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Betamax
Betamax
(also called Beta, as in its logo) is a consumer-level analog-recording and cassette format of magnetic tape for video. It was developed by Sony
Sony
and was released in Japan
Japan
on May 10, 1975.[1] The first Betamax
Betamax
device introduced in the United States was the LV-1901 console, which included a 19-inch (48 cm) color monitor, and appeared in stores in early November 1975. The cassettes contain 0.50-inch-wide (12.7 mm) videotape in a design similar to that of the earlier, professional 0.75-inch-wide (19 mm), U-matic
U-matic
format. Betamax
Betamax
is obsolete, having lost the videotape format war[2] to VHS. Production of Betamax
Betamax
recorders ceased in 2002; new Betamax
Betamax
cassettes were available until March 2016, when Sony
Sony
stopped making and selling them.[3] Like the rival videotape format VHS
VHS
(introduced in Japan
Japan
by JVC
JVC
in October 1976[4] and in the United States by RCA in August 1977),[5] Betamax
Betamax
has no guard band and uses azimuth recording to reduce crosstalk. According to Sony's history webpages, the name had a double meaning: beta is the Japanese word used to describe the way in which signals are recorded on the tape; and the shape of the lowercase Greek letter beta (β) resembles the course of the tape through the transport. The suffix -max, from the word "maximum", was added to suggest greatness.[6] In 1977, Sony
Sony
issued the first long-play Betamax VCR, the SL-8200. This VCR had two recording speeds: normal, and the newer half speed. This provided two hours' recording on the L-500 Beta videocassette. The SL-8200 was to compete against the VHS
VHS
VCRs, which allowed up to 4, and later 6 and 8, hours of recording on one cassette.[7] Sanyo
Sanyo
marketed a version as Betacord, which also was casually called "Beta". In addition to Sony
Sony
and Sanyo, Beta-format video recorders were manufactured and sold by Toshiba, Pioneer, Murphy, Aiwa, and NEC. The Zenith Electronics Corporation
Zenith Electronics Corporation
and WEGA Corporations contracted with Sony
Sony
to produce VCRs for their product lines. The department stores Sears
Sears
(in the United States and Canada) and Quelle (in Germany) sold Beta-format VCRs under their house brands, as did the RadioShack chain of electronic stores. Betamax
Betamax
and VHS
VHS
competed in a fierce format war, which saw VHS
VHS
win in most markets.[8]

Contents

1 Home and professional recording

1.1 HiFi audio upgrade 1.2 New standards: Super Betamax
Betamax
and Extended Definition Betamax

1.2.1 Comparison with other video formats

1.3 Tape lengths

2 Home movies 3 End of production 4 Legacy 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Home and professional recording[edit] One other major consequence of the Betamax
Betamax
technology's introduction to the U.S. was the lawsuit Sony
Sony
Corp. v. Universal City Studios (1984, the " Betamax
Betamax
case"), with the U.S. Supreme Court determining home videotaping to be legal in the United States, wherein home videotape cassette recorders were a legal technology since they had substantial noninfringing uses. This precedent was later invoked in MGM v. Grokster
MGM v. Grokster
(2005), where the high court agreed that the same "substantial noninfringing uses" standard applies to authors and vendors of peer-to-peer file sharing software (notably excepting those who "actively induce" copyright infringement through "purposeful, culpable expression and conduct").[9][10][11]

Three Sony
Sony
Betamax
Betamax
VCRs built for the American market. Top to bottom: SL-2000 portable with TT-2000 tuner/timer "Base Station" (1982); SL-HF 300 Betamax
Betamax
HiFi unit (1984); SL-HF 360 SuperBeta HiFi unit (1988).

A rare Japanese market Betamax
Betamax
TV/VCR combo, the Model SL-MV1.

The early-form Betacam
Betacam
tapes (left) are interchangeable with Betamax (right), though the recordings are not.

Betamax
Betamax
tapes on display at a museum.

