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BODRUM (Turkish pronunciation: ) is a district and a port city in Muğla Province
Muğla Province
, in the southwestern Aegean Region
Aegean Region
of Turkey
Turkey
. It is located on the southern coast of Bodrum
Bodrum
Peninsula, at a point that checks the entry into the Gulf of Gökova , and is also the center of the eponymous district. The city was called Halicarnassus
Halicarnassus
of Caria
Caria
in ancient times and was famous for housing the Mausoleum of Mausolus , one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World
Seven Wonders of the Ancient World
. Built by the Knights Hospitaller in the 15th century, Bodrum Castle , overlooks the harbour and the marina. The castle grounds include a Museum of Underwater Archaeology and hosts several cultural festivals throughout the year. The city had a population of 36,317 in 2012.

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography

* 1.1 Etymology * 1.2 Climate

* 2 History

* 2.1 Mausolus
Mausolus
* 2.2 Petronium * 2.3 20th century

* 3 Demographics * 4 Government * 5 Economy

* 6 Infrastructure

* 6.1 Airports * 6.2 Bus * 6.3 Port
Port

* 7 Notable people * 8 Twin towns — Sister cities * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links

GEOGRAPHY

ETYMOLOGY

The name Bodrum
Bodrum
derives from Petronium, named from the Hospitaller Castle of St. Peter (see history ). The site was formerly known as Halicarnassus
Halicarnassus
( Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Ἁλικαρνασσός, Turkish : Halikarnas.)

CLIMATE

Bodrum
Bodrum
has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
(Csa in the Koeppen climate classification ). Winter average is around 15 °C (59 °F) and in the summer 34 °C (93 °F), with very sunny spells. Summers are hot and mostly sunny and winters are mild and humid.

CLIMATE DATA FOR BODRUM

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 25.3 (77.5) 27.2 (81) 30.1 (86.2) 36.2 (97.2) 40.0 (104) 46.6 (115.9) 50.8 (123.4) 48.6 (119.5) 45.1 (113.2) 34.9 (94.8) 30.6 (87.1) 28.4 (83.1) 50.8 (123.4)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 15.1 (59.2) 15.2 (59.4) 17.6 (63.7) 21.1 (70) 26.0 (78.8) 31.2 (88.2) 34.2 (93.6) 34.0 (93.2) 30.3 (86.5) 25.6 (78.1) 20.3 (68.5) 16.5 (61.7) 23.93 (75.08)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 8.3 (46.9) 8.0 (46.4) 9.7 (49.5) 12.7 (54.9) 16.5 (61.7) 20.8 (69.4) 23.3 (73.9) 23.3 (73.9) 20.3 (68.5) 16.8 (62.2) 12.8 (55) 9.8 (49.6) 15.19 (59.33)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 134.1 (5.28) 107.9 (4.248) 74.0 (2.913) 39.1 (1.539) 18.4 (0.724) 7.5 (0.295) 1.3 (0.051) 8.5 (0.335) 20.8 (0.819) 40.5 (1.594) 97.7 (3.846) 156.2 (6.15) 706 (27.794)

AVERAGE RAINY DAYS 12.3 11.2 8.5 6.9 3.7 2.1 1.5 1.0 2.8 5.3 8.8 13.2 77.3

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 148.8 151.2 198.4 225 285.2 318 337.9 322.4 273 223.2 168 139.5 2,790.6

Source: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü

Average Sea width: 20em;"> 17 12

FEB 16 13

MAR 16 14

APR 17 18

MAY 19 22

JUN 22 26

JULY 24 28

AUG 26 28

SEP 25 25

OCT 23 21

NOV 20 17

DEC 18 15

"Average swimming pool and sea temperatures for Bodrum". BodrumBulletin. Retrieved 1 March 2015.

HISTORY

Theatre of Halicarnassus
Halicarnassus
in Bodrum, with the Bodrum Castle seen in the background. See also: Halicarnassus
Halicarnassus

HALICARNASSUS ( Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Ἁλικαρνᾱσσός Halikarnassós or Ἀλικαρνασσός Alikarnassós; Turkish : Halikarnas) was an ancient Greek city at the site of modern Bodrum
Bodrum
in Turkey
Turkey
. Halicarnassus
Halicarnassus
was founded by Dorian Greeks, and the figures on its coins, such as the head of Medusa , Athena
Athena
or Poseidon
Poseidon
, or the trident, support the statement that the mother cities were Troezen
Troezen
and Argos
Argos
. The inhabitants appear to have accepted Anthes, a son of Poseidon, as their legendary founder, as mentioned by Strabo
Strabo
, and were proud of the title of Antheadae. The Carian name for Halicarnassus
Halicarnassus
has been tentatively identified with Alosδkarnosδ in inscriptions.

