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The BENGAL SULTANATE, officially the SULTANATE OF BENGAL , was a Muslim
Muslim
state and empire based in the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
on the coast of the Bay of Bengal
Bengal
. It was an important power in South and Southeast Asia. Its rulers carried the title of King of Kings
King of Kings
in the East. The kingdom's heartland was in Bengal
Bengal
, which is today divided between Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and East India
India
, but its realm included large parts of North India
India
and western Myanmar
Myanmar
. Its bordering countries included the Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
, Tibet, Ahom and Burmese states. Several dynasties ruled over Bengal
Bengal
Sultanate
Sultanate
sequentially. It disintegrated at the end of the 16th century and was absorbed into the Pan-South-Asian Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
and the Arakanese Kingdom of Mrauk U
Kingdom of Mrauk U

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 List of Sultans

* 2.1 Ilyas Shahi dynasty (1342-1414) * 2.2 House of Raja Ganesha
Raja Ganesha
(1414-1435) * 2.3 Restored Ilyas Shahi dynasty (1435-1487) * 2.4 Habshi rule (1487-1494) * 2.5 Hussain Shahi dynasty (1494-1538) * 2.6 Governors under Suri rule (1539-1554) * 2.7 Muhammad Shah dynasty (1554-1564) * 2.8 Karrani dynasty (1564-1576)

* 3 Mint towns * 4 Economy

* 5 Culture

* 5.1 Architecture * 5.2 Literature

* 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading

HISTORY

See also: History of Bengal
Bengal

Delhi lost its hold over Bengal
Bengal
in 1338, thus paving the way for the assumption of independence by Ilyas Khan. In 1342, a local warlord, Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah proclaimed himself as monarch of the Kingdom of Lakhnauti. He would go on to consolidate his rule by conquering the other independent kingdoms of Bengal
Bengal
before proclaiming himself as Sultan
Sultan
of Bengal.

The absorption of Bengal
Bengal
into the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
was a gradual process beginning with the defeat of Bengali forces under Sultan
Sultan
Nasiruddin Nasrat Shah by Babur
Babur
at the Battle of Ghaghra and ending with the Battle of Raj Mahal where the Pashtun Karrani dynasty , the last reigning Sultans of Bengal
Bengal
were defeated.

LIST OF SULTANS

ILYAS SHAHI DYNASTY (1342-1414)

Main article: Ilyas Shahi dynasty

NAME REIGN NOTES

Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah 1342–1358 Became the first sole ruler of whole Bengal
Bengal
comprising Sonargaon , Satgaon and Lakhnauti .

Sikandar Shah 1358–1390 Assassinated by his son and successor, Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah

Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah 1390–1411

Saifuddin Hamza Shah 1411–1413

Muhammad Shah bin Hamza Shah 1413 Assassinated by his father's slave Shihabuddin Bayazid Shah on the orders of the landlord of Dinajpur , Raja Ganesha
Raja Ganesha

Shihabuddin Bayazid Shah 1413–1414

Alauddin Firuz Shah I 1414 Son of Shihabuddin Bayazid Shah. Assassinated by Raja Ganesha

HOUSE OF RAJA GANESHA (1414-1435)

NAME REIGN NOTES

Raja Ganesha
Raja Ganesha
1414–1415

Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah 1415–1416 Son of Raja Ganesha
Raja Ganesha
and converted into Islam

Raja Ganesha
Raja Ganesha
1416–1418 Second Phase

Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah 1418–1433 Second Phase

Shamsuddin Ahmad Shah 1433–1435

RESTORED ILYAS SHAHI DYNASTY (1435-1487)

NAME REIGN NOTES

Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah I 1435–1459

Rukunuddin Barbak Shah 1459–1474

Shamsuddin Yusuf Shah 1474–1481

Sikandar Shah II 1481

Jalaluddin Fateh Shah 1481–1487

HABSHI RULE (1487-1494)

NAME REIGN NOTES

Shahzada Barbak 1487

Saifuddin Firuz Shah 1487–1489

Mahmud Shah II 1489–1490

Shamsuddin Muzaffar Shah 1490–1494

HUSSAIN SHAHI DYNASTY (1494-1538)

Main article: Hussain Shahi dynasty

NAME REIGN NOTES

Alauddin Hussain Shah 1494–1518

Nasiruddin Nasrat Shah 1518–1533

Alauddin Firuz Shah II 1533

Ghiyasuddin Mahmud Shah 1533–1538

GOVERNORS UNDER SURI RULE (1539-1554)

NAME REIGN NOTES

Khidr Khan 1539–1541 Declared independence in 1541 and was replaced

Qazi Fazilat 1541–1545

Muhammad Khan Sur 1545–1554 Declared independence upon the death of Islam Shah Suri

MUHAMMAD SHAH DYNASTY (1554-1564)

NAME REIGN NOTES

Muhammad Khan Sur 1554–1555 Declared independence and styled himself as Shamsuddin Muhammad Shah

Ghiyasuddin Bahadur Shah I (not to be confused with Ghiyasuddin Bahadur Shah of Lakhnauti ) 1555–1561

Ghiyasuddin Jalal Shah 1561–1563

Ghiyasuddin Bahadur Shah II 1563-1564

KARRANI DYNASTY (1564-1576)

Main article: Karrani dynasty

NAME REIGN NOTES

Taj Khan Karrani 1564–1566

Sulaiman Khan Karrani 1566–1572

Bayazid Khan Karrani 1572

Daud Khan Karrani 1572–1576

MINT TOWNS

THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (April 2013)