For the professional and broadcast video industry, Sony
Sony
derived Betacam
Betacam
from Betamax. Released in 1982, Betacam
Betacam
became the most widely used videotape format in ENG (electronic news gathering), replacing the .75 in (19 mm) wide U-matic
U-matic
tape format. Betacam
Betacam
and Betamax
Betamax
are similar in some ways: they use the same videocassette shape, use the same oxide tape formulation with the same coercivity, and record linear audio tracks in the same location of the tape. But in the key area of video recording, Betacam
Betacam
and Betamax
Betamax
are completely different. (For details, see the Betacam
Betacam
article.) Sony
Sony
also offered a range of industrial Betamax
Betamax
products, a Beta I-only format for industrial and institutional users. These were aimed at the same market as U-Matic
U-Matic
equipment, but were cheaper and smaller. The arrival of Betacam
Betacam
reduced the demand for both industrial Beta and U-Matic
U-Matic
equipment. [12] Betamax
Betamax
also had a significant part to play in the music recording industry, when Sony
Sony
introduced its PCM (Pulse Code Modulation) digital recording system as an encoding box/ PCM adaptor
PCM adaptor
that connected to a Betamax
Betamax
recorder. The Sony
Sony
PCM-F1 adaptor was sold with a companion Betamax
Betamax
VCR SL-2000 as a portable digital audio recording system. Many recording engineers used this system in the 1980s and 1990s to make their first digital master recordings. Initially, Sony
Sony
was able to tout several Betamax-only features, such as BetaScan—a high speed picture search in either direction—and BetaSkipScan, a technique that allowed the operator to see where he was on the tape by pressing the FF key (or REW, if in that mode): the transport would switch into the BetaScan mode until the key was released. This feature is discussed in more detail on Peep Search. Sony
Sony
believed that the M-Load transports used by VHS
VHS
machines made copying these trick modes impossible. BetaSkipScan (Peep Search) is now available on miniature M-load formats, but even Sony
Sony
was unable to fully replicate this on VHS. BetaScan was originally called "Videola" until the company that made the Moviola
Moviola
threatened legal action. Sony
Sony
would also sell a BetaPak, a small deck designed to be used with a camera. Concerned with the need for several pieces and cables to connect them, an integrated camera/recorder was designed, which Sony dubbed a "Camcorder"; the result was Betamovie. Betamovie
Betamovie
used the standard-size cassette, but with a modified transport. The tape was wrapped 300° around a smaller, 44.671 mm (1.7587 in)-diameter head drum, with a single dual-azimuth head to write the video tracks. For playback, the tape would be inserted into a Beta-format deck. Due to the different geometry and writing techniques employed, playback within the camcorder was not feasible. SuperBeta and industrial Betamovie
Betamovie
camcorders would also be sold by Sony. HiFi audio upgrade[edit] In June 1983, Sony
Sony
introduced high fidelity audio to videotape as Beta Hi-Fi. For NTSC, Beta HiFi worked by placing a pair of FM carriers between the chroma (C) and luminance (Y) carriers, a process known as frequency multiplexing. Each head had a specific pair of carriers; in total, four individual channels were employed. Head A recorded its hi-fi carriers at 1.38(L) and 1.68(R) MHz, and the B head employed 1.53 and 1.83 MHz. The result was audio with an 80 dB dynamic range, with less than 0.005% wow and flutter.[13] Prior to the introduction of Beta Hi-Fi, Sony
Sony
shifted the Y carrier up by 400 kHz to make room for the four FM carriers that would be needed for Beta Hi-Fi. All Beta machines incorporated this change, plus the ability to hunt for a lower frequency pre-AFM Y carrier. Sony incorporated an "antihunt" circuit, to stop the machine hunting for a Y carrier that wasn't there.[14] Some Sony
Sony
NTSC
NTSC
models were marketed as "Hi-Fi Ready" (with an SL-HFR prefix to the model's number instead of the usual SL or SL-HF). These Betamax
Betamax
decks looked like a regular Betamax
Betamax
model, except for a special 28-pin connector on the rear. If the user desired a Beta Hi-Fi model but lacked the funds at the time, he could purchase an "SL-HFRxx" and at a later date purchase the separate Hi-Fi Processor. Sony
Sony
offered two outboard Beta Hi-Fi processors, the HFP-100 and HFP-200. They were identical except that the HFP-200 was capable of multi-channel TV sound, with the word "stereocast" printed after the Beta Hi-Fi logo. This was possible because unlike a VHS
VHS
Hi-Fi deck, an NTSC
NTSC
Betamax
Betamax
didn't need an extra pair of heads. The HFP-x00 would generate the needed carriers which would be recorded by the attached deck, and during playback the AFM carriers would be passed to the HFP-x00. They also had a small "fine tracking" control on the rear panel for difficult tapes. For PAL, however, the bandwidth between the chroma and luminance carriers was not sufficient to allow additional FM carriers, so depth multiplexing was employed, wherein the audio track would be recorded in the same way that the video track was. The lower-frequency audio track was written first by a dedicated head, and the video track recorded on top by the video head. The head disk had an extra pair of audio-only heads with a different azimuth, positioned slightly ahead of the regular video heads, for this purpose.[15] Sony
Sony
was confident that VHS
VHS
could not achieve the same audio performance feat as Beta Hi-Fi. However, to the chagrin of Sony, JVC did develop a VHS
VHS
hi-fi system on the principle of depth multiplexing approximately a year after the first Beta Hi-Fi VCR, the SL-5200, was introduced by Sony. Despite initial praise as providing "CD sound quality", both Beta Hi-Fi and VHS
VHS
HiFi suffered from "carrier buzz", where high frequency information bled into the audio carriers, creating momentary "buzzing" and other audio flaws. Both systems also used companding noise-reduction systems, which could create "pumping" artifacts under some conditions. Both formats also suffered from interchange problems, where tapes made on one machine did not always play back well on other machines. When this happened and if the artifacts became too distracting, users were forced to revert to the old linear soundtrack. New standards: Super Betamax
Betamax
and Extended Definition Betamax[edit] In early 1985, Sony
Sony
would introduce a new feature, High Band or SuperBeta, by again shifting the Y carrier—this time by 800 kHz. This improved the bandwidth available to the Y sideband and increased the horizontal resolution from 240 to 290 lines on a regular-grade Betamax
Betamax
cassette. Since over-the-antenna and cable signals were only 300–330 lines resolution, SuperBeta could make a nearly identical copy of live television. However, the chroma resolution still remained relatively poor, limited to just under 0.4 MHz or approximately 30 lines resolution, whereas live broadcast chrominance resolution was over 100 lines. The heads were also narrowed to 29 μm to reduce crosstalk, with a narrower head gap to play back the higher carrier frequency at 5.6 MHz. Later, some models would feature further improvement, in the form of Beta-Is, a high band version of the Beta-I recording mode. There were some incompatibilities between the older Beta decks and SuperBeta, but most could play back a high band tape without major problems. SuperBeta decks had a switch to disable the SuperBeta mode for compatibility purposes. (SuperBeta was only marginally supported outside of Sony, as many licensees had already discontinued their Betamax
Betamax
line.)[16][17] In 1988, Sony
Sony
would again push the envelope with ED Beta, or "Extended Definition" Betamax, capable of up to 500 lines of resolution, that equaled DVD
DVD
quality (480 typical). In order to store the ~6.5 MHz-wide luma signal, with the peak frequency at 9.3 MHz, Sony
Sony
used a metal formulation tape borrowed from the Betacam
Betacam
SP format (branded "ED-Metal") and incorporated some improvements to the transport to reduce mechanically induced aberrations in the picture. Beta ED also featured a luminance carrier deviation of 2.5 MHz, as opposed to the 1.2 MHz used in SuperBeta, improving contrast with reduced luminance noise.[18] Sony
Sony
introduced two ED decks and a camcorder in the late 1980s. The top end EDV-9500 (EDV-9300 in Canada) deck was a very capable editing deck, rivaling much more expensive U-Matic
U-Matic
set-ups for its accuracy and features, but did not have commercial success due to lack of timecode and other pro features. Sony
Sony
did market Beta ED to "semiprofessional" users, or "prosumers". One complaint about the EDC-55 ED CAM was that it needed a lot of light (at least 25 lux), due to the use of two CCDs instead of the typical single-CCD imaging device. The Beta ED lineup only recorded in BII/BIII modes, with the ability to play back BI/BIs.[19] Despite the sharp decline in sales of Betamax
Betamax
recorders in the late 1980s and subsequent halt in production of new recorders by Sony
Sony
in 2002, Betamax, Super Betamax
Betamax
and EDBeta are still being used by a small number of people. Even though Sony
Sony
stopped making new cassettes in 2016, new cassettes are still available for purchase at online shops and used recorders are often found at flea markets, thrift stores or on Internet
Internet
auction sites. Early format BetaCam
BetaCam
cassettes—which are physically based on the Betamax
Betamax
cassette—continue to be available for use in the professional media. Comparison with other video formats[edit]

