HOME
The Info List - Bengal


--- Advertisement ---



Bangladesh
Bangladesh
– Bengali[1] West Bengal
West Bengal
– Bengali, English[2]

This article contains Bengali text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols.

This article is part of a series on the

বাঙালি Bengalis

Language and Literature

Language

Dialects Alphabet Romanisation

Literature

Poetry Science
Science
fiction Novels Folklore

Regions

Bengal Bangladesh West Bengal Tripura Barak
Barak
Valley Assam Overseas

Subgroup

Bangal Ghoti people Bengali Muslims Bengali Hindus Bengali Buddhists Bengali Christians

Arts and Tradition

Art Music Cinema Theatre Weddings Cuisine Architecture Calendar Bengali Festivals

New Year Spring Monsoon Harvest

Symbols

Bangamata Bengal
Bengal
tiger Bengal
Bengal
cat Bungalow Bengal
Bengal
fire Bengali renaissance Amar Sonar Bangla National symbols of Bangladesh Fish and rice

Ilish Chingri malai curry Rasgulla Chomchom

Jamdani Ganges Gangaridai Suvarnabhumi Bay of Bengal

v t e

Bengal
Bengal
(/bɛŋˈɡɔːl/;[3] Bengali: বাংলা/বঙ্গ, lit. 'Bānglā/Bôngô' [bɔŋgo]) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
at the apex of the Bay of Bengal. Geographically, it is made up by the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta
Ganges-Brahmaputra delta
system, the largest such formation in the world; along with mountains in its north bordering the Himalayan states
Himalayan states
of Nepal
Nepal
and Bhutan
Bhutan
and east bordering Burma. Politically, Bengal
Bengal
is divided between the sovereign Republic of Bangladesh, which covers two thirds of the region, and West Bengal which is now part of India. In 2011, the population of Bengal
Bengal
was estimated to be 250 million,[4] making it one of the most densely populated regions in the world.[5] An estimated 160 million people live in Bangladesh, while 91.3 million people live in West Bengal. The predominant ethno-linguistic group is the Bengali people, who speak the Indo-Aryan Bengali language. Bengali Muslims
Bengali Muslims
are the majority in Bangladesh. Bengali Hindus
Bengali Hindus
are the majority in West Bengal. Outside Bengal
Bengal
proper, the Indian territories of Assam, Jharkhand, Bihar
Bihar
and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, are also home to significant communities with Bengali heritage.[6] Dense woodlands, including hilly rainforests, cover Bengal's northern and eastern areas; while an elevated forested plateau covers its central area. In the littoral southwest are the Sundarbans, the world's largest mangrove forest and home of the Bengal
Bengal
tiger. In the coastal southeast lies Cox's Bazaar, the longest beach in the world[vague], at 125 km (78 mi).[7] The region has a monsoon climate, which the Bengali calendar
Bengali calendar
divides into six seasons. Bengal
Bengal
has played a major role in history. At times an independent regional empire, the historical region was a leading power in Southeast Asia
Asia
and later the Islamic East, with extensive trade networks. In antiquity, its kingdoms were known as seafaring nations. Bengal
Bengal
was known to the Greeks as Gangaridai, notable for mighty military power. According to Greek historians Megasthenes
Megasthenes
and Arrian, Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
withdrew from South Asia
Asia
anticipating a counterattack from an alliance of Gangaridai.[8] Later writers noted merchant shipping links between Bengal
Bengal
and Roman Egypt. The Bengali Pala Empire
Pala Empire
was the last major Buddhist
Buddhist
imperial power in the subcontinent,[9] founded in 750 and becoming the dominant power in the northern Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
by the 9th century,[10][11] before being replaced by the Hindu
Hindu
Sena dynasty
Sena dynasty
in the 12th century.[9] Islam was introduced during the Pala Empire, through trade with the Abbasid Caliphate.[12] The Islamic Bengal
Bengal
Sultanate, founded in 1352, was absorbed into the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
in 1576. The Mughal Bengal
Bengal
Subah province became a major global exporter,[13][14][15] a center of worldwide industries such as muslin, silk, pearl,[16] cotton textiles,[17] and shipbuilding.[18] It was conquered by the British East India
India
Company in 1757 and became the Bengal
Bengal
Presidency, which experienced deindustrialization and famines under British rule.[19] Upon independence, the partition of Bengal
Bengal
(1947) split the region into West Bengal
West Bengal
in India
India
and East Pakistan, the latter becoming the independent nation of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
in 1971. Bengali culture
Bengali culture
has been particularly influential in the fields of philosophy, literature, music, shipbuilding, art, architecture, sports, currency, commerce, politics and cuisine.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Geography

2.1 Geographic distinctions

2.1.1 North Bengal 2.1.2 Northeast Bengal 2.1.3 Central Bengal 2.1.4 South Bengal 2.1.5 Southeast Bengal

2.2 Places of interest

3 Flora and fauna 4 History

4.1 Prehistory 4.2 Antiquity 4.3 Medieval era 4.4 Mughal era (1576–1757) 4.5 Colonial era (1757–1947) 4.6 Post-partition (1947–present)

4.6.1 India 4.6.2 Bangladesh

5 Historical maps and flags of states

5.1 Maps 5.2 Flags

6 Politics

6.1 Bangladesh 6.2 Indian Bengal 6.3 Crossborder relations

7 Demographics 8 Economy

8.1 Inter- Bengal
Bengal
trade

9 Major cities

9.1 Metropolises 9.2 Major ports 9.3 Tourist attractions

10 Strategic importance 11 Culture

11.1 Language 11.2 Currency 11.3 Literature 11.4 Personification 11.5 Art 11.6 Architecture 11.7 Sciences 11.8 Music 11.9 Cuisine 11.10 Boats 11.11 Attire 11.12 Festivals 11.13 Media 11.14 Sports

12 See also 13 Notes 14 References 15 External links

Etymology[edit] Main article: Names of Bengal The name of Bengal
Bengal
is derived from the ancient kingdom of Banga,[20][21] the earliest records of which date back to the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
epic in the first millennium BCE.[21] Theories on the origin of the term Banga point to the Proto-Dravidian
Proto-Dravidian
Bong tribe that settled in the area circa 1000 BCE and the Austric
Austric
word Bong (Sun-god).[22][23] The term Bangaladesa is used to describe the region in 11th century South Indian records.[24][25][26] The modern term Bangla is prominent from the 14th century, which saw the establishment of the Sultanate of Bengal, whose first ruler Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah was known as the Shah
Shah
of Bangala.[27] The Portuguese referred to the region as Bengala in the Age of Discovery.[28] Geography[edit] Main articles: Geography of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and Geography of West Bengal

The Ganges- Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
delta

Most of the Bengal
Bengal
region lies in the Ganges- Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
delta, but there are highlands in its north, northeast and southeast. The Ganges Delta arises from the confluence of the rivers Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Meghna
Meghna
rivers and their respective tributaries. The total area of Bengal
Bengal
is 232,752  km2— West Bengal
West Bengal
is 88,752 km2 (34,267 sq mi) and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
147,570 km2 (56,977 sq mi). The flat and fertile Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Plain dominates the geography of Bangladesh. The Chittagong
Chittagong
Hill Tracts and Sylhet
Sylhet
regions are home to most of the mountains in Bangladesh. Most parts of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
are within 10 metres (33 feet) above the sea level, and it is believed that about 10% of the land would be flooded if the sea level were to rise by 1 metre (3.3 feet).[29] Because of this low elevation, much of this region is exceptionally vulnerable to seasonal flooding due to monsoons. The highest point in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
is in Mowdok range at 1,052 metres (3,451 feet).[30] A major part of the coastline comprises a marshy jungle, the Sundarbans, the largest mangrove forest in the world and home to diverse flora and fauna, including the royal Bengal tiger. In 1997, this region was declared endangered.[31] West Bengal
West Bengal
is on the eastern bottleneck of India, stretching from the Himalayas
Himalayas
in the north to the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
in the south. The state has a total area of 88,752 km2 (34,267 sq mi).[32] The Darjeeling Himalayan hill region in the northern extreme of the state belongs to the eastern Himalaya. This region contains Sandakfu (3,636 m (11,929 ft))—the highest peak of the state.[33] The narrow Terai region
Terai region
separates this region from the plains, which in turn transitions into the Ganges
Ganges
delta towards the south. The Rarh region intervenes between the Ganges
Ganges
delta in the east and the western plateau and high lands. A small coastal region is on the extreme south, while the Sundarbans
Sundarbans
mangrove forests form a remarkable geographical landmark at the Ganges
Ganges
delta. At least nine districts in West Bengal
West Bengal
and 42 districts in Bangladesh have arsenic levels in groundwater above the World Health Organization maximum permissible limit of 50 µg/L or 50 parts per billion and the untreated water is unfit for human consumption.[34] The water causes arsenicosis, skin cancer and various other complications in the body.

