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Beersheba, also spelled Beer-Sheva (/bɪərˈʃiːbə/; Hebrew: בְּאֵר שֶׁבַע‬  Be'er Sheva [be.eʁˈʃeva]; Arabic: بئر السبع‎  Bi'ir as-Sab  [biːr esˈsabeʕ]), is the largest city in the Negev
Negev
desert of southern Israel. Often referred to as the "Capital of the Negev", it is the center of the fourth most populous metropolitan area in Israel, the eighth most populous Israeli city with a population of 205,810,[1] and the second largest city with a total area of 117,500 dunams (after Jerusalem). With an ancient history, and long used as a bedouin encampment, the modern history of Beersheva began at the start of the 20th century when a permanent settlement was established by the Ottoman Turks.[2] The Battle of Beersheba
Beersheba
was part of a wider British offensive in World War I aimed at breaking the Turkish defensive line from Gaza to Beersheba. In 1947, Bir Seb'a (Arabic: بئر السبع‎), as it was known, was envisioned as part of the Arab
Arab
state in the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine. Following the declaration of Israel's independence, the Egyptian army amassed its forces in Beersheba
Beersheba
as a strategic and logistical base. In the Battle of Beersheba
Beersheba
waged in October 1948, it was conquered by the Israel Defense Forces.[3] Beersheba
Beersheba
has grown considerably since then. A large portion of the population is made up of the descendants of Sephardi Jews
Sephardi Jews
and Mizrahi Jews
Jews
who immigrated from Arab
Arab
countries after 1948, as well as smaller communities of Bene Israel
Israel
and Cochin Jews
Cochin Jews
from India. Second and third waves of immigration have taken place since 1990, bringing Russian-speaking Ashkenazi Jewish immigrants from the former Soviet Union, as well as Beta Israel
Israel
immigrants from Ethiopia. The Soviet immigrants have made the game of chess a major sport in Beersheba
Beersheba
and the city is now a developing technology center. The city is now Israel's national chess center, with more chess grandmasters per capita than any other city in the world.[4]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Hebrew Bible 3 History

3.1 Antiquity 3.2 Israelite era 3.3 Persian era 3.4 Hasmonean
Hasmonean
era 3.5 Roman and Byzantine era 3.6 Ottoman era 3.7 First World War and British Mandate era 3.8 State of Israel

3.8.1 Urban development 3.8.2 Arab–Israeli conflict

4 Emblem of Beersheba 5 Geography 6 Climate 7 Demography 8 Economy 9 Local government 10 Educational institutions 11 Neighborhoods 12 Art and cultural institutions

12.1 Great Mosque of Beersheba

13 Transportation

13.1 Hiking

14 Sports 15 Environmental awards 16 Notable residents 17 International Relations

17.1 Twin towns—Sister cities

18 See also 19 References 20 Bibliography 21 External links

Etymology[edit] There are several etymologies for the origin of the name "Beersheba". The oath of Abraham
Abraham
and Abimelech
Abimelech
(well of the oath) is the one stated in Genesis 21:31. Others include the seven wells dug by Isaac
Isaac
(seven wells) though only three or four have been identified; the oath of Isaac
Isaac
and Abimelech
Abimelech
(well of the oath in Genesis 26:33); the seven lambs that sealed Abraham
Abraham
and Abimelech's oath (well of the seven). Be'er is the Hebrew word for well; sheva could mean "seven" or "oath" (from the Hebrew word shvu'a). In this case the meaning is probably "oath", as the ancient Hebrews
Hebrews
believed seven to be a lucky number, and the Hebrew "shvu'a" (to take an oath) literally means "to seven oneself". The Arabic toponym can also be translated as "seven wells" or, as more commonly believed, "lion's well". During Ottoman administration the city was referred as "بلدية بءرالسبع" Birüsseb'. Hebrew Bible[edit] Beersheba
Beersheba
is mainly dealt with in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
in connection with the Patriarchs Abraham
Abraham
and Isaac, who both dig a well and close peace treaties with King Abimelech
Abimelech
of Gerar at the site. Hence it receives its name twice, first after Abraham's dealings with Abimelech
Abimelech
(Genesis 21:22-34), and again from Isaac
Isaac
who closes his own covenant with Abimelech
Abimelech
of Gerar and whose servants also dig a well there (Genesis 26:23-33). The place is thus connected to two of the three Wife–sister narratives in the Book of Genesis. According to the Hebrew Bible, Beersheba
Beersheba
was founded when Abraham
Abraham
and Abimelech
Abimelech
settled their differences over a well of water and made a covenant (see Genesis 21:22-34). Abimelech's men had taken the well from Abraham
Abraham
after he had previously dug it so Abraham
Abraham
brought sheep and cattle to Abimelech
Abimelech
to get the well back. He set aside seven lambs to swear that it was he that had dug the well and no one else. Abimelech
Abimelech
conceded that the well belonged to Abraham
Abraham
and, in the Bible, Beersheba
Beersheba
means "Well of Seven" or "Well of the Oath".[5] Beersheba
Beersheba
is further mentioned in following Bible passages: Isaac built an altar in Beersheba
Beersheba
(Genesis 26:23–33). Jacob
Jacob
had his dream about a stairway to heaven after leaving Beersheba. (Genesis 28:10–15 and 46:1–7). Beersheba
Beersheba
was the territory of the tribe of Simeon and Judah (Joshua 15:28 and 19:2). The sons of the prophet Samuel were judges in Beersheba
Beersheba
(I Samuel 8:2). Saul, Israel's first king, built a fort there for his campaign against the Amalekites (I Samuel 14:48 and 15:2–9). The prophet Elijah
Elijah
took refuge in Beersheba
Beersheba
when Jezebel ordered him killed (I Kings 19:3). The prophet Amos mentions the city in regard to idolatry (Amos 5:5 and 8:14).[6] Following the Babylonian conquest and subsequent enslavement of many Israelites, the town was abandoned. After the Israelite slaves returned from Babylon, they resettled the town. According to the Hebrew Bible, Beersheba
Beersheba
was the southernmost city of the territories settled by Israelites, hence the expression "from Dan to Beersheba" to describe the whole kingdom.[6] Zibiah, the consort of King Ahaziah of Judah
Ahaziah of Judah
and the mother of King Jehoash of Judah,[7] was from Beersheba. History[edit] Antiquity[edit] Human settlement in the area dates from the Copper Age. The inhabitants lived in caves, crafting metal tools and raising cattle.[8] Findings unearthed at Tel Be'er Sheva, an archaeological site east of modern-day Beersheba, suggest the region has been inhabited since the 4th millennium BC.[9] The city has been destroyed and rebuilt many times over the centuries. Israelite era[edit]

