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Barack Hussein Obama
Obama
II (/bəˈrɑːk huːˈseɪn oʊˈbɑːmə/ ( listen);[1] born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from 2009 to 2017. The first African American
African American
to assume the presidency, he was previously the junior United States Senator from Illinois
Illinois
from 2005 to 2008. Before that, he served in the Illinois State Senate from 1997 until 2004. Obama
Obama
was born in 1961 in Honolulu, Hawaii, two years after the territory was admitted to the Union as the 50th state. Raised largely in Hawaii, Obama
Obama
also spent one year of his childhood in Washington State and four years in Indonesia. After graduating from Columbia University in New York City
New York City
in 1983, he worked as a community organizer in Chicago. In 1988 Obama
Obama
enrolled in Harvard Law School, where he was the first black president of the Harvard Law Review. After graduation, he became a civil rights attorney and professor and taught constitutional law at the University of Chicago
Chicago
Law School from 1992 to 2004. Obama
Obama
represented the 13th District for three terms in the Illinois
Illinois
Senate from 1997 to 2004, when he ran for the U.S. Senate. Obama
Obama
received national attention in 2004 with his unexpected March primary win, his well-received July Democratic National Convention keynote address, and his landslide November election to the Senate. In 2008, Obama
Obama
was nominated for president a year after his campaign began and after a close primary campaign against Hillary Clinton. He was elected over Republican John McCain
John McCain
and was inaugurated on January 20, 2009. Nine months later, Obama
Obama
was named the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
laureate, accepting the award with the caveat that he felt there were others "far more deserving of this honor than I." During his first two years in office, Obama
Obama
signed many landmark bills into law. The main reforms were the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (often referred to as "Obamacare", shortened as the "Affordable Care Act"), the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, and the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009
and Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 served as economic stimulus amidst the Great Recession. After a lengthy debate over the national debt limit, Obama
Obama
signed the Budget Control and the American Taxpayer Relief Acts. In foreign policy, Obama
Obama
increased U.S. troop levels in Afghanistan, reduced nuclear weapons with the United States–Russia New START
New START
treaty, and ended military involvement in the Iraq
Iraq
War. He ordered military involvement in Libya
Libya
in opposition to Muammar Gaddafi; Gaddafi was killed by NATO-assisted forces, and he also ordered the military operation that resulted in the death of Osama bin Laden. After winning re-election by defeating Republican opponent Mitt Romney, Obama
Obama
was sworn in for a second term in 2013. During his second term, Obama
Obama
promoted inclusiveness for LGBT
LGBT
Americans. His administration filed briefs that urged the Supreme Court to strike down same-sex marriage bans as unconstitutional (United States v. Windsor and Obergefell v. Hodges). Obama
Obama
advocated for gun control in response to the Sandy Hook Elementary School
Elementary School
shooting, and issued wide-ranging executive actions concerning climate change and immigration. In foreign policy, Obama
Obama
ordered military intervention in Iraq
Iraq
in response to gains made by ISIL
ISIL
after the 2011 withdrawal from Iraq, continued the process of ending U.S. combat operations in Afghanistan, promoted discussions that led to the 2015 Paris Agreement on global climate change, initiated sanctions against Russia following the invasion in Ukraine and again after Russian interference in the 2016
2016
United States elections, brokered a nuclear deal with Iran, and normalized U.S. relations with Cuba. Obama
Obama
left office in January 2017 with a 60% approval rating and currently resides in Washington, D.C. Since leaving office, Obama’s presidency has been ranked consistently favorable by historians and the American general public.[2][3]

Contents

1 Early life and career

1.1 Education 1.2 Family and personal life

1.2.1 Religious views

1.3 Law career

1.3.1 Community organizer
Community organizer
and Harvard Law School 1.3.2 Chicago
Chicago
Law School and civil rights attorney

1.4 Legislative career

1.4.1 Illinois
Illinois
State Senator (1997–2004) 1.4.2 2004 U.S. Senate campaign 1.4.3 U.S. Senator from Illinois
Illinois
(2005–08)

1.4.3.1 Legislation 1.4.3.2 Committees

2 Presidential campaigns

2.1 2008 presidential campaign 2.2 2012 presidential campaign

3 Presidency (2009–2017)

3.1 First 100 days 3.2 Domestic policy

3.2.1 LGBT
LGBT
rights 3.2.2 White House
White House
advisory and oversight groups 3.2.3 Economic policy 3.2.4 Environmental policy 3.2.5 Health care reform 3.2.6 Energy policy 3.2.7 Gun control 3.2.8 2010 midterm elections 3.2.9 Cybersecurity and Internet policy

3.3 Foreign policy

3.3.1 War in Iraq 3.3.2 War in Afghanistan 3.3.3 Israel 3.3.4 Libya 3.3.5 Syrian Civil War 3.3.6 Death of Osama bin Laden 3.3.7 Iran nuclear talks 3.3.8 Relations with Cuba 3.3.9 Africa 3.3.10 Hiroshima
Hiroshima
speech 3.3.11 Russia

3.4 Cultural and political image

4 Post-presidency (2017–present) 5 Legacy

5.1 Presidential library

6 Books written

6.1 Audiobooks

7 See also

7.1 Politics 7.2 Other 7.3 Lists

8 Notes and references

8.1 Notes 8.2 References

9 Further reading 10 External links

10.1 Official 10.2 Other

Early life and career Main article: Early life and career of Barack Obama Obama
Obama
was born on August 4, 1961,[4] at Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children in Honolulu, Hawaii.[5][6][7] He is the only President who was born in Hawaii[8] and the only President who was born outside of the contiguous 48 states.[9] He was born to a white mother and a black father. His mother, Ann Dunham
Ann Dunham
(1942–1995), was born in Wichita, Kansas; she was mostly of English descent,[10] with some German, Irish, Scottish, Swiss, and Welsh ancestry.[11] His father, Barack Obama Sr.
Barack Obama Sr.
(1936–1982), was a married Luo Kenyan man from Nyang'oma Kogelo. Obama's parents met in 1960 in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii
Hawaii
at Manoa, where his father was a foreign student on scholarship.[12][13] The couple married in Wailuku, Hawaii
Hawaii
on February 2, 1961, six months before Obama
Obama
was born.[14][15] In late August 1961 (only a few weeks after he was born), Barack and his mother moved to the University of Washington
University of Washington
in Seattle, where they lived for a year. During that time, the elder Obama
Obama
completed his undergraduate degree in economics in Hawaii, graduating in June 1962. He then left to attend graduate school on a scholarship at Harvard University, where he earned an M.A. in economics. Obama's parents divorced in March 1964.[16] Obama
Obama
Sr. returned to Kenya in 1964, where he married for a third time. He visited his son in Hawaii
Hawaii
only once, at Christmas time in 1971,[17] before he was killed in an automobile accident in 1982, when Obama
Obama
was 21 years old.[18] Recalling his early childhood, Obama
Obama
said, "That my father looked nothing like the people around me – that he was black as pitch, my mother white as milk – barely registered in my mind."[13] He described his struggles as a young adult to reconcile social perceptions of his multiracial heritage.[19] In 1963, Dunham met Lolo Soetoro
Lolo Soetoro
at the University of Hawaii; he was an Indonesian East–West Center
East–West Center
graduate student in geography. The couple married on Molokai
Molokai
on March 15, 1965.[20] After two one-year extensions of his J-1 visa, Lolo returned to Indonesia
Indonesia
in 1966. His wife and stepson followed sixteen months later in 1967. The family initially lived in a Menteng
Menteng
Dalam neighborhood in the Tebet subdistrict of south Jakarta. From 1970, they lived in a wealthier neighborhood in the Menteng
Menteng
subdistrict of central Jakarta.[21] Education From age six to ten, Obama
Obama
attended local Indonesian-language schools: Sekolah Dasar Katolik Santo Fransiskus Asisi (St. Francis of Assisi Catholic
Catholic
Elementary School) for two years and Sekolah Dasar Negeri Menteng
Menteng
01 (State Elementary School
Elementary School
Menteng
Menteng
01/Besuki Public School) for one and a half years, supplemented by English-language Calvert School homeschooling by his mother.[22][23] As a result of those four years in Jakarta, he was able to speak Indonesian fluently as a child.[24][25][26] During his time in Indonesia, Obama's step-father taught him to be resilient and gave him "a pretty hardheaded assessment of how the world works".[27] In 1971, Obama
Obama
returned to Honolulu
Honolulu
to live with his maternal grandparents, Madelyn and Stanley Dunham. He attended Punahou School— a private college preparatory school— with the aid of a scholarship from fifth grade until he graduated from high school in 1979.[28] In his youth, Obama
Obama
went by the nickname "Barry".[29] Obama lived with his mother and half-sister, Maya Soetoro, in Hawaii
Hawaii
for three years from 1972 to 1975 while his mother was a graduate student in anthropology at the University of Hawaii.[30] Obama
Obama
chose to stay in Hawaii
Hawaii
with his grandparents for high school at Punahou when his mother and half-sister returned to Indonesia
Indonesia
in 1975 so his mother could begin anthropology field work.[31] His mother spent most of the next two decades in Indonesia, divorcing Lolo in 1980 and earning a PhD degree in 1992, before dying in 1995 in Hawaii
Hawaii
following unsuccessful treatment for ovarian and uterine cancer.[32] Obama
Obama
later reflected on his years in Honolulu
Honolulu
and wrote: "The opportunity that Hawaii
Hawaii
offered – to experience a variety of cultures in a climate of mutual respect – became an integral part of my world view, and a basis for the values that I hold most dear."[33] Obama
Obama
has also written and talked about using alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine during his teenage years to "push questions of who I was out of my mind".[34] Obama
Obama
was also a member of the "choom gang", a self-named group of friends that spent time together and occasionally smoked marijuana.[35][36] After graduating from high school in 1979, Obama
Obama
moved to Los Angeles to attend Occidental College. In February 1981, Obama
Obama
made his first public speech, calling for Occidental to participate in the disinvestment from South Africa in response to that nation's policy of apartheid.[37] In mid-1981, Obama
Obama
traveled to Indonesia
Indonesia
to visit his mother and half-sister Maya, and visited the families of college friends in Pakistan
Pakistan
and India for three weeks.[37] Later in 1981, he transferred as a junior to Columbia University
Columbia University
in New York City, where he majored in political science with a specialty in international relations[38] and in English literature[39] and lived off-campus on West 109th Street.[40] He graduated with a BA degree in 1983 and worked for about a year at the Business International Corporation, where he was a financial researcher and writer,[41][42] then as a project coordinator for the New York Public Interest Research Group on the City College of New York
City College of New York
campus for three months in 1985.[43][44][45] Family and personal life Main article: Family of Barack Obama