At an early period Halicarnassus
Halicarnassus
was a member of the Doric Hexapolis , which included Kos
Kos
, Cnidus , Lindos
Lindos
, Kameiros
Kameiros
and Ialysus ; but it was expelled from the league when one of its citizens, Agasicles, took home the prize tripod which he had won in the Triopian games, instead of dedicating it according to custom to the Triopian Apollo. In the early 5th century Halicarnassus
Halicarnassus
was under the sway of Artemisia I of Caria
Caria
(also known as Artemesia of Halicarnassus
Halicarnassus
), who made herself famous as a naval commander at the battle of Salamis . Of Pisindalis, her son and successor, little is known; but Lygdamis , the tyrant of Halicarnussus, who next attained power, is notorious for having put to death the poet Panyasis
Panyasis
and causing Herodotus
Herodotus
, possibly the best known Halicarnassian, to leave his native city (c. 457 BC).

The city later fell under Persian rule. Under the Persians, it was the capital city of the satrapy of Caria
Caria
, the region that had since long constituted its hinterland and of which it was the principal port. Its strategic location ensured that the city enjoyed considerable autonomy. Archaeological evidence from the period such as the recently discovered Salmakis (Kaplankalesi) Inscription, now in Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology , attest to the particular pride its inhabitants had developed.

Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
laid siege to the city after his arrival in Carian lands and, together with his ally, the queen Ada of Caria
Caria
, captured it after fighting in 334 BCE.

MAUSOLUS

Surviving substructures and ruins of the Mausoleum of Mausolus , one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World
Seven Wonders of the Ancient World
, in Halicarnassus (modern Bodrum.)

Mausolus
Mausolus
ruled Caria
Caria
from here, nominally on behalf of the Persians and independently in practical terms, for much of his reign from 377 to 353 BC. When he died in 353 BC, Artemisia II of Caria
Caria
, who was both his sister and his widow, employed the ancient Greek architects Satyros and Pythis , and the four sculptors Bryaxis , Scopas
Scopas
, Leochares
Leochares
and Timotheus to build a monument, as well as a tomb, for him. The word "mausoleum " derives from the structure of this tomb. It was a temple-like structure decorated with reliefs and statuary on a massive base. Today only the foundations and a few pieces of sculpture remain.

PETRONIUM

The Castle of St. Peter was built by the Knights Hospitaller
Knights Hospitaller
.

Crusader Knights arrived in 1402 and used the remains of the Mausoleum
Mausoleum
as a quarry to build the still impressively standing Bodrum Castle (Castle of Saint Peter), which is a well-preserved example of the late Crusader architecture in the east Mediterranean. The Knights Hospitaller (Knights of St. John) were given permission to build it by the Ottoman sultan Mehmed I
Mehmed I
, after Tamerlane
Tamerlane
had destroyed their previous fortress located in İzmir
İzmir
's inner bay. The castle and its town became known as Petronium, whence the modern name Bodrum
Bodrum
derives.

In 1522, Suleiman the Magnificent
Suleiman the Magnificent
conquered the base of the Crusader knights on the island of Rhodes
Rhodes
, who then relocated first briefly to Sicily
Sicily
and later permanently to Malta
Malta
, leaving the Castle of Saint Peter and Bodrum
Bodrum
to the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
.

20TH CENTURY

Marina
Marina
of Bodrum
Bodrum

Bodrum
Bodrum
was a quiet town of fishermen and sponge divers until the mid-20th century; although, as Mansur points out, the presence of a large community of bilingual Cretan Turks , coupled with the conditions of free trade and access with the islands of the Southern Dodecanese
Dodecanese
until 1935, made it less provincial. The fact that traditional agriculture was not a very rewarding activity in the rather dry peninsula also prevented the formation of a class of large landowners. Bodrum
Bodrum
has no notable history of political or religious extremism either. A first nucleus of intellectuals started to form after the 1950s around the writer Cevat Şakir Kabaağaçlı , who had first come here in exile two decades before and was charmed by the town to the point of adopting the pen name Halikarnas Balıkçısı ('The Fisherman of Halicarnassus').

