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The Sultanate of Bengal
Bengal
(also known as the Bengal
Bengal
Sultanate; Bangalah (Persian: بنگاله‎ Bangālah, Bengali: বাঙ্গালা/বঙ্গালা) and Shahi Bangalah (Persian: شاهی بنگاله‎ Shāhī Bangālah, Bengali: শাহী বাঙ্গলা))[1] was a Muslim
Muslim
state, established in Bengal
Bengal
during the 14th century, as part of the Muslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent. It was the first independent unified Bengali kingdom under Muslim
Muslim
rule. The region became widely known as Bangalah and Bengala under this kingdom. The two terms are precursors to the modern terms Bangla and Bengal. The kingdom was formed after governors of the Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
declared independence in the region. Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah united the region's states into a single government headed by an imperial Sultan. The kingdom was ruled by five dynasties. At the height of its territorial empire, the kingdom ruled over areas in Eastern South Asia
Eastern South Asia
and Southeast Asia. It re-established diplomatic relations between China and the Indian subcontinent. It permitted the creation of the Portuguese settlement in Chittagong, the first European enclave in Bengal. The kingdom looked west for cultural inspiration, particularly from Persianate
Persianate
cultures.[2] Its rulers sponsored the construction of colleges in Mecca
Mecca
and Medina, which host the holiest sites of Islam. Literature was fostered in Persian and Bengali, with strong Sufi influences. Bengali architecture
Bengali architecture
evolved significantly during this period, with several external influences. The kingdom had an influential Hindu
Hindu
minority, which included aristocrats, military officers and bureaucrats. It assisted the Buddhist king of Arakan
Arakan
to regain control of his country from the Burmese. The kingdom began to disintegrate in the 16th century, in the aftermath of Sher Shah Suri's conquests. The Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
began to absorb Bengal
Bengal
under its first emperor, Babur. The second Mughal emperor Humayun
Humayun
occupied the Bengali capital of Gaurh. In 1576, the armed forces of emperor Akbar defeated the last reigning Sultan, Daud Khan Karrani. The region later became Mughal Bengal.

Contents

1 History 2 Governance 3 Military 4 Currency and mint towns 5 Trade 6 Immigration 7 Diplomatic relations

7.1 China 7.2 Portugal 7.3 Egypt 7.4 Africa 7.5 Herat 7.6 Jaunpur

8 Contribution to Mecca
Mecca
and Medina 9 Travelers 10 Literature 11 Architecture 12 List of Sultans

12.1 Ilyas Shahi dynasty (1342-1414) 12.2 House of Raja Ganesha
Raja Ganesha
(1414-1435) 12.3 Restored Ilyas Shahi dynasty (1435-1487) 12.4 Habshi rule (1487-1494) 12.5 Hussain Shahi dynasty (1494-1538) 12.6 Governors under Suri rule (1539-1554) 12.7 Muhammad Shah dynasty (1554-1564) 12.8 Karrani dynasty (1564-1576)

13 See also 14 References 15 Further reading

History[edit]

The Adina Mosque
Adina Mosque
was built by Sikandar Shah

The Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
lost its hold over Bengal
Bengal
in 1338 when separatist states were established by governors, including Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah in Sonargaon, Alauddin Ali Shah in Lakhnauti and Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah in Satgaon. In 1352, Ilyas Shah defeated the rulers of Sonargaon and Lakhnauti and united the Bengal
Bengal
region into an independent kingdom. He founded the Turkic Ilyas Shahi dynasty which ruled Bengal until 1490. During this time, much of the agricultural land was controlled by Hindu
Hindu
zamindars, which caused tensions with Muslim Taluqdars. The Ilyas Shahi rule was challenged by Raja Ganesha, a powerful Hindu
Hindu
landowner, who briefly managed to place his son, Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah, on the throne in the early 15th century, before the Ilyas Shahi dynasty was restored in 1432. Tensions between different Muslim
Muslim
communities often affected the kingdom. Tensions between different Muslim
Muslim
communities often affected the kingdom. This ultimately led to their expulsion from Bengal.[3] After a period of instability, Alauddin Hussain Shah
Alauddin Hussain Shah
gained control of Bengal
Bengal
in 1494 after serving as prime minister. Hussain Shah ruled till 1519. The dynasty he founded reigned till 1538. Muslims and Hindus
Hindus
jointly served in the royal administration during the Hussain Shahi dynasty. This era is often regarded as a golden age of the Bengal
Bengal
Sultanate, in which Bengali territory included areas of Arakan, Orissa, Tripura
Tripura
and Assam.[3] The sultanate gave permission for establishing the Portuguese settlement in Chittagong. Sher Shah Suri conquered Bengal
Bengal
in the 16th century, during which he renovated the Grand Trunk Road.[4] After conquering Bengal, Sher Shah Suri
Sher Shah Suri
proceeded to Agra. The absorption of Bengal
Bengal
into the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
was a gradual process beginning with the defeat of Bengali forces under Sultan
Sultan
Nasiruddin Nasrat Shah by Babur
Babur
at the Battle of Ghaghra and ending with the Battle of Raj Mahal where the Pashtun Karrani dynasty, the last reigning Sultans of Bengal, were defeated. Governance[edit] The Bengal
Bengal
Sultanate was an absolute monarchy. The Ilyas Shahi dynasty promoted a Persianate
Persianate
society. It copied the pre- Muslim
Muslim
Persian tradition of monarchy and statecraft. The courts of the capital cities sanctified the sultan, used Persianized royal paraphernalia, adopted an elaborate court ceremony modeled on the Sasanian imperial paradigm, employed a hierarchical bureaucracy, and promoted Islam
Islam
as the state religion. The rise of Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah
Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah
saw more native elements inducted in the courts.[5] The Hussain Shahi dynasty employed many Hindus
Hindus
in the government and promoted a form of religious pluralism.[6] Military[edit]