Obama
Obama
posing in the Green Room of the White House
White House
with wife Michelle and daughters Sasha and Malia, 2009

In a 2006 interview, Obama
Obama
highlighted the diversity of his extended family: "It's like a little mini-United Nations", he said. "I've got relatives who look like Bernie Mac, and I've got relatives who look like Margaret Thatcher."[46] Obama
Obama
has a half-sister with whom he was raised (Maya Soetoro-Ng, the daughter of his mother and her Indonesian second husband) and seven half-siblings from his Kenyan father's family—six of them living.[47] Obama's mother was survived by her Kansas-born mother, Madelyn Dunham,[48] until her death on November 2, 2008,[49] two days before his election to the Presidency. Obama
Obama
also has roots in Ireland; he met with his Irish cousins in Moneygall
Moneygall
in May 2011.[50] In Dreams from My Father, Obama
Obama
ties his mother's family history to possible Native American ancestors and distant relatives of Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America
President of the Confederate States of America
during the American Civil War.[51]

Obama
Obama
with Jonathan Toews
Jonathan Toews
and the Stanley Cup
Stanley Cup
champion Chicago Blackhawks, 2010

Obama
Obama
is a supporter of the Chicago
Chicago
White Sox, and he threw out the first pitch at the 2005 ALCS when he was still a senator.[52] In 2009, he threw out the ceremonial first pitch at the All-Star Game while wearing a White Sox jacket.[53] He is also primarily a Chicago
Chicago
Bears football fan in the NFL, but in his childhood and adolescence was a fan of the Pittsburgh Steelers, and rooted for them ahead of their victory in Super Bowl XLIII
Super Bowl XLIII
12 days after he took office as President.[54] In 2011, Obama
Obama
invited the 1985 Chicago
Chicago
Bears to the White House; the team had not visited the White House
White House
after their Super Bowl win in 1986 due to the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster.[55] He plays basketball, a sport he participated in as a member of his high school's varsity team,[56] and he is left-handed.[57]

Obama
Obama
taking a left-handed jump shot during a pick-up game on the White House
White House
basketball court, 2009

Obama
Obama
lived with anthropologist Sheila Miyoshi Jager
Sheila Miyoshi Jager
while he was a community organizer in Chicago
Chicago
in the 1980s.[58] He proposed to her twice, but both Jager and her parents turned him down.[58][59] The relationship was only made public in May 2017, several months after Obama's two-term presidency had ended.[59] In June 1989, Obama
Obama
met Michelle Robinson
Michelle Robinson
when he was employed as a summer associate at the Chicago
Chicago
law firm of Sidley Austin.[60] Robinson was assigned for three months as Obama's adviser at the firm, and she joined him at several group social functions but declined his initial requests to date.[61] They began dating later that summer, became engaged in 1991, and were married on October 3, 1992.[62] The couple's first daughter, Malia Ann, was born in 1998,[63] followed by a second daughter, Natasha ("Sasha"), in 2001.[64] The Obama
Obama
daughters attended the University of Chicago
Chicago
Laboratory Schools. When they moved to Washington, D.C., in January 2009, the girls started at the Sidwell Friends School.[65] The Obamas have two Portuguese Water Dogs; the first, a male named Bo, was a gift from Senator Ted Kennedy.[66] In 2013, Bo was joined by Sunny, a female.[67]

Obama
Obama
and his wife Michelle at the Civil Rights Summit at the LBJ Presidential Library, 2014

In 2005, the family applied the proceeds of a book deal and moved from a Hyde Park, Chicago
Chicago
condominium to a $1.6 million house in neighboring Kenwood, Chicago.[68] The purchase of an adjacent lot—and sale of part of it to Obama
Obama
by the wife of developer, campaign donor and friend Tony Rezko—attracted media attention because of Rezko's subsequent indictment and conviction on political corruption charges that were unrelated to Obama.[69] In December 2007, Money Magazine estimated Obama's net worth at $1.3 million.[70] Their 2009 tax return showed a household income of $5.5 million—up from about $4.2 million in 2007 and $1.6 million in 2005—mostly from sales of his books.[71][72] On his 2010 income of $1.7 million, he gave 14% to non-profit organizations, including $131,000 to Fisher House Foundation, a charity assisting wounded veterans' families, allowing them to reside near where the veteran is receiving medical treatments.[73][74] Per his 2012 financial disclosure, Obama
Obama
may be worth as much as $10 million.[75] In early 2010, Michelle spoke about her husband's smoking habit and said that Barack had quit smoking.[76][77] On his 55th birthday, August 4, 2016, Obama
Obama
penned an essay in Glamour, in which he described how his daughters and the presidency have made him a feminist.[78][79][80] Religious views Obama
Obama
is a Protestant
Protestant
Christian whose religious views developed in his adult life.[81] He wrote in The Audacity of Hope
The Audacity of Hope
that he "was not raised in a religious household". He described his mother, raised by non-religious parents, as being detached from religion, yet "in many ways the most spiritually awakened person that I have ever known." He described his father as a "confirmed atheist" by the time his parents met, and his stepfather as "a man who saw religion as not particularly useful." Obama
Obama
explained how, through working with black churches as a community organizer while in his twenties, he came to understand "the power of the African-American religious tradition to spur social change."[82]

The Obamas worship at African Methodist Episcopal Church
African Methodist Episcopal Church
in Washington, D.C., January 2013

