madonna di San Luca .
Until the late 19th century, when a large-scale urban renewal project
Bologna remained one of the few remaining large walled
cities in Europe; to this day and despite having suffered considerable
bombing damage in 1944, Bologna's 350 acres (141.64 ha) historic
centre is Europe's second largest, containing an immense wealth of
important medieval, renaissance, and baroque artistic monuments.
Bologna developed along the Via Emilia as an Etruscan and later Roman
colony; the Via Emilia still runs straight through the city under the
changing names of Strada Maggiore, Rizzoli, Ugo Bassi, and San Felice.
Due to its Roman heritage, the central streets of Bologna, today
largely pedestrianized, follow the grid pattern of the Roman
settlement. The original Roman ramparts were supplanted by a high
medieval system of fortifications, remains of which are still visible,
and finally by a third and final set of ramparts built in the 13th
century, of which numerous sections survive. No more than twenty
medieval defensive towers remain out of up to 180 that were built in
the 12th and 13th centuries before the arrival of unified civic
government. The most famous of the towers of
Bologna are the central
"Due Torri" (_Asinelli_ and _Garisenda_), whose iconic leaning forms
provide a popular symbol of the town.
The cityscape is further enriched by its elegant and extensive
porticoes, for which the city is famous. In total, there are some 38
kilometres (24 miles) of porticoes in the city's historical centre
(over 45 km (28 mi) in the city proper), which make it possible to
walk for long distances sheltered from the elements.
Portico di San Luca is possibly the world's longest. It connects
Porta Saragozza (one of the twelve gates of the ancient walls built in
the Middle Ages, which circled a 7.5 km (4.7 mi) part of the city)
with the Sanctuary of the Madonna di San Luca , a church begun in 1723
on the site of an 11th-century edifice which had already been enlarged
in the 14th century, prominently located on a hill (289 metres (948
feet)) overlooking the town, which is one of Bologna's main landmarks.
The winding 666 vault arcade, almost four kilometres (3,796 m or
12,454 ft) long, effectively links San Luca, as the church is commonly
called, to the centre of town. Its porticos provide shelter for the
traditional procession which every year since 1433 has carried a
Byzantine icon of the Madonna with Child attributed to Luke the
Evangelist down to the
Bologna Cathedral during Ascension week.
Other churches in
* Basilica of San Petronio , one of the world's largest churches
* Basilica of Santo Stefano and sanctuary
Basilica of San Domenico and sanctuary
* Basilica of St Francis
* Basilica of
Santa Maria dei Servi
* Basilica of San Giacomo Maggiore (13th–14th century), featuring
Renaissance artworks such as the Bentivoglio Altarpiece by Lorenzo
* Church of
San Michele in Bosco
View from the top of the Basilica di San Petronio. In center
the dome of Santuario di Santa Maria della Vita, right – "Due
Torri": Asinelli (higher) and Garisenda.
Unipol Tower , at 127 m, is the city's tallest building.
Bologna is an important railway and motorway hub in Italy. The
Bologna is characterized by a flourishing industrial
sector, traditionally based on the transformation of agricultural and
zootechnical products (
Segafredo Zanetti ). It also
includes machinery (Coesia , IMA ), energy (
Hera Group ), automotive
Lamborghini ), footwear, textile, engineering, chemical,
printing and publishing industries, as well as a strong financial,
Unipol ) and retail (
Coop Italia ,
Conad ) activity.
The city's Fiera District (exhibition centre) is one of the largest
in Europe, with important yearly international expos focused on the
automobile sector (
Bologna Motor Show ), ceramics for the building
industry (International Exhibition of Ceramic Tiles and Bathroom
Furnishings) and food industry. In addition, several important firms
in the fields of food, tobacco and electronics have their headquarters
in the urban area of Bologna, as well as important retail and
wholesale trade (the "Centergross" in
Argelato , esabilished in 1973),
and one of the largest Italian food processing companies (Conserve
Bologna is home to the
Guglielmo Marconi International Airport ,
recently expanded to accommodate larger aircraft. Today, it is the
seventh busiest Italian airport for passenger traffic (7 million
passengers handled in 2016).
