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The Barbary pirates, sometimes called Barbary corsairs or Ottoman corsairs, were Ottoman pirates and privateers who operated from North Africa, based primarily in the ports of Salé, Rabat, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli. This area was known in Europe
Europe
as the Barbary Coast, a term derived from the name of its Berber inhabitants. Their predation extended throughout the Mediterranean, south along West Africa's Atlantic
Atlantic
seaboard and even South America,[1] and into the North Atlantic
Atlantic
as far north as Iceland, but they primarily operated in the western Mediterranean. In addition to seizing ships, they engaged in Razzias, raids on European coastal towns and villages, mainly in Italy, France, Spain, and Portugal, but also in the British Isles,[2] the Netherlands[citation needed] and as far away as Iceland.[3] The main purpose of their attacks was to capture Christian
Christian
slaves for the Ottoman slave trade as well as the general Arab
Arab
slavery market in North Africa
North Africa
and the Middle East.[2] While such raids had occurred since soon after the Muslim
Muslim
conquest of Iberia, the terms "Barbary pirates" and "Barbary corsairs" are normally applied to the raiders active from the 16th century onwards, when the frequency and range of the slavers' attacks increased. In that period Algiers, Tunis
Tunis
and Tripoli
Tripoli
came under the sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire, either as directly administered provinces or as autonomous dependencies known as the Barbary States. Similar raids were undertaken from Salé
Salé
and other ports in Morocco. Corsairs captured thousands of ships and repeatedly raided coastal towns. As a result, residents abandoned their former villages of long stretches of coast in Spain and Italy. The raids were such a problem coastal settlements were seldom undertaken until the 19th century. Between 1580 and 1680 corsairs were said to have captured about 850,000 people as slaves and from 1530 to 1780 as many as 1,250,000 people were enslaved.[2] However, these numbers have been questioned by the historian David Earle.[4] Most of these corsairs were European outcasts and converts (renegade) such as John Ward and Zymen Danseker.[3] Hayreddin Barbarossa
Hayreddin Barbarossa
and Oruç Reis, Turkish Barbarossa Brothers, who took control of Algiers
Algiers
on behalf of the Ottomans in the early 16th century, were also notorious corsairs. The European pirates brought advanced sailing and shipbuilding techniques to the Barbary Coast around 1600, which enabled the corsairs to extend their activities into the Atlantic
Atlantic
Ocean.[3][unreliable source?] The effects of the Barbary raids peaked in the early to mid-17th century. The scope of corsair activity began to diminish in the latter part of the 17th century,[5] as the more powerful European navies started to compel the Barbary States
Barbary States
to make peace and cease attacking their shipping. However, the ships and coasts of Christian
Christian
states without such effective protection continued to suffer until the early 19th century. Following the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
and the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
in 1814–15, European powers agreed upon the need to suppress the Barbary corsairs entirely and the threat was largely subdued. Occasional incidents occurred, including two Barbary wars
Barbary wars
between the United States
United States
and the Barbary States, until finally terminated by the French conquest of Algiers
Algiers
in 1830.

Contents

1 History

1.1 16th century 1.2 17th century 1.3 18th–19th centuries

2 Slaves

2.1 Barbary Slaves 2.2 Galley
Galley
slaves

3 Famous Barbary corsairs

3.1 The Barbarossa brothers

3.1.1 Oruç Barbarossa 3.1.2 Hızır Hayreddin Barbarossa

3.2 Captain Jack Ward 3.3 Sayyida al-Hurra 3.4 Other famous Barbary corsairs

4 In fiction 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

History[edit] Piracy
Piracy
by Muslim
Muslim
populations had been known in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
since at least the 9th century and the short-lived Emirate of Crete. The Provence
Provence
was plagued by Saracen
Saracen
slave raids in the Carolingian era; in 869, archbishop Rotlandus of Arles was captured, and died before he could be released after the payment of a ransom in weapons, treasure and slaves. The level of Muslim
Muslim
pirate activity was relatively low[citation needed], but in the 13th and 14th centuries pirates from Christian
Christian
states, particularly Catalonia, were a constant threat to merchants who traded by sea.[citation needed] In 1198 the problem of Berber piracy and slave-taking was so great that a religious order, the Trinitarians, were founded to collect ransoms and even to exchange themselves as ransom for those captured and pressed into slavery in North Africa. In the 14th century Tunisian corsairs became enough of a threat to provoke a Franco-Genoese attack on Mahdia in 1390, also known as the "Barbary Crusade". Morisco
Morisco
exiles of the Reconquista
Reconquista
and Maghreb pirates added to the numbers, but it was not until the expansion of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and the arrival of the privateer and admiral Kemal Reis
Kemal Reis
in 1487 that the Barbary corsairs became a true menace to shipping from European Christian
Christian
nations.[6]

British captain witnessing the miseries of Christian
Christian
slaves in Algiers, 1815

The Barbary pirates
Barbary pirates
had long attacked English and other European shipping along the North Coast of Africa. They had been attacking English merchant and passengers ships since the 1600s. Regular fundraising for ransoms was undertaken generally by families and local church groups, who generally raised the ransoms for individuals. The government did not ransom ordinary persons. The English became familiar with captivity narratives written by Barbary pirates' prisoners and ransomed captives, as so many people were taken. After English colonists began to go to North America and be taken captive by Native Americans, both the colonists and people in England had some basis for considering the meaning of captivity for a Christian
Christian
in an alien society.[7] During the American Revolution
American Revolution
the pirates attacked American ships. But, on December 20, 1777, Sultan
Sultan
Mohammed III of Morocco
Morocco
declared that American merchant ships would be under the protection of the sultanate and could thus enjoy safe passage into the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and along the coast. The Moroccan-American Treaty of Friendship
Moroccan-American Treaty of Friendship
stands as the U.S.'s oldest non-broken friendship treaty[8][9] with a foreign power. In 1778 Morocco
Morocco
became the first nation to recognize the new United States.[10] As late as 1798, an islet near Sardinia
Sardinia
was attacked by the Tunisians, and more than 900 inhabitants were taken away as slaves.[11] Throughout history, geography was on the pirates' side on the Northern coast of Africa. The coast was ideal for their wants and needs. With natural harbours often backed by lagoons, it provided a haven for guerrilla warfare, such as attacks on shipping vessels venturing through their territory. On the coast, mountainous areas provided ample reconnaissance for the corsairs as well. Ships were spotted from afar; the pirates had time to prepare their attacks and surprise the ships. 16th century[edit]

