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 Bangladesh  India  Indonesia  Myanmar   Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
[1][2]

Max. length 2,090 km (1,300 mi)

Max. width 1,610 km (1,000 mi)

Surface area 2,172,000 km2 (839,000 sq mi)

Average depth 2,600 m (8,500 ft)

Max. depth 4,694 m (15,400 ft)

The Bay
Bay
of Bengal
Bengal
(Bengali: বঙ্গোপসাগর [bɔŋgopoʃagoɾ], is the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean, bounded on the west and north by India
India
and Bangladesh, and on the east by Myanmar
Myanmar
and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
(India). Its southern limit is a line between Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and the northwesternmost point of Sumatra
Sumatra
(Indonesia). It is the largest water region called a bay in the world. There are Countries dependent on the Bay
Bay
of Bengal
Bengal
in South Asia and Southeast Asia. The Bay
Bay
of Bengal
Bengal
occupies an area of 2,172,000 square kilometres (839,000 sq mi). A number of large rivers flow into the Bay of Bengal: the Ganges, the Padma, the Jamuna, the Meghna, the Irrawaddy, the Godavari, the Mahanadi, the Brahmani, the Baitarani, the Krishna and the Kaveri. Among the important ports are Chennai, Chittagong, Colombo, Kolkata, Mongla, Paradip Port, Port Blair, Tuticorin, Visakhapatnam
Visakhapatnam
and Yangon. Among the smaller ports are Dhamra, Kakinada and Payra.

Contents

1 Extent 2 Etymology 3 Rivers 4 Seaports 5 Islands 6 Beaches 7 Oceanography

7.1 Plate tectonics 7.2 Marine geology 7.3 Marine biology, flora and fauna 7.4 Chemical oceanography 7.5 Physical oceanography – climate

8 Tropical storms and cyclones 9 Historic sites 10 Religious importance 11 Economy 12 Strategic importance 13 Environmental hazards

13.1 Pollution

14 Transboundary issues affecting the marine ecosystem

14.1 Overexploitation of fisheries 14.2 Degradation of critical habitats 14.3 Pollution and water quality

15 History

15.1 British penal colony

16 Marine archaeology

16.1 Famous ships and shipwrecks

17 See also 18 References 19 Further reading 20 External links

Extent[edit] The International Hydrographic Organization
International Hydrographic Organization
defines the limits of the Bay
Bay
of Bengal
Bengal
as follows:[3]

On the east: A line running from Cape Negrais
Cape Negrais
(16°03'N) in Burma through the larger islands of the Andaman group, in such a way that all the narrow waters between the islands lie eastward of the line and are excluded from the Bay
Bay
of Bengal, as far as a point in Little Andaman Island in latitude 10°48'N, longitude 92°24'E and thence along the southwest limit of the Burma Sea [A line running from Oedjong Raja (5°32′N 95°12′E / 5.533°N 95.200°E / 5.533; 95.200) in Sumatra
Sumatra
to Poeloe Bras (Breuëh) and on through the Western Islands of the Nicobar Group to Sandy Point in Little Andaman Island, in such a way that all the narrow waters appertain to the Burma Sea].

On the south: Ram Sethu
Ram Sethu
(between India
India
and Ceylon [Sri Lanka]) and from the southern extreme of Dondra Head
Dondra Head
(south point of Ceylon) to the north point of Poeloe Bras (5°44′N 95°04′E / 5.733°N 95.067°E / 5.733; 95.067).