Size comparison between a Betamax
Betamax
cassette (top) and a VHS
VHS
cassette (bottom).

Below is a list of modern, digital-style resolutions (and traditional analog "TV lines per picture height" measurements) for various media. The list only includes popular formats. Note that listed resolution applies to luminance only, with chroma resolution usually halved in each dimension for digital formats, and significantly lower for analog formats. Equivalent pixel resolutions are calculated from analog line resolution numbers:

Standard Digital or analogue? Luminance Resolution (Equivalent Pixel Resolution)

Chroma Resolution (Equivalent Pixel Resolution)

VHS
VHS
(NTSC) Analogue 240 lines (330x480) 30 lines (40x480)

U-matic, Betamax, Video8
Video8
(NTSC) Analogue 250 lines (333x480) 30 lines (40x480)

SuperBeta (NTSC) Analogue 290 lines (400x480) 30 lines (40x480)

Betacam
Betacam
(NTSC) Analogue 290 lines (400x480) 100 lines (100x480)

Broadcast (NTSC) Analogue 330 lines (440x480) 120 lines (120x480)

Betacam
Betacam
SP (NTSC) Analogue 340 lines (450x480) 100 lines (100x480)

S-VHS, Hi8 (NTSC) Analogue 420 lines (560x480) 30 lines (40x480)

LaserDisc
LaserDisc
(NTSC) Analogue 420 lines (560x480) 120 lines (120x480)

ED Beta (NTSC) Analogue 500 lines (670x480) 100 lines (100x480)

VHS
VHS
(PAL) Analogue 240 lines (330x576) 30 lines (40x288)

U-matic, Betamax, Video8
Video8
(PAL) Analogue 250 lines (333x576) 30 lines (40x288)

SuperBeta (PAL) Analogue 290 lines (400x576) 30 lines (40x288)

Betacam
Betacam
(PAL) Analogue 290 lines (400x576) 100 lines (100x288)

Betacam
Betacam
SP (PAL) Analogue 340 lines (450x576) 100 lines (100x288)

Broadcast (PAL-B/G/H) Analogue 390 lines (520x576) 120 lines (120x288)

S-VHS, Hi8 (PAL) Analogue 420 lines (560x576) 30 lines (40x288)

LaserDisc
LaserDisc
(PAL) Analogue 420 lines (560x576) 120 lines (120x288)

Broadcast (PAL-I) Analogue 430 lines (570x576) 120 lines (120x288)

Broadcast (PAL-D/K) Analogue 470 lines (620x576) 120 lines (120x288)

ED Beta (PAL) Analogue 500 lines (670x576) 100 lines (100x288)

VCD Digital 260 lines (352x240) 130 lines (176x120)

SVCD Digital 360 lines (480x480) 180 lines (240x240)

Anamorphic
Anamorphic
DVD
DVD
(NTSC) Digital 410 lines (720x480) 205 lines (360x240)

Letterbox
Letterbox
DVD
DVD
(NTSC, PAL) Digital 410 lines (720x360) 205 lines (360x180)

Anamorphic
Anamorphic
DVD
DVD
(PAL) Digital 720x576 360x288

4:3 DVD, DV, MiniDV, Digital8
Digital8
(NTSC) Digital 540 lines (720x480) 270 lines (360x240)

AVCHD
AVCHD
Lite (720p) Digital 720 lines (1280x720) 360 lines (640x360)

16:9 HDV Digital 810 lines (1440x1080) 405 lines (720x540)

AVCHD, BluRay, HD DVD
DVD
(1080p/1080i) Digital 1080 lines (1920x1080) 540 lines (960x540)

The somewhat unintuitive analog resolution loss for 16:9 DVD
DVD
compared to 4:3 DVD
DVD
arises from the fact that analog resolution unit is "lines per picture height". When picture height is kept the same, the same 720 pixels are spread to a wider area in 16:9, hence lower horizontal resolution per picture height. Tape lengths[edit] Both NTSC
NTSC
and PAL/ SECAM
SECAM
Betamax
Betamax
cassettes are physically identical (although the signals recorded on the tape are incompatible). However, as tape speeds differ between NTSC
NTSC
and PAL/SECAM, the playing time for any given cassette will vary accordingly between the systems. Other unusual lengths were produced from time to time, such as L-410.