Battle of Preveza, 1538

Moors
Moors
and Turkish adventurers from the Levant, of whom the most successful were Hızır and Oruç, natives of Mitylene, increased the number of raids around the turn of the 15th century. In response, Spain began to conquer the coastal towns of Oran, Algiers
Algiers
and Tunis. But after Oruç was killed in battle with the Spanish in 1518, his brother Hızır appealed to Selim I, the Ottoman sultan, who sent him troops. In 1529, Hızır drove the Spaniards from the rocky, fortified island in front of Algiers, and founded the Ottoman power in the region. From about 1518 till the death of Uluç Ali
Uluç Ali
in 1587, Algiers was the main seat of government of the beylerbeys of northern Africa, who ruled over Tripoli, Tunisia
Tunisia
and Algeria. From 1587 to 1659, they were ruled by Ottoman pashas, sent from Constantinople
Constantinople
to govern for three years; but in the latter year a military revolt in Algiers reduced the pashas to nonentities. From 1659, these African cities, although nominally part of the Ottoman Empire, were in fact military republics that chose their own rulers and lived by war booty captured from the Spanish and Portuguese. There are several cases of Sephardic Jews, including Sinan Reis and Samuel Pallache, who upon fleeing Iberia turned to attacking the Spanish Empire's shipping under the Ottoman flag, a profitable strategy of revenge for the Inquisition's religious persecution.[12][13] During the first period (1518–1587), the beylerbeys were admirals of the sultan, commanding great fleets and conducting war operations for political ends. They were slave-hunters and their methods were ferocious. After 1587, the sole object of their successors became plunder, on land and sea. The maritime operations were conducted by the captains, or reises, who formed a class or even a corporation. Cruisers were fitted out by investors and commanded by the reises. Ten percent of the value of the prizes was paid to the pasha or his successors, who bore the titles of agha or dey or bey.[14]

The Barbary pirates
Barbary pirates
frequently attacked Corsica, resulting in many Genoese towers being erected.

In 1544 Hayreddin captured the island of Ischia, taking 4,000 prisoners, and enslaved some 2,000-7,000 inhabitants of Lipari.[15][16] In 1551 Turgut Reis
Turgut Reis
enslaved the entire population of the Maltese island of Gozo, between 5,000 and 6,000, sending them to Ottoman Tripolitania. In 1554 corsairs under Turgut Reis
Turgut Reis
sacked Vieste, beheaded 5,000 of its inhabitants, and abducted another 6,000.[17] In 1555 Turgut Reis
Turgut Reis
sacked Bastia, Corsica, taking 6,000 prisoners. In 1558, Barbary corsairs captured the town of Ciutadella (Minorca), destroyed it, murdered many inhabitants, and took 3,000 to Constantinople
Constantinople
as slaves.[18] In 1563 Turgut Reis
Turgut Reis
landed on the shores of the province of Granada, Spain, and captured coastal settlements in the area, such as Almuñécar, along with 4,000 prisoners. Barbary corsairs often attacked the Balearic Islands, and in response many coastal watchtowers and fortified churches were erected. The threat was so severe that residents abandoned the island of Formentera. Even at this early stage, the European states fought back: Livorno's monument Quattro Mori celebrates 16th-century victories against the Barbary corsairs won by the Knights of Malta
Malta
and the Order of Saint Stephen, of which the Grand Duke of Tuscany Ferdinando I de' Medici was Grand Master. Another response was the construction of the original frigates; light, fast and maneuverable galleys, designed to run down Barbary corsairs trying to get away with their loot and slaves. Other measures included coastal lookouts to give warning for people to withdraw into fortified places and rally local forces to fight the corsairs. This latter goal was especially difficult to achieve as the corsairs had the advantage of surprise; the vulnerable European Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coasts were very long and easily accessible from the north African Barbary bases, and the corsairs were careful in planning their raids. 17th century[edit]

A French Ship and Barbary Pirates by Aert Anthonisz., c. 1615

During the first half of the 17th century, Barbary raiding was at its peak. This was due largely to the contribution of Dutch corsairs, notably Zymen Danseker (Simon de Danser), who used the Barbary ports as bases for attacking Spanish shipping during the Dutch Revolt. They cooperated with local raiders and introduced them to the latest Dutch sailing rigs, enabling them to brave Atlantic
Atlantic
waters.[19] Some of these Dutch corsairs converted to Islam
Islam
and settled permanently in North Africa. Two examples are Süleyman Reis, "De Veenboer", who became admiral of the Algerian corsair fleet in 1617, and his quartermaster Murat Reis, born Jan Janszoon. Both worked for the notorious Dutch corsair Zymen Danseker. A notable counter action occurred in 1607, when the Knights of Saint Stephen (under Jacopo Inghirami) sacked Bona in Algeria, killing 470 and taking 1,464 captives.[20] This victory is commemorated by a series of frescoes painted by Bernardino Poccetti
Bernardino Poccetti
in the "Sala di Bona" of Palazzo Pitti, Florence.[21][22] In 1611 Spanish galleys from Naples, accompanied by the galleys of the Knights of Malta, raided the Kerkennah Islands
Kerkennah Islands
off the coast of Tunisia
Tunisia
and took away almost 500 Muslim
Muslim
captives.[23] Between 1568 and 1634 the Knights of Saint Stephen may have captured about 14,000 Muslims, with perhaps one-third taken in land raids and two-thirds taken on captured ships.[23]

Battle of a French ship of the line and two galleys of the Barbary corsairs

The work of the Mercedarians
Mercedarians
was in ransoming Christian
Christian
slaves held in Muslim
Muslim
hands, Histoire de Barbarie et de ses Corsaires, 1637

Barbary corsair attacks were common in southern Portugal, south and east Spain, the Balearic Islands, the Canary Islands, Sardinia, Corsica, Elba, the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
(especially the Tyrrhenian coast), Sicily
Sicily
and Malta. They also occurred on the Atlantic
Atlantic
northwest coast of the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
as in 1617, when the North African corsairs launched their major attack in the region. They destroyed and sacked Bouzas, Cangas do Morrazo
Cangas do Morrazo
and the churches of Moaña
Moaña
and Darbo. Occasionally coastal raids reached farther afield. Iceland
Iceland
was subject to raids in 1627. Jan Janszoon, (Murat Reis the Younger) is said to have taken 400 prisoners; 242 of the captives later were sold into slavery on the Barbary Coast. The corsairs took only young people and those in good physical condition. All those offering resistance were killed, and the old people were gathered into a church which was set on fire. Among those captured was Ólafur Egilsson, who was ransomed the next year. Upon returning to Iceland, he wrote an account about his experience. Such captivity narratives by Europeans who had been held in Muslim
Muslim
states eventually constituted a literary genre. Ireland
Ireland
was subject to a similar attack. In June 1631 Murat Reis, with corsairs from Algiers
Algiers
and armed troops of the Ottoman Empire, stormed ashore at the little harbor village of Baltimore, County Cork. They captured almost all the villagers and took them away to a life of slavery in North Africa.[14] The prisoners were destined for a variety of fates — some lived out their days chained to the oars as galley slaves, while women spent long years as concubines in harems or within the walls of the sultan's palace. Only two of these captives ever returned to Ireland.[24][page needed] More than 20,000 captives were said to be imprisoned in Algiers
Algiers
alone. The rich were often able to secure release through ransom, but the poor were condemned to slavery. Their masters would on occasion allow them to secure freedom by professing Islam. A long list might be given of people of good social position, not only Italians or Spaniards, but German or English travelers in the south, who were captives for a time.[14] While the chief victims were the inhabitants of the coasts of Sicily, Naples and Spain, all traders of nations which did not pay tribute for immunity or force the Barbary States
Barbary States
to leave them alone were liable to be taken at sea. Religious orders — the Redemptorists and Lazarists — worked for the redemption of captives, and in many countries the wealthy left legacies to support such redemptions.