Etymology[edit] The bay gets its name from the historical Bengal
Bengal
region (The Indian state of West Bengal
Bengal
and modern-day Bangladesh). In ancient scriptures, this water body may have been referred to as 'Mahodadhi' (Sanskrit: महोदधि, lit. great water receptacle)[4][5][better source needed] while it appears as Sinus Gangeticus or Gangeticus Sinus, meaning "Gulf of the Ganges", in ancient maps.[6] The other Sanskrit
Sanskrit
names for Bay
Bay
of Bengal
Bengal
are 'Vangopasagara' (Sanskrit: वङ्गोपसागर, lit. Bengal's Bay), also simply called as 'Vangasagara' (Sanskrit: वङ्गसागर, lit. Bengal
Bengal
Sea) and 'Purvapayodhi' (Sanskrit: पूर्वपयोधि, lit. Eastern Ocean). Even today in Bengali and Odia it is known as "Bongoposagor". Rivers[edit] Many major Rivers of India
India
flow west to east before draining into the Bay
Bay
of Bengal. The Ganga
Ganga
is the northernmost of these. Its main channel enters and flows through Bangladesh, where it is known as the Padma River, before joining the Meghna
Meghna
River. However, the Brahmaputra River flows from east to west in Assam
Assam
before turning south and entering Bangladesh
Bangladesh
where it is called the Jamuna River. This joins the Padma where upon the Padma joins the Meghna River
Meghna River
that finally drains into Bay
Bay
of Bengal. The Sundarbans
Sundarbans
mangrove of forest of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
is a forest at the delta of the Padma, Jamuna and Meghna rivers lies partly in West Bengal
Bengal
and mostly in Bangladesh. The Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
at 2,948 km (1,832 mi) is the 28th longest River in the world. It originates in Tibet. The Hooghly River, another channel of the Ganga
Ganga
that flows through Calcutta
Calcutta
drains into Bay
Bay
of Bengal. The Padma–Meghna-Jamuna rivers deposit nearly 1000 million tons of sediment every year. The sediment from these three rivers form the Bengal
Bengal
Delta and the submarine fan, a vast structure that extends from Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to south of the Equator, is up to 16.5 kilometres (10.3 mi) thick, and contains at least 1,130 trillion tonnes of sediment, which has accumulated over the last 17 million years at an average rate of 665 million tons per annum.[7] The fan has buried organic carbon at a rate of nearly 1.1 trillion mol/yr (13.2 million t/yr) since the early Miocene
Miocene
period. The three rivers currently contribute nearly 8% of the total organic carbon (TOC) deposited in the world's oceans. Due to high TOC accumulation in the deep sea bed of the Bay
Bay
of Bengal, the area is rich in oil and natural gas and gas hydrate reserves. Bangladesh
Bangladesh
can reclaim land substantially and economically gain from the sea area by constructing sea dikes, bunds, causeways and by trapping the sediment from its rivers. Further southwest of Bangladesh, the Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri
Kaveri
Rivers also flow from west to east in South Asia
South Asia
and drain into the Bay
Bay
of Bengal. Many small rivers also drain directly into the Bay of Bengal; the shortest of them is the Cooum River
Cooum River
at 64 km (40 mi). The Irrawaddy (or Ayeyarwady) River in Myanmar
Myanmar
flows into the Andaman Sea of the Bay
Bay
of Bengal
Bengal
and once had thick mangrove forests of its own. Seaports[edit]

The city of Visakhapatnam
Visakhapatnam
in India
India
is a major port of the Bay
Bay
of Bengal

Indian ports on the bay include Kolkata
Kolkata
Port, Haldia Port, Chennai, Visakhapatnam, Kakinada, Pondicherry, Dhamra, Gopalpur and Bangladeshi ports on the Bay
Bay
are Chittagong, Mongla, Payra Port. Islands[edit] The islands in the bay are numerous, including the Andaman Islands, Nicobar and Mergui
Mergui
groups of India. The Cheduba group of islands, in the north-east, off the Burmese coast, are remarkable for a chain of mud volcanoes, which are occasionally active. Great Andaman
Great Andaman
is the main archipelago or island group of the Andaman Islands, whereas Ritchie's Archipelago
Ritchie's Archipelago
consists of smaller islands. Only 37, or 6.5%, of the 572 islands and islets of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
are inhabited.[8] Beaches[edit]

The Sunderbans
Sunderbans
bordering the Bay
Bay
of Bengal
Bengal
is the largest single block of tidal halophytic mangrove forest in the world.[9]

Cox's Bazar, the longest stretch of beach in the world.[10]