In January 2008, Obama
Obama
told Christianity Today: "I am a Christian, and I am a devout Christian. I believe in the redemptive death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. I believe that faith gives me a path to be cleansed of sin and have eternal life."[83] On September 27, 2010, Obama
Obama
released a statement commenting on his religious views saying, "I'm a Christian by choice. My family didn't – frankly, they weren't folks who went to church every week. And my mother was one of the most spiritual people I knew, but she didn't raise me in the church. So I came to my Christian faith later in life, and it was because the precepts of Jesus Christ spoke to me in terms of the kind of life that I would want to lead – being my brothers' and sisters' keeper, treating others as they would treat me."[84][85] Obama
Obama
met Trinity United Church of Christ pastor Rev. Jeremiah Wright in October 1987 and became a member of Trinity in 1992.[86] During Obama's first presidential campaign in May 2008, he resigned from Trinity after some of Wright's statements were criticized.[87] Since moving to Washington, D.C., in 2009, the Obama
Obama
family has attended several Protestant
Protestant
churches, including Shiloh Baptist Church and St. John's Episcopal Church, as well as Evergreen Chapel at Camp David, but the members of the family do not attend church on a regular basis.[88][89][90] Law career Community organizer
Community organizer
and Harvard Law School Two years after graduating from Columbia, Obama
Obama
was back in Chicago when he was hired as director of the Developing Communities Project, a church-based community organization originally comprising eight Catholic
Catholic
parishes in Roseland, West Pullman, and Riverdale on Chicago's South Side. He worked there as a community organizer from June 1985 to May 1988.[44][91] He helped set up a job training program, a college preparatory tutoring program, and a tenants' rights organization in Altgeld Gardens.[92] Obama
Obama
also worked as a consultant and instructor for the Gamaliel Foundation, a community organizing institute.[93] In mid-1988, he traveled for the first time in Europe for three weeks and then for five weeks in Kenya, where he met many of his paternal relatives for the first time.[94][95]

External video

Derrick Bell threatens to leave Harvard, April 24, 1990, 11:34, Boston TV Digital Archive[96] Student Barack Obama
Barack Obama
introduces Professor Derrick Bell starting at 6:25.

Obama
Obama
entered Harvard Law School
Harvard Law School
in the fall of 1988, living in nearby Somerville, Massachusetts.[97] He was selected as an editor of the Harvard Law Review
Harvard Law Review
at the end of his first year,[98] president of the journal in his second year,[92][99] and research assistant to the constitutional scholar Laurence Tribe while at Harvard for two years.[100] During his summers, he returned to Chicago, where he worked as an associate at the law firms of Sidley Austin
Sidley Austin
in 1989 and Hopkins & Sutter in 1990.[101] After graduating with a JD degree magna cum laude[102] from Harvard in 1991, he returned to Chicago.[98] Obama's election as the first black president of the Harvard Law Review gained national media attention[92][99] and led to a publishing contract and advance for a book about race relations,[103] which evolved into a personal memoir. The manuscript was published in mid-1995 as Dreams from My Father.[103] Chicago
Chicago
Law School and civil rights attorney In 1991, Obama
Obama
accepted a two-year position as Visiting Law and Government Fellow at the University of Chicago
Chicago
Law School to work on his first book.[103][104] He then taught constitutional law at the University of Chicago
Chicago
Law School for twelve years, first as a Lecturer from 1992 to 1996, and then as a Senior Lecturer from 1996 to 2004.[105] From April to October 1992, Obama
Obama
directed Illinois's Project Vote, a voter registration campaign with ten staffers and seven hundred volunteer registrars; it achieved its goal of registering 150,000 of 400,000 unregistered African Americans in the state, leading Crain's Chicago
Chicago
Business to name Obama
Obama
to its 1993 list of "40 under Forty" powers to be.[106] He joined Davis, Miner, Barnhill & Galland, a 13-attorney law firm specializing in civil rights litigation and neighborhood economic development, where he was an associate for three years from 1993 to 1996, then of counsel from 1996 to 2004. In 1994, he was listed as one of the lawyers in Buycks-Roberson v. Citibank Fed. Sav. Bank, 94 C 4094 (N.D. Ill.).[107] This class action lawsuit was filed in 1994 with Selma Buycks-Roberson as lead plaintiff and alleged that Citibank Federal Savings Bank had engaged in practices forbidden under the Equal Credit Opportunity Act and the Fair Housing Act.[108] The case was settled out of court.[109] Final Judgment was issued on May 13, 1998, with Citibank Federal Savings Bank agreeing to pay attorney fees.[110] His law license became inactive in 2007.[111][112] From 1994 to 2002, Obama
Obama
served on the boards of directors of the Woods Fund of Chicago—which in 1985 had been the first foundation to fund the Developing Communities Project—and of the Joyce Foundation.[44] He served on the board of directors of the Chicago Annenberg Challenge from 1995 to 2002, as founding president and chairman of the board of directors from 1995 to 1999.[44] Legislative career Illinois
Illinois
State Senator (1997–2004) Main article: Illinois
Illinois
Senate career of Barack Obama

State Senator Obama
Obama
and others celebrate the naming of a street in Chicago
Chicago
after ShoreBank
ShoreBank
co-founder Milton Davis in 1998

Obama
Obama
was elected to the Illinois
Illinois
Senate in 1996, succeeding Democratic State Senator Alice Palmer from Illinois's 13th District, which, at that time, spanned Chicago
Chicago
South Side neighborhoods from Hyde Park–Kenwood south to South Shore and west to Chicago Lawn.[113] Once elected, Obama
Obama
gained bipartisan support for legislation that reformed ethics and health care laws.[114] He sponsored a law that increased tax credits for low-income workers, negotiated welfare reform, and promoted increased subsidies for childcare.[115] In 2001, as co-chairman of the bipartisan Joint Committee on Administrative Rules, Obama
Obama
supported Republican Governor Ryan's payday loan regulations and predatory mortgage lending regulations aimed at averting home foreclosures.[116] He was reelected to the Illinois
Illinois
Senate in 1998, defeating Republican Yesse Yehudah in the general election, and was re-elected again in 2002.[117] In 2000, he lost a Democratic primary race for Illinois's 1st congressional district in the United States House of Representatives to four-term incumbent Bobby Rush
Bobby Rush
by a margin of two to one.[118] In January 2003, Obama
Obama
became chairman of the Illinois
Illinois
Senate's Health and Human Services Committee when Democrats, after a decade in the minority, regained a majority.[119] He sponsored and led unanimous, bipartisan passage of legislation to monitor racial profiling by requiring police to record the race of drivers they detained, and legislation making Illinois
Illinois
the first state to mandate videotaping of homicide interrogations.[115][120] During his 2004 general election campaign for the U.S. Senate, police representatives credited Obama for his active engagement with police organizations in enacting death penalty reforms.[121] Obama
Obama
resigned from the Illinois
Illinois
Senate in November 2004 following his election to the U.S. Senate.[122] 2004 U.S. Senate campaign Main article: United States Senate
United States Senate
election in Illinois, 2004

County results of the 2004 U.S. Senate race in Illinois. Obama
Obama
won the counties in blue.

In May 2002, Obama
Obama
commissioned a poll to assess his prospects in a 2004 U.S. Senate race. He created a campaign committee, began raising funds, and lined up political media consultant David Axelrod
David Axelrod
by August 2002. Obama
Obama
formally announced his candidacy in January 2003.[123] Obama
Obama
was an early opponent of the George W. Bush
George W. Bush
administration's 2003 invasion of Iraq.[124] On October 2, 2002, the day President Bush and Congress agreed on the joint resolution authorizing the Iraq War,[125] Obama
Obama
addressed the first high-profile Chicago
Chicago
anti- Iraq
Iraq
War rally,[126] and spoke out against the war.[127] He addressed another anti-war rally in March 2003 and told the crowd that "it's not too late" to stop the war.[128] Decisions by Republican incumbent Peter Fitzgerald and his Democratic predecessor Carol Moseley Braun
Carol Moseley Braun
to not participate in the election resulted in wide-open Democratic and Republican primary contests involving fifteen candidates.[129] In the March 2004 primary election, Obama
Obama
won in an unexpected landslide—which overnight made him a rising star within the national Democratic Party, started speculation about a presidential future, and led to the reissue of his memoir, Dreams from My Father.[130] In July 2004, Obama
Obama
delivered the keynote address at the 2004 Democratic National Convention,[131] seen by 9.1 million viewers. His speech was well received and elevated his status within the Democratic Party.[132] Obama's expected opponent in the general election, Republican primary winner Jack Ryan, withdrew from the race in June 2004.[133] Six weeks later, Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes
accepted the Republican nomination to replace Ryan.[134] In the November 2004 general election, Obama
Obama
won with 70% of the vote.[135] U.S. Senator from Illinois
Illinois
(2005–08) Main article: United States Senate
United States Senate
career of Barack Obama

