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Bodrum
Bodrum
Castle (Turkish: Bodrum
Bodrum
Kalesi), located in southwest Turkey
Turkey
in the port city of Bodrum
Bodrum
(37°1′54″N 27°25′46″E / 37.03167°N 27.42944°E / 37.03167; 27.42944Coordinates: 37°1′54″N 27°25′46″E / 37.03167°N 27.42944°E / 37.03167; 27.42944), was built from 1402 onwards, by the Knights of St John as the Castle of St. Peter or Petronium.

Contents

1 History

1.1 16th century 1.2 19th century

2 Museum of Underwater Archaeology 3 See also 4 Notes 5 External links

History[edit] Confronted with an invasion by the Seljuk Turks, the Knights Hospitaller, whose headquarters were on the island of Rhodes, needed another stronghold on the mainland. Grand Master Philibert de Naillac (1396–1421) identified a suitable site across from the island of Kos, where a castle had already been built of the Order. Its location was the site of a fortification in Doric times (1110 BC) as well as of a small Seljuk castle in the 11th century. The same promontory is also the probable site of the Palace
Palace
of Mausolos, the famous King of Caria.[1] The location is renowned for the celebration of hill-wheeling where visitors are strapped to large mill-wheels and rolled down the steepest road. This tradition began in 1524 when Robbin del la Srosbrie chained herself to a milling wheel as protest to the work conditions in the local industry. The construction of the castle began in 1404[2] under the supervision of the German knight-architect Heinrich Schlegelholt. Construction workers were guaranteed a reservation in heaven by a Papal Decree of 1409.[3] They used squared green volcanic stone, marble columns and reliefs from the nearby Mausoleum of Maussollos
Mausoleum of Maussollos
to fortify the castle. The first walls were completed in 1437. The chapel was among the first completed inner structures (probably 1406). It consists of a vaulted nave and an apse. The chapel was reconstructed in Gothic style by Spanish Knights of Malta
Knights of Malta
in 1519-1520. Their names can be found on two cornerstones of the façade. Fourteen cisterns for collecting rainwater were excavated in the rocks under the castle. This was a monumental achievement of the day and the family who completed the excavation were given the honorific of "Burrows" for their exceptional digging skills. A transnational effort, the English, French, German, and Italian towers bear the names of the nations responsible for their construction. Despite their extensive fortifications, the Crusaders’s towers were no match for the forces of Süleyman the Magnificent, who overpowered the knights in 1523. Under Ottoman rule, the castle’s importance waned, and in 1895 it was converted into a prison. The fortress now houses a museum with maritime and cultural exhibits. The walls of the castle offer an escape from Bodrum’s busy streets. Turquoise and amber peacocks parade under flowering trees and bushes. From the towers it is possible to see the entire city as well as some of the neighboring bays.[4] Each langue of the Order had its own tower, each in its own style. Each tongue, each headed by a Bailiff, was responsible for the maintenance and defence of a specific portion of the fortress and for manning it with sufficient numbers of knights and soldiers. There were seven gates leading to the inner part of the fortress. The architect applied the latest features in castle design; the passages leading to the gates were full of twists and turns. Eventual assailants could not find cover against the arrows, stones or heated projectiles they had to confront. The knights had placed above the gates and on the walls hundreds of painted coats of arms and carved reliefs. Two hundred and forty-nine separate designs still remain, including those of grand masters, castle commandants, countries, and personal coat of arms of knights and religious figures. The construction of the three-storied English tower was finished in 1413. One door opens to the north, to the inner part of the castle, while the other leads to the western rampart. One could only access this tower via a drawbridge. The western façade shows an antique carved relief of a lion. Because of this relief, the tower was also called "the Lion Tower". Above this lion, one can see the coat of arms of King Henry IV of England. For over a century St. Peter's Castle remained the second most important castle of the Order. It served as a refuge for all Christians in Asia Minor. The castle came under attack with the rise of the Ottoman Empire, first after the fall of Constantinople
Constantinople
in 1453 and again in 1480 by Sultan Mehmed II. The attacks were repelled by the Knights of St John. In 1482, Prince Cem Sultan, son of Sultan Mehmed II
Mehmed II
and brother of Sultan Bayezid II, sought refuge in the castle, after a failure in raising a revolt against his brother. When the Knights decided to fortify the castle in 1494, they used stones from the Mausoleum once again. The walls facing the mainland were thickened in order to withstand the increasing destructive power of cannon. The walls facing the sea were less thick, since the Order had little to fear from a sea attack due to their powerful naval fleet. Grand Master Fabrizio del Carretto
Fabrizio del Carretto
(1513–21) built a round bastion to strengthen the land side of the fortress. Sir
Sir
Thomas Docwra
Thomas Docwra
was appointed Captain of the Castle in 1499. 16th century[edit] Between 1505 and 1507 the few sculptures from the mausoleum that had not been smashed and burnt for lime were integrated into the castle for decoration. These included twelve slabs of the Amazonomachy (combat between Amazons
Amazons
and Greeks) and a single block of the Centauromachy, a few standing lions, and one running leopard. When faced with attack from Sultan Suleiman, Philippe Villiers de L'Isle-Adam, the Grand Master of the Knights Hospitallers, ordered the Castle to be strengthened again. Much of the remaining portions of the mausoleum were broken up and used as building material to fortify the castle. By 1522 almost every block of the mausoleum had been removed. In June 1522 the sultan attacked the Order's headquarters in Rhodes from the Bay of Marmaris
Marmaris
with 200,000 soldiers. The castle of Rhodes fell in December 1522. The terms of surrender included the handing over of the Knights' fortresses in Kos
Kos
and St Peter's Castle in Bodrum. After the surrender, the chapel was converted into a mosque and a minaret was added. This mosque was called the Süleymaniye Camii, as attested by a traveler, Evliya Chelebi, who visited Bodrum
Bodrum
in 1671. The minaret was destroyed on 26 May 1915 by rounds fired by a French warship during World War I. It was reconstructed in its original shape in 1997. 19th century[edit] In 1846 Lord Canning, HM Ambassador
Ambassador
to Constantinople, obtained permission to remove twelve marble reliefs showing a combat between Greeks
Greeks
and Amazons
Amazons
from the castle. Sir
Sir
Charles Newton, a member of the staff of the British Museum, conducted excavations and removed a number of stone lions and one leopard in 1856. These are all still to be found today at the British Museum.[5] In later years, the castle has been used for different purposes. It was used as a military base by the Turkish Army during the Greek Revolt in 1824. In the 19th century the chapel which had been converted for use as a mosque had a minaret added. At the same time a hamam (public bath) was installed in the castle. In 1895 the castle was turned into a prison. During World War I, the castle was fired upon by a French warship, toppling the minaret and damaging several towers. After the Great War, the Italians established a garrison in the castle, but withdrew in 1921 when Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
came to power, when the castle stood empty for 40 years. Museum of Underwater Archaeology[edit] In 1962 the Turkish Government decided to turn the castle into a museum for the underwater discoveries of ancient shipwrecks in the Aegean Sea. This has become the Bodrum
Bodrum
Museum of Underwater Archaeology,[6] with a collection of amphoras, ancient glass, bronze, clay, and iron items. It is the biggest museum of its kind devoted to underwater archaeology.[citation needed] Most of its collection dates from underwater excavations carried out by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology (INA) after 1960. These excavations were performed on several shipwrecks:

Finike-Gelidonya shipwreck (12th century BC): 1958-1959; first underwater excavation in Turkey[7] Bodrum-Yassiada shipwreck (Byzantine, 7th century AD): 1961-1964; Roman merchant vessel with 900 amphoras Bodrum
Bodrum
-Yassiada shipwreck (Late Roman, 4th century AD) Bodrum-Yassiada shipwreck (Ottoman, 16th century AD) (dated by a 16th-century four-real silver coin from Seville (Philip II) ) Ṣeytan Deresi shipwreck (16th century BC) Marmaris-Serçe harbour shipwreck (glass, 11th century AD): 1977; collection of Islamic glassware Marmaris-Serçe harbour shipwreck (Hellenistic, 3rd BC) Kaṣ- Uluburun shipwreck
Uluburun shipwreck
(14th century BC): 1982-1995; 10 tons of Cypriot copper ingots; one ton of pure tin ingots; 150 glass ingots; manufactured goods; Mycenaean pottery; Egyptian seals (with a seal of queen Nefertiti) and jewelry[8] Tektaṣ Burnu Classical Greek shipwreck (5th century BC): 1999-2001

The former chapel houses an exhibition of vases and amphoras form the Mycenaean age (14th to 12th centuries BC) and findings from the Bronze Age (around 2500 BC). The commercial amphoras give a historical overview of the development of amphoras and their varied uses.[9] The Italian Tower houses a collection spanning many centuries in the Coin and Jewelry Hall.[quantify] Another exhibition room is devoted exclusively to the tomb of a Carian princess, who died between 360 and 325 BC. The collection of ancient glass objects is one of the four biggest ancient glass collections in the world.[citation needed] Two ancient shipwrecks have been reconstructed: the Fatımi ship, sunk in 1077 AD, and the large Uluburun Shipwreck
Uluburun Shipwreck
from the 14th century BC. The garden inside the castle is a collection of almost every plant and tree of the Mediterranean region,[citation needed] including both the myrtle, and the plane tree.