Landscapes

A river in Bangladesh

A mustard and date palm farm in West Bengal

A tea garden in Bangladesh

Geographic distinctions[edit]

Bengal
Bengal
in relation to historical regions in Asia

North Bengal[edit]

On a clear day, the snowy peaks of the Himalayas
Himalayas
in Nepal
Nepal
and Sikkim can be seen from northern Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and Darjeeling
Darjeeling
district, West Bengal

North Bengal
North Bengal
is a term used for the north-western part of Bangladesh and northern part of West Bengal. The Bangladeshi part comprises Rajshahi Division
Rajshahi Division
and Rangpur Division. Generally, it is the area lying west of Jamuna River and north of Padma River, and includes the Barind Tract. Politically, West Bengal's part comprises Jalpaiguri Division (Alipurduar, Cooch Behar, Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri, North Dinajpur, South Dinajpur
South Dinajpur
and Malda) together and Bihar's parts include Kishanganj
Kishanganj
district. Darjeeling
Darjeeling
Hills are also part of North Bengal. Though only people of Jaipaiguri, Alipurduar and Cooch Behar identifies themselves as North Bengali. North Bengal
North Bengal
is divided into Terai
Terai
and Dooars
Dooars
regions. North Bengal
North Bengal
is also noted for its rich cultural heritage, including two UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites. Aside from the Bengali majority, North Bengal
North Bengal
is home to many other communities including Nepalis, Santhal people, Lepchas and Rajbongshis. Northeast Bengal[edit]

Waterfalls are a common sight in the highlands of eastern Bangladesh

Northeast Bengal[35] refers to the Sylhet Division
Sylhet Division
of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and the Barak Valley
Barak Valley
in the Indian state of Assam. The region is noted for its distinctive fertile highland terrain, extensive tea plantations, rainforests and wetlands. The Surma and Barak
Barak
rivers are the geographic markers of the area. The city of Sylhet
Sylhet
is its largest urban center, and the most spoken vernacular language in the region is the Sylheti dialect of Bengali. The endonym of the region is Srihatta.[36] The region was ruled by the Kamarupa
Kamarupa
and Harikela kingdoms. It later became a district of the Mughal Empire. Alongside the predominant Bengali population resides a small Bishnupriya Manipuri minority.[36] The region is the crossroads of Bengal
Bengal
and northeast India. Central Bengal[edit] Central Bengal
Bengal
refers to the Dhaka
Dhaka
Division of Bangladesh. It includes the elevated Madhupur tract with a large Sal tree forest. The Padma River cuts through the southern part of the region, separating the greater Faridpur region. In the north lies the greater Mymensingh
Mymensingh
and Tangail
Tangail
regions. South Bengal[edit] South Bengal
Bengal
covers southwestern Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and the southern part of the Indian state of West Bengal. The Bangladeshi part includes the proposed Faridpur Division, Khulna Division
Khulna Division
and Barisal Division.[37][38] The Indian part of South Bengal
Bengal
includes 12 districts: Kolkata, Howrah, Hooghly, Burdwan, East Midnapur, West Midnapur, Purulia, Bankura, Birbhum, Nadia, South 24 Parganas, North 24 Parganas.[39][40][41] The Sundarbans, a major biodiversity hotspot, is located in South Bengal. Bangladesh
Bangladesh
hosts 60% of the forest, with the remain 40% in India. Southeast Bengal[edit]

Cox's Bazaar
Cox's Bazaar
in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
has the longest natural sea beach in the world

Southeast Bengal[42][43][44] refers to the hilly and coastal Bengali-speaking areas of Chittagong
Chittagong
Division in southeastern Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and the Indian state of Tripura. Southeast Bengal
Bengal
is noted for its thalassocratic and seafaring heritage. The area was dominated by the Bengali Harikela
Harikela
and Samatata
Samatata
kingdoms in antiquity. It was known to Arab
Arab
traders as Harkand in the 9th century.[45] During the medieval period, the region was ruled by the Sultanate of Bengal, the Kingdom of Tripura, the Kingdom of Mrauk U, the Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
and the Mughal Empire, prior to the advent of British rule. The Chittagonian dialect of Bengali is prevalent in coastal areas of southeast Bengal. Along with its Bengali population, it is also home to Tibeto-Burman
Tibeto-Burman
ethnic groups, including the Chakma, Marma, Tanchangya, Tripuri and Bawm
Bawm
peoples. Southeast Bengal
Bengal
is considered a bridge to Southeast Asia.[46] Places of interest[edit] There are four World Heritage Sites
World Heritage Sites
in the region, including the Sundarbans, the Somapura Mahavihara, the Mosque City of Bagerhat
Mosque City of Bagerhat
and the Darjeeling
Darjeeling
Himalayan Railway. Other prominent places include the Bishnupur, Bankura
Bankura
temple city, the Adina Mosque, the Caravanserai Mosque, numerous taluqdar and zamindar palaces (like Ahsan Manzil
Ahsan Manzil
and Cooch Behar Palace), the Lalbagh Fort, the Great Caravanserai ruins, the Shaista Khan Caravanserai ruins, the Kolkata
Kolkata
Victoria Memorial, the Dhaka
Dhaka
Parliament Building, archaeologically excavated ancient fort cities in Mahasthangarh, Mainamati, Chandraketugarh
Chandraketugarh
and Wari-Bateshwar, the Jaldapara National Park, the Lawachara National Park, the Teknaf Game Reserve
Teknaf Game Reserve
and the Chittagong
Chittagong
Hill Tracts. Cox's Bazaar
Cox's Bazaar
in southeastern Bangladesh
Bangladesh
is home to the longest natural beach in the world and a growing surfing destination.[47] St. Martin's Island, off the coast of Chittagong
Chittagong
Division, is home to the sole coral reef in Bengal. Flora and fauna[edit]

A 2015 census of Sundarbans
Sundarbans
Bengal
Bengal
tigers found 106 in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and 76 in West Bengal.[48]

The flat Bengal
Bengal
Plain, which covers most of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and West Bengal, is one of the most fertile areas on Earth, with lush vegetation and farmland dominating its landscape. Bengali villages are buried among groves of mango, jack fruit, betel nut and date palm. Rice, jute, mustard and sugarcane plantations are a common sight. Water bodies and wetlands provide a habitat for many aquatic plants in the Ganges- Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
delta. The northern part of the region features Himalayan foothills (Dooars) with densely wooded Sal and other tropical evergreen trees. Above an elevation of 1,000 metres (3,300 ft), the forest becomes predominantly subtropical, with a predominance of temperate-forest trees such as oaks, conifers and rhododendrons. Sal woodland is also found across central Bangladesh, particularly in the Bhawal National Park. The Lawachara National Park is a rainforest in northeastern Bangladesh. The Chittagong
Chittagong
Hill Tracts in southeastern Bangladesh
Bangladesh
is noted for its high degree of biodiversity. The littoral Sundarbans
Sundarbans
in the southwestern part of Bengal
Bengal
is the largest mangrove forest in the world and a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site. The region has over 89 species of mammals, 628 species of birds and numerous species of fish. For Bangladesh, the water lily, the oriental magpie-robin, the hilsa and mango tree are national symbols. For West Bengal, the white-throated kingfisher, the chatim tree and the night-flowering jasmine are state symbols. The Bengal tiger
Bengal tiger
is the national animal of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and India. The fishing cat is the state animal of West Bengal. History[edit]

Part of a series on the

History of Bengal

Ancient Geopolitical units

Pundravardhana Vanga Gangaridai Samatata Anga Suhma Harikela Kamarupa

Ancient and Classical dynasties

Nanda dynasty Maurya dynasty Shunga dynasty Gupta dynasty Varman dynasty Gauda dynasty Mallabhum
Mallabhum
dynasty Khadga dynasty Pala dynasty Chandra dynasty Chola dynasty Sena dynasty Deva dynasty

Medieval and Early Modern periods

Delhi Sultanate City states

Sonargaon Lakhnauti Satgaon

Bengal
Bengal
Sultanate

Ilyas Shahi dynasty Hussain Shahi dynasty Karrani dynasty

Sur Empire Twelve Bhuyan Confederacy Kingdom of Mrauk U Jaintia Kingdom Koch dynasty Kingdom of Tripura Kingdom of Bhurshut Mughal Empire

Bengal
Bengal
Subah Burdwan
Burdwan
Raj Rajshahi
Rajshahi
Raj Nadia Raj Bettiah Raj Nawabs of Bengal Zamindars

Maratha expeditions in Bengal

European colonisation

Portuguese Chittagong Dutch Bengal French Bengal Danish Bengal Austrian Bengal British India

Company rule Bengal
Bengal
Presidency Bengal
Bengal
famine of 1770 Partition of Bengal
Bengal
(1905) Bengal
Bengal
famine of 1943 Direct Action Day Indian Mutiny of 1857 British Raj Bengal
Bengal
Renaissance Eastern Bengal
Bengal
and Assam Anti-colonial struggle Partition of Bengal
Bengal
(1947)

East Bengal

East Bengali refugees

East Pakistan

1964 East Pakistan
East Pakistan
riots Language Movement Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 Liberation War 1971 Genocide Indo-Pakistani War of 1971

Bangladesh

People's Republic Military coups Bangladesh
Bangladesh
famine of 1974

Indian Bengal

West Bengal Tripura
Tripura
merger Left Front Naxalism Barak Valley
Barak Valley
Language Movement Gorkhaland

Calendar

Bengali calendar Malla calendar

Related

Bengali literary history Architecture of Bengal Bangamata

v t e

Main article: History of Bengal Prehistory[edit] Human settlement in Bengal
Bengal
can be traced back 20,000 years.[citation needed] Remnants of Copper Age
Copper Age
settlements date back 4,300 years.[49][50] Archaeological evidence confirms that by the second millennium BCE, rice-cultivating communities inhabited the region. By the 11th century BCE, the people of the area lived in systemically-aligned housing, used human cemeteries and manufactured copper ornaments and fine black and red pottery.[51] The Ganges, Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
and Meghna
Meghna
rivers were natural arteries for communication and transportation.[51] Estuaries on the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
allowed for maritime trade. The early Iron Age
Iron Age
saw the development of metal weaponry, coinage, permanent field agriculture and irrigation.[51] From 600 BCE, the second wave of urbanization engulfed the north Indian subcontinent, as part of the Northern Black Polished Ware culture. Antiquity[edit]

Hindu
Hindu
sculpture, 11th century

Ancient Bengal
Bengal
was divided between the regions of Varendra, Suhma, Anga, Vanga, Samatata
Samatata
and Harikela. Early Indian literature described the region as a thalassocracy, with colonies in Southeast Asia
Asia
and the Indian Ocean.[52] For example, the first recorded king of Sri Lanka was a Bengali prince called Vijaya. The region was known to the ancient Greeks and Romans as Gangaridai.[53] The Greek ambassador Megasthenes
Megasthenes
chronicled its military strength and dominance of the Ganges
Ganges
delta. The invasion army of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
was deterred by the accounts of Gangaridai's power in 325 BCE. Later Roman accounts noted maritime trade routes with Bengal.Another prominent kingdom in Ancient Bengal
Bengal
was Pundravardhana
Pundravardhana
which was located in Northern Bengal
Bengal
with its capital being located in modern-day Bogra, the kingdom was prominently buddhist leaving behind historic Viharas such as Mahasthangarh.[54][55][56] In vedic mythology the royal families of Magadha, Anga, Vanga, Suhma
Suhma
and Kalinga were all related and descended from one King.[57] Ancient Bengal
Bengal
was considered a part of Magadha
Magadha
region, which was the cradle of Indian arts and sciences. Currently the Maghada region is divided into several states that are Bihar, Jharkhand, Tripura, Southern and Northwestern Assam
Assam
and West Bengal
West Bengal
and East Bengal) [57] The legacy of Magadha
Magadha
includes the concept of zero, the invention of Chess
Chess
[58] and the theory of solar and lunar eclipses and the Earth orbiting the Sun.[citation needed] Secular Sanskrit, or standard Old Indo-Aryan, was spoken across Bengal.[59] The Bengali language
Bengali language
evolved from Old Indo-Aryan Sanskrit
Sanskrit
dialects. The region was ruled by Hindu, Buddhist
Buddhist
and Jain
Jain
dynasties, including the Mauryans, Guptas, Varmans, Khadgas, Palas, Chandras and Senas among others. In the 9th century, Arab Muslim
Arab Muslim
traders frequented Bengali seaports and found the region to be a thriving seafaring kingdom with well-developed coinage and banking.[51] Medieval era[edit] Further information: Pala Empire
Pala Empire
and Bengal
Bengal
Sultanate

Inscriptions on the Adina Mosque
Adina Mosque
proclaim the builder Sikandar Shah
Shah
as "the wisest, the most just, the most perfect and most liberal of the Sultans of Arabia, Persia and India."