Tel Be'er Sheva
Tel Be'er Sheva
archaeological site

Main article: Tel Be'er Sheva Tel Be'er Sheva, an archaeological site containing the ruins of an ancient town believed to have been the Biblical Beersheba, lies a few kilometers east of the modern city. The town dates to the early Israelite period, around the 10th century BC. The site was probably chosen due to the abundance of water, as evidenced by the numerous wells in the area. According to the Bible, the wells were dug by Abraham
Abraham
and Isaac
Isaac
when they arrived there. The streets were laid out in a grid, with separate areas for administrative, commercial, military, and residential use. It is believed to have been the first planned settlement in the region, and is also noteworthy for its elaborate water system; in particular, a huge cistern carved out of the rock beneath the town. Persian era[edit] During the Persian rule 539 BC–c. 332 BC Beersheba
Beersheba
was at the south of Yehud Medinata
Yehud Medinata
autonomous province of the Persian Achaemenid Empire. During that era the city was rebuilt[10] and a citadel had been built.[11] Archeological finds from between 359 and 338 BCE have been made and include pottery and Ostracon.[11] Hasmonean
Hasmonean
era[edit] During the Hasmonean
Hasmonean
rule, the city did not take importance as it was not mentioned when conquered from Edom
Edom
or described in the Hasmonean wars.[10] Roman and Byzantine era[edit] During Roman rule the city was in the Coele-Syria
Coele-Syria
region. During the Roman era and later Byzantine periods, the town served as a front-line defense against Nabatean
Nabatean
attacks. The last inhabitants of Tel Be'er Sheva were the Byzantines, who abandoned the city during the Muslim conquest of the Levant. Around 64-63 BC Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus
made Be'er Sheva the southern part of the Judea province, in the following years the city was on the limes belt (the limes belt in the region attributed to Vespasian era),[12] The city become center of the Eparchy
Eparchy
in around 268.[12] During the 4th century, Beersheba
Beersheba
was described in the Madaba Map
Madaba Map
and Eusebius of Caesarea
Eusebius of Caesarea
as a large village with a Roman garrison.[13] The last inhabitants of Tel Be'er Sheva
Tel Be'er Sheva
were the Byzantines, who abandoned the city during the Muslim
Muslim
conquest of the Levant. The city was destroyed[14] and remained abandoned until the late 19th century. Some pottery from late Byzantine and early Islamic rule has been found.[15] Ottoman era[edit]

View of Beersheba
Beersheba
from the south in 1902.

Beersheba, 1917

In 1982, Joseph Ben-David and Gideon Kressel undertook research on the importance of the market in the Negev
Negev
Bedouin economy.[16]:3 Ben-David and Kressel argued that the Bedouin traditional market was the cornerstone for the founding of Beersheba
Beersheba
as capital of the Negev during the Ottoman period.[16] A Negev
Negev
Bedouin, Aref Abu-Rabia, who earned his PhD in anthropology and went on to become the official in charge of education in the Negev
Negev
District of the Israeli Ministry of Education and Culture, published his book entitled A Bedouin Century in which he called Beersheba
Beersheba
"the first Bedouin city."[17]:ix In June 1899, the Ottoman government ordered the creation of the Beersheba
Beersheba
sub-district (kaza) of the district (mutasarrıflık) of Jerusalem, with Beersheba
Beersheba
to be developed as its capital.[18] Implementation was entrusted to a special bureau of the Ministry of the Interior.[18] There were multiple reasons for the decision. The British incorporation of Sinai
Sinai
into Egypt
Egypt
led to a need for the Ottomans to consolidate their hold on southern Palestine.[18] There was also a desire to encourage sedentation of the Bedouin, with a predicted increase of tranquility and tax revenue.[18] The first governor (kaymakam), Isma'il Kamal Bey, lived in a tent lent by the local sheikh until the government house (Saraya) was built.[19] Kamal was replaced by Muhammed Carullah Efendi in 1901, who in turn was replaced by Hamdi Bey in 1903.[20] The governor in 1908 was promoted to 'adjoint' (mutassarrıf muavin) to the governor of the Jerusalem district, which placed him above the other sub-district governors.[20] A visitor to Beersheba
Beersheba
in May 1900 found only a ruin, a two-storey stone khan, and several tents.[21] By the start of 1901 there was a barracks with a small garrison and other buildings.[22] The German archaeologist Alois Musil
Alois Musil
noted in August 1902:

Beersheba
Beersheba
grows from day to day; This year, instead of the tents, we found stately houses along a beautiful road from the Sarayah to the bed of the wadi. In the government building a garden has been laid out, and all sorts of trees have been planted which are sure to prosper, for the few shrubs planted two years ago by the steam mill at the south-east end of the road have grown considerably. The lively construction activity is also causing a lively exploitation of the ruins.[23]

By 1907 there was a large village and military post, with a residence for the kaymakam and a large mosque.[24] The population increased from 300 to 800 between 1902 and 1911 and by 1914 there were 1,000 people living in 200 houses.[18] A plan for the town in the form of a grid was developed by a Swiss and a German architect and two others.[25][26] The grid pattern can be seen today in Beersheba's Old City. Most of the residents at the time were Arabs from Hebron
Hebron
and the Gaza area, although Jews
Jews
also began settling in the city. Many Bedouin abandoned their nomadic lives and built homes in Beersheba.[27] First World War and British Mandate era[edit]