An action between an English ship and vessels of the Barbary Corsairs

Lieve Pietersz Verschuier, Dutch ships bomb Tripoli
Tripoli
in a punitive expedition against the Barbary pirates, c. 1670

Barbary piracy thrived on the competition among European powers. France encouraged the corsairs against Spain, and later Britain and Holland supported them against France. By the second half of the 17th century, the greater European naval powers were able to strike back effectively enough to intimidate the Barbary States
Barbary States
into making peace with them. However, those countries' commercial interests benefited by the pirates continuing attacks on their competitors. As a result, they did not cooperate to impose a more general cessation of corsair activity. England was the most successful of the Christian
Christian
states in dealing with the corsair threat.[citation needed] From the 1630s onwards England had signed peace treaties with the Barbary States
Barbary States
on various occasions, but invariably breaches of these agreements led to renewed wars. A particular bone of contention was the tendency of foreign ships to pose as English to avoid attack. However, growing English naval power and increasingly persistent operations against the corsairs proved increasingly costly for the Barbary States. During the reign of Charles II a series of English expeditions won victories over raiding Barbary squadrons and mounted attacks on their home ports; these actions permanently ended the Barbary threat to English shipping. In 1675 a Royal Navy
Royal Navy
squadron led by Sir John Narborough negotiated a lasting peace with Tunis
Tunis
and, after bombarding the city to induce compliance, with Tripoli. Peace with Salé
Salé
followed in 1676. Algiers, the most powerful of the Barbary States, returned to war the following year, breaking a treaty made in 1671. After suffering defeats at the hands of an English squadron under Arthur Herbert, Algiers
Algiers
made peace again in 1682, in a treaty that lasted until 1816. France, which had recently emerged as a leading naval power, achieved comparable success soon afterwards. It bombarded Algiers
Algiers
in 1682, 1683 and 1688 to secure a lasting peace, and forced Tripoli
Tripoli
to sue for peace by bombardment in 1686. A 2016 study found that Barbary corsairs were less militarily powerful after 1675 than they were at the start of the seventeenth century. 18th–19th centuries[edit]

Captain William Bainbridge
William Bainbridge
paying tribute to the Dey
Dey
of Algiers, circa 1800

See also: First Barbary War
First Barbary War
and Second Barbary War Piracy
Piracy
was enough of a problem that some states entered into the redemption business. In Denmark, "At the beginning of the 18th century money was collected systematically in all churches, and a so called ‘slave fund’ (slavekasse) was established by the state in 1715. Funds were brought in through a compulsory insurance sum for seafarers. 165 slaves were ransomed by this institution between 1716 and 1736."[25] "Between 1716 and 1754 19 ships from Denmark-Norway were captured with 208 men; piracy was thus a serious problem for the Danish merchant fleet."[25] In the late 18th century piracy began to arise again. In 1783 and 1784 the Spanish bombarded Algiers
Algiers
to end piracy. The second time Admiral Barceló damaged the city so severely that the Algerian Dey
Dey
asked Spain to negotiate a peace treaty. From then on Spanish vessels and coasts were safe for several years. Separately, the Danish attacked Tripoli
Tripoli
in 1797. Until the American Declaration of Independence
American Declaration of Independence
in 1776, British treaties with the North African states protected American ships from the Barbary corsairs. Morocco, which in 1777 was the first independent nation to publicly recognize the United States, in 1784 became the first Barbary power to seize an American vessel after the nation achieved independence. The Barbary threat led directly to the United States founding the United States
United States
Navy in March 1794. While the United States did secure peace treaties with the Barbary states, it was obliged to pay tribute for protection from attack. The burden was substantial: in 1800 payments in ransom and tribute to the Barbary states amounted to 20% of United States
United States
federal government's annual expenditures.[26] The United States
United States
conducted the First Barbary War
First Barbary War
in 1801 and the Second Barbary War
Second Barbary War
in 1815 to gain more favorable peace terms; it ended the payment of tribute. But, Algiers
Algiers
broke the 1805 peace treaty after two years, and refused to implement the 1815 treaty until compelled to do so by Britain in 1816. The Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
(1814–5), which ended the Napoleonic Wars, led to increased European consensus on the need to end Barbary raiding. The sacking of Palma on the island of Sardinia
Sardinia
by a Tunisian squadron, which carried off 158 inhabitants, roused widespread indignation. Britain had by this time banned the slave trade and was seeking to induce other countries to do likewise. States that were more vulnerable to the corsairs complained that Britain cared more for ending the trade in African slaves than stopping the enslavement of Europeans and Americans by the Barbary States.

Bombardment of Algiers
Algiers
by Lord Exmouth in August 1816, Thomas Luny

In order to neutralise this objection and further the anti-slavery campaign, in 1816 Britain sent Lord Exmouth to secure new concessions from Tripoli, Tunis, and Algiers, including a pledge to treat Christian
Christian
captives in any future conflict as prisoners of war rather than slaves. He imposed peace between Algiers
Algiers
and the kingdoms of Sardinia
Sardinia
and Sicily. On his first visit, Lord Exmouth negotiated satisfactory treaties and sailed for home. While he was negotiating, a number of Sardinian fishermen who had settled at Bona on the Tunisian coast were brutally treated without his knowledge. As Sardinians they were technically under British protection, the government sent Exmouth back to secure reparation. On August 17, in combination with a Dutch squadron under Admiral Van de Capellen, Exmouth bombarded Algiers. Both Algiers
Algiers
and Tunis
Tunis
made fresh concessions as a result. The Barbary states had difficulty securing uniform compliance with a total prohibition of slave-raiding, as this had been traditionally of central importance to the North African economy. Slavers continued to take captives by preying on less well-protected peoples. Algiers subsequently renewed its slave-raiding, though on a smaller scale. Europeans at the Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1818 discussed possible retaliation. In 1820 a British fleet under Admiral Sir Harry Neal bombarded Algiers. Corsair activity based in Algiers
Algiers
did not entirely cease until France conquered the state in 1830.[14] Slaves[edit] Barbary Slaves[edit] See also: Arab slave trade
Arab slave trade
and Barbary slave trade According to Robert Davis, between 1 million and 1.25 million Europeans were captured by Barbary pirates
Barbary pirates
and sold as slaves in North Africa and Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
between the 16th and 19th centuries.[27][28] However, to extrapolate his numbers, Davis assumes the number of European slaves captured by Barbary pirates
Barbary pirates
were constant for a 250-year period, stating:

"There are no records of how many men, women and children were enslaved, but it is possible to calculate roughly the number of fresh captives that would have been needed to keep populations steady and replace those slaves who died, escaped, were ransomed, or converted to Islam. On this basis it is thought that around 8,500 new slaves were needed annually to replenish numbers - about 850,000 captives over the century from 1580 to 1680. By extension, for the 250 years between 1530 and 1780, the figure could easily have been as high as 1,250,000."[4]

Davis' numbers have been question by the historian David Earle, who said of Davis' numbers "His figures sound a bit dodgy and I think he may be exaggerating" and cautioned that the true picture of Europeans slaves is clouded by the fact the corsairs also seized non-Christian whites from eastern Europe
Europe
and black people from west Africa.[4] In addition, the number of slaves traded was hyperactive, with exaggerated estimates relying on peak years to calculate averages for entire centuries, or millennia. Hence, there were wide fluctuations year-to-year, particularly in the 18th and 19th centuries, given slave imports, and given the fact that, prior to the 1840s, there are no consistent records. Middle East expert, John Wright, cautions that modern estimates are based on back-calculations from human observation.[29] Such observations, across the late 1500s and early 1600s observers, account for around 35,000 European Christian
Christian
slaves held throughout this period on the Barbary Coast, across Tripoli, Tunis, but mostly in Algiers. The majority were sailors (particularly those who were English), taken with their ships, but others were fishermen and poor coastal villagers. However, most of these captives were people from lands close to Africa, particularly Spain and Italy.[30] From bases on the Barbary coast, North Africa, the Barbary pirates raided ships traveling through the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and along the northern and western coasts of Africa, plundering their cargo and enslaving the people they captured. From at least 1500, the pirates also conducted raids along seaside towns of Italy, Spain, France, England, the Netherlands and as far away as Iceland, capturing men, women and children. On some occasions, settlements such as Baltimore, Ireland
Ireland
were abandoned following the raid, only being resettled many years later. Between 1609 and 1616, England alone had 466 merchant ships lost to Barbary pirates.[31] While Barbary corsairs looted the cargo of ships they captured, their primary goal was to capture people for sale as slaves or for ransom. Those who had family or friends who might ransom them were held captive, but not obliged to work; the most famous of these was the author Miguel de Cervantes, who was held for almost five years. Others were sold into various types of servitude. Attractive women or boys could be used as sex slaves. Captives who converted to Islam
Islam
were generally freed, since enslavement of Muslims was prohibited; but this meant that they could never return to their native countries.[32][33]

Sultan
Sultan
of Morocco, by Eugène Delacroix

Captives often suffered from privation on voyages to North Africa
North Africa
if taken at a distance. Those who survived the journeys were often forced to walk through town as they were taken to slave auctions. The slaves typically had to stand from eight in the morning until two in the afternoon while buyers viewed them.[citation needed] Next came the auction, where the townspeople would bid on the captives they wanted to purchase and once that was over, the governor of Algiers
Algiers
(the Dey) had the chance to purchase any slave he wanted for the price they were sold at the auction. During the auctions the slaves would be forced to run and jump around to show their strength and stamina. After purchase, the captives would either be held for ransom, or be put to work. Slaves were used for a wide variety of jobs, from hard manual labor to housework (the job assigned to most women slaves). At night the slaves were put into prisons called 'bagnios' (derived from the Italian word "bagno" for public bath, inspired by the Turks' use of Roman baths at Constantinople
Constantinople
as prisons),[34] which were often hot and overcrowded. However, these bagnios began improving by the 18th century. Some bagnios had chapels, hospitals, shops, and bars run by captives, though such amenities remained uncommon. Galley
Galley
slaves[edit] Although the conditions in bagnios were harsh, they were better than those endured by galley slaves. Most Barbary galleys were at sea for around eighty to a hundred days a year, but when the slaves assigned to them were on land, they were forced to do hard manual labor. There were exceptions: "galley slaves of the Ottoman Sultan
Sultan
in Constantinople
Constantinople
would be permanently confined to their galleys, and often served extremely long terms, averaging around nineteen years in the late seventeenth-century and early eighteenth-century periods. These slaves rarely got off the galley but lived there for years."[35] During this time, rowers were shackled and chained where they sat, and never allowed to leave. Sleeping (which was limited), eating, defecation and urination took place at the seat to which they were shackled. There were usually five or six rowers on each oar. Overseers would walk back and forth and whip slaves considered not to be working hard enough.

French bombardment of Algiers
Algiers
by Admiral Dupperé, 13 June 1830

Almuñécar's coat of arms, which shows the turbaned heads of three Barbary pirates
Barbary pirates
floating in the sea, was granted to the town by King Charles V in 1526

Famous Barbary corsairs[edit] According to historian Adrian Tinniswood, the most notorious corsairs were English and European renegades who had learned their trade as privateers, and who moved to the Barbary Coast
Barbary Coast
during peacetime to pursue their trade. These outcasts brought up-to-date naval expertise to the piracy business, and enabled the corsairs to make long-distance slave-catching raids as far away as Iceland
Iceland
and Newfoundland.[3] The English corsair Henry Mainwaring later returned to England after gaining a royal pardon. He was knighted, elected to Parliament, and appointed a vice admiral of the Royal Navy.[3] The Barbarossa brothers[edit] Oruç Barbarossa[edit] Main article: Aruj The most famous of the corsairs in North Africa
North Africa
were brothers Oruç and Hızır Hayreddin. They, and two less well-known brothers, all became Barbary corsairs; they were called the Barbarossas (Italian for Redbeards) after the red beard of Oruç, the eldest. Oruç captured the island of Djerba for the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in 1502 or 1503. He often attacked Spanish territories on the coast of North Africa; during one failed attempt in 1512 he lost his left arm to a cannonball. The eldest Barbarossa also went on a rampage through Algiers
Algiers
in 1516, and captured the town with the help of the Ottoman Empire. He executed the ruler of Algiers
Algiers
and everybody he suspected would oppose him, including local rulers. He was finally captured and killed by the Spanish in 1518, and put on display. Hızır Hayreddin Barbarossa[edit] Main article: Hayreddin Barbarossa