Sea Beach Location

Cox's Bazar  Bangladesh

Kuakata  Bangladesh

St. Martin's Island  Bangladesh

Sonadia  Bangladesh

Inani  Bangladesh

Teknaf  Bangladesh

Marina Beach, Chennai  India

Bakkhali
Bakkhali
Beach, West Bengal  India

Digha
Digha
Beach, West Bengal  India

Mandarmoni Beach, West Bengal  India

Tajpur Beach, West Bengal  India

Shankarpur
Shankarpur
Beach, West Bengal  India

Pir Jahania  India

Bheemili  India

Chandaneswar  India

Chandipur  India

Konarak  India

Puri  India

R.K.Beach  India

Rushikonda  India

Manginapudi, Machilipatnam  India

Serenity Beach, Pondicherry  India

Ngapali  Myanmar

Ngwesaung  Myanmar

Chaungtha, Pathein  Myanmar

Sittwe  Myanmar

Galle Face  Sri Lanka

Galle Face  Sri Lanka

Oceanography[edit] Plate tectonics[edit] The lithosphere of the earth is broken up into what are called tectonic plates. Underneath the Bay
Bay
of Bengal, which is part of the great Indo-Australian Plate
Indo-Australian Plate
and is slowly moving north east. This plate meets the Burma Microplate at the Sunda Trench. The Nicobar Islands, and the Andaman Islands
Andaman Islands
are part of the Burma Microplate. The India
India
Plate subducts beneath the Burma Plate
Burma Plate
at the Sunda Trench
Sunda Trench
or Java Trench. Here, the pressure of the two plates on each other increase pressure and temperature resulting in the formation of volcanoes such as the volcanoes in Myanmar, and a volcanic arc called the Sunda Arc. The Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and Asian tsunami was a result of the pressure at this zone causing a submarine earthquake which then resulted in a destructive tsunami.[11] Marine geology[edit] A zone 50 m wide extending from the island of Ceylon and the Coromandel coast to the head of the bay, and thence southwards through a strip embracing the Andaman and Nicobar islands, is bounded by the 100 fathom line of sea bottom; some 50 m. beyond this lies the 500-fathom limit. Opposite the mouth of the Ganges, however, the intervals between these depths are very much extended by deltaic influence. Swatch of No Ground is a 14 km-wide deep sea canyon of the Bay
Bay
of Bengal. The deepest recorded area of this valley is about 1340 m.[12] The submarine canyon is part of the Bengal
Bengal
Fan, the largest submarine fan in the world.[13][14] Marine biology, flora and fauna[edit]

A spinner dolphin in Bay
Bay
of Bengal

Tachypleus gigas
Tachypleus gigas
in Odisha

The Bay
Bay
of Bengal
Bengal
is full of biological diversity, diverging amongst coral reefs, estuaries, fish spawning and nursery areas, and mangroves. The Bay
Bay
of Bengal
Bengal
is one of the World's 64 largest marine ecosystems. Kerilia jerdonii
Kerilia jerdonii
is a sea snake of the Bay
Bay
of Bengal. Glory of Bengal cone (Conus bengalensis) is just one of the seashells which can be photographed along beaches of the Bay
Bay
of Bengal.[15] An endangered species, the olive ridley sea turtle can survive because of the nesting grounds made available at the Gahirmatha Marine Wildlife Sanctuary, Gahirmatha Beach, Odisha, India. Marlin, barracuda, skipjack tuna, (Katsuwonus pelamis), yellowfin tuna, Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphin (Sousa chinensis), and Bryde's whale
Bryde's whale
(Balaenoptera edeni) are a few of the marine animals. Bay
Bay
of Bengal
Bengal
hogfish (Bodianus neilli) is a type of wrass which live in turbid lagoon reefs or shallow coastal reefs. Schools of dolphins can be seen, whether they are the bottle nose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata) or the spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris). Tuna
Tuna
and dolphins usually reside in the same waters. In shallower and warmer coastal waters the Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris) can be found.[16][17] The Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve
Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve
provides sanctuary to many animals some of which include the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus), giant leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), and Malayan box turtle ( Cuora amboinensis
Cuora amboinensis
kamaroma) to name a few. Another endangered species royal Bengal
Bengal
tiger is supported by Sundarbans
Sundarbans
a large estuarine delta that holds a mangrove area in the Ganges
Ganges
River Delta.[18][19] Chemical oceanography[edit] Coastal
Coastal
regions bordering the Bay
Bay
of Bengal
Bengal
are rich in minerals. Sri Lanka, Serendib, or Ratna – Dweepa which means Gem Island. Amethyst, beryl, ruby, sapphire, topaz, and garnet are just some of the gems of Sri Lanka. Garnet
Garnet
and other precious gems are also found in abundance in the Indian states of Odisha
Odisha
and Andhra Pradesh.[20] Physical oceanography – climate[edit] From January to October, the current is northward flowing, and the clockwise circulation pattern is called the "East Indian Current". The Bay
Bay
of Bengal
Bengal
monsoon moves in a northwest direction striking the Nicobar Islands, and the Andaman Islands
Andaman Islands
first end of May, then the north eastern coast of India
India
by end of June. The remainder of the year, the counterclockwise current is southwestward flowing, and the circulation pattern is called the East Indian Winter Jet. September and December see very active weather, season varsha (or monsoon), in the Bay
Bay
of Bengal
Bengal
producing severe cyclones which affect eastern India. Several efforts have been initiated to cope with storm surge.[21] Tropical storms and cyclones[edit] Main article: Tropical cyclones in the Bay
Bay
of Bengal

Cyclone Sidr
Cyclone Sidr
at its peak near Bangladesh

A tropical storm with rotating winds blowing at speeds of 74 miles (119 kilometres) per hour is called a cyclone when they originate over the Bay
Bay
of Bengal; and called a hurricane in the Atlantic.[22] Between 100,000 and 500,000 residents of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
were killed because of the 1970 Bhola cyclone.