Beersheba
Beersheba
Turkish Railway Station

During World War I, the Ottomans built a military railroad from the Hejaz line to Beersheba, inaugurating the station on October 30, 1915.[28] The celebration was attended by the Ottoman army commander Jamal Pasha and other senior government officials. The train line was active until the British Army
British Army
forced the Ottomans out in 1917, towards the end of the war. Beersheba
Beersheba
played an important role in the Sinai
Sinai
and Palestine Campaign in World War I. On October 31, 1917, three months after taking Rafah, General Allenby's troops breached the line of Turkish defense between Gaza and Beersheba.[29] Approximately five-hundred soldiers of the Australian 4th Light Horse Regiment and the 12th Light Horse Regiment of the 4th Light Horse Brigade, led by Brigadier General William Grant, with only horses and bayonets, charged the Turkish trenches, overran them and captured the wells in what has become known as the Battle of Beersheba, called the "last successful cavalry charge in British military history."[30][31] On the edge of Beersheba's Old City is a Commonwealth War Graves Commission
Commonwealth War Graves Commission
Cemetery containing the graves of Australian, New Zealand and British soldiers. The town also contains a memorial park dedicated to them. During the Palestine Mandate, Beersheba
Beersheba
was a major administrative center. The British constructed a railway between Rafah
Rafah
and Beersheba in October 1917; it opened to the public in May 1918, serving the Negev
Negev
and settlements south of Mount Hebron.[32] In 1928, at the beginning of the tension between the Jews
Jews
and the Arabs over control of Palestine, and wide-scale rioting which left 133 Jews
Jews
dead and 339 wounded, many Jews
Jews
abandoned Beersheba, although some returned occasionally. After an Arab
Arab
attack on a Jewish bus in 1936, which escalated into the 1936–39 Arab
Arab
revolt in Palestine, the remaining Jews
Jews
left.[33] At the time of the 1922 census of Palestine, Beersheba
Beersheba
had a population of 2,012 Muslims, 235 Christians, 98 Jews
Jews
and 11 Druze (total 2,356).[34] At the time of the 1931 census, Beersheba
Beersheba
had 545 occupied houses and a population of 2,791 Muslims, 152 Christians, 11 Jews
Jews
and 5 Bahá'í
Bahá'í
(total 2,959).[35] The 1945 village survey conducted by the Palestine Mandate government found 5,360 Muslims, 200 Christians and 10 others (total 5,570).[36]

Beersheba
Beersheba
1948

Beersheba
Beersheba
police station. 1948. Original building Ottoman with British Mandate addition.

Beersheba
Beersheba
mosque. 1948

A mosque in Be'ersheva photographed during Operation Yoav, 1948

Harel Brigade assembling in Beersheba
Beersheba
prior to Operation Horev, 25 December 1948

Nahal Beersheba
Beersheba
in flood, 1948

State of Israel[edit] See also: Battle of Beersheba
Beersheba
(1948)

Israel
Israel
Philharmonic Orchestra performing in Beersheba, Israel, 1948

Beersheba
Beersheba
in the 1960s

In 1947, the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP) proposed that Beersheba
Beersheba
be included within the Jewish state in their partition plan for Palestine.[37] However, when the UN's Ad Hoc Committee revised the plan, they moved Beersheva to the Arab
Arab
state on account of it being primarily Arab.[37]

Beersheba
Beersheba
in the mid-1980s

During the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, when military intelligence intercepted a telegram from Egyptian officers about plans to redeploy along the Beersheba-Gaza line, Yigal Allon
Yigal Allon
proposed the conquest of Beersheba,[38] which was approved by Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion. According to Israeli historian Benny Morris, he ordered the "conquest of Beersheba, occupation of outposts around it, [and] demolition of most of the town."[39] The objective was to break the Egyptian blockade of Israeli convoys to the Negev. The Egyptian army did not expect an offensive and fled en masse.[38] At 4:00 am on October 21, the 8th Brigade's 89th battalion and the Negev
Negev
Brigade's 7th and 9th battalions moved in, some troops advancing from Mishmar HaNegev junction, 20 kilometres (12 mi) north of Beersheba, others from the Turkish train station and Hatzerim. By 9:45, Beersheba
Beersheba
was in Israeli hands. Around 120 Egyptian soldiers were taken prisoner. The remaining Arab
Arab
civilians, 200 men and 150 women and children, were taken to the police fort. On October 25, the women, children, disabled and elderly were driven by truck to the Gaza border. The Egyptian soldiers were interned in POW
POW
camps. Some men lived in the local mosque and were put to work cleaning but when it was discovered that they were supplying information to the Egyptian army they were also deported.[39] Following Operation Yoav, a 10-kilometer radius exclusion zone around Beersheba
Beersheba
was enforced into which no Bedouin were allowed.[40] Following the conclusion of the war, the 1949 Armistice Agreements formally granted Beersheba
Beersheba
to Israel. Beersheba was deemed strategically important due to its location with a reliable water supply and at a major crossroads, northwest to Hebron
Hebron
and Jerusalem, east to the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
and al Karak, south to Aqaba, west to Gaza and southwest to Al-Auja and the border with Egypt.[38] After a few months, the town's war-damaged houses were repaired. As a post-independence wave of Jewish immigration to Israel
Israel
began, Beersheba
Beersheba
experienced a population boom as thousands of immigrants moved in. The city rapidly expanded beyond its core, which became known as the "Old City," as new neighborhoods were built around it, complete with various housing projects such as apartment buildings and houses with auxiliary farms, as well as shopping centers and schools. The Old City was turned into a city center, with shops, restaurants, and government and utility offices. An industrial area and one of the largest cinemas in Israel
Israel
were also built in the city. By 1956, Beersheba
Beersheba
was a booming city of 22,000.[41][42] In 1959, during Wadi Salib riots, riots spread quickly to other parts of the country, including Beersheba.[43] Soroka Hospital opened its doors in 1960. By 1968, the population had grown to 80,000.[44] The University of the Negev, which would later become Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, was established in 1969. The then Egyptian president Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
visited Beersheba
Beersheba
in 1979. In 1983, its population was more than 110,000. Urban development[edit]

Panorama of Beersheba

Pipes Bridge, 2012

As part of its Blueprint Negev
Negev
project, the Jewish National Fund
Jewish National Fund
is funding major redevelopment projects in Beersheba. One project is the Beersheba
Beersheba
River Walk, a 900-acre (3.6-square-kilometre) riverfront district with green spaces, hiking trails, a 3,000-seat sports hall, a 15-acre (6.1-hectare) boating lake filled with recycled waste water, promenades, restaurants, cafés, galleries, boat rentals, a 12,000-seat amphitheater, playgrounds, and a bridge along the route of the city's Mekorot
Mekorot
water pipes. The plans include building new homes overlooking the park and neighborhood.[45] At the official entrance to the river park will be the Beit Eshel
Beit Eshel
Park, which will consist of a park built around a courtyard with historic remains from the settlement of Beit Eshel.[46]