For NTSC
NTSC
only, BI is standard speed, BII is 1/2 speed, BIII is 1/3 speed

Common tape lengths

Tape label Tape length Recording time

ft m BI BII BIII PAL/SECAM

L-125 125 38 15 min 30 min 45 min 32 min

L-165 166 2/3 51 20 min 40 min 60 min (1 h) 43 min

L-250 250 76 30 min 60 min (1 h) 90 min (1:30 h) 65 min (1:05 h)

L-370 375 114 45 min 90 min (1:30 h) 135 (2:15 h) 96 min (1:36 h)

L-500 500 152 60 min (1 h) 120 min (2 h) 180 min (3 h) 130 min (2:10 h)

L-750 750 229 90 min (1:30 h) 180 min (3 h) 270 min (4:30 h) 195 min (3:15 h)

L-830 833 1/3 254 100 min (1:40 h) 200 min (3:20 h) 300 min (5 h) 216 min (3:36 h)

Home movies[edit] Main article: Betamovie Two-piece camera/VCR systems rapidly displaced Super 8 mm film
8 mm film
as the medium of choice for shooting home movies and amateur films. These units included a portable VCR, which the videographer would carry by a shoulder strap, and a separate camera, which was connected to the VCR by a special cable. At this point, Beta had several advantages over VHS
VHS
systems. The smaller Beta cassette made for smaller and lighter VCRs. However, consumers wanted a one-piece solution. The first one-piece consumer camcorder, the Betamovie, came from Sony. A major requirement for a one-piece camcorder was miniaturizing the recording head drum, and Sony's solution to this involved a nonstandard video signal which would become standard only when played back on full-sized VCRs. A side effect of this was that Beta camcorders were record-only: consumers saw this as a major limitation. VHS
VHS
manufacturers found a better solution to drum miniaturization (it involved four heads doing the work of two). Because it used standard video signals, VHS
VHS
camcorders could review footage in the camcorder and copy to another VCR for editing. This shifted the home movie advantage dramatically away from Beta, and was a primary reason for the loss of Beta market share: owners of Beta VCRs found that a VHS camcorder would allow them to copy and edit footage to their Beta deck – something that Betamovie
Betamovie
could not do. If rental movies were not available in Beta, they could rent them in VHS
VHS
and use their camcorder to play them. Owners of VHS
VHS
VCRs could also choose a variant camcorder format called VHS-C. This used a miniaturized cassette to make a camcorder smaller and lighter than any Betamovie. Sony
Sony
could not duplicate the functionality of VHS-C
VHS-C
camcorders, and seeing the rapid loss of market share, eventually introduced the Video8
Video8
format. Their hope was that Video8
Video8
could replace both Beta and VHS
VHS
for all uses. For more information, see the article on camcorders.[20] End of production[edit] On November 10, 2015, Sony
Sony
announced that it would no longer be producing Betamax
Betamax
video cassettes.[21] Production and sales ended March 2016 after nearly 41 years of continuous production. Third party manufacturers continue to make new cassettes. While these cassettes are designed for use with the Betacam
Betacam
format, the cassettes are interchangeable with traditional Betamax
Betamax
systems. Legacy[edit] For reasons Betamax
Betamax
lost to VHS, see Videotape
Videotape
format war. The VHS
VHS
format's defeat of the Betamax
Betamax
format became a classic marketing case study. Sony's attempt to dictate an industry standard backfired when JVC
JVC
made the tactical decision to forgo Sony's offer of Betamax
Betamax
in favor of developing its own technology. JVC
JVC
felt that accepting Sony's offer would yield results similar to the U-Matic deal, with Sony
Sony
dominating.[22] By 1980, JVC's VHS
VHS
format controlled 60% of the North American market.[23] The large economy of scale allowed VHS
VHS
units to be introduced to the European market at a far lower cost than the rarer Betamax
Betamax
units. In the United Kingdom, Betamax
Betamax
held a 25% market share in 1981, but by 1986, it was down to 7.5% and continued to decline further. By 1984, 40 companies made VHS
VHS
format equipment in comparison with Beta's 12. Sony
Sony
finally conceded defeat in 1988 when it, too, began producing VHS
VHS
recorders (early models were made by Hitachi), though it still continued to produce Betamax
Betamax
recorders until 2002.[8][24] In Japan, Betamax
Betamax
had more success and eventually evolved into Extended Definition Betamax, with 500+ lines of resolution. See also[edit]

Sony
Sony
portal 1970s portal 1980s portal

Videotape
Videotape
format war Peep search – A picture search system pioneered with Betamax
Betamax
and available on most video formats since. U-matic
U-matic
– The predecessor to Betamax, using 3/4-inch tape instead of 1/2-inch. Compact Video
Video
Cassette – Competitor product developed by Funai
Funai
and Technicolor
Technicolor
using 1/4" tape format. Betacam
Betacam
– Umatic's replacement. A non-compatible, high-quality standard used by television studios and other professionals. DigiBeta – Betacam's replacement. A non-compatible, digital high-quality standard used by television studios and other professionals. Video8
Video8
– A small form factor tape based upon Betamax
Betamax
technology, using 8 mm tape.