DEMOGRAPHICS

The population for the town of Bodrum
Bodrum
was 35,795 in the 2012 census. The surrounding towns ">

ECONOMY

During the 20th century the country's economy was mainly based on fishing and sponge diving. Over the years, tourism became one of the major activities in Bodrum.

INFRASTRUCTURE

AIRPORTS

There are no airports in the city. Two airports serve the city. Milas–Bodrum Airport is located 36 kilometres (22 mi) northeast of Bodrum, with both domestic and international flights. Kos
Kos
Island International Airport , 70 kilometres (43 mi) to the SW, located in Andimachia , Greece
Greece
, accessible by boats from Bodrum
Bodrum
across a 20 kilometres (12 mi) stretch of the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
. Aside from year-round flights to Greek destinations, Kos
Kos
airport's traffic is seasonal.

BUS

There is a main bus stop in the city center with transportation to other locations in Turkey.

PORT

The port has ferries to other nearby Turkish and Greek ports and islands.

NOTABLE PEOPLE

Bodrum Castle Mosque Gulet type schooners near Bodrum
Bodrum

* Herodotus
Herodotus
– ancient Greek historian, the "father of history" * Julian of Halicarnassus
Halicarnassus
was a bishop in the early 6th century. * Mausolus
Mausolus
– Carian ruler * Artemisia II of Caria
Caria
– Carian ruler * Dionysius – ancient Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric in the Roman period * Turgut Reis – Ottoman admiral * Avram Galanti Bodrumlu - University Teacher, Journalist, Politician and Philosopher of Sephardic Origin * Halikarnas Balıkçısı , literally 'The Fisherman of Halicarnassus' – Turkish writer born in Istanbul
Istanbul
, resident of Bodrum
Bodrum
for decades and a symbol for the town * Neyzen Tevfik – Turkish ney virtuoso and pundit * Zeki Müren – Turkish singer born in Bursa
Bursa
, resident of Bodrum for decades and a symbol for the town * Janet Akyüz Mattei – director of the American Association of Variable Star Observers ( AAVSO ) from 1973 to 2004 * Abdurrahman Nafiz Gürman - military officer in the Ottoman and Turkish armies

TWIN TOWNS — SISTER CITIES

This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )

Bodrum
Bodrum
is twinned with:

* Aalborg
Aalborg
, Denmark
Denmark
* Pleven
Pleven
, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
* Haskovo , Bulgaria
Bulgaria
* Guidan Roumji , Niger
Niger
* Prizren
Prizren
, Kosovo
Kosovo
* Eskişehir
Eskişehir
, Turkey
Turkey

SEE ALSO

* Milas-Bodrum Airport * Kos
Kos
Airport * Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology (within Bodrum
Bodrum
Castle) * Turgutreis * Blue Cruise
Blue Cruise
* Marinas in Turkey
Turkey
* Gulet * Foreign purchases of real estate in Turkey
Turkey
* Turkish Riviera
Turkish Riviera
* Gumusluk , a neighborhood north of Bodrum

REFERENCES

* ^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05. * ^ "Turkey: Registered Population". City Population. Retrieved 2014-04-11. * ^ Ἁλικαρνασσός, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus project * ^ "İl ve İlçelerimize Ait İstatistiki Veriler- Meteoroloji Genel Müdürlüğü". Dmi.gov.tr. 1971-11-30. Archived from the original on 2012-08-01. Retrieved 2012-08-15. * ^ ( Halicarnassus
Halicarnassus
within the) 1911encyclopedia.org website Archived 2013-07-01 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ (Artemisia of Halicarnassus
Halicarnassus
within the) 1911encyclopedia.org website Archived 2013-01-23 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ "Herodotus". Suda
Suda
. At the Suda
Suda
On Line Project. * ^ Signe Isager (1998). Study: "The Pride of Halicarnassus" Check url= value (help ) (PDF). Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 123 p. 1-23. * ^ Fatma Mansur (1972). Bodrum
Bodrum
ISBN 90-04-03424-2 . Brill Publishers . * ^ Bodream, Jean-Pierre Thiollet , Anagramme Ed., 2010, pp.62-66 * ^ Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012 Archived May 12, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
./ * ^ Bodrum * ^ A B "BODRUM Place to Visit Things to Do Famous For". Very Turkey. Retrieved 2014-03-20.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to BODRUM .

* Turkish Republic Municipalities of Bodrum * Ministry

.