Ottoman admiral Hayreddin Barbarossa

Oruç, based mainly on land, was not the best-known of the Barbarossas. His youngest brother Hızır (later called Hayreddin or Kheir ed-Din) was a more traditional corsair. He was a capable engineer and spoke at least six languages. He dyed the hair of his head and beard with henna to redden it like Oruç's. After capturing many crucial coastal areas, Hayreddin was appointed admiral-in-chief of the Ottoman sultan's fleet. Under his command the Ottoman Empire was able to gain and keep control of the eastern Mediterranean
Mediterranean
for over thirty years. Barbaros Hızır Hayreddin Pasha
Pasha
died in 1546 of a fever, possibly the plague. Captain Jack Ward[edit] Main article: Jack Ward English corsair Jack, or John, Ward was once called "beyond doubt the greatest scoundrel that ever sailed from England" by the English ambassador to Venice. Ward was a privateer for Queen Elizabeth during her war with Spain; after the end of the war, he became a corsair. With some associates he captured a ship in about 1603 and sailed it to Tunis; he and his crew converted to Islam. He was successful and became rich. He introduced heavily armed square-rigged ships, used instead of galleys, to the North African area, a major reason for the Barbary's future dominance of the Mediterranean. He died of plague in 1622. Sayyida al-Hurra[edit] Main article: Sayyida al Hurra Sayyida al-Hurra was a female Muslim
Muslim
cleric, merchant, governor of Tétouan, and later queen of Morocco.[36][37] She was born around 1485 in the Emirate of Granada, but was forced to flee to Morocco
Morocco
when she was very young to escape the Reconquista. In Morocco, she gathered a crew largely of exiled Moors, and launched pirate expeditions against Spain and Portugal to avenge the Reconquista, protect Morocco
Morocco
from Christian
Christian
pirates, and seek riches and glory. She co-founded the Barbary Corsairs
Barbary Corsairs
with her allies the Barbarossa brothers, who divided the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
between them—the Barbarossas and their Ottoman fleet operating in the east, and Sayyida al-Hurra and her Moorish and North-African pirates operating in the west. Sayyida al-Hurra became wealthy and renowned enough for the Sultan
Sultan
of Morocco, Ahmad al-Wattasi to make her his queen. Notably, however, she refused to marry in his capital of Fez, and would not get married but in Tétouan, of which she was governor. This was the first and only time in history that a Moroccan monarch had married away from his capital. Other famous Barbary corsairs[edit]

Mulai Ahmed er Raisulis Headquarter in Tangier, Morocco.

Mulai Ahmed er Raisuli, the last of the Barbary Pirates.

Kemal Reis
Kemal Reis
(c. 1451–1511) Gedik Ahmed Pasha
Pasha
(died 1482) Sinan Reis
Sinan Reis
(died 1546) Piri Reis
Piri Reis
(died 1554 or 1555) Turgut Reis
Turgut Reis
(1485–1565) Sinan Pasha
Pasha
(died 1553) Kurtoğlu Muslihiddin Reis (1487–c. 1535) Kurtoğlu Hızır Reis Salih Reis
Salih Reis
(c. 1488–1568) Seydi Ali Reis
Seydi Ali Reis
(1498–1563) Piyale Pasha
Pasha
(c. 1515–1578) Raïs Hamidou
Raïs Hamidou
(1773–1815) Uluç Ali
Uluç Ali
Reis (1519–1587) Ali Bitchin
Ali Bitchin
(c. 1560–1645) Simon de Danser or Simon Reis (c. 1579–c. 1611) Salomo de Veenboer or Sulayman Reis (died 1620) Murat Reis the Elder
Murat Reis the Elder
(c. 1534–1638) Murat Reis the Younger (c. 1570–after 1641)

In fiction[edit]

The Quattro Mori ("Four Moors") by Pietro Tacca; Livorno, Italy

Barbary corsairs are protagonists in Le pantere di Algeri (the panthers of Algiers) by Emilio Salgari. They were featured in a number of other noted novels, including Robinson Crusoe
Robinson Crusoe
by Daniel Defoe, The Count of Monte Cristo by Alexandre Dumas, père, The Wind in the Willows by Kenneth Grahame, The Sea Hawk
The Sea Hawk
and the Sword of Islam
Islam
by Rafael Sabatini, The Algerine Captive by Royall Tyler, Master and Commander by Patrick O'Brian, the Baroque Cycle
Baroque Cycle
by Neal Stephenson, The Walking Drum
The Walking Drum
by Louis Lamour, Doctor Dolittle
Doctor Dolittle
by Hugh Lofting, Corsair by Clive Cussler
Clive Cussler
and Angélique in Barbary by Anne Golon. Miguel de Cervantes, the Spanish author, was captive for five years as a slave in the bagnio of Algiers, and reflected his experience in some of his fictional (but not directly autobiographical) writings, including the Captive's tale in Don Quixote, his two plays set in Algiers, El Trato de Argel (The Treaty
Treaty
of Algiers) and Los Baños de Argel (The Baths of Algiers), and episodes in a number of other works. In Mozart's opera Die Entführung aus dem Serail
Die Entführung aus dem Serail
(a Singspiel), two European ladies are discovered in a Turkish harem, presumably captured by Barbary corsairs. Rossini's opera L'Italiana in Algeri
L'Italiana in Algeri
is based on the capture of several slaves by Barbary corsairs led by the bey of Algiers. Barbary corsairs were also featured in many pornographic novels, such as The Lustful Turk (1828), as the abduction of white women into sexual slavery was an abiding interest.[38] One of the stereotypical features of a pirate as portrayed in popular culture, the eye patch, may have been partially derived from the Arab corsair Rahmah ibn Jabir al-Jalahimah, who wore a patch after losing an eye in battle in the 18th century.[39] The Little Johnny England song, "Lily of Barbary," tells the story of an English man who is enslaved by Barbary corsairs and sold as a slave in Algiers. He is freed when his master dies. He becomes a merchant and buys the freedom of another English slave girl. The song Coast of High Barbaree tells of a sailing ship that came across a pirate ship off the Barbary Coast
Barbary Coast
and defeated the pirates, who were left to drown. See also[edit]

Anglo-Turkish piracy Barbary Slave Trade Barbary treaties Ghazw Islamic views on slavery List of Ottoman sieges and landings Morisco Ottoman–Habsburg wars Ottoman Navy Republic of Bou Regreg Romegas Sack of Baltimore Slavery
Slavery
in the Ottoman Empire Turkish Abductions

Wikimedia Commons has media related to The Story of the Barbary Corsairs.