The Pala Empire
Pala Empire
was an imperial power in the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal. They were followers of the Mahayana
Mahayana
and Tantric schools of Buddhism. The empire was founded with the election of Gopala as the emperor of Gauda in 750.[10] At its height in the early 9th century, the Pala Empire
Pala Empire
was the dominant power in the northern subcontinent, with its territory stretching across parts of modern-day eastern Pakistan, northern and northeastern India, Nepal
Nepal
and Bangladesh.[10][11] The empire enjoyed relations with the Srivijaya Empire, the Tibetan Empire, and the Arab
Arab
Abbasid Caliphate. Islam
Islam
first appeared in Bengal
Bengal
during Pala rule, as a result of increased trade between Bengal
Bengal
and the Middle East.[12] The resurgent Hindu
Hindu
Sena dynasty
Sena dynasty
dethroned the Pala Empire
Pala Empire
in the 12th century, ending the reign of the last major Buddhist
Buddhist
imperial power in the subcontinent.[9][60] Muslim conquests of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
absorbed Bengal
Bengal
in 1204.[61][62] The region was annexed by the Delhi Sultanate. Muslim rule introduced agrarian reform, a new calendar and Sufism. The region saw the rise of important city states in Sonargaon, Satgaon
Satgaon
and Lakhnauti. By 1352, Ilyas Shah
Shah
achieved the unification of an independent Bengal. In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Bengal Sultanate was a major diplomatic, economic and military power in the subcontinent. It developed the subcontinent's relations with China, Egypt, the Timurid Empire and East Africa. In 1540, Sher Shah
Shah
Suri was crowned Emperor of the northern subcontinent in the Bengali capital Gaur. Mughal era (1576–1757)[edit]

A woman in Dhaka
Dhaka
clad in fine Bengali muslin, 18th century.

Main article: Bengal
Bengal
Subah Further information: Muslin trade in Bengal
Muslin trade in Bengal
and Mughal Empire The Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
conquered Bengal
Bengal
in the 16th century. The Bengal Subah province in the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
was the wealthiest state in the subcontinent. Bengal's trade and wealth impressed the Mughals so much that it was described as the Paradise of the Nations by the Mughal Emperors.[63] The region was also notable for its powerful semi-independent aristocrats such as taluqdars and zamindars, including the Twelve Bhuiyans and the Nawabs of Bengal.[64] It was visited by several world explorers, including Ibn Battuta, Niccolo De Conti and Admiral Zheng He. Under Mughal rule, Bengal
Bengal
was a center of the worldwide muslin, silk and pearl trades.[16] During the Mughal era, the most important center of cotton production was Bengal, particularly around its capital city of Dhaka, leading to muslin being called "daka" in distant markets such as Central Asia.[17] Domestically, much of India
India
depended on Bengali products such as rice, silks and cotton textiles. Overseas, Europeans depended on Bengali products such as cotton textiles, silks and opium; Bengal
Bengal
accounted for 40% of Dutch imports from Asia, for example, including more than 50% of textiles and around 80% of silks.[13] From Bengal, saltpeter was also shipped to Europe, opium was sold in Indonesia, raw silk was exported to Japan
Japan
and the Netherlands, cotton and silk textiles were exported to Europe, Indonesia, and Japan,[14] cotton cloth was exported to the Americas and the Indian Ocean.[15] Bengal
Bengal
also had a large shipbuilding industry. In terms of shipbuilding tonnage during the 16th–18th centuries, the annual output of Bengal
Bengal
alone totaled around 2,232,500 tons, larger than the combined output of the Dutch (450,000–550,000 tons), the British (340,000 tons), and North America (23,061 tons).[18] Since the 16th century, European traders traversed the sea routes to Bengal, following the Portuguese conquests of Malacca and Goa. The Portuguese established a settlement in Chittagong
Chittagong
with permission from the Bengal Sultanate
Bengal Sultanate
in 1528, but were later expelled by the Mughals in 1666. In the 18th-century, the Mughal Court rapidly disintegrated due to Nader Shah's invasion and internal rebellions, allowing European colonial powers to set up trading posts across the territory. The British East India
India
Company eventually emerged as the foremost military power in the region; and defeated the last independent Nawab of Bengal
Bengal
at the Battle of Plassey
Battle of Plassey
in 1757.[64] Colonial era (1757–1947)[edit] Main article: Bengal
Bengal
Presidency

The Battle of Plassey
Battle of Plassey
in 1757 ushered British rule

In Bengal
Bengal
effective political and military power was transferred from the old regime to the British East India
India
Company around 1757–65.[65] Company rule
Company rule
in India
India
began under the Bengal
Bengal
Presidency. Calcutta
Calcutta
was named the capital of British India
India
in 1772. The presidency was run by a military-civil administration, including the Bengal
Bengal
Army, and had the world's sixth earliest railway network. Great Bengal
Bengal
famines struck several times during colonial rule (notably the Great Bengal famine of 1770 and Bengal
Bengal
famine of 1943). The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was initiated on the outskirts of Calcutta, and spread to Dhaka, Chittagong, Jalpaiguri, Sylhet
Sylhet
and Agartala, in solidarity with revolts in North India. The failure of the rebellion led to the abolishment of the Mughal Court and direct rule by the British Raj. The late 19th and early 20th century Bengal Renaissance
Bengal Renaissance
had a great impact on the cultural and economic life of Bengal. Between 1905 and 1912, an abortive attempt was made to divide the province of Bengal into two zones, that included the short-lived province of Eastern Bengal
Bengal
and Assam
Assam
based in Dacca and Shillong.[66] Under British rule, Bengal
Bengal
experienced deindustrialization.[19] In 1876, 200,000 people were killed in Bengal
Bengal
by the Great Bangladesh cyclone.[67] Bengal
Bengal
played a major role in the Indian independence movement, in which revolutionary groups were dominant. Armed attempts to overthrow the British Raj
British Raj
began with the rebellion of Titumir, and reached a climax when Subhas Chandra Bose
Subhas Chandra Bose
led the Indian National Army
Indian National Army
against the British. Bengal
Bengal
was also central in the rising political awareness of the Muslim population—the All- India
India
Muslim League was established in Dhaka
Dhaka
in 1906. The Muslim homeland movement pushed for a sovereign state in eastern British India
India
with the Lahore Resolution
Lahore Resolution
in 1943. Hindu
Hindu
nationalism was also strong in Bengal, which was home to groups like the Hindu
Hindu
Mahasabha. In spite of a last-ditch effort to form a United Bengal,[68] when India
India
gained independence in 1947, Bengal
Bengal
was partitioned along religious lines.[69] The western part went to India (and was named West Bengal) while the eastern part joined Pakistan
Pakistan
as a province called East Bengal
East Bengal
(later renamed East Pakistan, giving rise to Bangladesh
Bangladesh
in 1971). The circumstances of partition were bloody, with widespread religious riots in Bengal.[69][70] The 1970 Bhola cyclone
1970 Bhola cyclone
which took the lives of 500,000 people in Bengal, made it one of the most deadliest recorded cyclones. Post-partition (1947–present)[edit] India[edit]

West Bengal

West Bengal
West Bengal
became one of India's most populous states. Calcutta, the former capital of the British Raj, became the state capital of West Bengal
Bengal
and continued to be India's largest city until the late 20th century, when severe power shortages, strikes and a violent Marxist- Naxalite
Naxalite
movement damaged much of the state's infrastructure in the 1960s and 70s, leading to a period of economic stagnation. West Bengal
Bengal
politics underwent a major change when the Left Front won the 1977 assembly election, defeating the incumbent Indian National Congress. The Left Front, led by the Communist
Communist
Party of India (Marxist) (CPI(M)) governed the state for over three decades, which was the world's longest elected Communist
Communist
administration in history.[71] Since the 2000s, West Bengal
West Bengal
has experienced an economic rejuvenation, particularly in its IT industry.

Tripura

The former royal palace of Hill Tippera
Hill Tippera
in Agartala

The princely state of Hill Tippera, that was under the suzerainty of British India, was ruled by a Bengali-speaking monarchy. Following the death of Maharaja
Maharaja
Bir Bikram Kishore Debbarman, the princely state acceded to the Union of India
India
on 15 October 1949 under the Tripura Merger Agreement signed by Maharani
Maharani
Regent
Regent
Kanchan Prava Devi. By the 1950s, the region had a Bengali majority population due to the influx of Hindus from East Pakistan
East Pakistan
after partition. It became a Union Territory of India
India
in November 1953. It was granted full statehood with an elected legislature in July 1963. An insurgency by indigenous people affected the state for several years. The Left Front ruled the state between 1978 and 1988, followed by a stint of Indian National Congress rule until 1993, and then a return to the Communists.[72]

Barak
Barak
Valley

The Barak Valley
Barak Valley
joined the union of India
India
after its partition from Sylhet
Sylhet
in 1947 and has been a part of the state of Assam. One of the most significant events in the region's history was the language movement in 1961, in which the killing of agitators by state police led to Bengali being recognized as one of the official languages of Assam. The issue of Bengali settlement in the state has been a contentious part of the Assam
Assam
conflict. Bangladesh[edit]

National Martyr's Memorial in Dhaka, built on memories of the martyrs of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War.

The Bangabandhu Bridge on the river Jamuna, opened in 1998, is currently the longest bridge in Bengal
Bengal
region.