References[edit]

^ McDonald, Paul (2007-08-06). Video
Video
and DVD
DVD
Industries. British Film Institute. p. 33. ISBN 9781844571673. Retrieved 6 June 2012.  ^ "Betamax". Pcmag.com. 1994-12-01. Retrieved 2012-09-16.  ^ "Beta Video
Video
Cassette and Micro MV Cassette Tape End of Shipment Announcement". Sony
Sony
Japan. Sony. 10 November 2015. Retrieved 10 November 2015. In March 2016, Sony
Sony
will end shipment of the Beta video cassette and micro cassette MV.  ^ [1] JVC
JVC
HR-3300 release. ^ "CED in the History of Media Technology". Cedmagic.com. 1977-08-23. Retrieved 2012-09-16.  ^ "This is a revolution!" Archive of Sony.net history ^ "1975 – The Sony
Sony
SL-8200 long play VCR". Rewindmuseum.com. Retrieved 2012-09-16.  ^ a b Dave Owen (2005). "The Betamax
Betamax
vs VHS
VHS
Format War" (video). Mediacollege.com. Retrieved 2012-09-16.  ^ "BETAMAX CASE". Museum.tv. Retrieved 2012-09-16.  ^ Harris, Paul. "Supreme Court O.K.'s Home Taping: Approve 'Time Shifting' for Personal Use." Variety (Los Angeles), 18 June 1984. ^ Lardner, James. "Annals of Law; The Betamax
Betamax
Case: Part 1."The New Yorker (New York), 6 April 1987."Annals of Law; The Betamax
Betamax
Case: Part 2." The New Yorker (New York), 13 April 1987. U.S. Legal Decision ^ Steven Ascher, Edward Pincus. The filmmaker's handbook: a comprehensive guide for the digital age. Books.google.com. p. 38. Retrieved 2012-09-16.  ^ "Why Beta is Better". Betainfoguide.net. Retrieved 2012-09-16.  ^ " Betamax
Betamax
the Better Format". Palsite.com. Retrieved 2012-09-16.  ^ " Sony
Sony
SLO-1700 specs". Palsite.com. Retrieved 2012-09-16.  ^ " Sony
Sony
Super Betamax
Betamax
demo tape on youtube". Youtube.com. 2010-09-03. Retrieved 2012-09-16.  ^ " Sony
Sony
Super Betamax
Betamax
Model SL-HF600". Betamaxcollectors.com. Retrieved 2012-09-16.  ^ "tapes Extended Definition" Betamax". Palsite.com. Retrieved 2012-09-16.  ^ "Beta by Sony
Sony
list". Joeclark.org. 2004-12-26. Retrieved 2012-09-16.  ^ "BetaMax history". Floridahomemovies.com. Archived from the original on 2017-05-07. Retrieved 2012-09-16.  ^ " Sony
Sony
says goodbye to Betamax
Betamax
tapes". BBC News. 2015-11-10. Retrieved 2015-11-11.  ^ John Howells. "The Management of Innovation and Technology: The Shaping of Technology and Institutions of the Market Economy" [hardcopy], pg 76–81 ^ Luís Cabral and David Backus (2002-08-28). " Betamax
Betamax
and VHS
VHS
(Firms and Markets mini-case)" (PDF). New York University. p. 4. Retrieved 2014-01-13.  ^ " Sony
Sony
Finally Throws the Betamax
Betamax
on Scrapheap". Los Angeles Times. August 28, 2002. Retrieved 2012-09-16. 

External links[edit]

The Ultimate Betamax
Betamax
Info Guide – covering the Betamax
Betamax
format in the North American market Mister Betamax
Betamax
– extensive Beta supply site Betamax
Betamax
PALsite – over 350 pages of Betamax
Betamax
information, running since 1997 The 'Total Rewind' VCR museum – covering Betamax
Betamax
and other vintage formats The Betamax
Betamax
format in the UK, including technical information on servicing Beta machines "Daily Giz Wiz" Podcast discussing the Betamax The Rise and Fall of Beta by Marc Wielage and Rod Woodcock

v t e

Video
Video
storage formats

Videotape

Analog

Quadruplex (1956) VERA (1958) Ampex 2 inch helical VTR (1961) Sony
Sony
2 inch helical VTR (1961) Type A (1965) CV-2000 (1965) Akai (1967) U-matic
U-matic
(1969) EIAJ-1
EIAJ-1
(1969) Cartrivision (1972) Philips VCR (1972) V-Cord (1974) VX (1974) Betamax
Betamax
(1975) IVC (1975) Type B (1976) Type C (1976) VHS
VHS
(1976) VK (1977) SVR (1979) Video
Video
2000 (1980) CVC (1980) VHS-C
VHS-C
(1982) M (1982) Betacam
Betacam
(1982) Video8
Video8
(1985) MII (1986) S- VHS
VHS
(1987) S- VHS-C
VHS-C
(1987) Hi8 (1989) Ruvi (1998)

Digital

D1 (1986) D2 (1988) D3 (1991) DCT (1992) Digital Betacam
Betacam
(1993) D5 (1994) Digital-S
Digital-S
(D9) (1995) Betacam
Betacam
SX (1996) Digital8
Digital8
(1999) MicroMV
MicroMV
(2001)