Modern Beersheba

Four new shopping malls are planned. The first, Kanyon Beersheba, will be a 115,000-square-metre (1,240,000-square-foot) ecologically planned mall with pools for collecting rainwater and lighting generated by solar panels on the roof. It will be situated next to an 8,000-meter park with bicycle paths.[46][47][48] Another mall will be a farmer's market, the first ever in Israel. It will be an enclosed, circular complex with 400 spaces for vendors, and it will be surrounded by parks and greenery.[46] A new central bus station has been built in the city. The station has a glass-enclosed complex also containing shops and cafés.[46] In recent years, some $10.5 million has been invested in renovating Beersheba's Old City, preserving historical buildings and upgrading infrastructure.[49] The Turkish Quarter is also being redeveloped with newly cobbled streets, widened sidewalks, and the restoration of Turkish homes into areas for dining and shopping.[45] In 2011, city hall announced plans to turn Beersheba
Beersheba
into the "water city" of Israel.[50] One of the projects, "Beersheva beach," envisions a 7-dunam facility opposite city hall.[51][52] Other projects include new fountains near the Soroka Medical Center
Soroka Medical Center
and in front of the Shamoon College of Engineering. In the 1990s, as skyscrapers began to appear in Israel, the construction of high-rise buildings began in Beersheba.[53] Today, downtown Beersheba
Beersheba
has been described as a "clean, compact, and somewhat sterile-looking collection of high-rise office and residential towers."[54] The city's tallest building is Rambam Square 2, a 32-story apartment building.[55] Many additional high-rise buildings are planned or are under construction, including skyscrapers.[56][57][58] There are further plans to build luxury residential towers in the city.[59] The city is undergoing a major construction boom, which includes both development of urban design elements, such as water fountains and bridges, and environmental development such as playgrounds and parks.[60] In December 2012, a plan to build 16,000 new housing units in the Ramot Gimel neighborhood was scrapped in favor of creating a new urban forest, which will span 1,360 acres (550 ha) and serve as the area's "green lung", as part of the plans to develop a "green band" around the city. The forest will include designated picnic areas, biking trails, and walking trails. According to Mayor Ruvik Danilovich, Beersheba
Beersheba
still has an abundance of open, underdeveloped spaces that can be used for urban development.[61] In 2017, a new urban building plan was approved for the city, designed to raise the city's population to 340,000 by 2030. Under the plan, 13,000 more housing units will be built, along with industrial and business developments occupying a total of four million square meters. A second public hospital is also planned.[62] Arab–Israeli conflict[edit] On October 19, 1998, sixty four people were wounded in a grenade attack[63]. On August 31, 2004, sixteen people were killed in two suicide bombings on commuter buses in Beersheba
Beersheba
for which Hamas claimed responsibility. On August 28, 2005, another suicide bomber attacked the central bus station, seriously injuring two security guards and 45 bystanders.[64] During Operation Cast Lead, which began on December 27, 2008 and lasted until the ceasefire on January 18, 2009, Hamas
Hamas
fired 2,378 rockets (such as Grad rockets) and mortars, from Gaza into southern Israel, including Beersheba. The rocket attacks have continued, but have been only partially effective since the introduction of the Iron Dome
Iron Dome
rocket defense system.[65][66][67][68] In 2010 an Arab
Arab
attacked and injured two people with an axe.[69][70][71] In 2012, a Palestinian from Jenin
Jenin
was stopped before a stabbing attack in a "safe house."[72][73] On October 18, 2015, a lone gunman shot and killed a soldier guarding the Beersheva bus station before being gunned down by police.[74] In September 2016, the Shin Bet
Shin Bet
thwarted a Palestinian Islamic Jihad
Palestinian Islamic Jihad
terror attack at a wedding hall in Beersheba.[75][76] Emblem of Beersheba[edit]

Beersheva emblem on a 1965 stamp

Since 1950, Beersheba
Beersheba
has changed its municipal emblem several times. The 1950 emblem, designed by Abraham
Abraham
Khalili, featured a tamarix tree, a factory and water flowing from a pipeline.[77] In 1972 the emblem was modernized with the symbolic representation of the Twelve Tribes and a tower.[77] Words from the Bible are insrcibed: Abraham
Abraham
"planted a tamarix tree in Beersheba." (Genesis 21:33) Since 2012, it has incorporated the number seven as part of the city rebranding. Geography[edit]

Dry riverbed in Nahal Ashan park

Beersheba
Beersheba
is located on the northern edge of the Negev
Negev
desert 115 kilometres (71 mi) south-east of Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
and 120 kilometres (75 mi) south-west of Jerusalem. The city is located on the main route from the center and north of the country to Eilat
Eilat
in the far south. The Beersheba
Beersheba
Valley has been populated for thousands of years, as it has available water, which flows from the Hebron
Hebron
hills in the winter and is stored underground in vast quantities.[78] The main river in Beersheba
Beersheba
is Nahal Beersheva, a wadi that floods in the winter. The Kovshim and Katef streams are other important wadis that pass through the city. Beersheba
Beersheba
is surrounded by a number of satellite towns, including Omer, Lehavim, and Meitar, and the Bedouin localities of Rahat, Tel as-Sabi, and Lakiya. Just north west of the city (near Ramot neighborhood ) is a region called Goral hills (heb:גבעות גורל lit: hills of fate), the area have hills with up to 500 metres (1,600 feet) above sea level and low as 300 metres (980 feet) above sea level.[79] Due to heavy construction the flora unique to the area is endangered. North east of the city (north to the Neve Menahem neighborhood) there are Loess
Loess
plains and dry river bands. Climate[edit] Beersheba
Beersheba
has a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSh) with Mediterranean influences. The city has both characteristics of Mediterranean and desert climates. Summers are hot and dry, and winters are mild. Rainfall is highly concentrated in the winter season, even more so than other cities with a similar climate such as Almeria
Almeria
in southern Spain. In summer, the temperatures are high in daytime and nighttime with an average high of 34.7 °C (94 °F) and an average low of 21.4 °C (71 °F). Winters have an average high of 17.7 °C (64 °F) and average low of 7.1 °C (45 °F). Snow is very rare; a snowfall on February 20, 2015 was the first such occurrence in the city since 1992.[80] Precipitation
Precipitation
in summer is rare, the most rainfalls come in winter between September to May, but the annual amount is low, averaging 195.1 millimeters (7.7 in) per year. Sandstorms, haze and fog are common, especially in winter, as a result of the high humidity.