The official portrait of Obama
Obama
as a member of the United States Senate

Obama
Obama
was sworn in as a senator on January 3, 2005,[136] becoming the only Senate member of the Congressional Black Caucus.[137] CQ Weekly characterized him as a "loyal Democrat" based on analysis of all Senate votes from 2005 to 2007. Obama
Obama
announced on November 13, 2008, that he would resign his Senate seat on November 16, 2008, before the start of the lame-duck session, to focus on his transition period for the presidency.[138] Legislation See also: List of bills sponsored by Barack Obama
Barack Obama
in the United States Senate Obama
Obama
cosponsored the Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act.[139] He introduced two initiatives that bore his name: Lugar–Obama, which expanded the Nunn–Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction
Nunn–Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction
concept to conventional weapons;[140] and the Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006, which authorized the establishment of USAspending.gov, a web search engine on federal spending.[141] On June 3, 2008, Senator Obama—along with Senators Tom Carper, Tom Coburn, and John McCain—introduced follow-up legislation: Strengthening Transparency and Accountability in Federal Spending Act of 2008.[142] Obama
Obama
sponsored legislation that would have required nuclear plant owners to notify state and local authorities of radioactive leaks, but the bill failed to pass in the full Senate after being heavily modified in committee.[143] Regarding tort reform, Obama
Obama
voted for the Class Action Fairness Act of 2005
Class Action Fairness Act of 2005
and the FISA Amendments Act of 2008, which grants immunity from civil liability to telecommunications companies complicit with NSA warrantless wiretapping operations.[144]

Obama
Obama
and U.S. Senator Richard Lugar
Richard Lugar
(R-IN) visit a Russian facility for dismantling mobile missiles (August 2005)[145]

In December 2006, President Bush signed into law the Democratic Republic of the Congo Relief, Security, and Democracy Promotion Act, marking the first federal legislation to be enacted with Obama
Obama
as its primary sponsor.[146] In January 2007, Obama
Obama
and Senator Feingold introduced a corporate jet provision to the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act, which was signed into law in September 2007.[147] Obama
Obama
also introduced two unsuccessful bills: the Deceptive Practices and Voter Intimidation Prevention Act to criminalize deceptive practices in federal elections,[148] and the Iraq War
Iraq War
De-Escalation Act of 2007.[149] Later in 2007, Obama
Obama
sponsored an amendment to the Defense Authorization Act to add safeguards for personality-disorder military discharges.[150] This amendment passed the full Senate in the spring of 2008.[151] He sponsored the Iran Sanctions Enabling Act supporting divestment of state pension funds from Iran's oil and gas industry, which has not passed committee; and co-sponsored legislation to reduce risks of nuclear terrorism.[152] Obama
Obama
also sponsored a Senate amendment to the State Children's Health Insurance Program, providing one year of job protection for family members caring for soldiers with combat-related injuries.[153] Committees

Obama
Obama
speaking with a soldier stationed in Iraq, 2006

Obama
Obama
held assignments on the Senate Committees for Foreign Relations, Environment and Public Works and Veterans' Affairs through December 2006.[154] In January 2007, he left the Environment and Public Works committee and took additional assignments with Health, Education, Labor and Pensions and Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs.[155] He also became Chairman of the Senate's subcommittee on European Affairs.[156] As a member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Obama
Obama
made official trips to Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia and Africa. He met with Mahmoud Abbas
Mahmoud Abbas
before Abbas became President of the Palestinian National Authority, and gave a speech at the University of Nairobi
University of Nairobi
in which he condemned corruption within the Kenyan government.[157] Presidential campaigns 2008 presidential campaign Main articles: United States presidential election, 2008; Barack Obama presidential primary campaign, 2008; and Barack Obama
Barack Obama
presidential campaign, 2008

Obama
Obama
standing on stage with his wife and daughters just before announcing his presidential candidacy in Springfield, Illinois, February 10, 2007

On February 10, 2007, Obama
Obama
announced his candidacy for President of the United States in front of the Old State Capitol building in Springfield, Illinois.[158][159] The choice of the announcement site was viewed as symbolic because it was also where Abraham Lincoln delivered his historic "House Divided" speech in 1858.[158][160] Obama emphasized issues of rapidly ending the Iraq
Iraq
War, increasing energy independence, and reforming the health care system,[161] in a campaign that projected themes of hope and change.[162] Numerous candidates entered the Democratic Party presidential primaries. The field narrowed to a duel between Obama
Obama
and Senator Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
after early contests, with the race remaining close throughout the primary process but with Obama
Obama
gaining a steady lead in pledged delegates due to better long-range planning, superior fundraising, dominant organizing in caucus states, and better exploitation of delegate allocation rules.[163] On June 7, 2008, Clinton ended her campaign and endorsed Obama.[164]

Outgoing President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
meets with President-elect Obama
Obama
in the Oval Office
Oval Office
on November 10, 2008

On August 23, Obama
Obama
announced his selection of Delaware
Delaware
Senator Joe Biden as his vice presidential running mate.[165] Obama
Obama
selected Biden from a field speculated to include former Indiana Governor and Senator Evan Bayh
Evan Bayh
and Virginia Governor Tim Kaine.[166] At the Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado, Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
called for her supporters to endorse Obama, and she and Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
gave convention speeches in his support.[167] Obama
Obama
delivered his acceptance speech, not at the center where the Democratic National Convention was held, but at Invesco Field at Mile High
Invesco Field at Mile High
to a crowd of approximately 84,000 people; the speech was viewed by over 38 million people worldwide.[168][169][170] During both the primary process and the general election, Obama's campaign set numerous fundraising records, particularly in the quantity of small donations.[171] On June 19, 2008, Obama
Obama
became the first major-party presidential candidate to turn down public financing in the general election since the system was created in 1976.[172]

2008 electoral vote results

John McCain
John McCain
was nominated as the Republican candidate, and he selected Sarah Palin
Sarah Palin
as his running mate. The two candidates engaged in three presidential debates in September and October 2008.[173] On November 4, Obama
Obama
won the presidency with 365 electoral votes to 173 received by McCain.[174] Obama
Obama
won 52.9% of the popular vote to McCain's 45.7%.[175] He became the first African American
African American
to be elected president.[176] Obama
Obama
delivered his victory speech before hundreds of thousands of supporters in Chicago's Grant Park.[177] 2012 presidential campaign Main articles: United States presidential election, 2012
United States presidential election, 2012
and Barack Obama
Obama
presidential campaign, 2012

Obama
Obama
greets former Governor Mitt Romney
Mitt Romney
in the Oval Office
Oval Office
on November 29, 2012, in their first meeting since Obama's re-election victory over Romney

On April 4, 2011, Obama
Obama
announced his reelection campaign for 2012 in a video titled "It Begins with Us" that he posted on his website and filed election papers with the Federal Election Commission.[178][179][180] As the incumbent president he ran virtually unopposed in the Democratic Party presidential primaries,[181] and on April 3, 2012, Obama
Obama
had secured the 2778 convention delegates needed to win the Democratic nomination.[182]

2012 electoral vote results

At the Democratic National Convention
Democratic National Convention
in Charlotte, North Carolina, Obama
Obama
and Joe Biden
Joe Biden
were formally nominated by former President Bill Clinton as the Democratic Party candidates for president and vice president in the general election. Their main opponents were Republicans Mitt Romney, the former governor of Massachusetts, and Representative Paul Ryan
Paul Ryan
of Wisconsin.[183] On November 6, 2012, Obama
Obama
won 332 electoral votes, exceeding the 270 required for him to be reelected as president.[184][185][186] With 51.1% of the popular vote,[187] Obama
Obama
became the first Democratic president since Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
to win the majority of the popular vote twice.[188][189] President Obama
Obama
addressed supporters and volunteers at Chicago's McCormick Place
McCormick Place
after his reelection and said: "Tonight you voted for action, not politics as usual. You elected us to focus on your jobs, not ours. And in the coming weeks and months, I am looking forward to reaching out and working with leaders of both parties."[190][191] Presidency (2009–2017) Main article: Presidency of Barack Obama For a chronological guide to this subject, see Timeline of the Presidency of Barack Obama. See also: Confirmations of Barack Obama's Cabinet
Confirmations of Barack Obama's Cabinet
and List of international presidential trips made by Barack Obama First 100 days Main article: First 100 days of Barack Obama's presidency