2017, Severe Cyclonic Storm Mora 2017, Cyclone
Cyclone
Maarutha 2016, Very Severe Cyclonic Storm Vardah 2016, Cyclone
Cyclone
Nada 2016, Cyclone
Cyclone
Kyant 2016, Cyclone
Cyclone
Roanu 2015, Cyclone
Cyclone
Komen 2014, Very Severe Cyclonic Storm Hudhud 2013, Very Severe Cyclonic Storm Phailin 2013, Cyclone
Cyclone
Viyaru 2012, Cyclone
Cyclone
Nilam 2011, Very Severe Cyclonic Storm Thane 2010, Very Severe Cyclonic Storm Giri 2009, Very Severe Cyclonic Storm Aila 2008, Very Severe Cyclonic Storm Nargis 2007, Very Severe Cyclonic Storm Sidr 2006, Very Severe Cyclonic Storm Mala 1999, Odisha
Odisha
Super Cyclonic Storm 05B 1996, Konaseema Cyclone 1991, Super Cyclonic Storm 02B 1989, November Typhoon Gay 1985, May Tropical Storm One (1B) 1982, April Cyclone
Cyclone
One (1B) 1982, May Tropical Storm Two (2B) 1982, October Tropical Storm Three (3B) 1981, December Cyclone
Cyclone
Three (3B) 1980, October Tropical Storm One (1B) 1980, December Unknown Storm Four (4B) 1980, December Tropical Storm Five (5B) 1977, Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
Cyclone
Cyclone
(6B) 1971, Cyclone
Cyclone
Odisha 1970, November Bhola cyclone The Calcutta
Calcutta
cyclone of 1864: caused a storm surge of 40 feet. Barometer 28.025 inches of mercury. 50,000 direct deaths and 30,000 from disease.[23] The Backergunge cyclone of 1876: 10 to 30 or 40 feet storm surge. 100,000 direct deaths and 100,000 indirect from disease.[23] The False Point cyclone of 1885: 22 feet of storm surge. Barometer 27.135 inches of mercury.[23]

Historic sites[edit]

The Shore Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
on the shore of the Bay of Bengal

The ancient Buddhist heritage sites of Pavurallakonda, Thotlakonda
Thotlakonda
and Bavikonda
Bavikonda
lie along the coast of Bay
Bay
of Bengal
Bengal
at Visakhapatnam
Visakhapatnam
in India. The remains of the Sri Vaisakheswara Swamy temple lie under the Bay
Bay
of Bengal. Spokespeople from Andhra University Centre for Marine Archaeology say the temple may be opposite the Coastal
Coastal
Battery.[24] The Jagannath
Jagannath
Temple at Puri
Puri
is the one of the four sacred places in Hindu pilgrimage along with Puri
Puri
beach on the banks of Bay
Bay
of Bengal. Mahodadhi was named after Lord Jagannath. Seven Pagodas of Mahabalipuram
Seven Pagodas of Mahabalipuram
is the name for Mahabalipuram. Mahabalipuram's Shore Temple, a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
was constructed in the 8th century AD and myth has it that six other temples were built here. One site that has been preserved is Vivekanandar Illam. It was constructed in 1842 by the American "Ice King" Frederic Tudor
Frederic Tudor
to store and market ice year round. In 1897, Swami Vivekananda's famous lectures were recorded here at Castle Kernan. The site is an exhibition devoted to Swami Vivekananda
Swami Vivekananda
and his legacy. Arikamedu is an archaeological site in Southern India, in Kakkayanthope, Ariyankuppam Commune, Puducherry. It is 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) from the capital, Pondicherry
Pondicherry
of the Indian territory of Puducherry Konark
Konark
is the home of the Sun Temple or Black Pagoda. This Brahman sanctuary was built of black granite mid-1200 AD and has been declared a World Heritage Site. Ramanathaswamy Temple
Ramanathaswamy Temple
is at Dhanushkodi, where the Bay
Bay
of Bengal
Bengal
and the Laccadive sea come together.[25]

Religious importance[edit] The Bay
Bay
of Bengal
Bengal
in the stretch of Swargadwar, the gateway to heaven in Sanskrit, in the Indian town of Puri
Puri
is considered holy by Hindus.