Climate data for Beersheba

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 31.5 (88.7) 35.2 (95.4) 38.4 (101.1) 43.8 (110.8) 44.8 (112.6) 46.0 (114.8) 42.0 (107.6) 43.8 (110.8) 43.8 (110.8) 41.7 (107.1) 38.3 (100.9) 32.5 (90.5) 46 (114.8)

Mean maximum °C (°F) 24.6 (76.3) 27.3 (81.1) 32.0 (89.6) 37.5 (99.5) 38.7 (101.7) 39.6 (103.3) 39.3 (102.7) 38.3 (100.9) 38.7 (101.7) 36.8 (98.2) 31.9 (89.4) 26.9 (80.4) 39.6 (103.3)

Average high °C (°F) 17.7 (63.9) 18.7 (65.7) 22.0 (71.6) 26.5 (79.7) 30.5 (86.9) 33.1 (91.6) 34.7 (94.5) 34.7 (94.5) 32.9 (91.2) 29.7 (85.5) 25.0 (77) 20.0 (68) 27.13 (80.84)

Daily mean °C (°F) 12.4 (54.3) 13.2 (55.8) 15.9 (60.6) 19.7 (67.5) 23.2 (73.8) 26.1 (79) 28.0 (82.4) 28.1 (82.6) 26.2 (79.2) 23.2 (73.8) 18.6 (65.5) 14.4 (57.9) 20.75 (69.37)

Average low °C (°F) 7.1 (44.8) 7.7 (45.9) 9.8 (49.6) 12.8 (55) 16.0 (60.8) 19.0 (66.2) 21.3 (70.3) 21.5 (70.7) 19.6 (67.3) 16.7 (62.1) 12.2 (54) 8.8 (47.8) 14.38 (57.87)

Mean minimum °C (°F) 2.8 (37) 4.0 (39.2) 5.3 (41.5) 7.2 (45) 11.1 (52) 15.4 (59.7) 18.4 (65.1) 18.4 (65.1) 16.0 (60.8) 12.4 (54.3) 7.5 (45.5) 4.8 (40.6) 2.8 (37)

Record low °C (°F) 1.4 (34.5) 0.5 (32.9) 2.4 (36.3) 4 (39) 8 (46) 13.6 (56.5) 15.8 (60.4) 15.6 (60.1) 13 (55) 10.2 (50.4) 3.4 (38.1) 3 (37) 0.5 (32.9)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 48 (1.89) 40 (1.57) 29 (1.14) 9 (0.35) 3.6 (0.142) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.5 (0.02) 9 (0.35) 18 (0.71) 38 (1.5) 195.1 (7.672)

Average precipitation days 9 8 6 2 1 0 0 0 0.2 2 4 7 39.2

Average relative humidity (%) 50 48 44 35 34 36 38 41 43 42 42 48 41.8

Source #1: Israel
Israel
Meteorological Service[81][82][83][84]

Source #2: Israel
Israel
Meteorological Service[85]

Demography[edit] Beersheba
Beersheba
is one of the fastest-growing cities in Israel. Though it has a population of about 200,000, the city is larger in size than Tel Aviv, and its urban plan calls for an eventual population of 450,000–500,000.[86] It is planned to have a population of 340,000 by 2030.[62] In 2010, the National Council for Planning and Construction approved a master plan with the goal of increasing the population of Beersheba
Beersheba
and its metropolitan area to 1 million by 2020.[87] Beersheba's 20,000 Arabs represent about 10% of the population.[88] Israel
Israel
Central Bureau of Statistics divides the Beersheba metropolitan area
Beersheba metropolitan area
into two areas:

Metropolitan rings in the Beersheba
Beersheba
metropolitan area[89]

Metropolitan ring Localities Population (2014 census) Population density (per km²) Annual Population growth rate

Israeli Jews Israeli Arabs Others[a] Total

Core[b] 1 177,200 4,400 19,500 201,100 1,711.8 0.9%

Outer Ring[c] 32 35,700 124,100 500 160,300 286.4 3.0%

Northern Section 12 11,700 72,100 200 84,000 272.8 3.2%

Eastern Section 8 14,900 52,000 200 67,100 527.8 2.7%

Western Section 12 9,000 0 100 9,100 73.2 4.4%

Total 65 248,500 252,600 20,500 521,600 533.6 1.8%

^ Others includes non- Arab
Arab
Christians and those not classified by religion. ^ Includes the city of Beersheba. ^ Includes the cities Rahat
Rahat
and Ofakim, the local councils Lehavim, Omer and Tel Sheva, as well as many smaller towns (local councils).

Economy[edit]

Negev
Negev
Mall Tower

The largest employers in Beersheba
Beersheba
are Soroka Medical Center[90], the municipality, Israel
Israel
Defense Forces and Ben-Gurion University. A major Israel
Israel
Aerospace Industries complex is located in the main industrial zone, north of Highway 60. Numerous electronics and chemical plants, including Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, are located in and around the city. Beersheba
Beersheba
is emerging as a high-tech center, with an emphasis on cyber security.[91] A large high-tech park is being built near the Be'er Sheva North Railway Station.[92] Deutsche Telekom, Elbit Systems, EMC, Lockheed Martin, Ness Technologies, WeWork
WeWork
and RAD Data Communications have already opened facilities there, as has a cyberincubator run by Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Venture Partners.[93] A Science park
Science park
funded by the RASHI-SACTA Foundation, Beersheba
Beersheba
Municipality and private donors was completed in 2008.[92] Another high-tech park is located north of the city near Omer. An additional three industrial zones are located on the southeastern side of the city – Makhteshim, Emek Sara and Kiryat Yehudit – and a light industry zone between Kiryat Yehudit and the Old City. Local government[edit]

Beersheba
Beersheba
District Court

The Beersheba
Beersheba
municipality was plagued for many years by an ineffectual leadership, political problems and poor financial planning. Since 2005, attention has been focused on developing parks and infrastructure. A new youth center opened in 2005, and a new cultural centre opened in 2008. In 2006, after many years of financial struggle, the municipality has achieved a balanced budget.[94] The official emblem of the municipality of Beersheba
Beersheba
depicts an eshel (tamarisk tree), the tree planted by Abraham
Abraham
according to Genesis,[95] and the observation tower connected to the municipality building. The mayor of Beersheba
Beersheba
is Ruvik Danilovich, who was deputy mayor under Yaakov Turner.[96]

Mayors of Beersheba

Name Took office Left office Years in office

1 David Tuviyahu 1950 1961 11

2 Ze'ev Zrizi 1961 1963 2

3 Eliyahu Nawi 1963 1986 23

4 Moshe Zilberman 1986 1989 3

5 Yitzhak Rager 1989 1997 8

6 David Bunfeld 1997 1998 1

7 Yaakov Turner 1998 2008 10

8 Ruvik Danilovich 2008

Educational institutions[edit]

Ben Gurion University of the Negev

According to CBS, Beersheba
Beersheba
has 81 schools and a student population of 33,623: 60 elementary schools with an enrollment of 17,211, and 39 high schools with an enrollment of 16,412. Of Beersheba's 12th graders, 52.7% earned a Bagrut
Bagrut
matriculation certificate in 2001. The city also has several private schools and yeshivot that cater to the religious sector.