Barack Obama
Barack Obama
takes the oath of office administered by Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr. at the Capitol, January 20, 2009

The inauguration of Barack Obama
Barack Obama
as the 44th President took place on January 20, 2009. In his first few days in office, Obama
Obama
issued executive orders and presidential memoranda directing the U.S. military to develop plans to withdraw troops from Iraq.[192] He ordered the closing of the Guantanamo Bay detention camp,[193] but Congress prevented the closure by refusing to appropriate the required funds[194][195][196] and preventing moving any Guantanamo detainee into the U.S. or to other countries.[197] Obama
Obama
reduced the secrecy given to presidential records.[198] He also revoked President George W. Bush's restoration of President Ronald Reagan's Mexico City Policy prohibiting federal aid to international family planning organizations that perform or provide counseling about abortion.[199] Domestic policy See also: Social policy of the Barack Obama
Barack Obama
administration The first bill signed into law by Obama
Obama
was the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009, relaxing the statute of limitations for equal-pay lawsuits.[200] Five days later, he signed the reauthorization of the State Children's Health Insurance Program
State Children's Health Insurance Program
(SCHIP) to cover an additional 4 million uninsured children.[201] In March 2009, Obama
Obama
reversed a Bush-era policy that had limited funding of embryonic stem cell research and pledged to develop "strict guidelines" on the research.[202]

Obama
Obama
delivering a speech at joint session of Congress with Vice President Joe Biden
Joe Biden
and House Speaker Nancy Pelosi
Nancy Pelosi
on February 24, 2009

Obama
Obama
appointed two women to serve on the Supreme Court in the first two years of his Presidency. He nominated Sonia Sotomayor
Sonia Sotomayor
on May 26, 2009 to replace retiring Associate Justice David Souter; she was confirmed on August 6, 2009,[203] becoming the first Supreme Court Justice of Hispanic
Hispanic
descent.[204] Obama
Obama
nominated Elena Kagan
Elena Kagan
on May 10, 2010 to replace retiring Associate Justice John Paul Stevens. She was confirmed on August 5, 2010, bringing the number of women sitting simultaneously on the Court to three justices for the first time in American history.[205] On March 30, 2010, Obama
Obama
signed the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act, a reconciliation bill that ended the process of the federal government giving subsidies to private banks to give out federally insured loans, increased the Pell Grant scholarship award, and made changes to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.[206][207]

Obama
Obama
meets with the Cabinet of the United States, November 23, 2009

In a major space policy speech in April 2010, Obama
Obama
announced a planned change in direction at NASA, the U.S. space agency. He ended plans for a return of human spaceflight to the moon and development of the Ares I
Ares I
rocket, Ares V
Ares V
rocket and Constellation program, in favor of funding Earth science projects, a new rocket type, and research and development for an eventual manned mission to Mars, and ongoing missions to the International Space Station.[208] President Obama's 2011 State of the Union Address
2011 State of the Union Address
focused on themes of education and innovation, stressing the importance of innovation economics to make the United States more competitive globally. He spoke of a five-year freeze in domestic spending, eliminating tax breaks for oil companies and reversing tax cuts for the wealthiest Americans, banning congressional earmarks, and reducing healthcare costs. He promised that the United States would have one million electric vehicles on the road by 2015 and would be 80% reliant on "clean" electricity.[209][210] LGBT
LGBT
rights On October 8, 2009, Obama
Obama
signed the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act, a measure that expanded the 1969 United States federal hate-crime law to include crimes motivated by a victim's actual or perceived gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability.[211] On October 30, 2009, Obama
Obama
lifted the ban on travel to the United States by those infected with HIV, which was celebrated by Immigration Equality.[212] On December 22, 2010, Obama
Obama
signed the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010, which fulfilled a key promise made in the 2008 presidential campaign[213][214] to end the Don't ask, don't tell policy of 1993 that had prevented gay and lesbian people from serving openly in the United States Armed Forces.[215] In 2016, the Pentagon ended the policy that also barred transgender people from serving openly in the military.[216] As a candidate for the Illinois
Illinois
state senate in 1996, Obama
Obama
had said that he favored legalizing same-sex marriage.[217] By the time of his Senate run in 2004, he said that he supported civil unions and domestic partnerships for same-sex partners, but he opposed same-sex marriages for strategic reasons.[218] On May 9, 2012, shortly after the official launch of his campaign for re-election as president, Obama
Obama
said his views had evolved, and he publicly affirmed his personal support for the legalization of same-sex marriage, becoming the first sitting U.S. president to do so.[219][220]

The White House
White House
was illuminated in rainbow colors on the evening of the Supreme Court same-sex marriage ruling, June 26, 2015.

During his second inaugural address on January 21, 2013,[191] Obama became the first U.S. President in office to call for full equality for gay Americans: "Our journey is not complete until our gay brothers and sisters are treated like anyone else under the law – for if we are truly created equal, then surely the love we commit to one another must be equal as well." This was the first time that a president mentioned gay rights or the word "gay" in an inaugural address.[221][222] In 2013, the Obama
Obama
Administration filed briefs that urged the Supreme Court to rule in favor of same-sex couples in the cases of Hollingsworth v. Perry
Hollingsworth v. Perry
(regarding same-sex marriage)[223] and United States v. Windsor (regarding the Defense of Marriage Act).[224] Then, following the Supreme Court's 2015 decision in Obergefell v. Hodges (ruling same-sex marriage to be a fundamental right), Obama
Obama
asserted that, "This decision affirms what millions of Americans already believe in their hearts: When all Americans are treated as equal we are all more free."[225] On July 30, 2015 the White House
White House
Office of National AIDS Policy revised its strategy for addressing the ailment, which included widespread testing and linkage to healthcare, which was celebrated by the Human Rights Campaign.[226] White House
White House
advisory and oversight groups On March 11, 2009, Obama
Obama
created the White House
White House
Council on Women and Girls, which forms part of the Office of Intergovernmental Affairs, having been established by Executive Order 13506 with a broad mandate to advise him on issues relating to the welfare of American women and girls.[227] The Council is currently chaired by Senior Advisor to the President Valerie Jarrett.[228] Obama
Obama
also established the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault through an official United States government memorandum on January 22, 2014, with a broad mandate to advise him on issues relating to sexual assault on college and university campuses throughout the United States.[228][229][230] The current co-chairs of the Task Force are Vice President Joe Biden and Jarrett.[229] The Task Force has been a development out of the White House
White House
Council on Women and Girls and Office of the Vice President of the United States, and prior to that, the 1994 Violence Against Women Act that was first drafted by Biden.[231] Economic policy Main article: Economic policy of the Barack Obama
Barack Obama
administration

Play media

Obama
Obama
presents his first weekly address as President of the United States on January 24, 2009, discussing the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

On February 17, 2009, Obama
Obama
signed the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, a $787 billion economic stimulus package aimed at helping the economy recover from the deepening worldwide recession.[232] The act includes increased federal spending for health care, infrastructure, education, various tax breaks and incentives, and direct assistance to individuals.[233]