High Definition

Sony
Sony
HDVS (1984) UniHi (1984) W- VHS
VHS
(1994) HDCAM
HDCAM
(1997) D- VHS
VHS
(1998) D6 HDTV VTR
D6 HDTV VTR
(2000) HDV
HDV
(2003) HDCAM
HDCAM
SR (2003)

Videodisc

Analog

Phonovision (1927) Ampex-HS (1967) TeD (1975) LaserDisc
LaserDisc
(1978) CED (1981) VHD (1983) Laserfilm
Laserfilm
(1984) CD Video
Video
(1987) VSD (c. 1987)

Digital

VCD (1993) MovieCD
MovieCD
(1996) DVD
DVD
(1996) Mini DVD
DVD
(c. 1996) DVD- Video
Video
(1997) CVD (1998) SVCD (1998) EVD (2003) PVD (Personal Video
Video
Disc) (2003) HVD (High-Definition Versatile Disc) (2004) UMD (2004) FVD (2005)

High Definition

MUSE Hi-Vision LD (1994) VMD (2006) HD DVD
DVD
(2006) BRD (BD/ Blu-ray
Blu-ray
disc) (2006) MiniBD (c. 2006) HVD (Holographic Versatile Disc) (2007) CBHD (China Blue High-definition Disc) (2008) UHD BRD (Ultra HD Blu-ray
Blu-ray
disc) (2016)

Virtual

Media agnostic

DV (1995) DVCPRO (1995) DVCAM (1996) DVCPRO50 (1997) DVCPRO HD (2000)

Tapeless

CamCutter Editcam (1995) XDCAM
XDCAM
(2003) MOD (2005) AVCHD
AVCHD
(2006) AVC-Intra (2006) TOD (2007) iFrame (2009) XAVC (2012)

Solid state

P2 (2004) SxS (2007) MicroP2
MicroP2
(2012)

Video
Video
recorded to film

Kinescope
Kinescope
(1947) Telerecording
Telerecording
(1940s) Electronicam
Electronicam
kinescope (1950s) Electronic Video
Video
Recording (1967)

v t e

Sony

Founders

Masaru Ibuka Akio Morita

Key personnel

Kaz Hirai
Kaz Hirai
(Chairman) Kenichiro Yoshida (President and CEO)

Primary businesses

Sony
Sony
Corporation Sony
Sony
Interactive Entertainment

PlayStation

Sony
Sony
Mobile Sony
Sony
Entertainment

Sony
Sony
Pictures Entertainment Sony
Sony
Music Entertainment Sony/ATV Music Publishing

Sony
Sony
Financial Holdings

Sony
Sony
Life Sony
Sony
Bank

Technologies and brands

α (Alpha) Betacam Bionz Blu-ray BRAVIA CD Cell Cyber-shot Dash Dream Machine DVD Exmor FeliCa Handycam HDCAM/HDCAM-SR LocationFree Memory Stick MiniDisc MiniDV mylo PlayStation Reader S/PDIF SDDS SXRD Sony
Sony
Tablet Tunnel diode TransferJet UMD Vaio Video8/Hi8/Digital8 Walkman Walkman
Walkman
Phones XDCAM Xperia HMZ-T1

Historical products

AIBO CV-2000 DAT Betamax Sony
Sony
CLIÉ Discman Jumbotron Lissa Mavica NEWS Qualia Rolly TR-55 Trinitron 1 inch Type C (BVH series) U-matic Watchman WEGA

Electronics

Sony
Sony
Electronics (US subsidiary) Sony
Sony
Energy Devices Sony
Sony
Creative Software FeliCa
FeliCa
Networks (57%)

v t e

Sony
Sony
Interactive Entertainment

Key personnel

Andrew House Shawn Layden Shuhei Yoshida

v t e

Sony
Sony
Interactive Entertainment Worldwide Studios

Franchises

Ape Escape Arc the Lad ATV Offroad Fury Boku no Natsuyasumi Buzz! Colony Wars Cool Boarders DanceStar Party Dark Cloud Destruction Derby Devil Dice Echochrome EverQuest Everybody's Golf Everybody's Tennis EyePet EyeToy FantaVision Fat Princess G-Police Genji God of War Gran Turismo Gravity Rush Hustle Kings Infamous Invizimals Jak and Daxter Jet Moto Jumping Flash! Killzone Knack Legend of Legaia Lemmings LittleBigPlanet LocoRoco MediEvil MLB: The Show ModNation Racers MotorStorm Motor Toon Grand Prix Ore no Shikabane wo Koete Yuke/Oreshika PaRappa the Rapper Patapon PlanetSide Pursuit Force Rally Cross Ratchet & Clank Resistance Savage Moon Shadow of the Beast SingStar Siren Sly Cooper Socom Soul Sacrifice Sports Champions Start the Party! Super Stardust Syphon Filter The Eye of Judgment The Getaway The Last of Us This Is Football Twisted Metal Uncharted Vib-Ribbon Warhawk What Did I Do to Deserve This, My Lord?/No Heroes Allowed White Knight Chronicles Wild Arms Wipeout Wonderbook World Tour Soccer

Divisions

Bend Studio Foster City Studio Japan
Japan
Studio London Studio San Diego Studio Santa Monica Studio

Subsidiaries

Guerrilla Games J.S.E.E.D. PlayStation
PlayStation
C.A.M.P. Team Gravity Team Ico Media Molecule Naughty Dog PixelOpus Polyphony Digital Sucker Punch Productions XDev