Bologna Centrale railway station is one
of the most important train hubs in
Italy thanks to the city's
strategic location. It serves 58 million passengers annually. In
Bologna San Donato classification yard , with 33 railway
tracks, is the largest in
Italy by size and traffic. The city is also
served by a large network of public bus lines, including trolleybus
lines , operated since 2012 by Trasporto Passeggeri
A large commuter rail service is currently under development (see
Bologna metropolitan railway service ).
At the end of 2016, the city proper had a population of 388,254
(while 1 million live in the greater
Bologna area), located in the
province of Bologna,
Emilia Romagna , of whom 46.7% were male and
53.3% were female. Minors (children ages 18 and younger) totalled
12.86 percent of the population compared to pensioners who number
27.02 percent. This compares with the Italian average of 18.06 percent
(minors) and 19.94 percent (pensioners). The average age of Bologna
resident is 51 compared to the Italian average of 42. In the five
years between 2002 and 2007, the population of
Bologna grew by 0.0
Italy as a whole grew by 3.56 percent. The current
birth rate of
Bologna is 8.07 births per 1,000 inhabitants compared to
the Italian average of 9.45 births.
As of 2009 , 89.47% of the population was Italian . The largest
immigrant group came from other European countries (mostly Romanians
Albanians ): 2.82%,
East Asia (mostly Filipino ): 1.50%, and South
Asia (mostly from
Bangladesh ): 1.39%.
Courtyard of the 16th-century
Archiginnasio , historical seat of
University of Bologna —Europe's oldest, founded in 1088.
University of Bologna , founded in 1088, is the oldest university
in the world, and was an important centre of European intellectual
life during the Middle Ages, attracting scholars from
throughout Europe. A unique heritage of medieval art, exemplified by
the illuminated manuscripts and jurists' tombs produced in the city
from the 13th to the 15th centuries, provides a cultural backdrop to
the renown of the medieval institution. The Studium, as it was
originally known, began as a loosely organized teaching system with
each master collecting fees from students on an individual basis. The
location of the early University was thus spread throughout the city,
with various colleges being founded to support students of a specific
nationality. Anatomical theatre of the
Archiginnasio , dating
In the Napoleonic era, the headquarters of the university were moved
to their present location on Via Zamboni (formerly Via San Donato), in
the north-eastern sector of the city centre. Today, the University's
11 schools, 33 departments, and 93 libraries are spread across the
city and include four subsidiary campuses in nearby
Ravenna , and
Rimini . Noteworthy students present at the university
in centuries past included
Thomas Becket , Pope
Nicholas V ,
Erasmus of Rotterdam ,
Peter Martyr Vermigli , and
Laura Bassi , appointed in 1732, became the first woman
to officially teach at a college in Europe. In more recent history,
Luigi Galvani , the discoverer of biological electricity , and
Guglielmo Marconi , the pioneer of radio technology, also worked at
the University. The
University of Bologna remains one of the most
respected and dynamic post-secondary educational institutions in
Italy. To this day,
Bologna is still very much a university town, and
the city's population swells from 400,000 to over 500,000 whenever
classes are in session. This community includes a great number of
Erasmus, Socrates, and overseas students.
The university's botanical garden , the Orto Botanico
Bologna , was established in 1568; it is the
fourth oldest in Europe.
Bologna is also home to other universities such as the
Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies
Bologna was founded in 1955 as the first campus of a US
post-graduate school to open in Europe. It was inspired by Marshall
Plan efforts to build a cultural bridge between America and Europe.
Bologna Center also hosts the _Associazione italo-americana
"Luciano Finelli,"_ which supports cross-cultural awareness and
Italy and the United States.
In the city are present several high schools and institutes
superiors, both public and independent schools .