Deficit and debt increases, 2001–16

In March, Obama's Treasury Secretary, Timothy Geithner, took further steps to manage the financial crisis, including introducing the Public–Private Investment Program for Legacy Assets, which contains provisions for buying up to two trillion dollars in depreciated real estate assets.[234] Obama
Obama
intervened in the troubled automotive industry[235] in March 2009, renewing loans for General Motors
General Motors
and Chrysler
Chrysler
to continue operations while reorganizing. Over the following months the White House
White House
set terms for both firms' bankruptcies, including the sale of Chrysler
Chrysler
to Italian automaker Fiat[236] and a reorganization of GM giving the U.S. government a temporary 60% equity stake in the company, with the Canadian government taking a 12% stake.[237] In June 2009, dissatisfied with the pace of economic stimulus, Obama
Obama
called on his cabinet to accelerate the investment.[238] He signed into law the Car Allowance Rebate System, known colloquially as "Cash for Clunkers", that temporarily boosted the economy.[239][240][241] The Bush and Obama
Obama
administrations authorized spending and loan guarantees from the Federal Reserve and the Treasury Department. These guarantees totaled about $11.5 trillion, but only $3 trillion was spent by the end of November 2009.[242] Obama
Obama
and the Congressional Budget Office
Congressional Budget Office
predicted the 2010 budget deficit would be $1.5 trillion or 10.6% of the nation's gross domestic product (GDP) compared to the 2009 deficit of $1.4 trillion or 9.9% of GDP.[243][244] For 2011, the administration predicted the deficit will shrink to $1.34 trillion, and the 10-year deficit will increase to $8.53 trillion or 90% of GDP.[245] The most recent increase in the U.S. debt ceiling to $17.2 trillion took effect in February 2014.[246] On August 2, 2011, after a lengthy congressional debate over whether to raise the nation's debt limit, Obama
Obama
signed the bipartisan Budget Control Act of 2011. The legislation enforces limits on discretionary spending until 2021, establishes a procedure to increase the debt limit, creates a Congressional Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction to propose further deficit reduction with a stated goal of achieving at least $1.5 trillion in budgetary savings over 10 years, and establishes automatic procedures for reducing spending by as much as $1.2 trillion if legislation originating with the new joint select committee does not achieve such savings.[247] By passing the legislation, Congress was able to prevent a U.S. government default on its obligations.[248]

US employment statistics (unemployment rate and monthly changes in net employment) during Obama's tenure as U.S. President[249][250]

As it did throughout 2008, the unemployment rate rose in 2009, reaching a peak in October at 10.0% and averaging 10.0% in the fourth quarter. Following a decrease to 9.7% in the first quarter of 2010, the unemployment rate fell to 9.6% in the second quarter, where it remained for the rest of the year.[251] Between February and December 2010, employment rose by 0.8%, which was less than the average of 1.9% experienced during comparable periods in the past four employment recoveries.[252] By November 2012, the unemployment rate fell to 7.7%,[253] decreasing to 6.7% in the last month of 2013.[254] During 2014, the unemployment rate continued to decline, falling to 6.3% in the first quarter.[255] GDP growth returned in the third quarter of 2009, expanding at a rate of 1.6%, followed by a 5.0% increase in the fourth quarter.[256] Growth continued in 2010, posting an increase of 3.7% in the first quarter, with lesser gains throughout the rest of the year.[256] In July 2010, the Federal Reserve noted that economic activity continued to increase, but its pace had slowed, and chairman Ben Bernanke
Ben Bernanke
said the economic outlook was "unusually uncertain".[257] Overall, the economy expanded at a rate of 2.9% in 2010.[258] The Congressional Budget Office
Congressional Budget Office
and a broad range of economists credit Obama's stimulus plan for economic growth.[259][260] The CBO released a report stating that the stimulus bill increased employment by 1–2.1 million,[260][261][262][263] while conceding that "It is impossible to determine how many of the reported jobs would have existed in the absence of the stimulus package."[259] Although an April 2010 survey of members of the National Association for Business Economics showed an increase in job creation (over a similar January survey) for the first time in two years, 73% of 68 respondents believed that the stimulus bill has had no impact on employment.[264] The economy of the United States has grown faster than the other original NATO
NATO
members by a wider margin under President Obama
Obama
than it has anytime since the end of World War II.[265] The OECD
OECD
credits the much faster growth in the United States to the stimulus in the United States and the austerity measures in the European Union.[266] Within a month of the 2010 midterm elections, Obama
Obama
announced a compromise deal with the Congressional Republican leadership that included a temporary, two-year extension of the 2001 and 2003 income tax rates, a one-year payroll tax reduction, continuation of unemployment benefits, and a new rate and exemption amount for estate taxes.[267] The compromise overcame opposition from some in both parties, and the resulting $858 billion Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 passed with bipartisan majorities in both houses of Congress before Obama
Obama
signed it on December 17, 2010.[268] In December 2013, Obama
Obama
declared that growing income inequality is a "defining challenge of our time" and called on Congress to bolster the safety net and raise wages. This came on the heels of the nationwide strikes of fast-food workers and Pope Francis' criticism of inequality and trickle-down economics.[269] Obama
Obama
has urged Congress to ratify a 12-nation free trade pact called the Trans-Pacific Partnership.[270] Environmental policy See also: Climate change
Climate change
policy of the United States

Obama
Obama
at a 2010 briefing on the BP oil spill
BP oil spill
at the Coast Guard Station Venice in Venice, Louisiana

On September 30, 2009, the Obama administration
Obama administration
proposed new regulations on power plants, factories, and oil refineries in an attempt to limit greenhouse gas emissions and to curb global warming.[271][272] On April 20, 2010, an explosion destroyed an offshore drilling rig at the Macondo Prospect
Macondo Prospect
in the Gulf of Mexico, causing a major sustained oil leak. Obama
Obama
visited the Gulf, announced a federal investigation, and formed a bipartisan commission to recommend new safety standards, after a review by Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar
Ken Salazar
and concurrent Congressional hearings. He then announced a six-month moratorium on new deepwater drilling permits and leases, pending regulatory review.[273] As multiple efforts by BP failed, some in the media and public expressed confusion and criticism over various aspects of the incident, and stated a desire for more involvement by Obama
Obama
and the federal government.[274] In July 2013, Obama
Obama
expressed reservations and stated he "would reject the Keystone XL pipeline
Keystone XL pipeline
if it increased carbon pollution" or "greenhouse emissions".[275][276] Obama's advisers called for a halt to petroleum exploration in the Arctic in January 2013.[277] On February 24, 2015, Obama
Obama
vetoed a bill that would authorize the pipeline.[278] It was the third veto of Obama's presidency and his first major veto.[279] Obama
Obama
has emphasized the conservation of federal lands during his term in office. He used his power under the Antiquities Act
Antiquities Act
to create 25 new national monuments during his presidency and expand four others, protecting a total of 553,000,000 acres (224,000,000 ha) of federal lands and waters, more than any other U.S. president.[280] Health care reform Main article: Health care reform in the United States

Obama
Obama
signs the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
at the White House, March 23, 2010

Obama
Obama
called for Congress to pass legislation reforming health care in the United States, a key campaign promise and a top legislative goal.[281] He proposed an expansion of health insurance coverage to cover the uninsured, to cap premium increases, and to allow people to retain their coverage when they leave or change jobs. His proposal was to spend $900 billion over 10 years and include a government insurance plan, also known as the public option, to compete with the corporate insurance sector as a main component to lowering costs and improving quality of health care. It would also make it illegal for insurers to drop sick people or deny them coverage for pre-existing conditions, and require every American to carry health coverage. The plan also includes medical spending cuts and taxes on insurance companies that offer expensive plans.[282][283]

Maximum Out-of-Pocket Premium as Percentage of Family Income and federal poverty level, under Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, starting in 2014 (Source: CRS)[284]

On July 14, 2009, House Democratic leaders introduced a 1,017-page plan for overhauling the U.S. health care system, which Obama
Obama
wanted Congress to approve by the end of 2009.[281] After much public debate during the Congressional summer recess of 2009, Obama
Obama
delivered a speech to a joint session of Congress on September 9 where he addressed concerns over the proposals.[285] In March 2009, Obama lifted a ban on using federal funds for stem cell research.[286] On November 7, 2009, a health care bill featuring the public option was passed in the House.[287][288] On December 24, 2009, the Senate passed its own bill—without a public option—on a party-line vote of 60–39.[289] On March 21, 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) passed by the Senate in December was passed in the House by a vote of 219 to 212.[290] Obama
Obama
signed the bill into law on March 23, 2010.[291] The ACA includes health-related provisions, most of which took effect in 2014, including expanding Medicaid
Medicaid
eligibility for people making up to 133% of the federal poverty level (FPL) starting in 2014,[292] subsidizing insurance premiums for people making up to 400% of the FPL ($88,000 for family of four in 2010) so their maximum "out-of-pocket" payment for annual premiums will be from 2% to 9.5% of income,[293][294] providing incentives for businesses to provide health care benefits, prohibiting denial of coverage and denial of claims based on pre-existing conditions, establishing health insurance exchanges, prohibiting annual coverage caps, and support for medical research. According to White House
White House
and Congressional Budget Office figures, the maximum share of income that enrollees would have to pay would vary depending on their income relative to the federal poverty level.[293][295]