Former subsidiaries

989 Studios Bigbig Studios Contrail Evolution Studios Guerrilla Cambridge Incognito Entertainment Psygnosis Team Soho Zipper Interactive

v t e

PlayStation

Sony
Sony
Interactive Entertainment SIE Worldwide Studios

Consoles

Home consoles

PlayStation

Models Main hardware

PlayStation
PlayStation
2

Models Main hardware

PlayStation
PlayStation
3

Models Main hardware System software

PlayStation
PlayStation
4

Main hardware System software

Handhelds

PlayStation
PlayStation
Portable

System software

PlayStation
PlayStation
Vita

System software

Miscellaneous

PocketStation PSX PlayStation
PlayStation
TV

Games

PS1 games

A–L M–Z Best-selling PS one Classics

NA PAL JP

PS2 games

Best-selling Online games HD games PS2 Classics for PS3 PS2 games for PS4

PS3 games

Best-selling Physical Digital only Physical and digital 3D games PS Move games PS Now games

PS4 games

Best-selling PSVR

PSP games

Physical and digital System software compatibilities PS Minis

Other

PS Vita games

A–L M–Z

PS Mobile games TurboGrafx-16 Classics NEOGEO Station Classics HD Instant Game Collection

NA PAL Asia Japan China

Reprints

Greatest Hits Essentials The Best BigHit Series

Network

PlayStation
PlayStation
Network 2011 outage Central Station FirstPlay PlayStation
PlayStation
App PlayStation
PlayStation
Blog PlayStation
PlayStation
Home PlayStation
PlayStation
Mobile PlayStation
PlayStation
Music PlayStation
PlayStation
Now PlayStation
PlayStation
Store PlayStation
PlayStation
Video PlayStation
PlayStation
Vue PS2 online Room for PSP VidZone

Accessories

Controllers

PlayStation
PlayStation
Controller PlayStation
PlayStation
Mouse Analog Joystick Dual Analog DualShock Sixaxis PlayStation
PlayStation
Move

Cameras

EyeToy Go!Cam PlayStation
PlayStation
Eye PlayStation
PlayStation
Camera

Miscellaneous

Multitap Link Cable PS2 accessories PS2 Headset PS3 accessories PlayTV Wonderbook PlayStation
PlayStation
VR

Kits

Net Yaroze PS2 Linux GScube OtherOS Zego

Media

Magazines

Official U.S. PlayStation
PlayStation
Magazine PlayStation: The Official Magazine PlayStation
PlayStation
Official Magazine – UK PlayStation
PlayStation
Official Magazine – Australia PlayStation
PlayStation
Underground

Advertisements

Double Life Mountain PlayStation
PlayStation
marketing

Characters

Toro Polygon Man Kevin Butler Marcus Rivers

Arcade boards

Namco System 11 System 12 System 10 System 246 System 357

Related

Super NES CD-ROM Sony
Sony
Ericsson Xperia Play

Category Portal

Other

Gaikai SN Systems Cellius
Cellius
(49%) Dimps

Category Portal

v t e

Sony
Sony
Music Entertainment

Key personnel

Rob Stringer Kevin Kelleher

Flagship

Columbia Records RCA Records Epic Records

Sony
Sony
Music Nashville

Columbia Nashville Arista Nashville RCA Records
RCA Records
Nashville Provident Label Group

Sony
Sony
Masterworks

Sony
Sony
Classical Records Portrait Records RCA Red Seal Records Okeh Records

Sony
Sony
Music Entertainment Japan

Epic Records
Epic Records
Japan Ki/oon Music Sony
Sony
Music Entertainment Japan Ariola Japan BMG Japan mora Sacra Music Aniplex

Aniplex
Aniplex
of America A-1 Pictures

Music On! TV

Distribution

The Orchard

IODA RED Distribution Red Essential

Other Labels

RCA Inspiration Phonogenic Records Ultra Music Century Media Records Legacy Recordings Black Butter Records Kemosabe Records Robbins Entertainment Syco Music
Syco Music
(50%) Sony
Sony
Music Australia Sony
Sony
Music UK Sony
Sony
Music India Sony
Sony
Music Latin Vevo Volcano Entertainment

v t e

Sony
Sony
Pictures Entertainment

Key personnel

Tony Vinciquerra Thomas Rothman

Sony
Sony
Pictures Motion Picture Group

Columbia Pictures TriStar Pictures TriStar Productions Screen Gems Sony
Sony
Pictures Classics Sony
Sony
Pictures Releasing Sony
Sony
Pictures Imageworks Sony
Sony
Pictures Animation Sony
Sony
Pictures Worldwide Acquisitions

Destination Films Stage 6 Films Affirm Films

Sony
Sony
Pictures Home Entertainment

Sony
Sony
Wonder

Sony
Sony
Pictures Television

U.S. production

Adelaide Productions Sony
Sony
Crackle

The Minisode Network

Culver Entertainment Embassy Row TriStar Television

U.S. distribution

Funimation
Funimation
(95%)

International production

2waytraffic Left Bank Pictures Playmaker Media Stellify Media Teleset

TV channels & VOD

v t e

Sony
Sony
Pictures Television TV channels and VOD platforms

O = online VOD platform

Americas

US networks

Sony
Sony
Movie Channel GSN (58% joint venture with AT&T Entertainment Group) getTV Cine Sony Sony
Sony
CrackleO Defunct 3net
3net
(joint venture with Discovery and IMAX) Fearnet
Fearnet
(joint venture with Comcast
Comcast
and Lions Gate Entertainment)

Canada

Sony
Sony
Movie Channel and AXN
AXN
Movies (rebranded)

Latin America

Canal Sony AXN Defunct Animax Locomotion Sony
Sony
Spin

Asia

Indian sub-continent

v t e

Sony
Sony
Pictures Networks India Pvt. Ltd.