Samudra arati of worship of the sea by disciples of the Govardhan Matha at Puri

The Samudra arati is a daily tradition started by the present Shankaracharya
Shankaracharya
of Puri
Puri
9 years ago to honour the sacred sea.[26] The daily practise includes prayer and fire offering to the sea at Swargadwar in Puri
Puri
by disciples of the Govardhana matha
Govardhana matha
of the Shankaracharya. On Paush Purnima of every year the Shankaracharya himself comes out to offer prayers to the sea. Economy[edit] One of the first trading ventures along the Bay
Bay
of Bengal
Bengal
was The Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies more commonly referred to as the British East India
India
Company. Gopalpur-on-Sea
Gopalpur-on-Sea
was one of their main trading centers. Other trading companies along the Bay
Bay
of Bengal
Bengal
shorelines were the English East India
India
Company and the French East India
India
Company.[27] BIMSTEC
BIMSTEC
Bay
Bay
of Bengal
Bengal
Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) supports free trade internationally around the Bay
Bay
of Bengal
Bengal
between Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. The Sethusamudram Shipping Canal Project
Sethusamudram Shipping Canal Project
is a new venture proposed which would create a channel for a shipping route to link the Gulf of Mannar with the Bay
Bay
of Bengal. This would connect India
India
from east to west without the necessity of going around Sri Lanka. Thoni and catamaran fishing boats of fishing villages thrive along the Bay
Bay
of Bengal
Bengal
shorelines. Fishermen can catch between 26 and 44 species of marine fish.[28] In one year, the average catch is two million tons of fish from the Bay
Bay
of Bengal
Bengal
alone.[29] Approximately 31% of the world’s coastal fishermen live and work on the bay.[30] Strategic importance[edit] The Bay
Bay
of Bengal
Bengal
is centrally located in South and Southeast Asia. It lies at the center of two huge economic blocks, the SAARC
SAARC
and ASEAN. It influences China's southern landlocked region in the north and major sea ports of India
India
and Bangladesh. China, India, and Bangladesh have forged naval cooperation agreements with Malaysia, Thailand
Thailand
and Indonesia
Indonesia
to increase cooperation in checking terrorism in the high seas.[31]

Image of United States ships participating in the Malabar 2007
Malabar 2007
naval exercise. Aegis cruisers from the navies of Japan and Australia, and logistical support ships from Singapore
Singapore
and India
India
in the Bay
Bay
of Bengal took part.

Its outlying islands (the Andaman and Nicobar islands) and, most importantly, major ports such as Kolkata, Chennai, Visakhapatnam, Tuticorin, Chittagong, and Mongla, along its coast with the Bay
Bay
of Bengal
Bengal
added to its importance.[32] China has recently made efforts to project influence into the region through tie-ups with Myanmar
Myanmar
and Bangladesh.[33] The United States has held major exercises with Bangladesh, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and recently India.[34][35][36][37] The largest ever wargame in Bay
Bay
of Bengal, known as Malabar 2007, was held in 2007 and naval warships from US, Bangladesh, Thailand, Singapore, Japan and Australia took part. India
India
was a participant. Large deposits of natural gas in the areas within Bangladesh's sea zone incited a serious urgency by India
India
and Myanmar
Myanmar
into a territorial dispute.[31] Disputes over rights of some oil and gas blocks have caused brief diplomatic spats between Myanmar
Myanmar
and India
India
with Bangladesh. The disputed maritime boundary between Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and Myanmar
Myanmar
resulted in military tensions in 2008 and 2009. Bangladesh
Bangladesh
is pursuing a settlement with Myanmar
Myanmar
and India
India
to the boundary dispute through the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea.[38] Environmental hazards[edit] Pollution[edit] The Asian brown cloud, a layer of air pollution that covers much of South Asia
South Asia
and the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
every year between January and March, and possibly also during earlier and later months, hangs over the Bay of Bengal. It is considered to be a combination of vehicle exhaust, smoke from cooking fires, and industrial discharges.[39] Transboundary issues affecting the marine ecosystem[edit]