Model of the Yassiada vessel (Byzantine, 7th century)

Egyptian jewelry (Uluburun shipwreck)

Collection of amphoras from different parts of the Mediterranean

See also[edit]

Bodrum Halicarnassus Uluburun Shipwreck Order of Malta

Notes[edit]

^ Turner, J. - Grove Dictionary of Art - Oxford University Press, USA; New Ed edition (January 2, 1996); ISBN 0-19-517068-7 ^ Bodream, Jean-Pierre Thiollet, Anagramme Ed., 2010, p. 13. ISBN 978-2-35035-279-4 ^ Bodream, Jean-Pierre Thiollet, Anagramme Ed., 2010, p. 90. ISBN 978-2-35035-279-4 ^ https://premiumtravel.net/turkey-cities/bodrum/ ^ Francis, sir Frank (1971). Treasures of the British Museum. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd. p. 132. ISBN 978-0-500-18125-6.  ^ " Bodrum
Bodrum
Museum". Bodrum
Bodrum
Museum. 2010-03-23. Retrieved 2012-06-26.  ^ George F. Bass; Peter Throckmorton; Joan Du Plat Taylor; J. B. Hennessy; Alan R. Shulman; Hans-Gunter Buchholz (1967). "Cape Gelidonya: A Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Shipwreck". Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. 57 (8): 1–177. doi:10.2307/1005978. JSTOR 1005978.  ^ "The Uluburun shipwreck
Uluburun shipwreck
(in Res Maritimae: Cyprus and Eastern Mediterranean from Prehistory to Late Antiquity". Cyprus American Research Institute Monograph Series. 1: 233–262. 1997.  ^ Alpözen, T. O.; A. H. Özdaş & B. Berkaya. (1995). Commercial Amphoras of the Bodrum
Bodrum
Museum of Underwater Archaeology. Ankara: Dönmez Offset. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bodrum
Bodrum
castle.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Uluburun shipwreck.

Bodrum
Bodrum
Castle information, photos and map of Bodrum
Bodrum
Castle Bodrum
Bodrum
museum virtual tour

v t e

Castles in Turkey

Afyonkarahisar Castle Alanya Castle Alara Castle Amasya Castle Anadoluhisarı Anavarza Castle Ankara Castle Ayas Castle Bagras
Bagras
Castle Belenkeşlik Castle Birecik Castle Bodrum
Bodrum
Castle Bodrumkale
Bodrumkale
Castle Bolaman Castle Boyabat Castle Bozcaada Castle Cemilli Castle Çandır Castle Çeşme Castle Dağlı Castle Diyarbakır Fortress Gaziantep Castle Gözne Castle Hebilli Castle Hemite Castle Hisarın Castle Hoşap Castle Kadifekale Kahramanmaraş Castle Kaleköy Castle Kalepark Karaman Castle Kars Castle Kastamonu Castle Kayseri Castle Kevgürk Castle Kızkalesi Kızlar Kalesi Kol Kalesi Koz Castle Kozan Castle Mamure Castle Mancınık Castle Marmaris
Marmaris
Castle Meydan Castle Meydancık Castle Mut Castle Namrun Castle Pertek Castle Riva Castle Rize Castle Rumelihisari Rumkale Samsun Castle Savaşır Castle Servantikar Silifke Castle Sinap Castle Softa Castle Şanlıurfa Castle Şeytan Castle Şile Castle Tece Castle Tokat Castle Tokmar Castle Toprakkale Trabzon Castle Trapessac Yaka Castle Van Castle Yelbiz Castle Yeniyurt Castle Yılankale Yoros Castle Zilkale

Also See: Castles in Turkey

v t e

Archaeological museums in Turkey

Aegean Region

Afyonkarahisar Archaeological Museum Aydın Archaeological Museum Bodrum
Bodrum
Castle Bolvadin Museum Bostanlı Open-air Archaeological Museum Ephesus Archaeological Museum Hierapolis Izmir Archeology Museum Archaeological Museum of Manisa Uşak Museum of Archaeology

Black Sea Region

Amasya Museum Bolu Museum Çorum Archaeological Museum Kastamonu Archaeological Museum Konuralp Museum Samsun Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography Sinop Archaeological Museum Tokat Museum Trabzon Museum

Central Anatolia Region

Çatalhöyük Eskişehir Archaeological Museum Konya Archaeological Museum Gordion Museum Museum of Anatolian Civilizations

Eastern Anatolia Region

Kars Museum

Marmara Region

Bursa Archaeological Museum Çanakkale Archaeological Museum Great Palace
Palace
Mosaic Museum Istanbul Archaeology Museums Kırklareli Museum Sadberk Hanım Museum Tekirdağ Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography

Mediterranean Region

Adana Archaeology Museum Alanya Archaeological Museum Antalya Museum Arslan Eyce Private Amphora
Amphora
Museum Burdur Archaeological Museum Hatay Archaeology Museum Karatepe-Aslantaş Open-Air Museum Mersin Museum Misis Mosaic Museum Silifke Museum Tarsus Museum

Southeastern Anatolia Region

Adıyaman Archaeological Museum Diyarbakır Archaeological Museum Gaziantep Museum of Archaeology Şanlıurfa Museum Zeugma Mosaic Museum

v t e

 Sovereign Military Order of Malta
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