The bibcode (also known as the refcode) is a compact identifier used
by several astronomical data systems to uniquely specify literature
4 See also
The Bibliographic Reference Code (refcode) was originally developed to
be used in
SIMBAD and the
NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database
NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED), but
it became a de facto standard and is now used more widely, for
example, by the NASA
Astrophysics Data System
Astrophysics Data System who coined and prefer
the term "bibcode".
The code has a fixed length of 19 characters and has the form
where YYYY is the four-digit year of the reference and JJJJJ is a code
indicating where the reference was published. In the case of a journal
reference, VVVV is the volume number, M indicates the section of the
journal where the reference was published (e.g., L for a letters
section), PPPP gives the starting page number, and A is the first
letter of the last name of the first author. Periods (.) are used to
fill unused fields and to pad fields out to their fixed length if too
short; padding is done on the right for the publication code and on
the left for the volume number and page number. Page numbers
greater than 9999 are continued in the M column. The 6-digit article
ID numbers (in lieu of page numbers) used by the Physical Review
publications since the late 1990s are treated as follows: The first
two digits of the article ID, corresponding to the issue number, are
converted to a lower-case letter (01 = a etc.) and inserted into
column M. The remaining four digits are used in the page field.
Some examples of the code are:
Heintz, W. D. (1974). "Astrometric study of four visual binaries". The
Astronomical Journal. 79: 819–825. Bibcode:1974AJ.....79..819H.
Eddington, A. S. (1924). "On the relation between the masses and
luminosities of the stars". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical
Society. 84 (5): 308–332. Bibcode:1924MNRAS..84..308E.
Kemp, J. C.; Swedlund, J. B.; Landstreet, J. D.; Angel, J. R. P.
(1970). "Discovery of circularly polarized light from a white dwarf".
The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 161: L77–L79.
Mukherjee, M.; Kellerbauer, A.; Beck, D.; et al. (2004). "The Mass of
22Mg". Physical Review Letters. 93 (15): 150801.
Digital object identifier
^ a b M. Schmitz; G. Helou; P. Dubois; C. LaGue; B.F. Madore; H. G.
Corwin Jr. & S. Lesteven (1995). "NED and
SIMBAD Conventions for
Bibliographic Reference Coding". In Daniel Egret & Miguel A.
Albrecht. Information & On-Line Data in Astronomy. Kluwer Academic
Publishers. ISBN 0-7923-3659-3. Archived from the original on 7
June 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-22.
^ a b c "The ADS Data, help page". NASA ADS. Archived from the
original on 14 October 2007. Retrieved Novem