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A transboundary issue is defined as an environmental problem in which either the cause of the problem and/or its impact is separated by a national boundary; or the problem contributes to a global environmental problem and finding regional solutions is considered to be a global environmental benefit. The eight Bay
Bay
of Bengal
Bengal
countries have (2012) identified three major transboundary problems (or areas of concern) affecting the health of the Bay, that they can work on together. With the support of the Bay
Bay
Of Bengal
Bengal
Large Marine Ecosystem Project (BOBLME), the eight countries are now (2012) developing responses to these issues and their causes, for future implementation as the Strategic Action Programme. Overexploitation of fisheries[edit]

Some small fishing boats are catching fish & sell them in local coastal markets

Fisheries
Fisheries
production in the Bay
Bay
of Bengal
Bengal
is six million tonnes per year, more than seven percent of the world's catch. The major transboundary issues relating to shared fisheries are: a decline in the overall availability of fish resources; changes in species composition of catches; the high proportion of juvenile fish in the catch; and changes in marine biodiversity, especially through loss of vulnerable and endangered species. The transboundary nature of these issues are: that many fish stocks are shared between BOBLME countries through the transboundary migration of fish, or larvae. Fishing overlaps national jurisdictions, both legally and illegally – overcapacity and overfishing in one location forces a migration of fishers and vessels to other locations. All countries (to a greater or lesser degree) are experiencing difficulties in implementing fisheries management, especially the ecosystem approach to fisheries. Bay
Bay
of Bengal
Bengal
countries contribute significantly to the global problem of loss of vulnerable and endangered species. The main causes of the issues are: open access to fishing grounds; Government emphasis on increasing fish catches; inappropriate government subsidies provided to fishers; increasing fishing effort, especially from trawlers and purse seiners; high consumer demand for fish, including for seed and fishmeal for aquaculture; ineffective fisheries management; and illegal and destructive fishing. Degradation of critical habitats[edit] The Bay
Bay
of Bengal
Bengal
is an area of high biodiversity, with many endangered and vulnerable species. The major transboundary issues relating to habitats are: the loss and degradation of mangrove habitats; degradation of coral reefs; and the loss of, and damage to, seagrasses. The transboundary nature of these major issues are: that all three critical habitats occur in all BOBLME countries. Coastal development for several varying uses of the land and sea are common in all BOBLME countries. Trade in products from all the habitats is transboundary in nature. Climate change
Climate change
impacts are shared by all BOBLME countries. The main causes of the issues are: food security needs of the coastal poor; lack of coastal development plans; increasing trade in products from coastal habitats; coastal development and industrialization; ineffective marine protected areas and lack of enforcement; upstream development that affects water-flow; intensive upstream agricultural practices; and increasing tourism. Pollution and water quality[edit] The major transboundary issues relating to pollution and water quality are: sewage-borne pathogens and organic load; solid waste/marine litter; increasing nutrient inputs; oil pollution; persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and persistent toxic substances (PTSs); sedimentation; and heavy metals. The transboundary nature of these issues are: discharge of untreated/partially treated sewage being a common problem. Sewage
Sewage
and organic discharges from the Ganges-Brahmaputra- Meghna River
Meghna River
are likely to be transboundary. Plastics and derelict fishing gear can be transported long distances across national boundaries. High nutrient discharges from rivers could intensify largescale hypoxia. Atmospheric transport of nutrients is inherently transboundary. Differences between countries with regard to regulation and enforcement of shipping discharges may drive discharges across boundaries. Tar balls are transported long distances. POPs/PTSs and mercury, including organo-mercury, undergo long-range transport. Sedimentation
Sedimentation
and most heavy metal contamination tend to be localized and lack a strong transboundary dimension. The main causes of the issues are: increasing coastal population density and urbanization; higher consumption, resulting in more waste generated per person; insufficient funds allocated to waste management; migration of industry into BOBLME countries; and proliferation of small industries. History[edit]

Ross Island, in the Andamans, was one of the main naval bases of British India
India
during World War II