The secondary schools are:
* High School of Art and Design Francesco Arcangeli
* Liceo ginnasio statale (
Liceo scientifico and
Liceo Classico )
* Liceo ginnasio statale (
Liceo Classico )
* Liceo linguistico umanistico
Liceo scientifico Niccolò Copernico
Liceo scientifico Albert Bruce Sabin
Leonardo Da Vinci
Leonardo Da Vinci
Independent School are:
Alessandro Manzoni (Scuole Manzoni)
Liceo scientifico Malpighi
* Liceo linguistico International
Liceo scientifico San Vincenzo Dè Paoli
* Istituto Sant'Alberto Magno
* Istituto Composito Collegio San Luigi
* Centro Studi Santo Stefano
Secondary Technical School are:
* Istituto di Istruzione Superiore Pier Crescenzi e Antonio
* Istituto tecnico commerciale statale
* Istituto tecnico industriale Odone Belluzzi
* Istituto tecnico industriale Aldini Valeriani-Sirani
* Istituto professionale statale Artigianato e Servizi Aldrovandi
* Istituto professionale per l'industria e l'artigianato Aristotile
* Istituto tecnico agrario (agricolutarl education ) A. Serpieri
* Istituto di istruzione superiore IPC Manfredi – ITC Tanari
International museum and library of music displays ancient
musical instruments and unique musical scores from the 16th to the
Over the centuries,
Bologna has acquired many nicknames: "the learned
one" (_la dotta_) is a reference to its university; "the fat one" (_la
grassa_) refers to its cuisine.
"The red one" (_la rossa_) originally refers to the colour of the
roofs in the historic centre, but this nickname is also connected to
the political situation in the city, started after World War II: until
the election of a centre-right mayor in 1999, the city was renowned as
a bastion of socialism and communism in particular the Italian
Communist Party . The centre-left regained power again in the 2004
mayoral elections, with the election of
Sergio Cofferati . It was one
of the first European cities to experiment with the concept of free
public transport .
The city of
Bologna was appointed a
UNESCO City of Music on 26 May
2006. According to UNESCO, "As the first Italian city to be appointed
to the Network,
Bologna has demonstrated a rich musical tradition that
is continuing to evolve as a vibrant factor of contemporary life and
creation. It has also shown a strong commitment to promoting music as
an important vehicle for inclusion in the fight against racism and in
an effort to encourage economic and social development. Fostering a
wide range of genres from classical to electronic, jazz, folk and
Bologna offers its citizens a musical vitality that deeply
infiltrates the city's professional, academic, social and cultural
ENTERTAINMENT AND PERFORMING ARTS
Façade of "Arena del Sole" theatre.
The theatre was a popular form of entertainment in
Bologna until the
16th century. The first public theater was the Teatro alla Scala,
active since 1547 in Palazzo del Podestà .
An important figure of Italian Bolognese theatre was Alfredo Testoni
, the playwright, author of _The Cardinal Lambertini _, which has had
great theatrical success since 1905, repeated on screen by the
Gino Cervi .
In 1998, the City of
Bologna initiated the project "
Bologna of the Theatres), an association of the major
theatrical facilities in the city. This is a circuit of theatres which
offer diverse and colourful cultural and theatrical opportunities,
ranging from Bolognese dialect to contemporary dance , but with a
communications strategy and promoting unity. Specifically, the shows
on the bill in various theatres participating in the project are
advertised weekly through a single poster.
Bologna's opera house is the
Teatro Comunale di Bologna .
Orchestra Mozart , whose music director was
Claudio Abbado until
his death in 2014, was created in 2004.
Bologna hosts a number of festivals and other events, including:
* Angelica: International Contemporary Music Festival
Bologna Contemporanea: international festival on contemporary
* Bolognafestival: international classical music festival
Bologna Jazz Festival: the Italian autumn jazz event
* Biografilm Festival: International Film Festival devote to
* BilBolBul:International Comic Festival
* Danza Urbana: International Street Contemporary
* F.I.S.Co : International Festival on Contemporary art (now merged
Live Arts Week )
* Future Film Festival: International Festival on animation and
* Il Cinema Ritrovato: International Film Festival about Forgotten
Live Arts Week
* Gender Bender: International Festival on the gender identity,
sexual orientation and body representation
* Homework festival: electronic music festival
* Human Rights Film Festival
Netmage : International Festival dedicated to Electronic Art (now
Live Arts Week )
* Some Prefer cake: Italian lesbian film festival
* Zecchino d\'Oro : International festival of children's song
Tagliatelle al ragù Bolognese_ as served in Bologna.
Bologna is renowned for its culinary tradition. It has given its name
to the well-known
Bolognese sauce , a meat based pasta sauce called in
Italy _ragù alla bolognese_ but in the city itself just _ragù_ as in
Tagliatelle al ragù_. Situated in the fertile Po River Valley, the
rich local cuisine depends heavily on meats and cheeses. As in all of
Emilia-Romagna, the production of cured pork meats such as prosciutto
, mortadella and salumi is an important part of the local food
industry. Well-regarded nearby vineyards include Pignoletto dei Colli
Sangiovese di Romagna. Tagliatelle
with ragù , lasagne , tortellini served in broth, and mortadella, the
Bologna sausage , are among the local specialties.