ECONOMY

THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (April 2013)

CULTURE

THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (May 2013)

The Sixty Dome Mosque in Bagerhat is a UNESCO World Heritage Site Old Gateway of Gaur
Gaur
Tomb of Sultan
Sultan
Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah at Sonargaon . Silver tanka of Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah The Sona Mosque in Rajshahi The Firoz Minar at Gaur
Gaur
Ruins of Shamsuddin Ahmad Shah 's palace in Dinajpur

ARCHITECTURE

Main article: Bengali Muslim
Muslim
architecture The mihrab of Bagha Mosque

The most enduring legacy of the Bengal
Bengal
Sultanate
Sultanate
is its architectural heritage. A distinct Bengali-Islamic architecture developed during its reign, which combined indigenous traditions with influences from Persia
Persia
and Byzantium. It featured multiple and single domed mosques with complex terracotta and stone ornamentation.

The most grand testament to their imperial ambitions is reflected in the ruins of the Adina Mosque , the largest mosque ever built in the Indian subcontinent. The mosque has a plan similar to the Great Mosque of Damascus and elements of the pre-Islamic Sassanid Taq Kasra monument. The Mosque City of Bagerhat is a UNESCO World Heritage Site . Sultanate-mosques are scattered throughout Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and West Bengal.

LITERATURE

And with the three cups of wine, this dispute is going on.

All the poets of Hindustan
Hindustan
have become excited

That this Persian ode, to Bengal
Bengal
is going on.

-A excerpt of a poem jointly penned by Hafez and Sultan
Sultan
Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah in the 14th century.

With Persian as an official language , Bengal
Bengal
witnessed an influx of Persian scholars, lawyers, teachers and clerics. It was the preferred language of the aristocracy and the Sufis . Thousands of Persian books and manuscripts were published in Bengal. The earliest Persian work compiled in Bengal
Bengal
was a translation of Amrtakunda from Sanskrit by Qadi Ruknu'd-Din Abu Hamid Muhammad bin Muhammad al-'Amidi of Samarqand, a famous Hanafi jurist and Sufi . During the reign of Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah , the city of Sonargaon became an important centre of Persian literature , with many publications of prose and poetry. The period is described as the "golden age of Persian literature in Bengal". Its stature is illustrated by the Sultan's own correspondence with the Persian poet Hafez . When the Sultan
Sultan
invited Hafez to complete an incomplete ghazal by the ruler, the renowned poet responded acknowledging the grandeur of the king's court and the literary quality of Bengali-Persian poetry. Tomb of Hafez in Shiraz
Shiraz

In the 15th century, the Sufi poet Nur Qutb Alam pioneered Bengali Muslim
Muslim
poetry by establishing the Rikhta tradition, which saw poems written half in Persian and half in colloquial Bengali. The invocation tradition saw Islamic figures replacing the invocation of Hindu gods and goddesses in Bengali texts. The literary romantic tradition saw poems by Shah Muhammad Sagir on Yusuf and Zulaikha , as well as works of Bahram Khan and Sabirid Khan. The Dobhashi culture featured the use of Arabic
Arabic
and Persian words in Bengali texts to illustrate Muslim conquests. Epic poetry
Epic poetry
included Nabibangsha by Syed Sultan
Sultan
, Janganama by Abdul Hakim and Rasul Bijay by Shah Barid. Sufi literature flourished with a dominant theme of cosmology . Bengali Muslim
Muslim
writers produced translations of numerous Arabic
Arabic
and Persian works, including the Thousand and One Nights and the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
.

SEE ALSO

Wikimedia Commons has media related to SULTANATE OF BENGAL .

* List of rulers of Bengal
Bengal

REFERENCES

* ^ David Lewis (31 October 2011). Bangladesh: Politics, Economy and Civil Society. Cambridge University Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-1-139-50257-3 . * ^ Barbara Watson Andaya; Leonard Y. Andaya (19 February 2015). A History of Early Modern Southeast Asia, 1400–1830. Cambridge University Press. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-521-88992-6 . * ^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 120–121. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4 . * ^ A B "The Rise of Islam and the Bengal
Bengal
Frontier, 1204–1760" (PDF). Hudsoncress.net. Retrieved 5 May 2016. * ^ Hasan, Perween (2007). Sultans and Mosques: The Early Muslim Architecture of Bangladesh. I.B.Tauris. p. 63. ISBN 978-1-84511-381-0 . * ^ http://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Persian * ^ "Persian – Banglapedia". * ^ https://blogs.edgehill.ac.uk/sacs/files/2012/07/Document-6-Billah-A.-M.-M.-A-The-Development-of-Bengali-Literature-during-Muslim-Rule.pdf * ^ " Sufi Literature – Banglapedia".

* Richard Maxwell Eaton (1996). The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204–1760. University of California Press * Hussain, Syed Ejaz (2003). The Bengal
Bengal
Sultanate: Politics, Economy and Coins, A.D. 1205–1576. Manohar. ISBN 978-81-7304-482-3 . * Perween Hasan (15 August 2007). Sultans and Mosques: The Early Muslim
Muslim
Architecture of Bangladesh. I.B.Tauris . pp. 73–. ISBN 978-1-84511-381-0 . * The Grammar of Sultanate
Sultanate
Mosque in Bengal
Bengal
Architecture, Nujaba Binte Kabir (2012)

FURTHER READING

* Yegar, Moshe (2002). Between Integration and Secession: The Muslim Communities of the Southern Philippines, Southern Thailand, and Western Burma/Myanmar. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. p. 23–24. ISBN 978-0-739

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