Babur
Babur
began absorbing Bengal
Bengal
in the early 16th century

Military strength was the existential basis of medieval kingdoms in Bengal
Bengal
and other parts of India. The sultans had a well-organised army, including cavalry, artillery, infantry and war elephants; and a navy. Due to the riverine geography and climate, it was not feasible to use cavalry throughout the year in Bengal. The cavalry was probably the weakest component of the Bengal
Bengal
Sultanate's army, as the horses had to be imported from foreign countries. The artillery was an important section. Portuguese historian João de Barros
João de Barros
opined that the military supremacy of Bengal
Bengal
over Arakan
Arakan
and Tripura
Tripura
was due to its efficient artillery. The artillery used cannons and guns of various sizes.[7] The paiks formed the vital part of the Bengal
Bengal
infantry during this period. There were occasions when the paiks also tackled political situations. The particular battle array of the foot-soldiers who used bows, arrows and guns attracted the attention of Babur.[7] War elephants
War elephants
played an important part in the Bengal
Bengal
army. Apart from carrying war materials, elephants were also used for the movement of the armed personnel. In riverine Bengal
Bengal
the usefulness of elephants, though very slow, could not be minimised. The navy was of prime necessity in riverine Bengal. In fact, the cavalry could ensure the hold over this country for a period of six months whereas the boats backed by the paiks could command supremacy over the other half of the year. Since the time of Iwaz Khalji, who first organised a naval force in Islamic Bengal, the war boats played an important role in the political affairs of the country. The chief of the admiralty had various responsibilities, including shipbuilding, river transport, to fit out strong boats for transporting war elephants; to recruit seamen; to patrol the rivers and to collect tolls at ghats. The efficiency of the navy eroded during the Hussain Shahi dynasty. The sultans also built forts, including temporary mud walled forts.[7]

Name of Conflict Belligerents Outcome

Allies Opponent(s)

Bengal
Bengal
Sultanate- Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
War (1353–1359) Velanati Chodas Delhi Sultanate Victory

Delhi recognizes Bengal
Bengal
Sultanate

Bengal
Bengal
Sultanate- Jaunpur Sultanate
Jaunpur Sultanate
War (1415-1420) Timurid Empire Ming China Jaunpur Sultanate Victory

Jaunpur halts raids on Bengal

Reconquest of Arakan
Arakan
(1429-1430) Launggyet Burmese Kingdoms

Hanthawaddy Kingdom Kingdom of Ava

Victory

Kingdom of Mrauk U
Kingdom of Mrauk U
established as protectorate of Bengal

Bengal
Bengal
Sultanate– Kamata Kingdom
Kamata Kingdom
War (1498)

Kamata Kingdom Victory

Khen dynasty overthrown

Bengal
Bengal
Sultanate- Kingdom of Mrauk U
Kingdom of Mrauk U
War of 1512-1516

Kingdom of Mrauk U Victory

Chittagong
Chittagong
and North Arakan
Arakan
return to Bengal
Bengal
Sultanate rule

Battle of Ghaghra (1529) Eastern Afghan Confederates Mughal Empire Defeat

Bengal
Bengal
signs peace treaty with Mughals

Battle of Raj Mahal (1576)