Notes[edit]

^ A 44-gun Algerian corsair appeared at Río de la Plata in 1720. Cesáreo Fernández Duro, Armada española desde la unión de los reinos de Castilla y de León, Madrid, 1902, Vol. VI, p. 185 ^ a b c "British Slaves on the Barbary Coast".  ^ a b c d e Review of Pirates of Barbary by Ian W. Toll, New York Times, 12 Dec. 2010 ^ a b c Carroll, Rory; correspondent, Africa (2004-03-11). "New book reopens old arguments about slave raids on Europe". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-12-11.  ^ Chaney, Eric (2015-10-01). "Measuring the military decline of the Western Islamic World: Evidence from Barbary ransoms". Explorations in Economic History. 58: 107–124. doi:10.1016/j.eeh.2015.03.002.  ^ Pryor (1988), p. 192 ^ Linda Colley (2004) Captives: Britain, Empire, and the World, 1600–1850, Anchor Books Edition, New York ISBN 978-0-385-72146-2 ^ Roberts, Priscilla H. and Richard S. Roberts, Thomas Barclay (1728–1793: Consul in France, Diplomat in Barbary, Lehigh University Press, 2008, pp. 206–223. ^ "Milestones of American Diplomacy, Interesting Historical Notes, and Department of State History". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 2007-12-17.  ^ "Cohen Renews U.S.- Morocco
Morocco
Ties" (mil). U.S. Department of Defense. Retrieved 2009-03-12.  ^ Christian
Christian
Slaves, Muslim
Muslim
Masters: White Slavery
Slavery
in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast
Barbary Coast
and Italy, 1500–1800. Robert Davis (2004). p.45. ISBN 1-4039-4551-9. ^ Kritzler, Edward (November 3, 2009). Jewish Pirates of the Caribbean. Anchor. pp. 59–60. ISBN 978-0-7679-1952-4. Retrieved 2010-05-02.  ^ Plaut, Steven (October 15, 2008). "Putting the Oy Back into 'Ahoy'". Retrieved 2010-04-27.  [1][2][3] ^ a b c d  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Barbary Pirates". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  ^ Syed, Muzaffar Husain; Akhtar, Syed Saud; Usmani, B. D. (2011-09-14). Concise History of Islam. Vij Books India Pvt Ltd. ISBN 9789382573470.  ^ Her Majesty's Commission, State Papers (1849). King Henry the Eighth Volume 10 Part V Foreign Correspondence 1544-45. London.  ^ Mercati, Angelo (1982). Saggi di storia e letteratura, vol. II. Rome.  ^ "History of Menorca". Archived from the original on 2009-02-07.  ^ Alfred S. Bradford (2007), Flying the Black Flag, p. 132. ^ John B. Hattendorf and Richard W. Unger (2003). War at Sea in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Boydell Press.  ^ "Curator's comments on a draft study by Bernardino Poccetti". The British Museum.  ^ "Palazzo Pitti".  ^ a b Jamieson, Alan (2012). Lords of the Sea: A History of the Barbary Corsairs. London.  ^ Ekin, Des (2006). The Stolen Village - Baltimore and the Barbary Pirates. OBrien. ISBN 978-0-86278-955-8.  ^ a b Peter Madsen, "Danish slaves in Barbary", Islam
Islam
in European Literature Conference, Denmark Archived November 10, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Oren, Michael B. (2005-11-03). "The Middle East and the Making of the United States, 1776 to 1815". Retrieved 2007-02-18.  ^ Davis, Robert. Christian
Christian
Slaves, Muslim
Muslim
Masters: White Slavery
Slavery
in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast
Barbary Coast
and Italy, 1500-1800.[4] ^ "When Europeans were slaves: Research suggests white slavery was much more common than previously believed", Research News, Ohio State University ^ Wright, John (2007). "Trans-Saharan Slave Trade". Routledge.  ^ Davis, Robert (17 Feb 2011). "British Slaves on the Barbary Coast". BBC.  ^ Rees Davies, "British Slaves on the Barbary Coast", BBC, 1 July 2003 ^ Diego de Haedo, Topografía e historia general de Argel, 3 vols., Madrid, 1927-29. ^ Daniel Eisenberg, "¿Por qué volvió Cervantes de Argel?", in Ingeniosa invención: Essays on Golden Age Spanish Literature for Geoffrey L. Stagg in Honor of his Eighty-Fifth Birthday, Newark, Delaware, Juan de la Cuesta, 1999, ISBN 9780936388830, pp. 241-253, http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/obra/por-qu-volvi-cervantes-de-argel-0/, retrieved 11/20/2014. ^ Definition of "bagnio" from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Accessed 23 February 2015 ^ Ekin, Des (2006). The Stolen Village - Baltimore and the Barbary Pirates. OBrien. p. 187. ISBN 978-0-86278-955-8.  ^ Mernissi, Fatima (July 30, 1997). The Forgotten Queens of Islam. Univ Of Minnesota Press. pp. 18–19, 115, 193. ISBN 978-0-8166-2439-3.  ^ Park, Thomas Kerlin; Boum, Aomar (2006). Historical dictionary of Morocco. The Scarecrow Press, Inc. p. 317. ISBN 978-0-8108-5341-6.  ^ Steven Marcus (2008) The Other Victorians: A Study of Sexuality and Pornography in Mid-Nineteenth-Century England. Transaction Publishers, ISBN 1-4128-0819-7, pp. 195–217 ^ Charles Belgrave (1966), The Pirate
Pirate
Coast, p. 122, George Bell & Sons

References[edit]

Clissold, Stephen. 1976. "CHRISTIAN RENEGADES AND BARBARY CORSAIRS." History Today 26, no. 8: 508-515. Historical Abstracts. Davis, Robert C., Christian
Christian
Slaves, Muslim
Muslim
Masters: White Slavery
Slavery
in the Mediterranean, The Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500–1800. Palgrave Macmillan, New York. 2003. ISBN 0-333-71966-2 Earle, Peter. The Pirate
Pirate
Wars. Thomas Dunne. 2003 Forester, C. S. The Barbary Pirates. Random House. 1953 Konstam, Angus A History of Pirates. Kristensen, Jens Riise, Barbary To and Fro Ørby Publishing. 2005. Leiner, Frederick C. The End of Barbary Terror: America's 1815 War against the Pirates of North Africa. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 2006 Lambert, Frank. The Barbary Wars: American Independence in the Atlantic
Atlantic
World. Hill & Wang, 2005JJos Lloyd, Christopher. 1979. "Captain John Ward: Pirate." History Today 29, no. 11; p. 751. Matar, Nabil. 2001. "The Barbary Corsairs, King Charles I and the Civil War." Seventeenth Century 16, no. 2; pp. 239–258. Pryor, John H., Geography, Technology, and WarStudies in the Maritime History of the Mediterranean, 649–1571. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 1988. ISBN 0-521-34424-7 Severn, Derek. "The Bombardment of Algiers, 1816." History Today 28, no. 1 (1978); pp. 31–39. Silverstein, Paul A. 2005. "The New Barbarians: Piracy
Piracy
and Terrorism on the North African Frontier." CR: The New Centennial Review 5, no. 1; pp. 179–212. Travers, Tim, Pirates: A History. Tempus Publishing, Gloucestershire. 2007. World Navies To the Shores of Tripoli: The Birth of the U.S. Navy and Marines.—Annapolis, MD : Naval Institute Press, 1991, 2001.