East Pakistan

East Bengal, which was later renamed to East Pakistan
East Pakistan
in 1955, was home to Pakistan's demographic majority and played an instrumental role in the founding of the new state. Strategically, Pakistan
Pakistan
joined the Southeast Asia
Asia
Treaty Organization under the Bengali prime minister Mohammad Ali of Bogra
Bogra
as a bulwark against communism.[73] However, tensions between East and West Pakistan
Pakistan
grew rapidly over political exclusion, economic neglect and ethnic and linguistic discrimination. The State of Pakistan
Pakistan
was subjected to years of military rule due to fears of Bengali political supremacy under democracy. Elected Bengali-led governments at the federal and provincial levels, which were led by statesmen such as A. K. Fazlul Huq and H. S. Suhrawardy, were deposed.[74][75] East Pakistan
East Pakistan
witnessed the rise of Bengali self determination calls led by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
and Maulana Bhashani
Maulana Bhashani
in the 1960s.[76] Rahman launched the Six point movement
Six point movement
for autonomy in 1966. After the 1970 national election, Rahman's party, the Awami League, had emerged as the largest party in Pakistan's parliament. The erstwhile Pakistani military junta refused to accept election results which triggered civil disobedience across East Pakistan. The Pakistani military responded by launching a genocide that caused the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. The first Government of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and the Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
waged a guerrilla campaign with support from neighboring India, which hosted millions of war refugees. Global support for the independence of East Pakistan
East Pakistan
increased due to the conflict's humanitarian crisis, with the Indian Armed Forces
Indian Armed Forces
intervening in support of the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Forces in the final two weeks of the war and ensuring Pakistan's surrender.[77]

Bangladesh

After independence, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
adopted a secular democracy under its new constitution in 1972. Awami League
Awami League
premier Sheikh Mujibur Rahman became the country's strongman and implemented many socialist policies. A one party state was enacted in 1975. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was assassinated later that year during a military coup that ushered in sixteen years of military dictatorships and presidential governments. The liberation war commander Ziaur Rahman
Ziaur Rahman
emerged as Bangladesh's leader in the late 1970s. He reoriented the country's foreign policy towards the West and restored free markets and the multiparty polity. President Zia was assassinated in 1981 during a failed military coup. He was eventually succeeded by his army chief Hussain Muhammad Ershad. Lasting for nine years, Ershad's rule witnessed continued pro-free market reforms and the devolution of some authority to local government.[78] The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) was founded in Dhaka
Dhaka
in 1985.[79] The Jatiya Party government made Islam
Islam
the state religion in 1988.[80] A popular uprising restored parliamentary democracy in 1991. Since then, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
has largely alternated between the premierships of Sheikh Hasina
Sheikh Hasina
of the Awami League
Awami League
and Khaleda Zia
Khaleda Zia
of the Bangladesh Nationalist Party, as well as technocratic caretaker governments. Emergency rule was imposed by the military in 2007 and 2008 after widespread street violence between the League and BNP. The restoration of democratic government in 2009 was followed by the initiation of the International Crimes Tribunal to prosecute surviving colloborators of the 1971 genocide. Today, the country is an emerging economy, listed as one of the Next Eleven
Next Eleven
and experiencing growing industrial development, but continues to face political, economic and social challenges.[81][82] Historical maps and flags of states[edit] Bengal
Bengal
has been an independent territory during several periods in history, while at other times, it has been part of larger empires. Bengal
Bengal
has also been a regional empire, ruling over neighboring regions like Bihar, Orissa, Arakan, and parts of North India, Assam and Nepal. Maps[edit]

Gangaridai
Gangaridai
in Ptolemy's map, 1st century

The Pala Empire, 9th century

The Bengal
Bengal
Sultanate, 16th century

Bengal
Bengal
& Bihar
Bihar
in 1776 by James Rennell

Colonial Bengal, 19th century

Colonial Eastern Bengal
Bengal
and Assam, early 20th century

Map of West Bengal

Map of Bangladesh

Flags[edit]

Flag of Sultanate of Bengal

Flag of Bengal
Bengal
Subah

Calcutta
Calcutta
Flag of 1906

Flag of Bangladesh

Politics[edit] Politically, the region is divided between the People's Republic of Bangladesh, an independent state, and the eastern provinces of the Republic of India, including West Bengal, Assam
Assam
and Tripura. Politically both Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and Indian Bengal
Bengal
are socialist, with left wing parties dominating the region's politics. Bangladesh[edit] Main article: Bangladesh

Jatiya Sangsad Bhaban, the national parliament of Bangladesh

The state of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
is a parliamentary republic based on the Westminster system, with a written constitution and a President elected by parliament for mostly ceremonial purposes. The government is headed by a Prime Minister, who is appointed by the President from among the popularly elected 300 Members of Parliament in the Jatiyo Sangshad, the national parliament. The Prime Minister
Prime Minister
is traditionally the leader of the single largest party in the Jatiyo Sangshad. Under the constitution, Islam
Islam
is recognized as the state religion; while Hindus, Buddhists, Christians and people of all other denomiations are stated to enjoy equal rights. 90% of the country is Muslim, 9% Hindu, 0.5% Buddhist, 0.3% Christians, 0.2% other. Between 1975 and 1990, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
had a presidential system of government. Since the 1990s, it was administered by non-political technocratic caretaker governments on four occasions, the last being under military-backed emergency rule in 2007 and 2008. The Awami League and the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Nationalist Party (BNP) are the two largest political parties in Bangladesh. The Jatiya party once dominated the country's politics in late 1980s is now a small player in the political field. Former First lady Khaleda Zia
Khaleda Zia
and former first daughter Sheikh Hasina
Sheikh Hasina
have been non interim interchanging prime minister since 1991. Bangladesh
Bangladesh
is a prominent member of the United Nations, being the largest contributor of peacekeeping forces in the world and a key promoter of multilateral diplomacy. It is also a member of SAARC, the Developing 8 Countries, BIMSTEC, the World Trade Organization, NAM, the OIC
OIC
and the Commonwealth of Nations. A developing country with high levels of poverty, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
has achieved significant strides in human development compared to its neighbors. Indian Bengal[edit] Main articles: West Bengal, Tripura, and Assam

Writers' Building, the official seat of the Government of West Bengal

West Bengal, Tripura
Tripura
and Assam
Assam
(home to the Barak
Barak
Valley) are provincial states of the Republic of India, with local executives and assemblies- features shared with other states in the Indian federal system. The President of India
India
appoints a Governor
Governor
as the ceremonial representative of the union government. The Governor
Governor
appoints the Chief Minister on the nomination of the legislative assembly. The Chief Minister is the traditionally the leader of the party or coalition with most seats in the assembly. President's rule is often imposed in Indian states as a direct intervention of the union government led by the Prime Minister
Prime Minister
of India. Each state has popularly elected members in the Indian lower house of parliament, the Lok Sabha. Each state nominates members to the Indian upper house of parliament, the Rajya Sabha. The state legislative assemblies also play a key role in electing the ceremonial President of India. The former President of India, Pranab Mukherjee, was a native of West Bengal
West Bengal
and a leader of the Indian National Congress. The two major political forces in the Bengali-speaking zone of India are the Left Front and the Trinamool Congress, with the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
being minor players. Crossborder relations[edit] Main article: Bangladesh- India
India
relations India
India
and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
are the world's second and eighth most populous countries respectively. Bangladesh- India
India
relations began on a high note in 1971 when India
India
played a major role in the liberation of Bangladesh, with the Indian Bengali populace and media providing overwhelming support to the independence movement in the former East Pakistan. The two countries had a twenty five year friendship treaty between 1972 and 1996. However, differences over river sharing, border security and access to trade have long plagued the relationship. In more recent years, a consensus has evolved in both countries on the importance of developing good relations, as well as a strategic partnership in South Asia
Asia
and beyond. Commercial, cultural and defense cooperation have expanded since 2010, when Prime Ministers Sheikh Hasina and Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
pledged to reinvigorate ties. The Bangladesh
Bangladesh
High Commission in New Delhi
New Delhi
operates a Deputy High Commission in Kolkata
Kolkata
and a consular office in Agartala. India
India
has a High Commission in Dhaka
Dhaka
with consulates in Chittagong
Chittagong
and Rajshahi. Frequent international air, bus and rail services connect major cities in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and Indian Bengal, particularly the three largest cities- Dhaka, Kolkata
Kolkata
and Chittagong. Undocumented immigration of Bangladeshi workers is a controversial issue championed by right-wing nationalist parties in India
India
but finds little sympathy in West Bengal.[83] India
India
has since fenced the border which has been criticized by Bangladesh.[84] Demographics[edit] Main articles: Demographics of Bangladesh, Demographics of West Bengal, and Languages of Bangladesh

Districts of Bangladesh

Districts of West Bengal

Bengali Muslims
Bengali Muslims
gathered at Eid Prayer.