Mughal Empire Defeat

Last Bengal
Bengal
Sultan
Sultan
captured

Currency and mint towns[edit]

Silver taka with a lion symbol, 15th century

The Taka was the currency of the Bengal
Bengal
Sultanate. Locations hosting a mint also served as provincial capitals, known as mint towns. The following includes a partial listing of mint towns in the Bengal Sultanate.[8]

Lakhnauti Sonargaon Ghiaspur (Mymensingh) Satgaon Firuzabad (Pandua) Shahr-i-Naw (Pandua) Muzzamabad (Sonargaon) Jannatabad (Lakhnauti) Fathabad (Faridpur) Chatgaon (Chittagong) Rotaspur (Bihar) Mahmudabad ( Jessore
Jessore
and Nadia) Barbakaabad (Dinajpur) Muzaffarabad (Pandua) Muahmmadabad Husaynabad (24 Parganas) Chandrabad (Murshidabad) Nusratabad ( Bogra
Bogra
and Rangpur) Khalifatabad (Bagerhat) Badarpur (Bagerhat) Sharifabad (Birbhum) Tandah (Malda)

Trade[edit]

The Bengal
Bengal
Sultanate, shown as the Ganges Delta, in the Portuguese Miller Atlas
Miller Atlas
map from 1519

The only eastern political and economic pole of Islamic India
India
was Bengal. Like the Gujarat Sultanate, it was open to the sea and accumulated profits from trade with agricultural incomes. Traders from around the world were present in the Bay of Bengal
Bengal
area, which included the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta
Ganges-Brahmaputra delta
and the Irrawaddy delta. Bengal's position as a major cotton textile exporter was unique in Islamic India.[9] Immigration[edit] Bengal
Bengal
was a melting pot under the sultanate. Migrants included Turks, Afghans, Persians and Arabs.[10] An important migrant community were Persians, who included mostly teachers, lawyers, scholars and clerics.[11] Mercenaries were widely imported for domestic, military and political service.[12] Diplomatic relations[edit]

The giraffe gifted by Bengal
Bengal
to China
China
in 1414

China[edit] Political relations between China
China
and the Indian subcontinent became nonexistent after the decline of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India.[13] In the 15th century, the Bengal
Bengal
Sultanate revived the subcontinent's relations with China
China
for the first time in centuries. Sultan
Sultan
Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah began sending envoys to the Ming dynasty. He sent ambassadors in 1405, 1408 and 1409.[14] Emperor Yongle
Yongle
of China
China
responded by sending ambassadors to Bengal
Bengal
between 1405 and 1433, including members of the Treasure voyages
Treasure voyages
fleet led by Admiral Zheng He.[15] The exchange of embassies included the gift of an East African giraffe by Sultan Shihabuddin Bayazid Shah to the Chinese emperor in 1414.[16][17][18] China
China
also mediated an end to the Bengal-Jaunpur War after a request from Sultan
Sultan
Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah.[19] Portugal[edit] Following Vasco Da Gama's landing in southern India, Portuguese traders from Malacca, Ceylon and Bombay began traversing the sea routes of the Bay of Bengal. In the early 16th century, Bengal received official Portuguese envoys.[20] Permission was given for the establishment of the Portuguese settlement in Chittagong. Egypt[edit] There are records of diplomatic relations between Sultan
Sultan
Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah and Sultan
Sultan
Ashraf Barsbay
Barsbay
of Mamluk Egypt. The latter sent the Bengali sultan a robe of honor and a letter of recognition.[21] Africa[edit] There are records of envoys from the East African city state of Malindi being hosted in the Bengali court.[22] Animals constituted a significant part of tributes in medieval courts.[16] The East African envoys brought giraffes, which were noticed by Chinese envoys.[22] Herat[edit] There are records of contacts between Sultan
Sultan
Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah and Sultan
Sultan
Shahrukh Mirza, the Timurid ruler of Herat.[23] Jaunpur[edit] Sultan
Sultan
Ghiyasuddin Azam began sending envoys to the neighboring Jaunpur Sultanate. He sent elephants as gifts to Sultan
Sultan
Khawja Jahan.[24] The two kingdoms fought a war between 1415 and 1420. The end of the war brought a long period of peace between the neighboring states. In 1494, Sultan
Sultan
Husayn Shah Sharqi of Jaunpur took refuge in Bengal.[25] Contribution to Mecca
Mecca
and Medina[edit] Sultan
Sultan
Ghiyasuddin Azam sponsored the construction of madrasas (Islamic theological schools) in Mecca
Mecca
and Medina.[26] The schools became known as the Ghiyasia Madrasa
Madrasa
and Banjaliah Madrasa. Taqiuddin Fasi, a contemporary Arab historian, was a teacher at the madrasa in Mecca. The madrasa in Medina
Medina
was built at a place called Husn al-Atiq near the Prophet's Mosque.[27] Several other Bengali sultans also sponsored madrasas in Mecca
Mecca
and Medina, including Sultan
Sultan
Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah.[28] Travelers[edit] The kingdom was visited by noblemen from city states such as the Venetian Republic, including Niccolo De Conti, Caeser Frederick and Ludovico di Varthema.[29][30][31][32] Literature[edit] Muslim
Muslim
poets were writing in the Bengali language
Bengali language
by the 15th century. By the turn of the 16th century, a vernacular literature based on concepts of Sufism
Sufism
and Islamic cosmology
Islamic cosmology
flourished in the region. Bengali Muslim
Muslim
mystic literature was one of the most original in Islamic India.[9]