Northern Circars
Northern Circars
occupied the western coast of the Bay
Bay
of Bengal
Bengal
and is now considered to be India's Madras state. Chola dynasty
Chola dynasty
(9th century to 12th century) when ruled by Rajaraja Chola I
Rajaraja Chola I
occupied the western coastline of the Bay
Bay
of Bengal
Bengal
circa AD 1014, The Bay
Bay
of Bengal
Bengal
was also called the Chola Lake. The Kakatiya dynasty
Kakatiya dynasty
reached the western coastline of the Bay
Bay
of Bengal
Bengal
between the Godavari
Godavari
and the Krishna rivers. Kushanas about the middle of the 1st century AD invaded northern India
India
perhaps extending as far as the Bay
Bay
of Bengal. Chandragupta Maurya
Chandragupta Maurya
extended the Maurya Dynasty across northern India to the Bay
Bay
of Bengal. Hajipur was a stronghold for Portuguese Pirates. In the 16th century the Portuguese built trading posts in the north of the Bay
Bay
of Bengal
Bengal
at Chittagong
Chittagong
(Porto Grande) and Satgaon (Porto Pequeno).[40] Before the arrival of British to India
India
it was also known as "Kalinga Sagar".[41] British penal colony[edit] Cellular Jail
Cellular Jail
or "Black Waters" built in 1896 on Ross Island, a part of the Andaman Island Chain. As early as 1858 this island was used as a British penal colony for political prisoners facing life imprisonment.[42][better source needed] Marine archaeology[edit] Maritime archaeology
Maritime archaeology
or marine archaeology is the study of material remains of ancient peoples. A specialized branch, Archaeology of shipwrecks studies the salvaged artifacts of ancient ships. Stone anchors, amphorae shards, elephant tusks, hippopotamus teeth, ceramic pottery, a rare wood mast and lead ingots are examples which may survive the test of time for archaeologists to study and place the salvaged findings into a time line of history. coral reefs, tsunamis, cyclones, mangrove swamps, battles and a criss cross of sea routes in a high trading area combined with pirating have all contributed to shipwrecks in the Bay
Bay
of Bengal.[43] Famous ships and shipwrecks[edit]

1778 to 1783 The Naval operations in the American Revolutionary War
Naval operations in the American Revolutionary War
or American War of Independence ranged as far as the Bay
Bay
of Bengal. c. 1816 Mornington ship burned in the Bay
Bay
of Bengal.[44] 1850 American clipper brig Eagle is supposed to have sunk in the Bay of Bengal.[45] American Baptist missionary Adoniram Judson, Jr. died 12 April 1850 and was buried at sea in the Bay
Bay
of Bengal. 1855 The Bark "Incredible" struck on a sunken rock in the Bay
Bay
of Bengal.[46] 1865, a gale dismasted the Euterpe while traversing the Bay
Bay
of Bengal typhoon. 1875 Veleda 76 m (250 ft) long and 15 m (50 ft) wide is a part of a current salvage operation.[47] 1942 Japanese cruiser Yura
Japanese cruiser Yura
of the Second Expeditionary Fleet, Malay Force, attacked merchant ships in the Bay
Bay
of Bengal. 1971 December 3 – It was claimed that the Indian Navy
Indian Navy
destroyer, INS Rajput, sunk the Pakistan Navy
Pakistan Navy
submarine PNS Ghazi
PNS Ghazi
off Visakhapatnam, in the Bay
Bay
of Bengal.

See also[edit]

Andhra Pradesh Bangladesh Myanmar Odisha West Bengal

References[edit]  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bengal, Bay
Bay
of". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