Bengali Hindu
Hindu
priests performing Durga Puja
Durga Puja
rituals

The Bengal
Bengal
region is also one of most densely populated areas in the world. With a population of 300 million, Bengalis
Bengalis
are the third largest ethnic group in the world after the Han Chinese
Han Chinese
and Arabs.[85] According to provisional results of 2011 Bangladesh
Bangladesh
census, the population of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
was 142,319,000;[86] however, CIA's The World Factbook gives 163,654,860 as its population in a July 2013 estimate. According to the provisional results of the 2011 Indian national census, West Bengal
West Bengal
has a population of 91,347,736.[87] So, the Bengal region, as of 2011, has at least 233 million people. This figures give a population density of 1003.9/km2; making it among the most densely populated areas in the world.[88][89]

Buddhist
Buddhist
Chakma people

Bengali is the main language spoken in Bengal. Many phonological, lexical, and structural differences from the standard variety occur in peripheral varieties of Bengali; these include Sylheti, Chittagonian, Chakma, Rangpuri/Rajbangshi, Hajong, Rohingya, and Tangchangya.[90] English is often used for official work alongside Bengali.Other major Indo-Aryan languages
Indo-Aryan languages
such as Hindi, Urdu, Assamese, and Nepali are familiar to Bengalis
Bengalis
as well. In addition, there are several minority ethnolinguistic groups native to the region. These include speakers of other Indo-Aryan languages (e.g. Bishnupriya Manipuri, Oraon Sadri, various Bihari languages), Tibeto-Burman
Tibeto-Burman
languages (e.g. A'Tong, Chak, Koch, Garo, Megam, Meitei Manipuri, Mizo, Mru, Pangkhua, Rakhine/Marma, Kok Borok, Riang, Tippera, Usoi, various Chin languages), Austroasiatic languages
Austroasiatic languages
(e.g. Khasi, Koda, Mundari, Pnar, Santali, War), and Dravidian languages (e.g. Kurukh, Sauria Paharia).[90] Life expectancy is around 70.36 years for Bangladesh[91] and 70.2 for West Bengal.[92][93] In terms of literacy, West Bengal
West Bengal
leads with 77% literacy rate,[88] in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
the rate is approximately 71%.[94][note 1] The level of poverty in West Bengal
West Bengal
is at 19.98%, while in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
it stands at 12.9%[95][96][97] West Bengal's has one of the lowest total fertility rates in India. West Bengal's TFR of 1.6 roughly equals that of Canada.[98] About 20,000 people live on chars. Chars are temporary islands formed by the deposition of sediments eroded off the banks of the Ganges
Ganges
in West Bengal
West Bengal
which often disappear in the monsoon season. They are made of very fertile soil. The inhabitants of the chars are not recognised by the Government of West Bengal
West Bengal
on the grounds that it is not known whether they are Bengalis
Bengalis
or Bangladeshi refugees. Consequently, no identification documents are issued to char-dwellers who cannot benefit from health care, barely survive because of very poor sanitation and are prevented from emigrating to the mainland to find jobs when they have turned 14. On a particular char it was reported that 13% of women died at childbirth.[99] Economy[edit] Main articles: Economy of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and Economy of West Bengal

Amartya Sen, winner of the 1998 Nobel Prize in Economics

Muhammad Yunus, winner of the 2006 Nobel Peace Prize

Biman
Biman
Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Airlines is the largest airline of Bengal

Historically, Bengal
Bengal
has been the industrial leader of the subcontinent. The region is one of the largest rice producing areas in the world, with West Bengal
West Bengal
being India's largest rice producer and Bangladesh being the world's fourth largest rice producer.[100][100] Other key crops include jute, tea, sugarcane and wheat. There are significant reserves of limestone, natural gas and coal. Major industries include textiles, leather goods, pharmaceuticals, shipbuilding, banking and information and communication technology. Three stock exchanges are located in the region, including the Dhaka Stock Exchange, the Chittagong
Chittagong
Stock Exchange and the Calcutta
Calcutta
Stock Exchange. Below is a comparison of economies in the region of Bengal

Bangladesh West Bengal
West Bengal
(India)

US$248.853  billion[101] US$141 billion[102]

US$1,602 per person[101] US$1,600 per person[103]

Inter- Bengal
Bengal
trade[edit] Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and India
India
are the largest trading partners in South Asia, with two-way trade valued at an estimated US$6.9 billion.[104] Much of this trade relationship is centered on some of the world's busiest land ports on the Bangladesh- India
India
border, particularly the West Bengal
West Bengal
section. The partition of India
India
severed the once strong economic links which integrated the region. Decades later, frequent air, rail and bus services are increasingly connecting cities in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and West Bengal, as well as the wider region, including Northeast India, Nepal and Bhutan. However the overall economic relationship remains well-below potential. Major cities[edit] Metropolises[edit] The following are the largest cities in Bengal
Bengal
(in terms of population):

The National Parliament House in Dhaka, Bangladesh

The Victoria Memorial
Victoria Memorial
in Kolkata, India

List of major cities in Bengal

Rank City Country Population (2011) Image

1 Dhaka  Bangladesh 14,543,124 (Statistical Metropolitan Area)[105]

Shaheed Minar, Dhaka

2 Kolkata  India 14,035,959 (Urban Agglomeration)[106]

Kolkata
Kolkata
Victoria Memorial

3 Chittagong  Bangladesh 4,009,423 (Statistical Metropolitan Area)[107]

Colonial era Court

4 Gazipur  Bangladesh 1,820,374[108]

Islamic University of Technology, Gazipur

5 Narayanganj  Bangladesh 1,636,441[108]

Kanchpur Industrial Area, Narayanganj

6 Khulna  Bangladesh 1,046,341[108][self-published source?]

Govt. BL College, Daulatpur, Khulna

7 Rajshahi  Bangladesh 763,952[108]

Administration Building of Rajshahi
Rajshahi
College

8 Rangpur  Bangladesh 650,000

Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Bank building in Rangpur

9 Durgapur  India 566,517[109]

Durgapur
Durgapur
Express Way

10 Asansol  India 563,917[110]

Modernised ISP, Asansol

11 Sylhet  Bangladesh 526,412[108]

Rose View Hotel, Sylhet

12 Siliguri  India 513,264[111][112]

Siliguri
Siliguri
City Center

13 Bogra  Bangladesh 412,537[108]

Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Bank regional office, Sherpur Road, Bogra

14 Comilla  Bangladesh 407,901[108]

Landscape of Comilla
Comilla
city

15 Agartala  India 400,004[113]

Ujjayanta Palace, Agartala

Major ports[edit]

New Mooring Terminal, Port of Chittagong

List of The Major Ports in Bengal

Port Name Type Status Location Country

Port of Chittagong Sea Port Active Chittagong, Chittagong  Bangladesh

Port of Haldia Sea Port River Port Active Haldia, East Midnapur  India

Port of Mongla Sea Port Active Mongla, Bagerhat, Khulna  Bangladesh

Port of Payra Sea Port Active Kalapara, Patuakhali, Barisal  Bangladesh

Port of Kolkata River Port Active Kolkata, Kolkata  India

Port of Narayanganj River Port Active Narayanganj, Dhaka  Bangladesh

Hili Land Port Landport Active Bangla Hili, Hakimpur – Indian Hilli, Balurghat Dinajpur-South Dinajpur

Port of Benapole-Petrapole Landport Active Benapole, Sharsha – Petrapole, Bangaon Jessore-North 24 Parganas

Tourist attractions[edit]

List of The Tourist Attraction of Bengal

Name Type City/Area Sample Image

Sundarbans world largest natural mangrove Khulna, Satkhira, Bagerhat, South 24 Parganas

A Bengal tiger
Bengal tiger
(Panthera tigris tigris) from Sundarbans

Cox's Bazar
Cox's Bazar
Beach world's longest sea beach Cox's Bazar, Chittagong
Chittagong
Division

Cox's Bazar
Cox's Bazar
sea beach

Digha sea beach East Midnapur

Digha
Digha
sea beach

Chittagong
Chittagong
Hill Tracts hilly areas with habitant different indigenous tribes Rangamati, Khagrachhari, Bandarban

A view of Sajek, Rangamati

Ratargul only swamp forest in Bengal
Bengal
region Sylhet

A View of Ratargul

Satchhari reserve forest Habiganj, Sylhet

A top view of Satchari national park

Siliguri hilly area of foothills of Himalayas Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri

A view of Siliguri
Siliguri
Metropolis

Strategic importance[edit]

The strategically important city of Chittagong
Chittagong
is home to the busiest port on the Bay of Bengal

The Bengal
Bengal
region is located at the crossroads of two huge economic blocs, the SAARC
SAARC
and ASEAN. It gives access to the sea for the landlocked countries of Nepal
Nepal
and Bhutan, as well as the Seven Sister States of North East India. It is also located near China's southern landlocked region, including Yunnan
Yunnan
and Tibet. Both India
India
and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
plan to expand onshore and offshore oil and gas operations. Bangladesh
Bangladesh
is Asia's seventh-largest natural gas producer. Its maritime exclusive economic zone potentially holds many of the largest gas reserves in the Asia-Pacific.[114] The Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
is strategically important for its vital shipping lanes and its central location between the Middle East and the Pacific. The Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
Initiative, based in Dhaka, brings together Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Thailand, Nepal, Bhutan
Bhutan
and Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
to promote economic integration in the subregion. Other regional groupings include the Bangladesh-China-India- Myanmar
Myanmar
Forum for Regional Cooperation (BCIM) and the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Bhutan
Bhutan
India
India
Nepal (BBIN) Initiative. Culturally, Bengal
Bengal
is significant for its huge Hindu
Hindu
and Muslim populations. Bengali Hindus
Bengali Hindus
make up the second largest linguistic community in India. Bengali Muslims
Bengali Muslims
are the world's second largest Muslim ethnicity (after Arab
Arab
Muslims), and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
is the world's third largest Muslim-majority country (after Indonesia
Indonesia
and Pakistan). Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of Bengal

Part of a series on the

Culture of Bengal

History

History of Bengal

People

Bengalis Bengali renaissance List of Bengalis

Languages

Script Dialects Vocabulary Grammar Bengali Language Movement

Traditions

Bengali wedding Bengali Hindu
Hindu
wedding Gaye holud Walima Bhadralok Panjika

Cuisine

Bengali cuisine

Festivals

Pohela Boishakh Ekushey Book Fair Nabanna Kolkata
Kolkata
Book Fair Poush Mela Sharadotsav

Art

Bangladeshi art Bengal
Bengal
School of Art Kalighat painting

Literature History

History Charyapada Mangal-Kāvya Vaishnava Padavali Laila Majnu

Genres

Poetry Novels Science
Science
fiction Folk literature Tarja

Institutions

Literary institutions Bangiya Sahitya Parishad Paschimbanga Bangla Akademi Bangla Academy

Awards

Literary awards Rabindra Puraskar Bangla Academy
Bangla Academy
Literary Award Ananda Puraskar

Music and performing arts

Music

Media

Cinema of Bangladesh Cinema of West Bengal

Sport

Kabaddi Boli Khela Lathi khela Chaturaṅga Kho kho

Bengal
Bengal
portal

v t e

Language[edit] Main article: Bengali language

Bengali Letters

The Bengali language
Bengali language
developed between the 7th and 10th centuries from Apabhraṃśa and Magadhi Prakrit.[115] It is written using the indigenous Bengali alphabet, a descendant of the ancient Brahmi script. Bengali is the 7th most spoken language in the world. It is an eastern Indo-Aryan language
Indo-Aryan language
and one of the easternmost branches of the Indo-European language family. It is part of the Bengali-Assamese languages. Bengali has greatly influenced other languages in the region, including Assamese, Chakma, Nepali and Rohingya. It is the sole state language of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and the second most spoken language in India. Bengali binds together a culturally diverse region and is an important contributor to regional identity. The 1952 Bengali Language Movement in East Pakistan
East Pakistan
is commemorated by UNESCO
UNESCO
as International Mother Language Day, as part of global efforts to preserve linguistic identity. Currency[edit] Main article: History of the taka