Tomb of Hafez
Hafez
in Shiraz. The Iranian poet wrote a poem for the Sultan of Bengal

And with the three washers [cups of wine], this dispute is going on. All the parrots [poets] of India
India
have fallen into a sugar shattering situation (become excited) That this Persian candy [ode], to Bangalah [Bengal] is going on.

-An excerpt of a poem jointly penned by Hafez
Hafez
and Sultan
Sultan
Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah in the 14th century.[33]

With Persian as an official language, Bengal
Bengal
witnessed an influx of Persian scholars, lawyers, teachers and clerics. It was the preferred language of the aristocracy and the Sufis. Thousands of Persian books and manuscripts were published in Bengal. The earliest Persian work compiled in Bengal
Bengal
was a translation of Amrtakunda from Sanskrit by Qadi Ruknu'd-Din Abu Hamid Muhammad bin Muhammad al-'Amidi of Samarqand, a famous Hanafi jurist and Sufi. During the reign of Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah, the city of Sonargaon
Sonargaon
became an important centre of Persian literature, with many publications of prose and poetry. The period is described as the "golden age of Persian literature in Bengal". Its stature is illustrated by the Sultan's own correspondence with the Persian poet Hafez. When the Sultan
Sultan
invited Hafez
Hafez
to complete an incomplete ghazal by the ruler, the renowned poet responded by acknowledging the grandeur of the king's court and the literary quality of Bengali-Persian poetry.[34] In the 15th century, the Sufi
Sufi
poet Nur Qutb Alam pioneered Bengali Muslim
Muslim
poetry by establishing the Rikhta tradition, which saw poems written half in Persian and half in colloquial Bengali. The invocation tradition saw Islamic figures replacing the invocation of Hindu
Hindu
gods and goddesses in Bengali texts. The literary romantic tradition saw poems by Shah Muhammad Sagir on Yusuf and Zulaikha, as well as works of Bahram Khan and Sabirid Khan. The Dobhashi culture featured the use of Arabic
Arabic
and Persian words in Bengali texts to illustrate Muslim conquests. Epic poetry
Epic poetry
included Nabibangsha by Syed Sultan, Janganama by Abdul Hakim and Rasul Bijay by Shah Barid. Sufi
Sufi
literature flourished with a dominant theme of cosmology. Bengali Muslim
Muslim
writers produced translations of numerous Arabic
Arabic
and Persian works, including the Thousand and One Nights
Thousand and One Nights
and the Shahnameh.[35][36] Architecture[edit] See also: Bengali architecture While other Muslim
Muslim
kingdoms in the subcontinent imitated Persian architecture, the Bengal
Bengal
Sultanate encouraged a distinctive local style. A distinct Bengali-Islamic architecture developed during its reign, which combined indigenous traditions with influences from Persia and Byzantium. It featured multiple and single domed mosques with complex terracotta and stone ornamentation. The most grand testament to their imperial ambitions is reflected in the ruins of the Adina Mosque, the largest mosque ever built in the Indian subcontinent.[37] The mosque has a plan similar to the Great Mosque of Damascus and elements of the pre-Islamic Sassanid Taq Kasra monument.[37][38] The Mosque City of Bagerhat
Bagerhat
is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Sultanate-mosques are scattered throughout Bangladesh and West Bengal.