Hindi entertainment

SET

International

Sony
Sony
Sab Sony
Sony
Max Sony
Sony
Max 2 Sony
Sony
Pal Sony
Sony
Wah

English entertainment

AXN Sony
Sony
Le Plex Sony
Sony
Pix

Bengali entertainment

Sony
Sony
Aath

Sports

Sony
Sony
Six Sony
Sony
ESPN (50%; Joint venture with ESPN Inc.) Sony
Sony
Ten

Sony
Sony
Ten 1 Sony
Sony
Ten 2 Sony
Sony
Ten 3 Sony
Sony
Ten Golf

Acquisition pending TEN Sports Pakistan TEN Cricket
TEN Cricket
International

Music

Sony
Sony
Mix Sony
Sony
Rox

Other channels

Sony
Sony
BBC Earth (50%; Joint venture with BBC Studios) Sony
Sony
Yay

Other businesses

Sony
Sony
LIV (Online VOD platform)

Japan

Animax

Animax PlusO

AXN

AXN
AXN
Mystery AXN
AXN
PlusO

Star Channel (25% joint venture with News Corporation, Tohokushinsha Film, and Itochu)

South Korea

Animax (50% joint venture with KT SkyLife)

Animax PlusO

AXN
AXN
(50% joint venture with IHQ)

Taiwan

AXN Animax

Animax HD

south-east Asia

Animax AXN Gem

south-east Asia (50% joint venture with Nippon Television Network Corporation) Vietnam

Sony
Sony
Channel Sony
Sony
One Defunct AXN
AXN
Beyond BeTV

Europe, Middle East, Africa (EMEA)

Germany

AnimaxO AXN Sony
Sony
Channel Defunct Animax (linear television)

Italy

Cine Sony Pop Defunct AXN AXN
AXN
Sci Fi

The Netherlands

Film1

Film1
Film1
Action Film1
Film1
Drama Film1
Film1
Family Film1
Film1
Premiere

Defunct Film1
Film1
Festival Film1
Film1
Sundance

Portugal

AXN

AXN
AXN
Black AXN
AXN
White

Defunct Animax

Russia

Sony
Sony
Channel Sony
Sony
Turbo Sony
Sony
Sci-Fi

Spain

AXN

AXN
AXN
SyncO AXN
AXN
White

Defunct Animax

Turkey

Sony
Sony
Channel Sony
Sony
Çocuk Planet Mutfak Planet Türk

UK & Ireland

v t e

Television channels in the United Kingdom and Ireland operated by Sony Pictures Television

Including CSC Media Group television channels

Entertainment channels

Movies4Men Sony
Sony
Crime Channel Sony
Sony
Crime Channel 2 Sony
Sony
Movie Channel truTV

CSC True Entertainment True Movies

Music channels

CSC Chart Show TV Chart Show Hits Scuzz Starz TV The Vault

Children's channels

CSC Pop Pop Max Tiny Pop

Former channels

More Than Movies Movies4Men
Movies4Men
2 Sony
Sony
Channel

CSC The Amp AnimeCentral Bliss BuzMuzik Chart Shop TV Flaunt Flava MinX NME TV Pop Girl Pop Plus Showcase TV True Crime True Drama True Movies
True Movies
2

Miscellaneous

Sony
Sony
Pictures Television animaxtv.co.uk (VOD)

Baltics

Sony
Sony
Channel Sony
Sony
Turbo

Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)

AXN

Adria Hungary

AXN
AXN
NowO

AXN
AXN
Black AXN
AXN
Spin AXN
AXN
White

Sony
Sony
Max Sony
Sony
Movie Channel Viasat
Viasat
Hungary

Viasat
Viasat
3 Viasat
Viasat
6

Defunct Animax AXN
AXN
Crime

Middle East

AXN
AXN
Middle East

Arabic English

Defunct AXN
AXN
Israel

Africa

Sony
Sony
Channel Sony
Sony
MAX True Movies Defunct Animax

Other

Sony
Sony
Pictures Digital

Sony
Sony
Pictures Mobile

Sony
Sony
Pictures Entertainment Japan Sony
Sony
Pictures Family Entertainment Group Sony
Sony
Pictures Studios Madison Gate Records

Defunct

Columbia Pictures
Columbia Pictures
Television Columbia TriStar Television Merv Griffin Enterprises ELP Communications

Online distribution platforms

PlayStation
PlayStation
Network ( PlayStation
PlayStation
Music PlayStation
PlayStation
Now PlayStation
PlayStation
Store PlayStation
PlayStation
Video PlayStation
PlayStation
Plus PlayStation
PlayStation
Vue) The Minisode Network Sony
Sony
Crackle Sony
Sony
Liv

Other businesses

Sony
Sony
DADC Sony
Sony
Network Communications Sony
Sony
Professional Solutions M3 (39.4%) Sony/ATV Music Publishing EMI Music Publishing
EMI Music Publishing
(19%) Vaio
Vaio
(4.9%)

Other assets

Sony
Sony
Corporation of America (umbrella company in the US) Other subsidiaries List of acquisitions

Nonprofit organizations

Sony
Sony
Institute of Higher Education Shohoku College

Other

History of Sony Sony
Sony
Toshiba
Toshiba
IBM Center of Competence for

.