Sami Shamoon College of Engineering

Beersheba
Beersheba
is home to one of Israel's major universities, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, located on an urban campus in the city (Dalet neighborhood). Other schools in Beersheva are the Open University of Israel, Sami Shamoon Academic College of Engineering, Kaye Academic College of Education, Practical Engineering College of Beersheba (Hamikhlala ha technologit shel Be'er sheva),[97] and a campus of the Israeli Air and Space College (Techni Be'er sheva )[98] Neighborhoods[edit] Main article: Neighborhoods of Beersheba After Israeli independence, Beersheba
Beersheba
became a "laboratory" for Israeli architecture.[99] Mishol Girit, a neighborhood built in the late 1950s, was the first attempt to create an alternative to the standard public housing projects in Israel. Hashatiah (lit. "the carpet"), also known as Hashekhuna ledugma (the model neighborhood), was hailed by architects around the world.[99] Today, Beersheba
Beersheba
is divided into seventeen residential neighborhoods in addition to the Old City and Ramot, an umbrella neighborhood of four sub-districts. Many of the neighbourhoods are named after letters of the Hebrew alphabet, which also have numerical value, but descriptive place names have been given to some of the newer neighborhoods. Art and cultural institutions[edit]

Keren Cinema, first movie theater in the Negev

Monument to the Negev
Negev
Brigade, Danny Karavan

In 1953, Cinema Keren, the Negev's first movie theater, opened in Beersheba. It was built by the Histadrut
Histadrut
and had seating for 1,200 people.[100] Beersheba
Beersheba
is the home base of the Israel
Israel
Sinfonietta, founded in 1973. Over the years, the Sinfonietta has developed a broad repertoire of symphonic works, concerti for solo instruments and large choral productions, among them Handel's Israel
Israel
in Egypt, masses by Schubert
Schubert
and Mozart, Rossini's "Stabat Mater" and Vivaldi's "Gloria." World-famous artists have appeared as soloists with the Sinfonietta, including Pinchas Zukerman, Jean-Pierre Rampal, Shlomo Mintz, Gary Karr, and Paul Tortelier.[101] In the 1970s, a memorial commemorating fallen Israeli soldiers designed by the sculptor Danny Karavan
Danny Karavan
was erected on a hill north-east of the city.[102] The Beersheba
Beersheba
Theater opened in 1973. The Light Opera Group of the Negev, established in 1980, performs musicals in English every year.[103] Landmarks in the city include Abraham's Well and the old Turkish train station, now the focus of development plans.[104] The Artists House of the Negev, in a Mandate-era building, showcases artwork connected in some way to the Negev.[105] The Negev Museum of Art
Negev Museum of Art
reopened in 2004 in the Ottoman Governor's House, and an art and media center for young people was established in the Old City. In 2009, a new tourist and information center, Gateway to the Negev, was built.[106] Great Mosque of Beersheba[edit] In 1906, during the Ottoman era, the Great Mosque of Beersheba
Beersheba
was built with donations collected from the Bedouin residents in the Negev. It was used actively as a mosque until the city fell to Israeli forces in 1948.[107] The mosque was used until 1953 as the city's courthouse. From then until the 1990s, when it was closed for renovations, the building housed an archeological museum, which the city intended to turn into the archeological branch of the Negev Museum.[108] In 2011, however, the Supreme Court of Israel, sitting as the High Court of Justice, ordered the property to be turned into a museum of Islam
Islam
without reverting to a place of worship.[109] Transportation[edit] Main article: Transport in Beersheba Beersheba
Beersheba
is the central transport hub of southern Israel, served by roads, railways and air. Beersheba
Beersheba
is connected to Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
via Highway 40, the second longest highway in Israel, which passes to the east of the city and is called the Beersheba
Beersheba
bypass because it allows travellers from the north to go to southern locations, avoiding the more congested city center. From west to east, the city is divided by Highway 25, which connects to Ashkelon
Ashkelon
and the Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
to the northwest, and Dimona
Dimona
to the east. Finally, Highway 60 connects Beersheba
Beersheba
with Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and the Shoket Junction, and goes through the West Bank. On the local level, a partial ring road surrounds the city from the north and east, and Road 406 (Rager Blvd.) goes through the city center from north to south. Metrodan Beersheba, established in 2003, had a fleet of 90 buses and operates 19 lines in the city between 2003 and 2016, most of which depart from the Beersheba
Beersheba
Central Bus Station.[110] These lines were formerly operated by the municipality as the 'Be'er Sheva Urban Bus Services'. Inter-city buses to and from Beersheba
Beersheba
are operated by Egged, Dan BaDarom and Metropoline.[111] The intercity bus service was transferred to Dan Be'er Sheva in 25'th of November 2016 and Metrodan Beersheva had been shut down.With the change to Dan Be'er Sheva the company introduced electronic payment stopping pay at the driver which was common in Beersheba.[112]