Traditional Bolognese desserts are often linked to holidays, such as
fave dei morti, multi-coloured almond paste cookies made for All
Saints\' Day , jam-filled raviole cookies that are served on Saint
Joseph\'s Day , and carnival sweets known as sfrappole, a light and
delicate fried pastry topped with powder sugar. Torta di riso, a
custard-like cake made of almonds, rice and amaretto, is made
throughout the year.
The 38,000-capacity Stadio Renato Dall\'Ara is the home of
Bologna FC 1909
A sporting nickname for
Bologna is _Basket City_ in reference to the
successes of the town's two rival historic basketball clubs, Fortitudo
and Virtus , though the clubs are now often referred to by the names
of their current sponsors. Of the two, the latter won 15 Italian
basketball championships and two Euroleagues making them one of the
most influential European basketball clubs; the former won two league
titles between 1999 and 2005. The rivalry is temporarily dormant since
Fortitudo left the country's professional ranks when, following the
2008–09 season , the club was relegated from the top-level Lega A to
LegADue , before being relegated further to the nominally amateur
Serie A Dilettanti for financial reasons; in the 2012–13 season,
Fortitudo will play in the
LegADue . The Italian
which operates both Lega A and LegADue, has its headquarters in
Football also has a strong tradition in Bologna. The city's main
Bologna F.C. 1909 , have won seven Italian league championships
(the latest in 1963–64 ), which make them the sixth most successful
team in the history of the league; in their heyday in the 1930s
Bologna FC were called _"Lo squadrone che tremare il mondo fa"_
(Italian for "The Team that Shakes the World"). The club play at the
38,000-capacity Stadio Renato Dall\'Ara , which has hosted the Italian
national team in both football and rugby union , as well as the San
Marino national football team . It was also a venue at the 1990 FIFA
World Cup .
Rugby union is also present in the city: Rugby
Bologna 1928 is not
only one of the oldest Italian rugby union clubs but also the first
ever club affiliated to the Italian rugby union federation . and, to
date (2014) is Italy's oldest rugby union club still in operation. The
club took part to the top tier of the Italian championship for the
first 25 years of their history never winning the title but getting to
the runner-up place several times; they returned in top division
(Serie A1 then Super 10), in the late 1990s and faced serious
financial problems which led them to the relegation and almost to
Main category: People from
Pope Benedict XIV born in
Bologna in 1675
Ulisse Aldrovandi (naturalist, 1522–1605)
Antonio Alessandrini (anatomist and parasitologist, 1786–1861)
Maria Gaetana Agnesi (mathematician, humanitarian, and linguist,
Amico Aspertini (painter, c. 1474–1552)
Pupi Avati (director, born 1938)
Riccardo Bacchelli (writer, 1891–1985)
Adriano Banchieri (composer, 1568–1634)
Agostino Barelli (architect, 1627–1687)
Antonio Basoli (painter and scene designer, 1774–1848)
Laura Bassi (scientist, first female appointed to university chair
in Europe, 1711–1788)
Ugo Bassi (Italian nationalist hero, executed for role in 1848
Pier Francesco Battistelli (painter of quadratura , 17th-century)
Stefano Benni (writer, born 1947)
Benedict XIV (Prospero Lambertini, Pope 1740–58)
Giovanni II Bentivoglio (1443–1508)
Giordano Berti (writer, born 1959)
Amedeo Biavati (footballer, 1915–1979, credited with the
invention of the stepover , World Champion 1938, played only for
Bologna FC )
* Cristina D\'Avena (actress and singer, born 1964)
Francesco Ricci Bitti , Italian sports administrator
Simone Bolelli (professional tennis player, born 1985)
Giacomo Bolognini (painter, 1664–1734)
Rafael Bombelli (mathematician, 1526–1572)
Rossano Brazzi (actor, 1916–1994)
Floriano Buroni (engraver, 17th-century)
Raffaella Carrà (singer, born 1943)
Annibale Carracci (painter, 1560–1609)