A silver coin with Proto-Bengali script, 9th century

In both Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and West Bengal, currency is commonly denominated as taka. The Bangladesh
Bangladesh
taka is an official standard bearer of this tradition, while the Indian rupee
Indian rupee
is also written as taka in Bengali script on all of its banknotes. The history of the taka dates back centuries. Bengal
Bengal
was home one of the world's earliest coin currencies in the first millennium BCE. Under the Delhi Sultanate, the taka was introduced by Muhammad bin Tughluq
Muhammad bin Tughluq
in 1329. Bengal
Bengal
became the stronghold of the taka. The silver currency was the most important symbol of sovereignty of the Sultanate of Bengal. It was traded on the Silk
Silk
Road and replicated in Nepal
Nepal
and China's Tibetan protectorate. The Pakistani rupee
Pakistani rupee
was scripted in Bengali as taka on its banknotes until Bangladesh's creation in 1971. Literature[edit]

Bengali literature বাংলা সাহিত্য

Bengali literature

By category Bengali language

Bengali literary history

History of Bengali literature

Bengali language
Bengali language
authors

Chronological list – Alphabetic List

Bengali writers

Writers – Novelists – Poets

Forms

Novel – Poetry – Science
Science
Fiction

Institutions and awards

Literary Institutions Literary Prizes

Related Portals Literature Portal Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Portal

v t e

Main articles: Bengali literature, Indian English literature, and Bangladeshi English literature

Rabindranath Tagore, known as the Bengali Shakespeare, being hosted at the Parliament of Iran
Iran
in the 1930s

Bengali literature
Bengali literature
has a rich heritage. It has a history stretching back to the 3rd century BCE, when the main language was Sanskrit written in the brahmi script. The Bengali language
Bengali language
and script evolved circa 1000 CE from Magadhi Prakrit. Bengal
Bengal
has a long tradition in folk literature, evidenced by the Chôrjapôdô, Mangalkavya, Shreekrishna Kirtana, Maimansingha Gitika or Thakurmar Jhuli. Bengali literature in the medieval age was often either religious (e.g. Chandidas), or adaptations from other languages (e.g. Alaol). During the Bengal Renaissance
Bengal Renaissance
of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, Bengali literature
Bengali literature
was modernised through the works of authors such as Michael Madhusudan Dutta, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, Rabindranath Tagore, Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay, Kazi Nazrul Islam, Satyendranath Dutta and Jibanananda Das. In the 20th century, prominent modern Bengali writers included Syed Mujtaba Ali, Jasimuddin, Manik Bandopadhyay, Tarasankar Bandyopadhyay, Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay, Buddhadeb Bose, Sunil Gangopadhyay
Sunil Gangopadhyay
and Humayun Ahmed. Prominent contemporary Bengali writers in English include Amitav Ghosh, Tahmima Anam, Jhumpa Lahiri
Jhumpa Lahiri
and Zia Haider Rahman
Zia Haider Rahman
among others. Personification[edit] Main article: Mother Bengal The Mother Bengal
Mother Bengal
is a female personification of Bengal
Bengal
which was created during the Bengali renaissance
Bengali renaissance
and later adopted by the Bengali nationalists.[116] The Mother Bengal
Mother Bengal
represents not only biological motherness but its attributed characteristics as well – protection, never ending love, consolation, care, the beginning and the end of life. In Amar Sonar Bangla, the national anthem of Bangladesh, Rabindranath Tagore
Rabindranath Tagore
has used the word "Maa" (Mother) numerous times to refer to the motherland i.e. Bengal. Despite her popularity in patriotic songs and poems, her physical representations and images are rare. Art[edit] See also: Bangladeshi art

Bangladeshi paintings on sale at an art gallery in Dhaka

The Pala-Sena School of Art developed in Bengal
Bengal
between the 8th and 12th centuries and is considered a high point of classical Asian art.[117][118] It included sculptures and paintings.[119] Islamic Bengal
Bengal
was noted for its production of the finest cotton fabrics and saris, notably the Jamdani, which received warrants from the Mughal court.[120] The Bengal
Bengal
School of painting flourished in Kolkata
Kolkata
and Shantiniketan
Shantiniketan
in the British Raj
British Raj
during the early 20th century. Its practitioners were among the harbingers of modern painting in India.[121] Zainul Abedin
Zainul Abedin
was the pioneer of modern Bangladeshi art. The country has a thriving and internationally acclaimed contemporary art scene.[122] Architecture[edit] Main article: Architecture of Bengal

Bungalows originated from Bengali architecture

Classical Bengali architecture
Bengali architecture
features terracotta buildings. Ancient Bengali kingdoms laid the foundations of the region's architectural heritage through the construction of monasteries and temples (for example, the Somapura Mahavihara). During the sultanate period, a distinct and glorious Islamic style of architecture developed the region.[123] Most Islamic buildings were small and highly artistic terracotta mosques with multiple domes and no minarets. Bengal
Bengal
was also home to the largest mosque in South Asia
Asia
at Adina. Bengali vernacular architecture is credited for inspiring the popularity of the bungalow.[124] The Bengal
Bengal
region also has a rich heritage of Indo-Saracenic architecture, including numerous taluqdar palaces and mansions. The most prominent example of this style is the Victoria Memorial, Kolkata. In the 1950s, Muzharul Islam
Islam
pioneered the modernist terracotta style of architecture in South Asia. This was followed by the design of the Jatiyo Sangshad
Jatiyo Sangshad
Bhaban by the renowned American architect Louis Kahn in the 1960s, which was based on the aesthetic heritage of Bengali architecture and geography.[125][126] Sciences[edit]

A sculpture on Fazlur Rahman Khan
Fazlur Rahman Khan
at the Sears Tower
Sears Tower
in the United States

The Gupta dynasty, which is believed to have originated in North Bengal, pioneered the invention of chess, the concept of zero, the theory of Earth orbiting the Sun, the study of solar and lunar eclipses and the flourishing of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
literature and drama.[58][127] Bengal
Bengal
was the leader of scientific endeavors in the subcontinent during the British Raj. The educational reforms during this period gave birth to many distinguished scientists in the region. Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose
Jagadish Chandra Bose
pioneered the investigation of radio and microwave optics, made very significant contributions to plant science, and laid the foundations of experimental science in the Indian subcontinent.[128] IEEE
IEEE
named him one of the fathers of radio science.[129] He was the first person from the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
to receive a US patent, in 1904. In 1924–25, while researching at the University of Dhaka, Prof Satyendra Nath Bose
Satyendra Nath Bose
well known for his works in quantum mechanics, provided the foundation for Bose–Einstein statistics and the theory of the Bose–Einstein condensate.[130][131][132] In the United States, the Bengali American engineer Fazlur Rahman Khan
Fazlur Rahman Khan
emerged as the "father of tubular designs" in skyscraper construction. Music[edit] Main article: Music of Bengal

A Baul
Baul
musician. The Baul
Baul
ballads of Bengal
Bengal
are classified by UNESCO as humanity's intangible cultural heritage

The Baul
Baul
tradition is a unique heritage of Bengali folk music.[133] The 19th century mystic poet Lalon Shah
Shah
is the most celebrated practitioner of the tradition.[134] Other folk music forms include Gombhira, Bhatiali
Bhatiali
and Bhawaiya. Hason Raja
Hason Raja
is a renowned folk poet of the Sylhet
Sylhet
region. Folk music in Bengal
Bengal
is often accompanied by the ektara, a one-stringed instrument. Other instruments include the dotara, dhol, flute, and tabla. The region also has a rich heritage in North Indian classical music. Cuisine[edit] Main article: Bengali cuisine Bengali cuisine
Bengali cuisine
is the only traditionally developed multi-course tradition from the Indian subcontinent. Rice
Rice
and fish are traditional favourite foods, leading to a saying that "fish and rice make a Bengali".[135] Bengal's vast repertoire of fish-based dishes includes Hilsa
Hilsa
preparations, a favourite among Bengalis. Bengalis
Bengalis
make distinctive sweetmeats from milk products, including Rôshogolla, Chômchôm, and several kinds of Pithe. The old city of Dhaka
Dhaka
is noted for its distinct Indo-Islamic cuisine, including biryani, bakarkhani and kebab dishes. Boats[edit] See also: Country boats in Bangladesh

18th century painting of a budgerow

There are 150 types of Bengali country boats plying the 700 rivers of the Bengal
Bengal
delta, the vast floodplain and many oxbow lakes. They vary in design and size. The boats include the dinghy and sampan among others. Country boats are a central element of Bengali culture
Bengali culture
and have inspired generations of artists and poets, including the ivory artisans of the Mughal era. The country has a long shipbuilding tradition, dating back many centuries. Wooden boats are made of timber such as Jarul (dipterocarpus turbinatus), sal (shorea robusta), sundari (heritiera fomes), and Burma
Burma
teak (tectons grandis). Medieval Bengal
Bengal
was shipbuilding hub for the Mughal and Ottoman navies.[136][137] The British Royal Navy
Royal Navy
later utilized Bengali shipyards in the 19th-century, including for the Battle of Trafalgar. Attire[edit] Bengali women commonly wear the shaŗi and the salwar kameez, often distinctly designed according to local cultural customs. In urban areas, many women and men wear Western-style attire. Among men, European dressing has greater acceptance. Men also wear traditional costumes such as the kurta with dhoti or pyjama, often on religious occasions. The lungi, a kind of long skirt, is widely worn by Bangladeshi men. Festivals[edit] Main articles: List of festivals of West Bengal
West Bengal
and List of festivals in Bangladesh Durga Puja
Durga Puja
is the biggest festival of the Hindus in Bengal
Bengal
as well as the most significant socio-cultural event of the region in general.[138] The two Eids and Muharram
Muharram
are the important festivals for Muslims. Christmas
Christmas
(called Borodin in Bengali) is also a major festival where people irrespective of their beliefs and faiths participate. Other major festivals include Kali Puja, Saraswati Puja, Holi, Rath Jatra, Janmashtami, Poila Boishakh
Poila Boishakh
and Poush Parbon. Media[edit] Bangladesh
Bangladesh
has a diverse, outspoken and privately owned press, with the largest circulated Bengali language
Bengali language
newspapers in the world. English-language titles are popular in the urban readership.[139] West Bengal
Bengal
had 559 published newspapers in 2005,[140] of which 430 were in Bengali.[140] Bengali cinema is divided between the media hubs of Kolkata
Kolkata
and Dhaka. Sports[edit] Cricket
Cricket
and football are popular sports in the Bengal
Bengal
region. Local games include sports such as Kho Kho
Kho Kho
and Kabaddi, the latter being the national sport of Bangladesh. An Indo- Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Bengali Games has been organised among the athletes of the Bengali speaking areas of the two countries.[141] See also[edit]

Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War Bengali renaissance Bengalis East India Hindi
Hindi
Belt List of Bengalis North-East India Punjab

Notes[edit]

^ CRI do not give a breakdown by gender or state the age bracket for the data

References[edit]

^ "Article 3. The state language". The Constitution of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd. Ministry of Law, The People's Republic of Bangladesh. Retrieved 1 February 2017.  ^ "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 47th report (July 2008 to June 2010)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. pp. 122–126.  ^ " Bengal
Bengal
- Definition of Bengal
Bengal
in English by Oxford Dictionaries". Oxford Dictionaries - English.  ^ Hays, Jeffrey. "BENGALIS - Facts and Details". factsanddetails.com.  ^ Arijit Mazumdar (27 August 2014). Indian Foreign Policy in Transition: Relations with South Asia. Routledge. p. 86. ISBN 978-1-317-69859-3.  ^ Bengal, Sarees. " Muslin
Muslin
- Bengal
Bengal
Heritage". sareesofbengal.com.  ^ "Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
– the World's Longest Beach ThingsAsian". thingsasian.com. Retrieved 7 January 2017.  ^ "Ancient India
India
As Described By Megasthenes
Megasthenes
And Arrian
Arrian
by Mccrindle, J.W". archive.org. Mccrindle, J. W. Retrieved 5 June 2017.  ^ a b c Sailendra Nath Sen (1999). Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age International. pp. 277–287. ISBN 978-81-224-1198-0.  ^ a b c R. C. Majumdar (1977). Ancient India. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 268–. ISBN 978-81-208-0436-4.  ^ a b Sailendra Nath Sen (1999). Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age International. pp. 280–. ISBN 978-81-224-1198-0.  ^ a b Raj Kumar (2003). Essays on Ancient India. Discovery Publishing House. p. 199. ISBN 978-81-7141-682-0.  ^ a b Om Prakash, "Empire, Mughal", History of World Trade Since 1450, edited by John J. McCusker, vol. 1, Macmillan Reference USA, 2006, pp. 237–240, World History in Context, accessed 3 August 2017 ^ a b John F. Richards (1995), The Mughal Empire, page 202, Cambridge University Press ^ a b Giorgio Riello, Tirthankar Roy (2009). How India
India
Clothed the World: The World of South Asian Textiles, 1500–1850. Brill Publishers. p. 174.  ^ a b Lawrence B. Lesser. "Historical Perspective". A Country Study: Bangladesh
Bangladesh
(James Heitzman and Robert Worden, editors). Library of Congress Federal Research Division (September 1988). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.About the Country Studies / Area Handbooks Program: Country Studies – Federal Research Division, Library of Congress ^ a b Richard Maxwell Eaton (1996), The Rise of Islam
Islam
and the Bengal Frontier, 1204–1760, page 202, University of California Press ^ a b Ray, Indrajit (2011), Bengal
Bengal
Industries and the British Industrial Revolution (1757–1857), page 174, Routledge, ISBN 1136825525 ^ a b Ray, Indrajit (2011). Bengal
Bengal
Industries and the British Industrial Revolution (1757–1857), Routledge, ISBN 1136825525 ^ Rahman, Urmi (2014). Bangladesh
Bangladesh
– Culture Smart!: The Essential Guide to Customs & Culture. Kuperard. pp. 26–. ISBN 978-1-85733-696-2.  ^ a b " Vanga
Vanga
ancient kingdom, India
India
Britannica.com". britannica.com. Retrieved 7 January 2017.  ^ SenGupta, Amitabh (2012). Scroll Paintings of Bengal: Art in the Village. AuthorHouse UK. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-4678-9663-4.  ^ "Bangladesh: early history, 1000 B.C.–A.D. 1202". Bangladesh: A country study. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. September 1988. Retrieved 1 December 2014. Historians believe that Bengal, the area comprising present-day Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and the Indian state of West Bengal, was settled in about 1000 B.C. by Dravidian-speaking peoples who were later known as the Bang. Their homeland bore various titles that reflected earlier tribal names, such as Vanga, Banga, Bangala, Bangal, and Bengal.  ^ Keay, John (2011) India: A History. Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-4558-2. p. 220 ^ Allan, John Andrew (2013) The Cambridge Shorter History of India. Literary Licensing. p. 145 ^ Sen, Sailendra Nath Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age International. ISBN 81-224-1198-3. p. 281 ^ Hasan, Perween (2007). Sultans and Mosques: The Early Muslim Architecture of Bangladesh. I.B.Tauris. pp. 13–. ISBN 978-1-84511-381-0.  ^ Lach, Donald F.; Kley, Edwin J. Van (1998). Asia
Asia
in the Making of Europe, Volume III: A Century of Advance. Book 3: Southeast Asia. University of Chicago Press. pp. 1124–. ISBN 978-0-226-46768-9.  ^ Ali, A (1996). "Vulnerability of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to climate change and sea level rise through tropical cyclones and storm surges". Water, Air, & Soil Pollution. 92 (1–2): 171–179. doi:10.1007/BF00175563 (inactive 2017-01-15).  ^ Summit Elevations: Frequent Internet Errors. Archived 25 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 13 April 2006. ^ IUCN (1997). "Sundarban wildlife sanctuaries Bangladesh". World Heritage Nomination-IUCN Technical Evaluation.  ^ "Statistical Facts about India". www.indianmirror.com. Retrieved 26 October 2006.  ^ "National Himalayan Sandakphu-Gurdum Trekking Expedition: 2006". Youth Hostels Association of India: West Bengal
West Bengal
State Branch. Archived from the original on 24 October 2006. Retrieved 26 October 2006.  ^ Chowdhury, U.K.; Biswas, B. K.; Chowdhury, T. R.; et al. (May 2000). "Groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and West Bengal, India". Environmental Health Perspectives. 108 (4): 393–397. doi:10.2307/3454378. JSTOR 3454378. PMC 1638054 . PMID 10811564. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007.  ^ Lethbridge, E. (1874). An Easy Introduction to the History and Geography of Bengal: For the Junior Classes in Schools. Thacker. p. 5. Retrieved 7 January 2017.  ^ a b Akhter, Nasrin (2012). "Sarkar". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
(Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.  ^ Deen, Prof. S. M. (2014). A Brief History of Bengal
History of Bengal
for Diaspora Bangladeshis. Lulu Press, Inc. p. 59. ISBN 9781326023775.  ^ Das, Tulshi Kumar (29 December 2017). "Social Structure and Cultural Practices in Slums: A Study of Slums in Dhaka
Dhaka
City". Northern Book Centre – via Google Books.  ^ David Christiana (2007-09-01). "Arsenic Mitigation in West Bengal, India: New Hope for Millions" (PDF). Southwest Hydrology. p. 32. Retrieved 2008-12-20.  ^ Puri, Sunil (29 December 2017). "Agroforestry: Systems and Practices". New India
India
Publishing – via Google Books.  ^ Reddy, Angadi Ranga (29 December 2017). "Gandhi and globalisation". Mittal Publications – via Google Books.  ^ Andaya, B.W.; Andaya, L.Y. (2015). A History of Early Modern Southeast Asia, 1400–1830. Cambridge University Press. p. 220. ISBN 9780521889926.  ^ Singh, A.K. (2006). Modern World System and Indian Proto-industrialization: Bengal
Bengal
1650–1800. 1. Northern Book Centre. p. 225. ISBN 9788172112011. Retrieved 7 January 2017.  ^ Banu, U.A.B.R.A. (1992). Islam
Islam
in Bangladesh. Brill. p. 6. ISBN 9789004094970.  ^ Rashid, M Harunar (2012). "Harikela". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
(Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.  ^ " Chittagong
Chittagong
to bridge S Asian nations". The Daily Star. 17 March 2012.  ^ "World's longest natural sea beach under threat". BBC News. 28 December 2012.  ^ " Bangladesh
Bangladesh
finds 106 tigers in Sundarbans, India
India
76". Dhaka Tribune. BSS. 4 October 2015.  ^ "History of Bangladesh". Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Student Association. Archived from the original on 19 December 2006. Retrieved 26 October 2006.  ^ "4000-year old settlement unearthed in Bangladesh". Xinhua. March 2006.  ^ a b c d Eaton, R.M. (1996). The Rise of Islam
Islam
and the Bengal Frontier, 1204–1760. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520205079.  ^ Ray, H.P. (2003). The Archaeology
Archaeology
of Seafaring
Seafaring
in Ancient South Asia. Cambridge University Press. p. 17. ISBN 9780521011099.  ^ Chowdhury, AM. "Gangaridai". Banglapedia. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. Retrieved 5 August 2015.  ^ Hossain, Md. Mosharraf, Mahasthan: Anecdote to History, 2006, pp. 69–73, Dibyaprakash, 38/2 ka Bangla Bazar, Dhaka, ISBN 984-483-245-4 ^ Ghosh, Suchandra. "Pundravardhana". Banglapedia. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. Retrieved 2007-11-10.  ^ Majumdar, Dr. R.C., History of Ancient Bengal, First published 1971, Reprint 2005, p. 10, Tulshi Prakashani, Kolkata, ISBN 81-89118-01-3. ^ a b (Mbh 1:104), (2:21). ^ a b Murray, H. J. R. (1913). A History of Chess. Benjamin Press (originally published by Oxford University Press). ISBN 0-936317-01-9. OCLC 13472872.  ^ Islam, Shariful (2012). "Bangla Script". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
(Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.  ^ Sengupta, Nitish K. (2011). Land of Two Rivers: A History of Bengal from the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
to Mujib. Penguin Books India. pp. 39–49. ISBN 978-0-14-341678-4.  ^ Nanda, J. N. (1 January 2005). Bengal: The Unique State. Concept Publishing Company. p. 34. ISBN 978-81-8069-149-2.  ^ Mehta, Jaswant Lal (1979). Advanced Study in the History of Medieval India. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. p. 82. ISBN 978-81-207-0617-0.  ^ A Collection of Treaties and Engagements with the Native Princes and States of Asia: Concluded on Behalf of the East India