Percentage of Individuals in the United States without Health Insurance, 1963–2015 (Source: JAMA)[296]

The costs of these provisions are offset by taxes, fees, and cost-saving measures, such as new Medicare taxes for those in high-income brackets, taxes on indoor tanning, cuts to the Medicare Advantage program in favor of traditional Medicare, and fees on medical devices and pharmaceutical companies;[297] there is also a tax penalty for those who do not obtain health insurance, unless they are exempt due to low income or other reasons.[298] In March 2010, the Congressional Budget Office
Congressional Budget Office
estimated that the net effect of both laws will be a reduction in the federal deficit by $143 billion over the first decade.[299] The law faced several legal challenges, primarily based on the argument that an individual mandate requiring Americans to buy health insurance was unconstitutional. On June 28, 2012, the Supreme Court ruled by a 5–4 vote in National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius that the mandate was constitutional under the U.S. Congress's taxing authority.[300] In Burwell v. Hobby Lobby the Court ruled that "closely-held" for-profit corporations could be exempt on religious grounds under the Religious Freedom Restoration Act
Religious Freedom Restoration Act
from regulations adopted under the ACA that would have required them to pay for insurance that covered certain contraceptives. In June 2015, the Court ruled 6–3 in King v. Burwell
King v. Burwell
that subsidies to help individuals and families purchase health insurance were authorized for those doing so on both the federal exchange and state exchanges, not only those purchasing plans "established by the State", as the statute reads.[301] Energy policy Main article: Energy policy of the Obama
Obama
administration Prior to June 2014, Obama
Obama
offered substantial support for a broadly-based "All of the above" approach to domestic energy policy, which Obama
Obama
has maintained since his first term and which he last confirmed at his State of the Union
State of the Union
speech in January 2014 to a mixed reception by both parties. In June 2014, Obama
Obama
made indications that his administration would consider a shift towards an energy policy more closely tuned to the manufacturing industry and its impact on the domestic economy.[302] Obama's approach of selectively combining regulation and incentive to various issues in the domestic energy policy such as coal mining and oil fracking has received mixed commentary for not being as responsive to the needs of the domestic manufacturing sector as needed, following claims that the domestic manufacturing sector utilizes as much as a third of the nation's available energy resources.[303][304] Gun control Main article: Social policy of the Barack Obama
Barack Obama
administration § Gun policy

Obama
Obama
visits an Aurora shooting victim at University of Colorado Hospital, 2012

On January 16, 2013, one month after the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, Obama
Obama
signed 23 executive orders and outlined a series of sweeping proposals regarding gun control.[305] He urged Congress to reintroduce an expired ban on military-style assault weapons, such as those used in several recent mass shootings, impose limits on ammunition magazines to 10 rounds, introduce background checks on all gun sales, pass a ban on possession and sale of armor-piercing bullets, introduce harsher penalties for gun-traffickers, especially unlicensed dealers who buy arms for criminals and approving the appointment of the head of the federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives for the first time since 2006.[306] On January 5, 2016, Obama
Obama
announced new executive actions extending background check requirements to more gun sellers.[307] In a 2016
2016
editorial in the New York Times, Obama
Obama
compared the struggle for what he termed "common-sense gun reform" to women's suffrage and other civil rights movements in American history.[308] 2010 midterm elections Main articles: United States House of Representatives
United States House of Representatives
elections, 2010 and United States Senate
United States Senate
elections, 2010 Obama
Obama
called the November 2, 2010 election, where the Democratic Party lost 63 seats in, and control of, the House of Representatives,[309] "humbling" and a "shellacking".[310] He said that the results came because not enough Americans had felt the effects of the economic recovery.[311] Cybersecurity and Internet policy On November 10, 2014, President Obama
Obama
recommended the Federal Communications Commission reclassify broadband Internet service as a telecommunications service in order to preserve net neutrality.[312][313] On February 12, 2013, President Obama
Obama
signed Executive Order 13636, "Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity."[314] Foreign policy Main article: Foreign policy of the Barack Obama
Barack Obama
administration

Obama
Obama
speaking on "A New Beginning" at Cairo University
Cairo University
on June 4, 2009

In February and March 2009, Vice President Joe Biden
Joe Biden
and Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton made separate overseas trips to announce a "new era" in U.S. foreign relations with Russia and Europe, using the terms "break" and "reset" to signal major changes from the policies of the preceding administration.[315] Obama
Obama
attempted to reach out to Arab leaders by granting his first interview to an Arab satellite TV network, Al Arabiya.[316] On March 19, Obama
Obama
continued his outreach to the Muslim world, releasing a New Year's video message to the people and government of Iran.[317][318] In April, Obama
Obama
gave a speech in Ankara, Turkey, which was well received by many Arab governments.[319] On June 4, 2009, Obama
Obama
delivered a speech at Cairo University
Cairo University
in Egypt calling for "A New Beginning" in relations between the Islamic world and the United States and promoting Middle East peace.[320]

International trips made by President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
during his terms in office

Obama
Obama
German Chancellor Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
in 2011

On June 26, 2009, Obama
Obama
responded to the Iranian government's actions towards protesters following Iran's 2009 presidential election by saying: "The violence perpetrated against them is outrageous. We see it and we condemn it."[321] While in Moscow on July 7, he responded Vice President Biden's comment on a possible Israeli military strike on Iran by saying: "We have said directly to the Israelis that it is important to try and resolve this in an international setting in a way that does not create major conflict in the Middle East."[322] On September 24, 2009, Obama
Obama
became the first sitting U.S. President to preside over a meeting of the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council.[323] In March 2010, Obama
Obama
took a public stance against plans by the government of Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu
Benjamin Netanyahu
to continue building Jewish housing projects in predominantly Arab neighborhoods of East Jerusalem.[324][325] During the same month, an agreement was reached with the administration of Russian President Dmitry Medvedev to replace the 1991 Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty with a new pact reducing the number of long-range nuclear weapons in the arsenals of both countries by about one-third.[326] Obama
Obama
and Medvedev signed the New START
New START
treaty in April 2010, and the U.S. Senate ratified it in December 2010.[327]

Obama
Obama
meets with Italian Prime Minister Matteo Renzi
Matteo Renzi
at the White House, October 2016

In December 2011, Obama
Obama
instructed agencies to consider LGBT
LGBT
rights when issuing financial aid to foreign countries.[328] In August 2013, he criticized Russia's law that discriminated against gays,[329] but he stopped short of advocating a boycott of the upcoming 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia.[330] In December 2014, Obama
Obama
announced that he intended to normalize relationships between Cuba and the United States.[331] The countries' respective "interests sections" in one another's capitals were upgraded to embassies on July 20, 2015. In March 2015, Obama
Obama
declared that he had authorized U.S. forces to provide logistical and intelligence support to the Saudis in their military intervention in Yemen, establishing a "Joint Planning Cell" with Saudi Arabia.[332] Before leaving office, Obama
Obama
said German Chancellor Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
had been his "closest international partner" throughout his tenure as President.[333] War in Iraq Main articles: Iraq War
Iraq War
and American-led intervention in Iraq (2014–present) On February 27, 2009, Obama
Obama
announced that combat operations in Iraq would end within 18 months. His remarks were made to a group of Marines preparing for deployment to Afghanistan. Obama
Obama
said, "Let me say this as plainly as I can: by August 31, 2010, our combat mission in Iraq
Iraq
will end."[334] The Obama administration
Obama administration
scheduled the withdrawal of combat troops to be completed by August 2010, decreasing troop's levels from 142,000 while leaving a transitional force of about 50,000 in Iraq
Iraq
until the end of 2011. On August 19, 2010, the last U.S. combat brigade exited Iraq. Remaining troops transitioned from combat operations to counter-terrorism and the training, equipping, and advising of Iraqi security forces.[335][336] On August 31, 2010, Obama
Obama
announced that the United States combat mission in Iraq
Iraq
was over.[337] On October 21, 2011 President Obama
Obama
announced that all U.S. troops would leave Iraq
Iraq
in time to be "home for the holidays".[338]