Lodovico Carracci (painter, 1555–1619)
Agostino Carracci (painter, 1557–1602)
Chiara Caselli (actress, born 1967)
Pier Ferdinando Casini (politician, born 1955)
Pietro Cataldi (mathematician, 1548–1626)
Pierluigi Collina (football referee, born 1960)
Carlo Colombara (operatic bass, born 1964)
Giovanni Paolo Colonna (composer, 1637–1695)
Alessandro Cortini (musician, born 1976)
* Giuseppe Maria Crespi (painter, 1665–1747)
Donato Creti (painter, 1671–1749)
Giulio Cesare Croce (cantastorie and writer, 1550–1609)
Scipione del Ferro (mathematician, solved the cubic equation ,
* Francesco Francia (Francesco Raibolini, painter, c. 1450–1517)
Lucio Dalla (singer-songwriter, 1943–2012)
Domenichino (Domenico Zampieri, painter, 1581–1641)
Elena Duglioli (Roman Catholic aristocrat, 1472–1520)
Sara Errani (tennis player, born 1987)
Gianfranco Fini (politician, born 1952)
Aristotile Fioravanti (architect, c. 1415–c. 1486)
Luigi Galvani (scientist, discoverer of bioelectricity ,
Alessandro Gamberini , (footballer, born 1981)
Serena Grandi (actress, born 1958)
Gregory XIII (Ugo Boncompagni, Pope 1572–85, instituted the
Gregorian Calendar )
Gregory XV (Alessandro Ludovisi, Pope 1621–3)
Guercino (Giovanni Barbieri, painter, 1591–1666)
Irnerius (jurist, c. 1050–at least 1125)
Imelda Lambertini (Dominican novice, Eucharistic mystic,
and child saint, c. 1322–1333)
Claudio Lolli (singer-songwriter, born 1950)
Lucius II (Gherardo Caccianemici dell'Orso, Pope 1144–5)
Marcello Malpighi (physiologist, anatomist and histologist,
Guglielmo Marconi (engineer, pioneer of wireless telegraphy ,
Nobel prize for Physics, 1874–1937)
Giovanni Battista Martini (musical theorist, 1706–1784)
Giuseppe Mezzofanti (cardinal, linguist and hyperpolyglot,
Marco Minghetti (economist and statesman, 1818–1886)
Giorgio Morandi (painter, 1890–1964)
Gianni Morandi (singer, born 1944)
Ludovico Morbioli (Catholic layman, declared Blessed, 1433–1485)
Edgardo Mortara (Catholic priest that was the subject of the
Mortara Case_ during the
Risorgimento , 1851–1940)
Gianluca Pagliuca (footballer, born 1966)
Pier Paolo Pasolini
Pier Paolo Pasolini (writer, poet, director, 1922–1975)
Roberto Regazzi (luthier, born 1956)
Guido Reni (painter, 1575–1642)
Ottorino Respighi (composer, 1879–1936)
Augusto Righi (physicist, authority on electromagnetism ,
Carlo Ruini (equine anatomist, 1530–1598)
Angelo Schiavio (footballer, 1905–1990, scored the winning goal
in extra time in the 1934 World Cup Final , played only for
Elisabetta Sirani (painter, 1638–1665)
Alberto Tomba (skier, born 1966)
Ondina Valla (first Italian woman Olympic gold medalist,
Mariele Ventre (teacher and educator, founder of Piccolo Coro
dell\' Antoniano choir, 1939–1995)
Christian Vieri (footballer, born 1973)
Vitale da Bologna (painter, fl. 1330, d. 1361)
Anteo Zamboni (anarchist who at the age of 15 attempted to
assassinate Benito Mussolini, 1911–1926)
Alex Zanardi (racing driver, born 1966)
Marco Aurelio Zani de Ferranti (writer, musician, and composer,
Alessandro Carloni (director, animator, artist who worked on films
Kung Fu Panda _ and _
The Croods ,_ born 1978)
In addition to the natives of the city listed above, the following
Bologna their home:
Giosuè Carducci (poet and academic, Nobel Prize for Literature,
born near Lucca, Tuscany, 1835–1907)
Carlo Felice Cillario (Italian conductor of international renown,
founder of the
Bologna Chamber Orchestra in 1946 (7 February 1915 –
13 December 2007)
Umberto Eco (writer and academic, born in Alessandria, Piedmont,
Enzio of Sardinia (born c. 1218, King of
Sardinia and illegitimate
son of Emperor Frederick II, was imprisoned in
Palazzo Re Enzo from
1249 until his death in 1272)
Vasco Errani (politician, born 1955)
William Girometti (painter, born in Milan, 1924-1998)
Alfonso Lombardi (sculptor, born in Ferrara, c. 1497–1537)
* Niccolò dell\'Arca (sculptor, born in Bari, c. 1435/1440–2
Juan Ignacio Molina (naturalist, born in