Architecture of the Bengal
Bengal
Sultanate

Dhani Chowk Mosque

Sona Mosque

Khania Dighi Mosque

Firoz Minar

Gate of Lakhnauti

Mihrab of Bagha Mosque

Pathrail Mosque

List of Sultans[edit] Ilyas Shahi dynasty (1342-1414)[edit] Main article: Ilyas Shahi dynasty

Name Reign Notes

Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah 1342–1358 Became the first sole ruler of whole Bengal
Bengal
comprising Sonargaon, Satgaon
Satgaon
and Lakhnauti.

Sikandar Shah 1358–1390 Assassinated by his son and successor, Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah

Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah 1390–1411

Saifuddin Hamza Shah 1411–1413

Muhammad Shah bin Hamza Shah 1413 Assassinated by his father's slave Shihabuddin Bayazid Shah on the orders of the landlord of Dinajpur, Raja Ganesha

Shihabuddin Bayazid Shah 1413–1414

Alauddin Firuz Shah I 1414 Son of Shihabuddin Bayazid Shah. Assassinated by Raja Ganesha

House of Raja Ganesha
Raja Ganesha
(1414-1435)[edit]

An illustration of the usurper Raja Ganesha

Name Reign Notes

Raja Ganesha 1414–1415

Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah 1415–1416 Son of Raja Ganesha
Raja Ganesha
and converted into Islam

Raja Ganesha 1416–1418 Second Phase

Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah 1418–1433 Second Phase

Shamsuddin Ahmad Shah 1433–1435

Restored Ilyas Shahi dynasty (1435-1487)[edit]

Name Reign Notes

Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah I 1435–1459

Rukunuddin Barbak Shah 1459–1474

Shamsuddin Yusuf Shah 1474–1481

Sikandar Shah II 1481

Jalaluddin Fateh Shah 1481–1487

Habshi rule (1487-1494)[edit]

Name Reign Notes

Shahzada Barbak 1487

Saifuddin Firuz Shah 1487–1489

Mahmud Shah II 1489–1490

Shamsuddin Muzaffar Shah 1490–1494

Hussain Shahi dynasty (1494-1538)[edit] Main article: Hussain Shahi dynasty

Name Reign Notes

Alauddin Hussain Shah 1494–1518

Nasiruddin Nasrat Shah 1518–1533

Alauddin Firuz Shah II 1533

Ghiyasuddin Mahmud Shah 1533–1538

Governors under Suri rule (1539-1554)[edit]

An illustration of the conqueror Sher Shah Suri

Name Reign Notes

Khidr Khan 1539–1541 Declared independence in 1541 and was replaced

Qazi Fazilat 1541–1545

Muhammad Khan Sur 1545–1554 Declared independence upon the death of Islam
Islam
Shah Suri

Muhammad Shah dynasty (1554-1564)[edit]

Name Reign Notes

Muhammad Khan Sur 1554–1555 Declared independence and styled himself as Shamsuddin Muhammad Shah

Ghiyasuddin Bahadur Shah I 1555–1561

Ghiyasuddin Jalal Shah 1561–1563

Ghiyasuddin Bahadur Shah II 1563-1564

Karrani dynasty (1564-1576)[edit] Main article: Karrani dynasty

Name Reign Notes

Taj Khan Karrani 1564–1566

Sulaiman Khan Karrani 1566–1572

Bayazid Khan Karrani 1572

Daud Khan Karrani 1572–1576

See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sultanate of Bengal.

Bengal
Bengal
Subah List of rulers of Bengal List of medieval great powers

References[edit]