Further reading[edit]

Adrian Tinniswood, Pirates of Barbary: Corsairs, Conquests and Captivity in the Seventeenth-Century Mediterranean, 343 pp. Riverhead Books, 2010. ISBN 978-1-59448-774-3. NY Times review Piracy
Piracy
and Law in the Ottoman Mediterranean
Mediterranean
by Joshua M. White (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2017). ISBN 978-1-50360-252-6. White Gold: The Extraordinary Story of Thomas Pellow and North Africa's One Million European Slaves by Giles Milton (Sceptre, 2005) London, Joshua E. Victory in Tripoli: How America's War with the Barbary Pirates Established the U.S. Navy and Shaped a Nation. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005. ISBN 978-0-471-44415-2 The pirate coast : Thomas Jefferson, the first marines and the secret mission of 1805 by Richard Zacks. Hyperion, 2005. ISBN 1-4013-0849-X Christian
Christian
slaves, Muslim
Muslim
masters : white slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500–1800 by Robert C. Davis. New York : Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. ISBN 978-0-333-71966-4 Piracy, Slavery
Slavery
and Redemption: Barbary Captivity Narratives from Early Modern England by D. J. Vikus (Columbia University Press, 2001) The Stolen Village: Baltimore and the Barbary Pirates by Des Ekin ISBN 978-0-86278-955-8 Skeletons on the Zahara: A True Story of Survival by Dean King, ISBN 0-316-15935-2 Oren, Michael. "Early American Encounters in the Middle East", in Power, Faith, and Fantasy. New York: Norton, 2007. Boot, Max (2002). The Savage Wars of Peace: Small Wars and the Rise of American Power. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-00720-1.  Lambert, Frank. The Barbary Wars. New York: Hill and Wang, 2005. Whipple, A. B. C. To the Shores of Tripoli: The Birth of the U.S. Navy and Marines. Bluejacket Books, 1991. ISBN 1-55750-966-2

External links[edit]

Hitchens, Christopher (Spring 2007). "Jefferson Versus the Muslim Pirates". City Journal. Retrieved 2007-04-28.  Knights Hospitaller
Knights Hospitaller
of St. John - Order of St John of Jerusalem Malta The Barbary Pirates New book reopens old arguments about slave raids on Europe Barbary Warfare The Barbary Wars at the Clements Library:An online exhibit on the Barbary Wars with images and transcriptions of primary documents from the period. American Barbary Wars

v t e

Barbary Corsairs

Territories

Regency of Algiers Annaba Barbary coast Bizerte Cherchell Mahdiya Oran Rabat Republic of Salé Tetouan Regency of Tripoli Regency of Tunis

Commanders (Reis)

16th century

Aruj Hayreddin Barbarossa Sayyida al Hurra Kurtoğlu Muslihiddin Reis Occhiali Salah Rais Murat Reis the Elder Kemal Reis Aydın Reis Muhammad I Pasha Hasan Corso Muhammad Kurdogli Hasan Agha Hasan Pasha Arnaut Mami Hassan Veneziano Sinan Reis Dragut

17th century

Jan Janszoon Salé
Salé
Rovers Anglo-Turkish piracy Sulayman Reis Ahmed el Inglizi Omar Agha Ali Bitchin Simon Reis Yusuf Reis

18th century

Ahmed Karamanli Yusuf Karamanli

19th century

Ali Khodja Hussein Dey Omar Agha Mohamed Kharnadji Haji Ali Baba Mohammed ben-Osman

Diplomacy

Franco-Ottoman alliance US Treaty
Treaty
with Tripoli
Tripoli
(1796) US Treaty
Treaty
with Tunis
Tunis
(1797) US Treaty
Treaty
with Tripoli
Tripoli
(1805) US Treaty
Treaty
with Algiers
Algiers
(1815) US Treaty
Treaty
with Tunis
Tunis
(1824) US Treaty
Treaty
with Morocco
Morocco
(1836)

Battles and conflicts

16th century

Ottoman raid on the Balearic Islands
Balearic Islands
(1501) Capture of Algiers
Algiers
(1516) Fall of Tlemcen (1518) Battle of Pianosa
Battle of Pianosa
(1519) Siege of Rhodes (1522) Battle of Formentera
Formentera
(1529) Capture of Peñón of Algiers
Algiers
(1529) Conquest of Tunis
Tunis
(1534) Conquest of Tunis
Tunis
(1535) Sack of Mahón (1535) Siege of Corfu (1537) Battle of Preveza
Battle of Preveza
(1538) Siege of Castelnuovo
Siege of Castelnuovo
(1539) Battle of Alboran
Battle of Alboran
(1540) Siege of Nice (1543) Ottoman wintering in Toulon
Ottoman wintering in Toulon
(1543-1544) Capture of Mahdiye (1550) Invasion of Gozo
Gozo
(1551) Siege of Tripoli
Tripoli
(1551) Battle of Ponza (1552) Invasion of Corsica
Corsica
(1553) Capture of Bougie
Capture of Bougie
(1555) Siege of Oran
Oran
(1556) Ottoman invasion of the Balearic Islands
Balearic Islands
(1558) Battle of Wadi al-Laban
Battle of Wadi al-Laban
(1558) Expedition to Mostaganem (1558) Battle of Djerba
Battle of Djerba
(1560) Sieges of Oran
Oran
and Mers El Kébir (1563) Great Siege of Malta
Malta
(1565) Rebellion of the Alpujarras (1568–71)
Rebellion of the Alpujarras (1568–71)
(1568–71) Battle of Lepanto
Battle of Lepanto
(1571) Conquest of Tunis
Tunis
(1574) Capture of Fez (1576) Battle of Alcácer Quibir
Battle of Alcácer Quibir
(1578)

17th century

Expulsion of the Moriscos
Expulsion of the Moriscos
(1609) Raid of Żejtun
Raid of Żejtun
(1614) Battle of Cape Corvo
Battle of Cape Corvo
(1615) Turkish Abductions
Turkish Abductions
(1627) Sack of Baltimore (1631) Cretan War (1645–1669) Action of March 1665 Morean War
Morean War
(1684-1699) Sieges of Ceuta (1694–1727) Battle of the Oinousses Islands (1695)