^ "Map of Bay
Bay
of Bengal- World Seas, Bay
Bay
of Bengal
Bengal
Map Location – World Atlas".  ^ Chowdhury, Sifatul Quader (2012). " Bay
Bay
of Bengal". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
(Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.  ^ "Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition" (PDF). International Hydrographic Organization. 1953. Retrieved 7 February 2010.  ^ Kuttan (2009). The Great Philosophers of India. AuthorHouse. ISBN 978-1434377807. [self-published source] ^ "Dhanushkodi". indiatourism4u.in. Retrieved 21 August 2013.  ^ 1794, Orbis Veteribus Notus by Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d'Anville ^ Wasson, Robert (2003). "A sediment budget for the Padma-Meghna-Jamuna catchment" (PDF). Current Science. 84 (8): 1041–1047.  ^ The long stretch of sand glistening like silver dust URL accessed 10 January 2015 ^ Siddiqui, Neaz Ahmad (2012). "Sundarbans, The". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.  ^ "World's longest beach hidden in Bangladesh". The Sydney Morning Herald. 31 January 2007.  ^ Tsunami URL access 21 January 2007 ^ Morphological features in the Bay
Bay
of Bengal
Bengal
URL accessed 21 January 2007 ^ Curray, Joseph R.; Frans J. Emmel; David G. Moore (December 2002). "The Bengal
Bengal
Fan: morphology, geometry, stratigraphy, history and processes". Marine and Petroleum Geology. Elsevier Science Ltd. 19 (10): 1191–1223. doi:10.1016/S0264-8172(03)00035-7.  ^ France-Lanord, Christian; Volkhard Spiess; Peter Molnar; Joseph R. Curray (March 2000). "Summary on the Bengal
Bengal
Fan: An introduction to a drilling proposal" (PDF). Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.  ^ Phillip Colla Natural History Photography URL accessed 21 January 2007 ^ Haider, Mashida R. (5 January 2005). "Naturalist". New Age. Dhaka. Archived from the original on 30 November 2010.  ^ CMS: Stenella attenuata, Pantropical spotted dolphin
Pantropical spotted dolphin
URL accessed 21 January 2007 ^ 17 Bay
Bay
of Bengal
Bengal
URL accessed 21 January 2007 ^ " Bodianus neilli
Bodianus neilli
( Bay
Bay
of Bengal
Bengal
Hogfish)". Zipcode Zoo. Archived from the original on 30 May 2008. Retrieved 21 January 2007.  ^ "Promise Rings in white gold, yellow gold, rose gold, unique rings. by A Ring Thing".  ^ Glossary of Physical Oceanography Ba-Bm Archived 18 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine. URL accessed 21 January 2007 ^ "Forces of Nature—Natural Disaster Fast Facts". National Geographic. Retrieved 30 August 2016.  ^ a b c Tannehill, Ivan Ray (1969) [First published 1945]. Hurricanes: Their Nature and History: Particularly Those of the West Indies and the Southern Coasts of the United States (6th ed.). Princeton University Press. pp. 38–40.  ^ Morien Institute – underwater discoveries news archive, January–June 2006, "Sri Vaisakheswara still lies underwater" URL accessed 22 January 2007 ^ "Ramayana". Ramayana.com. 16 August 2005. Archived from the original on 16 August 2005.  ^ Sahu, Monideepa (6 March 2016). "The great fire". Deccan Herald. Retrieved 6 March 2016.  ^ Nabataea: Trade on the Bay
Bay
of Bengal
Bengal
URL accessed 21 January 2007 ^ Environmental assessment of coastal water at Bakkhali ^ "LME 34 Bay
Bay
of Bengal". NOAA. Retrieved 21 January 2007. [dead link] ^ "The Bay
Bay
of Bengal: New bay dawning". The Economist. 27 April 2013.  ^ a b Berlin, Donald L. (25 January 2005). "The emerging Bay
Bay
of Bengal". Asia Times Online.  ^ Arpi, Claude (26 December 2006). "1971 War: How the US tried to corner India". Rediff.com.  ^ "The Burma Project -Burma Debate". Archived from the original on 18 September 2009. Retrieved 10 January 2015.  ^ "India's Largest Naval War Game in Bay
Bay
of Bengal". Global Politician. Archived from the original on 15 October 2012.  ^ Parameswaran, Prashanth (7 May 2015). "US Eyes Expanded Military Exercises with ASEAN
ASEAN
Navies". The Diplomat. Retrieved 11 November 2015.  ^ Miglani, Sanjeev (22 July 2015). "India, Japan, U.S. plan naval exercises in tightening of ties in Indian Ocean". Reuters. Retrieved 11 November 2015.  ^ Gady, Franz-Stefan (13 October 2015). "Confirmed: Japan Will Permanently Join US- India
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Naval Exercises". The Diplomat. Retrieved 11 November 2015.  ^ "The Maritime Boundary Dispute Between Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and Myanmar: Motivations, Potential Solutions, and Implications".  ^ "EO Natural Hazards: Smog over the Bay
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of Bengal". NASA Earth Observatory. Archived from the original on 26 October 2007. Retrieved 21 January 2007.  ^ The Portuguese in Bengal. History of Ugolim (Hoogli), Meliapore ... Archived 3 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine. URL accessed 21 January 2007 ^ Odisha
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Government, e-magazine. "Universal Brotherhood and the Temple of Lord Jagannath
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Further reading[edit]

The Maritime Boundary Dispute Between Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and Myanmar: Motivations, Potential Solutions, and Implications by Jared Bissinger (Asia Policy, July 2010) published by National Bureau of Asian Research

External links[edit]

Look up Bay
Bay
of Bengal
Bengal
in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bay
Bay
of Bengal.

Myanmar
Myanmar
Marine Biodiversity Atlas Online 487 V. Suryanarayan, Prospects for a Bay
Bay
of Bengal
Bengal
Community Arabian Sea: depth contours and undersea features – Map/Still – Britannica Concise Bay
Bay
of Bengal
Bengal
in Encyclopedia Bay
Bay
of Bengal
Bengal
Large Marine Ecosystem Project

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