^ "History". Banglapedia. Retrieved 23 September 2017. Shah-i-Bangalah, Shah-i-Bangaliyan and Sultan-i-Bangalah  ^ Richard M. Eaton (31 July 1996). The Rise of Islam
Islam
and the Bengal Frontier, 1204-1760. University of California Press. pp. 40–50. ISBN 978-0-520-20507-9.  ^ a b David Lewis (31 October 2011). Bangladesh: Politics, Economy and Civil Society. Cambridge University Press. pp. 44–45. ISBN 978-1-139-50257-3.  ^ Vadime Elisseeff (1998). The Silk Roads: Highways of Culture and Commerce. Berghahn Books. p. 161. ISBN 978-1-57181-221-6.  ^ http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/bengal ^ "He founded the Bengali Husayn Shahi dynasty, which ruled from 1493 to 1538, and was known to be tolerant to Hindus, employing many on them in his service and promoting a form of religious pluralism" David Lewis (31 October 2011). Bangladesh: Politics, Economy and Civil Society. Cambridge University Press. pp. 44–45. ISBN 978-1-139-50257-3.  ^ a b c "Military - Banglapedia". En.banglapedia.org. Retrieved 2017-09-22.  ^ "Mint Towns - Banglapedia". En.banglapedia.org. 2014-04-05. Retrieved 2017-09-22.  ^ a b Claude Markovits (1 February 2004). A History of Modern India, 1480-1950. Anthem Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-1-84331-004-4.  ^ Muhammad Mojlum Khan (21 October 2013). The Muslim
Muslim
Heritage of Bengal: The Lives, Thoughts and Achievements of Great Muslim
Muslim
Scholars, Writers and Reformers of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and West Bengal. Kube Publishing Limited. pp. 5–. ISBN 978-1-84774-062-5.  ^ "Iranians, The - Banglapedia".  ^ http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/bengal ^ India
India
and China: Interactions through Buddhism
Buddhism
and Diplomacy: A Collection of Essays by Professor Prabodh Chandra Bagchi. Anthem Press. 1 October 2011. p. 109. ISBN 978-0-85728-821-9.  ^ http://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Ghiyasuddin_Azam_Shah ^ http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/097194580400700101 ^ a b Lin Ma; Jaap van Brakel (25 March 2016). Fundamentals of Comparative and Intercultural Philosophy. SUNY Press. p. 135. ISBN 978-1-4384-6017-8.  ^ Giorgio Riello; Zoltán Biedermann; Anne Gerritsen (28 December 2017). Global Gifts: The Material Culture of Diplomacy in Early Modern Eurasia. Cambridge University Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-108-41550-7.  ^ http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/097194580400700101 ^ http://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Jalaluddin_Muhammad_Shah ^ http://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Portuguese,_The ^ Richard Maxwell Eaton (1993). The Rise of Islam
Islam
and the Bengal Frontier, 1204-1760. University of California Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-520-08077-5.  ^ a b N. W. Sobania (2003). Culture and Customs of Kenya. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-313-31486-5.  ^ http://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Jalaluddin_Muhammad_Shah ^ http://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Ghiyasuddin_Azam_Shah ^ Perween Hasan (15 August 2007). Sultans and Mosques: The Early Muslim
Muslim
Architecture of Bangladesh. I.B.Tauris. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-84511-381-0. ^ Richard M. Eaton (31 July 1996). The Rise of Islam
Islam
and the Bengal Frontier, 1204-1760. University of California Press. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-520-20507-9.  ^ http://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Ghiyasia_Madrasa ^ http://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Jalaluddin_Muhammad_Shah ^ L. S. S. O'Malley (16 June 2011). Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa Sikkim. Cambridge University Press. p. 271. ISBN 978-1-107-60064-5.  ^ Richard M. Eaton (31 July 1996). The Rise of Islam
Islam
and the Bengal Frontier, 1204-1760. University of California Press. p. 132. ISBN 978-0-520-20507-9.  ^ http://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Conti,_Nicolo_de ^ http://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Frederick,_Caeser ^ "Persian - Banglapedia". En.banglapedia.org. 2015-02-15. Retrieved 2017-09-22.  ^ "Persian – Banglapedia".  ^ "The development of Bengali literature during Muslim
Muslim
rule" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-09-22.  ^ " Sufi
Sufi
Literature – Banglapedia".  ^ a b "The Rise of Islam
Islam
and the Bengal
Bengal
Frontier, 1204–1760" (PDF). Hudsoncress.net. Retrieved 5 May 2016.  ^ Hasan, Perween (2007). Sultans and Mosques: The Early Muslim Architecture of Bangladesh. I.B.Tauris. p. 63. ISBN 978-1-84511-381-0. 

Further reading[edit]

Yegar, Moshe (2002). Between Integration and Secession: The Muslim Communities of the Southern Philippines, Southern Thailand, and Western Burma/Myanmar. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. p. 23–24. ISBN 978-0-7391-0356-2.  Hussain, Syed Ejaz (2003). The Bengal
Bengal
Sultanate: Politics, Economy and Coins, A.D. 1205–1576. Manohar. ISBN 978-81-7304-482-3. The Grammar of Sultanate Mosque in Bengal
Bengal
Architecture, Nujaba Binte Kabir (2012)

Coordinates: 24°52′0″N 88°8′0″E / 24.86667°N 88.13333°E /

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25448309 = task['next-exec'];
25446869 = task['last-exec'];
build-sitemap-xml.php = task['exec'];
25447082.033333 Time.