BODRUM (Turkish pronunciation: ) is a district and a port city in
Muğla Province , in the southwestern
Aegean Region of
Turkey . It is
located on the southern coast of
Bodrum Peninsula, at a point that
checks the entry into the
Gulf of Gökova , and is also the center of
the eponymous district. The city was called
ancient times and was famous for housing the
Mausoleum of Mausolus ,
one of the
Seven Wonders of the Ancient World
Seven Wonders of the Ancient World . Built by the Knights
Hospitaller in the 15th century,
Bodrum Castle , overlooks the harbour
and the marina. The castle grounds include a Museum of Underwater
Archaeology and hosts several cultural festivals throughout the year.
The city had a population of 36,317 in 2012.
* 1 Geography
* 1.1 Etymology
* 1.2 Climate
* 2 History
* 2.2 Petronium
* 2.3 20th century
* 3 Demographics
* 4 Government
* 5 Economy
* 6 Infrastructure
* 6.1 Airports
* 6.2 Bus
* 7 Notable people
* 8 Twin towns — Sister cities
* 9 See also
* 10 References
* 11 External links
Bodrum derives from Petronium, named from the Hospitaller
Castle of St. Peter (see history ). The site was formerly known as
Ancient Greek : Ἁλικαρνασσός, Turkish :
Bodrum has a hot-summer
Mediterranean climate (Csa in the Koeppen
climate classification ). Winter average is around 15 °C (59 °F) and
in the summer 34 °C (93 °F), with very sunny spells. Summers are hot
and mostly sunny and winters are mild and humid.
CLIMATE DATA FOR BODRUM
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE RAINY DAYS
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
Source: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü
Average Sea width: 20em;"> 17
"Average swimming pool and sea temperatures for Bodrum".
BodrumBulletin. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
Halicarnassus in Bodrum, with the
Bodrum Castle seen
in the background. See also:
Ancient Greek : Ἁλικαρνᾱσσός
Halikarnassós or Ἀλικαρνασσός Alikarnassós; Turkish :
Halikarnas) was an ancient Greek city at the site of modern
Halicarnassus was founded by Dorian Greeks, and the figures
on its coins, such as the head of Medusa ,
Poseidon , or the
trident, support the statement that the mother cities were
Argos . The inhabitants appear to have accepted Anthes, a son of
Poseidon, as their legendary founder, as mentioned by
Strabo , and
were proud of the title of Antheadae. The Carian name for
Halicarnassus has been tentatively identified with Alosδkarnosδ in
At an early period
Halicarnassus was a member of the Doric Hexapolis
, which included
Ialysus ; but it
was expelled from the league when one of its citizens, Agasicles, took
home the prize tripod which he had won in the Triopian games, instead
of dedicating it according to custom to the Triopian Apollo. In the
early 5th century
Halicarnassus was under the sway of Artemisia I of
Caria (also known as Artemesia of
Halicarnassus ), who made herself
famous as a naval commander at the battle of Salamis . Of Pisindalis,
her son and successor, little is known; but Lygdamis , the tyrant of
Halicarnussus, who next attained power, is notorious for having put to
death the poet
Panyasis and causing
Herodotus , possibly the best
known Halicarnassian, to leave his native city (c. 457 BC).
The city later fell under Persian rule. Under the Persians, it was
the capital city of the satrapy of
Caria , the region that had since
long constituted its hinterland and of which it was the principal
port. Its strategic location ensured that the city enjoyed
considerable autonomy. Archaeological evidence from the period such as
the recently discovered Salmakis (Kaplankalesi) Inscription, now in
Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology , attest to the particular
pride its inhabitants had developed.
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great laid siege to the city after his arrival in
Carian lands and, together with his ally, the queen Ada of
captured it after fighting in 334 BCE.
Surviving substructures and ruins of the
Mausoleum of Mausolus ,
one of the
Seven Wonders of the Ancient World
Seven Wonders of the Ancient World , in Halicarnassus
Caria from here, nominally on behalf of the Persians
and independently in practical terms, for much of his reign from 377
to 353 BC. When he died in 353 BC, Artemisia II of
Caria , who was
both his sister and his widow, employed the ancient Greek architects
Satyros and Pythis , and the four sculptors
Leochares and Timotheus to build a monument, as well as a tomb, for
him. The word "mausoleum " derives from the structure of this tomb. It
was a temple-like structure decorated with reliefs and statuary on a
massive base. Today only the foundations and a few pieces of sculpture
The Castle of St. Peter was built by the
Knights Hospitaller .