Mexico Bridge from railway station to Ben-Gurion University

Israel
Israel
Railways operates two stations in the city that form part of the railway to Beersheba: the old Be'er Sheva North University station, adjacent to Ben Gurion University and Soroka Medical Center, and the new Be'er Sheva Central station, adjacent to the central bus station. Between the two stations, the railway splits into two, and also continues to Dimona
Dimona
and the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
factories. An extension is planned to Eilat[113] and Arad. The Be'er Sheva North University station is the terminus of the line to Dimona. All stations of Israel
Israel
Railways can be accessed from Beersheba
Beersheba
using transfer stations in Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
and Lod. Until 2012, the railway line to Beersheba
Beersheba
used a slow single-track configuration with sharp curves and many level crossings which limited train speed. Between 2004 and 2012 the line was double tracked and rebuilt using an improved alignment and all its level crossings were grade separated. The rebuilding effort cost NIS 2.8 billion and significantly reduced the travel time and greatly increased the train frequency to and from Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
and Kiryat Motzkin
Kiryat Motzkin
to Beersheba.[114] In addition, Beersheba
Beersheba
will be linked to Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
and Eilat
Eilat
by a new passenger and freight high-speed railway system.[115] There have been plans for a light rail system in Beersheba
Beersheba
for many years, and a light rail system appears in the master plan for the city.[116] An agreement was signed for the construction of a light rail system in 1998, but was not implemented. In 2008, the Israeli Finance Ministry contemplated freezing the Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
Light Rail project and building a light rail system in Beersheba
Beersheba
instead, but that did not happen. In 2014, mayor Ruvik Danilovich
Ruvik Danilovich
announced that the light rail system will be built in the city.[117][118][119] In 2017, the Ministry of Transport gave the Beersheba
Beersheba
municipality approval to proceed with preliminary planning on a light rail system.[120] Hiking[edit] Beersheba
Beersheba
is linked to Hilvan by the Abraham
Abraham
Path.[citation needed] Sports[edit]

Beersheba
Beersheba
country club

Hapoel Be'er Sheva plays in the Israeli Premier League, the top tier of Israeli football, having been promoted in the 2008–2009 Liga Leumit season. The club has won the Israeli championship four times, in 1975, 1976, 2016 and 2017, as well as the State Cup in 1997. Beersheba
Beersheba
has two other local clubs, Maccabi Be'er Sheva (based in Neve Noy) and F.C. Be'er Sheva
F.C. Be'er Sheva
(based in the north of Dalet), a continuation of the defunct Beitar Avraham Be'er Sheva. Hapoel play at the Turner Stadium. Beersheba
Beersheba
has a basketball club, Hapoel Be'er Sheva. The team plays at The Conch Arena, which seats 3,000. Beersheba
Beersheba
has become Israel's national chess center; thanks to Soviet immigration, it is home to the largest number of chess grandmasters of any city in the world.[121] The city hosted the World Team Chess Championship in 2005, and chess is taught in the city's kindergartens.[122] The Israeli chess team won the silver medal at the 2008 Chess
Chess
Olympiad[123] and the bronze at the 2010 Olympiad. The chess club was founded in 1973 by Eliyahu Levant, who is still the driving spirit behind it.[124] The city has the second largest wrestling center (AMI wrestling school) in Israel.[citation needed] The center is run by Leonid Shulman and has approximately 2,000 students, most of whom are from Russian immigrant families since the origins of the club are in the Nahal Beka immigrant absorption center. Maccabi Be'er Sheva has a freestyle wrestling team, whilst Hapoel Be'er Sheva has a Greco-Roman wrestling team. In the 2010 World Wrestling
Wrestling
Championships, AMI students won five medals.[125] Cricket is played under the auspices of Israel
Israel
Cricket Association. Beersheba
Beersheba
is also home to a rugby team, whose senior and youth squads have won several national titles (including the recent Senior National League 2004–2005 championship).[126] Beersheba's tennis center, which opened in 1991, features eight lighted courts, and the Beersheba
Beersheba
(Teyman) airfield is used for gliding. Environmental awards[edit] In 2012, the Beersheba
Beersheba
"ring trail", a 42-kilometer hiking trail around the city, won third place in the annual environmental competition of the European Travelers Association.[127] Notable residents[edit]

Ilan Ramon

Orna Banai, actress, comedian, and entertainer Elyaniv Barda, footballer Zehava Ben, singer Avishay Braverman, professor and politician Almog Cohen, footballer Anat Draigor, basketball player Eli Alaluf, politician Ronit Elkabetz, actress Zvika Hadar, comedian and show host Boaz Huss, professor of Kabbalah
Kabbalah
at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Ron Kaplan, Olympic gymnast Victor Mikhalevski, chess grandmaster David Newman, professor and Dean of Social Science and Humanities, BGU Ilan Ramon, Israel's first astronaut; died in the Columbia disaster Yehudit Ravitz, singer Eli Zizov, footballer Ze'ev Zrizi, second mayor of Beersheba Ruvik Danilovich
Ruvik Danilovich
- 8th mayor of Be'er - Sheva

International Relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Israel Twin towns—Sister cities[edit] Beersheba
Beersheba
is twinned with 13 other towns and cities:[128]

Africa

Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Ethiopia
(since 2004) Bouaké, Ivory Coast[129]

Asia

Cebu City, Philippines Oni, Georgia(since 2000) Adana, Turkey
Turkey
(since 2001)

Europe

Cluj-Napoca, Romania Lyon, France (since 1977)[130] Niš, Serbia Rosenheim, Germany Wuppertal, Germany (since 1977)

North America

Montreal, Canada Seattle, United States Winnipeg, Canada (since 1983)

Oceania

Parramatta, Australia

South America

La Plata, Argentina

See also[edit]

Be'er-Sheva Municipal Website Battle of Beersheba
Beersheba
(First World War) Beer Sheva Park, Seattle Map of Beersheba
Beersheba
and surrounds in the 1940s and 1950s

References[edit]