Chile , 1740–1829)
Giovanni Pascoli (poet and academic, born in San Mauro di Romagna,
St. Petronius (San Petronio, bishop of
Bologna and patron saint of
the city, birthplace unknown, died c. 450 AD)
Romano Prodi (economist, politician, born in Scandiano, Reggio
Gioachino Rossini (opera composer, born in Pesaro, 1792–1868)
Giuseppe Torelli (composer, born in Verona, 1658–1709)
Wu Ming (collective of writers, active since 2000)
Farinelli (Carlo Broschi, castrato opera singer, 1705–1782)
* Cesare Cremonini (songwriter, 1980)
* COESIA Group – G.D (packaging)
* CIBO- Culinary Institute of
Bologna – (Culinary-Cooking School))
* Coop (supermarket chain)
Ducati Motor Holding (motorcycles)
* IMA S.p.A (packaging)
Segafredo Zanetti – (coffee)
Unipol – (bank and insurance)
* YOOX Group Spa – (Fashion / Online Apparel Retailer)
This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please
help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources .
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2017)_
_(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in
Bologna is twinned with:
Eritrea , since 1974
Coventry , United Kingdom, since 1984
Ukraine , since 1966
La Plata ,
Argentina , since 1988
Leipzig , Germany, since 1962
* Portland , United States, since 2003
Senegal , since 1991
* St. Louis , United States, since 1987
* San Carlos ,
Nicaragua , since 1988
Thessaloniki , Greece, since 1981
Toulouse , France, since 1981
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina , since 1994
* Valencia , Spain, since 1976
Croatia , since 1961
Bologna metropolitan area
Bolognese bell ringing art
List of tallest buildings in Bologna
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Painting, Volume 4_ (1924) pp 394-481.
* ^ Grieco, _Bologna: a city to discover_(1976) pp 114-16.
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quartieri". Retrieved 20 September 2015.
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Bologna city guide: top five
sights". _The Daily Telegraph_. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
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Bologna Centrale". Grandi Stazioni. Retrieved 30 December
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Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 December 2013. Retrieved 1 June
* ^ "istat". Demo.istat.it. Retrieved 19 April 2010.
* ^ "istat". Demo.istat.it. Retrieved 19 April 2010.
* ^ "American Centres — University of Bologna". _Unibo.it_.
Retrieved 18 January 2016.
* ^ "Remarks at the 50th Anniversary of SAIS in Bologna".
_2001-2009.state.gov_. 19 May 2005. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
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* ^ "Human Rights Film Festival". Cinetecadibologna.it. Retrieved
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* ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 9 February 2012.
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* ^ "Archived copy". Retrieved 2017-05-09.
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_See also: Bibliography of the history of
* Mancini, Giorgia, and Nicholas Penny, eds. _The Sixteenth Century
Italian Paintings: Volume III:
Ferrara and Bologna_ (National Gallery
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* Robertson, Anne Walters. _Tyranny under the Mantle of St Peter:
Pope Paul II and Bologna_ (2002)
* Grieco, Romy. _Bologna: a city to discover_(1976)
* Insight Guides. _Pocket Bologna_ (2016).
* Noyes, Mary Tolaro. _
Bologna Reflections_ (2009).
* "Bologna", _Italy_ (2nd ed.), Coblenz: Karl Baedeker, 1870 **
"Bologna", _Hand-book for Travellers in Northern Italy_ (16th ed.),
London: John Murray, 1897,
* T. Francis Bumpus (1900), "
Ferrara and Bologna", _The Cathedrals
and Churches of Northern Italy_, London: Laurie
* "Bologna", _Northern Italy_ (14th ed.), Leipzig: Karl Baedeker,
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