Crusader Knights arrived in 1402 and used the remains of the
Mausoleum as a quarry to build the still impressively standing Bodrum
Castle (Castle of Saint Peter), which is a well-preserved example of
the late Crusader architecture in the east Mediterranean. The Knights
Hospitaller (Knights of St. John) were given permission to build it by
the Ottoman sultan
Mehmed I , after
Tamerlane had destroyed their
previous fortress located in
İzmir 's inner bay. The castle and its
town became known as Petronium, whence the modern name
Suleiman the Magnificent
Suleiman the Magnificent conquered the base of the Crusader
knights on the island of
Rhodes , who then relocated first briefly to
Sicily and later permanently to
Malta , leaving the Castle of Saint
Bodrum to the
Ottoman Empire .
Bodrum was a quiet town of fishermen and sponge divers until the
mid-20th century; although, as Mansur points out, the presence of a
large community of bilingual
Cretan Turks , coupled with the
conditions of free trade and access with the islands of the Southern
Dodecanese until 1935, made it less provincial. The fact that
traditional agriculture was not a very rewarding activity in the
rather dry peninsula also prevented the formation of a class of large
Bodrum has no notable history of political or religious
extremism either. A first nucleus of intellectuals started to form
after the 1950s around the writer
Cevat Şakir Kabaağaçlı , who had
first come here in exile two decades before and was charmed by the
town to the point of adopting the pen name Halikarnas Balıkçısı
('The Fisherman of Halicarnassus').
The population for the town of
Bodrum was 35,795 in the 2012 census.
The surrounding towns ">
During the 20th century the country's economy was mainly based on
fishing and sponge diving. Over the years, tourism became one of the
major activities in Bodrum.
There are no airports in the city. Two airports serve the city.
Milas–Bodrum Airport is located 36 kilometres (22 mi) northeast of
Bodrum, with both domestic and international flights.
International Airport , 70 kilometres (43 mi) to the SW, located in
Greece , accessible by boats from
Bodrum across a 20
kilometres (12 mi) stretch of the
Aegean Sea . Aside from year-round
flights to Greek destinations,
Kos airport's traffic is seasonal.
There is a main bus stop in the city center with transportation to
other locations in Turkey.
The port has ferries to other nearby Turkish and Greek ports and
Bodrum Castle Mosque
Gulet type schooners near
Herodotus – ancient Greek historian, the "father of history"
* Julian of
Halicarnassus was a bishop in the early 6th century.
Mausolus – Carian ruler
* Artemisia II of
Caria – Carian ruler
* Dionysius – ancient Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric in
the Roman period
Turgut Reis – Ottoman admiral
* Avram Galanti Bodrumlu - University Teacher, Journalist,
Politician and Philosopher of Sephardic Origin
* Halikarnas Balıkçısı , literally 'The Fisherman of
Halicarnassus' – Turkish writer born in
Istanbul , resident of
Bodrum for decades and a symbol for the town
Neyzen Tevfik – Turkish ney virtuoso and pundit
Zeki Müren – Turkish singer born in
Bursa , resident of Bodrum
for decades and a symbol for the town
Janet Akyüz Mattei – director of the American Association of
Variable Star Observers (
AAVSO ) from 1973 to 2004
Abdurrahman Nafiz Gürman - military officer in the Ottoman and
TWIN TOWNS — SISTER CITIES
This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please
help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources .
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Bodrum is twinned with:
Guidan Roumji ,
Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology (within
* Marinas in
* Foreign purchases of real estate in
Gumusluk , a neighborhood north of Bodrum
* ^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics
Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
* ^ "Turkey: Registered Population". City Population. Retrieved
* ^ Ἁλικαρνασσός, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott,
A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus project
* ^ "İl ve İlçelerimize Ait İstatistiki Veriler- Meteoroloji
Genel Müdürlüğü". Dmi.gov.tr. 1971-11-30. Archived from the
original on 2012-08-01. Retrieved 2012-08-15.
* ^ (
Halicarnassus within the) 1911encyclopedia.org website
Archived 2013-07-01 at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ (Artemisia of
Halicarnassus within the) 1911encyclopedia.org
website Archived 2013-01-23 at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ "Herodotus".
Suda . At the
Suda On Line Project.
* ^ Signe Isager (1998). Study: "The Pride of Halicarnassus" Check
url= value (help ) (PDF). Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und
Epigraphik, 123 p. 1-23.
* ^ Fatma Mansur (1972).
Bodrum ISBN 90-04-03424-2 . Brill
* ^ Bodream,
Jean-Pierre Thiollet , Anagramme Ed., 2010, pp.62-66
* ^ Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by
districts - 2012 Archived May 12, 2013, at the
Wayback Machine ./
* ^ Bodrum
* ^ A B "BODRUM Place to Visit Things to Do Famous For". Very
Turkey. Retrieved 2014-03-20.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to BODRUM .
* Turkish Republic Municipalities of Bodrum