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Beersheba
as an Urban Center". Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 55 (2): 308–326. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8306.1965.tb00520.x.  ^ Guide to Israel, Zev Vilnay, Hamakor Press, Jerusalem, 1972, pp.309–14 ^ " Beersheba
Beersheba
Masters Kings, Knights, Pawns", Los Angeles Times, January 30, 2005 ^ Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C. (2000). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.  ^ a b "Beer Sheva". Jewishmag.com. Archived from the original on April 30, 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-05.  ^ 2 Kings
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12:1 ^ "Beersheba". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. October 21, 1948. Retrieved 2013-08-08.  ^ Z. Herzog. Beer-sheba II: The Early Iron Age
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Settlements. Institute of Archaeology, Tel Aviv
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University and Ramot Publishing Co. Tel Aviv 1984 ^ a b "Be'er Sheva". ynet encyclopedia.  Missing or empty url= (help) ^ a b Rapport, Arial. מכורש עד אלכסנדר: תולדות ישראל בשלטון פרס. Open University of Israel. pp. 196–198.  ^ a b book title:The Origin of the Limes
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(1908). Arabia Petraea. 2. Wien. p. 66. Bir es-Seba wächst von Tag zu Tag; heuer baut man bereits anstatt der Zelte stattliche Häuser, die eine schöne Straße vom Seräja zum Talbette bilden. Beim Regierungsgebäude hat man einen Garten angelegt und allerlei Bäume gesetzt, welche gewiß gut fortkommen werden, denn die wenigen vor zwei Jahren bei der Dampfmühle am Südostende der Straße gepflanzten Sträucher sind inzwischen stark gewachsen. Die rege Bautätigkeit verursacht auch hier eine rege Ausbeutung des Ruinenfeldes.  ^ George L. Robinson (1908). " Beersheba
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Committee on Palestine, Report to the General Assembly, September 3, 1947, Volume II, A/364, Add. 1. UNGA Resolution 181 (Nov 27, 1947).[1]. See boundaries here. ^ a b c Shapira, Anita (2007). Yigal Allon: Native Son. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 245. Retrieved 2013-08-08.  ^ a b Morris, Benny. The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited, Cambridge University Press, p. 467. ^ Morris, Benny (1987) The birth of the Palestinian refugee problem, 1947–1949. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-33028-9. p.245. ^ "The Canadian Jewish Chronicle - Google News Archive Search".  ^ "Pittsburgh Post-Gazette - Google News Archive Search".  ^ Jeremy Allouche, The Oriental Communities in Israel, 1948-2003, [2], p.35] ^ How Sea of Immigrants Tamed the Negev
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Park, Beersheba", Blueprint Negev ^ " Jewish National Fund
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plants an emissary in the Bay area", Jweekly.com ^ JNF.org[dead link] ^ "Upwelling of Renewal", Times of Israel ^ רועי צ'יקי ארד 8 July 2011 00:54 עודכן ב: 23:15. "שיגעון המים של בירת הנגב – חינוך וחברה – הארץ". Haaretz.co.il. Retrieved 2013-03-12.  ^ "mynet באר שבע – תגידו, צריך חוף ים בבאר שבע?". Mynet.co.il. June 20, 1995. Retrieved 2013-03-12.  ^ "מקומי – באר שבע nrg – ...דרעי עצבני: רב העיר ב"ש יוצא לקרב". Nrg.co.il. Retrieved 2013-03-12.  ^ "Skyscrapers dotting Tel Aviv
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desert bloom" Archived November 5, 2012, at the Wayback Machine., Global Travel ^ "Rambam Square 2, Beer Sheva". IL /: Emporis.com. July 21, 2003. Retrieved 2013-08-08.  ^ "All buildings Buildings". Emporis. July 21, 2003. Retrieved 2013-03-12.  ^ "Rambam Square 2 Buildings". IL /: Emporis. July 21, 2003. Retrieved 2013-03-12.  ^ "skyscrapers Buildings". Emporis. Retrieved 2013-03-12.  ^ "ynet מגדלים בלב המדבר: תנופת הבנייה מגיעה לב"ש – כלכלה". Ynet.co.il. Retrieved 2013-03-12.  ^ [3], YNET News ^ " Beersheba
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Bibliography[edit]

Thareani-Sussely, Yifat (2007). "The 'Archaeology of the Days of Manasseh' Reconsidered in the Light of Evidence From The Beersheba Valley". Palestine Exploration Quarterly. 139 (2): 69–77. doi:10.1179/003103207x194091. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Beersheba.

Beer Sheva travel guide from Wikivoyage

Beersheba
Beersheba
City Council Selection of photos from Beer-Sheva from flickr Ben-Gurion University The city of Beersheba: a tourist's guide Beer-Sheva – Historical article from the Catholic Encyclopaedia Light Horse charges again Article written by Martin Chulov, published in The Australian, November 1, 2007, the descendants of the Australian light-horsemen rode into the centre of Beersheva, re-enacting the gallant gallop of October 31, 1917 Israel
Israel
Builds Expansion and architecture of Beersheva in the 1960s and 1970s Blueprint for Beersheba Goodchild, Philip; Talbert, Andrew (2010). " Beersheba
Beersheba
& Abraham". Bibledex in Israel. Brady Haran
Brady Haran
for the University of Nottingham.  Tsagai Asamain, Be'er Sheva-Compound C:Conservation measures during the excavation, Israel
Israel
Antiquities Authority Site – Conservation Department Yardena Etgar and Ofer Cohen, Tel Be’er Sheva: The Underground Water Reservoir System, Israel
Israel
Antiquities Authority Site – Conservation Department Shauli Sela and Fuad Abu-Taa, The Turkish Mosque and the Governor’s House: Conservation of the stone and plaster, Israel
Israel
Antiquities Authority Site – Conservation Department Survey of Western Palestine, Map 24: IAA, Wikimedia commons

v t e

Southern District of Israel

Cities

Arad Ashdod Ashkelon Beersheba Dimona Eilat Kiryat Gat Kiryat Malakhi Netivot Ofakim Rahat Sderot

Local councils

Ar'arat an-Naqab Hura Kuseife Lakiya Lehavim Meitar Mitzpe Ramon Omer Shaqib al-Salam Tel as-Sabi Yeruham

Regional councils

al-Kasom Be'er Tuvia Bnei Shimon Central Arava Eshkol Hevel Eilot Hof Ashkelon Lakhish Merhavim Neve Midbar Ramat HaNegev Sdot Negev
Negev
(Azata) Sha'ar HaNegev Shafir Tamar Yoav

See also

Beersheba
Beersheba
metropolitan area Negev Arabah

Other sub-divisions: Central District Haifa
Haifa
District Jerusalem
Jerusalem
District Judea and Samaria Area Northern District Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
District

v t e

Israeli cities with a 50,000+ population

200,000 and more

Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(West) Tel Aviv Haifa Rishon LeZion Ashdod Petah Tikva Netanya Beersheba

100,000–199,999

Holon Bnei Brak Ramat Gan Bat Yam Rehovot Ashkelon

50,000–99,999

Herzliya Kfar Saba Ra'anana Hadera Beit Shemesh Modi'in-Maccabim-Re'ut Lod Nazareth Ramla Givatayim Rahat Nahariya Kiryat Ata Hod HaSharon Umm al-Fahm Kiryat Gat Modi'in Illit
Modi'in Illit
(located in the West Bank)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 136664807 LCCN: n82041200 GND: 4087062-5 BNF:

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