India
Company by the British Governments in India, Viz. by the Government of Bengal Etc. : Also Copies of Sunnuds Or Grants of Certain Privileges and Imunities to the East India
India
Company by the Mogul and Other Native Princes of Hindustan. United East- India
India
Company. 1812. p. 28. Retrieved 23 August 2013.  ^ a b Ahmed, F.S. (2011). A Comprehensive History of Medieval India: Twelfth to the Mid-Eighteenth Century. Pearson. ISBN 9788131732021.  ^ Baten, Jörg (2016). A History of the Global Economy. From 1500 to the Present. Cambridge University Press. p. 251. ISBN 9781107507180.  ^ (Baxter 1997, pp. 39–40) ^ Chowdhury, Masud Hasan. "Cyclone". Banglapedia. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. Retrieved 6 August 2015.  ^ Chitta Ranjan Misra. "United Independent Bengal
Bengal
Movement". Banglapedia. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. Archived from the original on 5 August 2015. Retrieved 5 August 2015.  ^ a b Harun-or-Rashid. "Partition of Bengal, 1947". Banglapedia. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. Retrieved 5 August 2015.  ^ Suranjan Das. " Calcutta
Calcutta
Riot (1946)". Banglapedia. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. Archived from the original on 1 August 2015. Retrieved 5 August 2015.  ^ " Communist
Communist
rule ends in Indian state of West Bengal". BBC News. 13 May 2011.  ^ Bhattacharyya, B. (1986). Tripura
Tripura
Administration: The Era of Modernisation, 1870–1972. Mittal Publications.  ^ "Muhammad Ali Bogra
Bogra
becomes Prime Minister". Story of Pakistan. Retrieved 7 January 2017.  ^ "Revisiting 1906–1971". nation.com.pk. Retrieved 7 January 2017.  ^ " H. S. Suhrawardy
H. S. Suhrawardy
Becomes Prime Minister". Story of Pakistan. Retrieved 7 January 2017.  ^ (Baxter 1997, pp. 78–79) ^ Raghavan, S. (2013). 1971. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674731295.  ^ Lewis, David (2011). Bangladesh: Politics, Economy and Civil Society. Cambridge University Press. pp. 78–90. ISBN 978-0-521-71377-1.  ^ "404 Error" (PDF). www.saarc-sec.org.  ^ " Bangladesh
Bangladesh
profile – Timeline". BBC News. 1 January 2016.  ^ Salik, Siddiq (1978). Witness to Surrender. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-577264-4.  ^ Burke, S (1973). "The Postwar Diplomacy of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971". Asian Survey. 13 (11): 1036–1049. doi:10.2307/2642858. JSTOR 2642858.  ^ "Address by External Affairs Minister Shri Natwar Singh at India- Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Dialogue Organised by Centre for Policy Dialogue and India
India
International Centre". Speeches. Ministry of External Affairs, New Delhi. 7 August 2005. Retrieved 28 April 2016.  ^ Chattopadhyay, S.S. (June 2007). "Constant traffic". Frontline. Vol. 24 no. 11. The Hindu. Retrieved 26 February 2008.  ^ roughly 163 million in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and 100 million in the Republic of India
India
( CIA Factbook
CIA Factbook
2014 estimates, numbers subject to rapid population growth); about 3 million Bangladeshis in the Middle East, 1 million Bengalis
Bengalis
in Pakistan, 0.4 million British Bangladeshi. ^ "2011 Population & Housing Census: Preliminary Results" (PDF). Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Bureau of Statistics, Statistics Division, Ministry of Planning, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. July 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 17 November 2013.  ^ "Area, population, decennial growth rate and density for 2001 and 2011 at a glance for West Bengal
West Bengal
and the districts: provisional population totals paper 1 of 2011: West Bengal". Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 26 January 2012.  ^ a b "Provisional Population Totals: West Bengal". Census of India, 2001. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 26 August 2006.  ^ World Bank Development Indicators Database, 2006. ^ a b "Bangladesh". Ethnologue.  ^ "The World Factbook".  ^ "Contents 2010–14" (PDF). OFFICE OF THE REGISTRAR GENERAL & CENSUS COMMISSIONER, INDIA. Retrieved 12 January 2017.  ^ "ABRIDGED LIFE TABLES- 2010–14" (PDF). OFFICE OF THE REGISTRAR GENERAL & CENSUS COMMISSIONER, INDIA. p. 5. Retrieved 12 January 2017.  ^ CRI=Center Research and Information (2014). Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Education for All. CRI Publication. p. 138. ISBN 0756698596.  ^ "Table 162, Number and Percentage of Population Below Poverty Line". Reserve Bank of India, Government of India. 2013. Retrieved April 20, 2014.  ^ Misha, Farzana; Sulaiman, Munshi. " Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Priorities: Poverty, Sulaiman and Misha Copenhagen Consensus Center". www.copenhagenconsensus.com. Copenhagen Consensus. Retrieved 7 April 2016.  ^ "Statistics". UNICEF. 18 December 2013.  ^ "Why West Bengal
West Bengal
is like Canada, and Bihar
Bihar
like Swaziland".  ^ "Wandering Gaia". "The Give and Take of the Ganges" WordPress.com. Retrieved 13 April 2009.  ^ a b "7 Major Rice
Rice
Producing States in India
India
– Important India". importantindia.com. Retrieved 7 January 2017.  ^ a b "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 25 October 2017.  ^ "State Statistics". NITI Aayog. Retrieved 16 October 2016.  ^ "STATE WISE DATA" (PDF). Economic Statistical Organisation Punjab. Central Statistical Organisation, New Delhi. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 March 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2017.  ^ "UPDATE 1-India, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
sign historic land boundary agreement". Reuters.  ^ " Dhaka
Dhaka
(Bangladesh): City Districts and Subdistricts – Population Statistics in Maps and Charts".  ^ " Kolkata
Kolkata
Metropolitan".  ^ " Chittagong
Chittagong
(Bangladesh): City Districts and Subdistricts – Population Statistics in Maps and Charts".  ^ a b c d e f g "Bangladesh: Divisions and Urban Areas".  ^ "West Bengal: Durgapur". Census of India.  ^ "West Bengal: Asansol". Census of India.  ^ "West Bengal: Siliguri
Siliguri
(Part – Darjiling)". Census of India.  ^ "West Bengal: Siliguri
Siliguri
(Part – Jalpaiguri)". Census of India.  ^ "Tripura: Agartala". Census of India.  ^ Jack Detsch, The Diplomat. "Bangladesh: Asia’s New Energy Superpower? The Diplomat". thediplomat.com. Retrieved 7 January 2017.  ^ " Bengali language
Bengali language
Britannica.com". global.britannica.com. Retrieved 7 January 2017.  ^ Symbols of Water and Woman on Selected Examples of Modern Bengali Literature in the Context of Mythological Tradition Archived 12 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Bagchi, J. (1993). The History and Culture of the Pālas of Bengal and Bihar, Cir. 750 A.D.-cir. 1200 A.D. Abhinav Publications. p. 127. ISBN 9788170173014. Retrieved 7 January 2017.  ^ Huntington, S.L. (1984). The "Påala-Sena" Schools of Sculpture. E.J. Brill. p. 4. ISBN 9789004068568. Retrieved 7 January 2017.  ^ "Pala art Britannica.com". britannica.com. Retrieved 7 January 2017.  ^ "In Search of Bangladeshi Islamic Art The Metropolitan Museum of Art". metmuseum.org. Retrieved 7 January 2017.  ^ Mitter, P. (1994). Art and Nationalism in Colonial India, 1850–1922: Occidental Orientations. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521443548.  ^ "Log In – New York Times". nytimes.com. Retrieved 7 January 2017.  ^ "Bait Ur Rouf Mosque Aga Khan Development Network". akdn.org. Retrieved 7 January 2017.  ^ Oxford English Dictionary, "bungalow"; Online Etymology Dictionary ^ "WORLDVIEW". worldviewcities.org. Retrieved 7 January 2017.  ^ "WORLDVIEW". worldviewcities.org. Retrieved 7 January 2017.  ^ Thomas Khoshy, Elementary Number Theory with Applications, Academic Press, 2002, p. 567. ISBN 0-12-421171-2. ^ Chatterjee, Santimay and Chatterjee, Enakshi, Satyendranath Bose, 2002 reprint, p. 5, National Book Trust, ISBN 81-237-0492-5 ^ Sen, A. K. (1997). "Sir J.C. Bose and radio science". Microwave Symposium Digest. IEEE
IEEE
MTT-S International Microwave
Microwave
Symposium. Denver, CO: IEEE. pp. 557–560. doi:10.1109/MWSYM.1997.602854. ISBN 0-7803-3814-6.  ^ Dr Subodh Mahanti. "Satyendra Nath Bose, The Creator of Quantum Statistics". Vigyan Prasar.  ^ Wali 2009, p. xvii, xviii, xx (Foreword). ^ J J O'Connor and E F Robertson (October 2003). "Satyendranath Bose". The MacTutor History of Mathematics archive.  ^ "The Bauls of Bengal". Folk Music. BengalOnline. Retrieved 26 October 2006.  ^ Banik, Nandadulal. "Anirvan". Banglapedia. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. Retrieved 5 August 2015.  ^ Gertjan de Graaf, Abdul Latif. "Development of freshwater fish farming and poverty alleviation: A case study from Bangladesh" (PDF). Aqua KE Government. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 November 2006. Retrieved 22 October 2006.  ^ Hossain, Khandakar Akhter (2012). " Shipbuilding
Shipbuilding
Industry". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
(Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 30 July 2015.  ^ "Durga Puja". Festivals of Bengal. West Bengal
West Bengal
Tourism, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 28 October 2006.  ^ " Bangladesh
Bangladesh
profile – Media". BBC News.  ^ a b "General Review". Registrar of Newspapers for India. Archived from the original on 18 January 2010. Retrieved 1 September 2006.  ^ " Bangladesh
Bangladesh
dominate Indo-Bangla Games, clinch 45 gold medals". Thaindian News. Indian-Asian News Service. 26 February 2008. Retrieved 27 February 2008. 

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel

.