18th century

Spanish conquest of Oran
Oran
(1732) Action of 28 November 1751 Danish-Algerian War
Danish-Algerian War
(1769-1772) Siege of Melilla (1774) Invasion of Algiers
Algiers
(1775) Bombardment of Algiers
Algiers
(1783) Bombardment of Algiers
Algiers
(1784) Action of 16 May 1797 First Barbary War
First Barbary War
(1801–1805) Second Barbary War
Second Barbary War
(1815–1816)

19th century

Bombardment of Algiers
Algiers
(1816) Invasion of Algiers
Algiers
(1830)

Slavery

Trinitarian Order Lazarists Redemptorists Barbary slave trade Bagnio

v t e

Piracy

Periods

Ancient Mediterranean Golden Age

Republic of Pirates Libertatia

21st century

Types of pirate

Privateers Buccaneers Corsairs Sindhi corsairs Timber pirate River pirate Brethren of the Coast Barbary pirates Moro pirates Wōkòu Vikings Ushkuiniks Narentines Cilician pirates Confederate privateer Baltic Slavic pirates Uskoks Cossack pirates Sea Beggars Sea Dogs Fillibusters

Areas

Caribbean Lake Nicaragua British Virgin Islands Strait of Malacca Somali Coast Sulu Sea Falcon Lake South China Coast Anglo-Turkish piracy Port Royal Tortuga Saint-Malo Barbary Coast Lundy Lagos Salé Spanish Main Gulf of Guinea Indonesia Barataria Bay Persian Gulf

Noted pirates

Mansel Alcantra Chui A-poo Louis-Michel Aury Joseph Baker Hayreddin Barbarossa Joseph Barss Samuel Bellamy Charlotte de Berry Black Caesar Blackbeard Eli Boggs Stede Bonnet Anne Bonny Hippolyte Bouchard Abshir Boyah Roche Braziliano Henri Caesar Roberto Cofresí William Dampier Liang Daoming Diabolito Peter Easton Henry Every Alexandre Exquemelin Vincenzo Gambi Charles Gibbs Pedro Gilbert Nathaniel Gordon Laurens de Graaf Michel de Grammont Calico Jack Rahmah ibn Jabir al-Jalahimah Zheng Jing Jørgen Jørgensen Shirahama Kenki William Kidd Fūma Kotarō Jean Lafitte Limahong Samuel Hall Lord John Hawkins Bully Hayes Piet Pieterszoon Hein Moses Cohen Henriques Albert W. Hicks Nicholas van Hoorn Benjamin Hornigold Pierre Lafitte Olivier Levasseur Edward Low Hendrick Lucifer John Newland Maffitt Samuel Mason Henry Morgan Shap Ng-tsai Gan Ning François l'Olonnais Samuel Pallache Lawrence Prince Cai Qian Redbeard Bartholomew Roberts Lai Choi San Dan Seavey Ching Shih Benito de Soto Klaus Störtebeker Henry Strangways Cheung Po Tsai Dominique You Wang Zhi Zheng Zhilong

Categories

Piracy Pirates By nationality Barbary pirates Female pirates Years in piracy Fictional pirates

Pirate
Pirate
ships

Adventure Galley Fancy Ganj-i-Sawai Queen Anne's Revenge Quedagh Merchant Saladin Whydah Gally Marquis of Havana Ambrose Light York

Pirate
Pirate
hunters

Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Angelo Emo Richard Avery Hornsby Jose Campuzano-Polanco Robert Maynard Chaloner Ogle Pompey Woodes Rogers David Porter James Brooke Miguel Enríquez (privateer)

Pirate
Pirate
battles and incidents

Jiajing wokou raids Turkish Abductions Chepo Expedition Battle of Mandab Strait Battle of Pianosa Blockade of Charleston Battle of Cape Fear River Battle of Ocracoke Inlet Capture of the William Sack of Campeche Attack on Veracruz Raid on Cartagena Battle of Cape Lopez Capture of the Fancy Persian Gulf Campaign Battle of New Orleans Anti- Piracy
Piracy
in the Aegean Anti-piracy in the West Indies Capture of the Bravo Action of 9 November 1822 Capture of the El Mosquito Battle of Doro Passage Falklands Expedition Great Lakes Patrol Pirate
Pirate
attacks in Borneo Balanguingui Expedition Battle of Tysami Battle of Tonkin River Battle of Nam Quan Battle of Ty-ho Bay Battle of the Leotung Antelope incident North Star affair Battle off Mukah Salvador Pirates Battle of Boca Teacapan Capture of the Ambrose Light Irene incident 1985 Lahad Datu ambush Operation Enduring Freedom – HOA Action of 18 March 2006 Action of 3 June 2007 Action of 28 October 2007 Dai Hong Dan incident Operation Atalanta Carré d'As IV incident Action of 11 November 2008 Action of 9 April 2009 Maersk Alabama hijacking Operation Ocean Shield Action of 23 March 2010 Action of 1 April 2010 Action of 30 March 2010 Action of 5 April 2010 MV Moscow University hijacking Operation Dawn of Gulf of Aden Operation Dawn 8: Gulf of Aden Beluga Nomination incident Battle off Minicoy Island Quest incident MT Zafirah hijacking MT Orkim Harmony hijacking

Slave trade

African slave trade Atlantic
Atlantic
slave trade Arab
Arab
slave trade Barbary slave trade Blockade of Africa African Slave Trade Patrol Capture of the Providentia Capture of the Presidente Capture of the El Almirante Capture of the Marinerito Capture of the Veloz Passagera Capture of the Brillante Amistad Incident Capture of the Emanuela

Fictional pirates

Tom Ayrton Barbe Rouge Hector Barbossa Captain Blood Captain Crook Captain Flint José Gaspar Captain Hook Don Karnage Monkey D. Luffy Captain Nemo One Piece Captain Pugwash Red Rackham Captain Sabertooth Sandokan Long John Silver Jack Sparrow Captain Stingaree Roronoa Zoro

Miscellaneous

Truce of Ratisbon Piracy
Piracy
Act 1698 Piracy
Piracy
Act 1717 Piracy
Piracy
Act 1837 Paris Declaration Respecting Maritime Law Child pirate Golden Age of Piracy Jolly Roger Walking the plank Treasure
Treasure
map Buried treasure Pirate
Pirate
booty No purchase, no pay Marooning Pirate
Pirate
code Pirate
Pirate
utopia Victual Brothers Pirate
Pirate
Round Libertatia Sack of Baltimore A General History of the Pyrates Mutiny Pegleg Eyepatch Letter of marque Davy Jones' Locker Air pirate Space pirate

Lists

Pirates Privateers Timeline of piracy Pirate
Pirate
films Women in piracy Fictional pirates Pirates in popular culture List of ships attacked by Somali pirates

Literature

Treasure
Treasure
Island Facing the Flag On Stranger Tides Castaways of the Flying Dutchman The Angel's Command Voyage of Slave

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