Meeting with UK Prime Minister David Cameron
David Cameron
during the 2010 G20 Toronto summit

In June 2014, following the capture of Mosul by ISIS, Obama
Obama
sent 275 troops to provide support and security for U.S. personnel and the U.S. Embassy in Baghdad. ISIS continued to gain ground and to commit widespread massacres and ethnic cleansing.[339][340] In August 2014, during the Sinjar massacre, Obama
Obama
ordered a campaign of U.S. airstrikes against ISIS.[341] By the end of 2014, 3,100 American ground troops were committed to the conflict[342] and 16,000 sorties were flown over the battlefield, primarily by U.S. Air Force and Navy pilots.[343] In the spring of 2015, with the addition of the "Panther Brigade" of the 82nd Airborne Division
82nd Airborne Division
the number of U.S. ground troops in Iraq surged to 4,400,[344] and by July American-led coalition air forces counted 44,000 sorties over the battlefield.[345] War in Afghanistan Main article: War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2001–14) Early in his presidency, Obama
Obama
moved to bolster U.S. troop strength in Afghanistan.[346] He announced an increase in U.S. troop levels to 17,000 military personnel in February 2009 to "stabilize a deteriorating situation in Afghanistan", an area he said had not received the "strategic attention, direction and resources it urgently requires".[347] He replaced the military commander in Afghanistan, General David D. McKiernan, with former Special
Special
Forces commander Lt. Gen. Stanley A. McChrystal
Stanley A. McChrystal
in May 2009, indicating that McChrystal's Special
Special
Forces experience would facilitate the use of counterinsurgency tactics in the war.[348] On December 1, 2009, Obama announced the deployment of an additional 30,000 military personnel to Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and proposed to begin troop withdrawals 18 months from that date;[349] this took place in July 2011. David Petraeus
David Petraeus
replaced McChrystal in June 2010, after McChrystal's staff criticized White House personnel in a magazine article.[350] In February 2013, Obama said the U.S. military would reduce the troop level in Afghanistan from 68,000 to 34,000 U.S. troops by February 2014.[351] In October 2015, the White House
White House
announced a plan to keep U.S. Forces in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
indefinitely in light of the deteriorating security situation.[352] Israel

Obama
Obama
meeting with Israeli President Shimon Peres
Shimon Peres
in the Oval Office, May 2009

In 2011, the United States vetoed a Security Council resolution condemning Israeli settlements, with the United States being the only nation to do so.[353] Obama
Obama
supports the two-state solution to the Arab–Israeli conflict
Arab–Israeli conflict
based on the 1967 borders with land swaps.[354] In June 2011, Obama
Obama
said that the bond between the United States and Israel is "unbreakable".[355] During the initial years of the Obama administration, the U.S. increased military cooperation with Israel, including increased military aid, re-establishment of the U.S.-Israeli Joint Political Military Group and the Defense Policy Advisory Group, and an increase in visits among high-level military officials of both countries.[356] The Obama administration
Obama administration
asked Congress to allocate money toward funding the Iron Dome
Iron Dome
program in response to the waves of Palestinian rocket attacks on Israel.[357] In 2013, Jeffrey Goldberg
Jeffrey Goldberg
reported that, in Obama's view, "with each new settlement announcement, Netanyahu is moving his country down a path toward near-total isolation."[358] In 2014, Obama
Obama
likened the Zionist movement to the Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement
in the United States. He said that both movements seek to bring justice and equal rights to historically persecuted peoples. He explained, "To me, being pro-Israel and pro-Jewish is part and parcel with the values that I've been fighting for since I was politically conscious and started getting involved in politics."[359] Obama
Obama
expressed support for Israel's right to defend itself during the 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict.[360] In 2015, Obama
Obama
was harshly criticized by Israel for advocating and signing the Iran Nuclear Deal; Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, who had advocated the U.S. congress to oppose it, said the deal was "dangerous" and "bad".[361] On December 23, 2016
2016
under the Obama
Obama
Administration, the United States abstained from United Nations Security Council
United Nations Security Council
Resolution 2334, effectively allowing it to pass.[362] Netanyahu strongly criticized the Administration's actions,[363][364] and the Israeli government withdrew its annual dues from the organization, which totaled $6 million, on January 6, 2017.[365] On January 5, 2017, the United States House of Representatives voted 342–80 to condemn the UN Resolution.[366][367] Libya Main article: 2011 military intervention in Libya

President Obama
Obama
meets with Russian President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
to discuss Syria
Syria
and ISIS, September 29, 2015

In February 2011, protests in Libya
Libya
began against long-time dictator Muammar Gaddafi
Muammar Gaddafi
as part of the Arab Spring. They soon turned violent. In March, as forces loyal to Gaddafi advanced on rebels across Libya, calls for a no-fly zone came from around the world, including Europe, the Arab League, and a resolution[368] passed unanimously by the U.S. Senate.[369] In response to the unanimous passage of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973 on March 17, Gaddafi—who had previously vowed to "show no mercy" to the rebels of Benghazi[370]—announced an immediate cessation of military activities,[371] yet reports came in that his forces continued shelling Misrata. The next day, on Obama's orders, the U.S. military took part in air strikes to destroy the Libyan government's air defense capabilities to protect civilians and enforce a no-fly-zone,[372] including the use of Tomahawk missiles, B-2 Spirits, and fighter jets.[373][374][375] Six days later, on March 25, by unanimous vote of all of its 28 members, NATO
NATO
took over leadership of the effort, dubbed Operation Unified Protector.[376] Some Representatives[377] questioned whether Obama
Obama
had the constitutional authority to order military action in addition to questioning its cost, structure and aftermath.[378][379] Syrian Civil War See also: Foreign involvement in the Syrian Civil War
Syrian Civil War
§ United States On August 18, 2011, several months after the start of the Syrian Civil War, Obama
Obama
issued a written statement that said: "The time has come for President Assad to step aside."[380][381] This stance was reaffirmed in November 2015.[382] In 2012, Obama
Obama
authorized multiple programs run by the CIA and the Pentagon to train anti-Assad rebels.[383] The Pentagon-run program was later found to have failed and was formally abandoned in October 2015.[384][385] In the wake of a chemical weapons attack in Syria, formally blamed by the Obama administration
Obama administration
on the Assad government, Obama
Obama
chose not to enforce the "red line" he had pledged[386] and, rather than authorise the promised military action against Assad, went along with the Russia-brokered deal that led to Assad giving up chemical weapons; however attacks with chlorine gas continued.[387][388] In 2014, Obama authorized an air campaign aimed primarily at ISIL, but repeatedly promised that the U.S. would not deploy ground troops in Syria.[389][390] Death of Osama bin Laden Main article: Death of Osama bin Laden

Play media

President Obama's address (9:28) Also available: Audio only; Full text 

Obama
Obama
and members of the national security team receive an update on Operation Neptune's Spear
Operation Neptune's Spear
in the White House
White House
Situation Room, May 1, 2011. See also: Situation Room

Starting with information received from Central Intelligence Agency operatives in July 2010, the CIA developed intelligence over the next several months that determined what they believed to be the hideout of Osama bin Laden. He was living in seclusion in a large compound in Abbottabad, Pakistan, a suburban area 35 miles (56 km) from Islamabad.[391] CIA head Leon Panetta
Leon Panetta
reported this intelligence to President Obama
Obama
in March 2011.[391] Meeting with his national security advisers over the course of the next six weeks, Obama
Obama
rejected a plan to bomb the compound, and authorized a "surgical raid" to be conducted by United States Navy SEALs.[391] The operation took place on May 1, 2011, and resulted in the shooting death of bin Laden and the seizure of papers, computer drives and disks from the compound.[392][393] DNA testing was one of five methods used to positively identify bin Laden's corpse,[394] which was buried at sea several hours later.[395] Within minutes of the President's announcement from Washington, DC, late in the evening on May 1, there were spontaneous celebrations around the country as crowds gathered outside the White House, and at New York City's Ground Zero and Times Square.[392][396] Reaction to the announcement was positive across party lines, including from former presidents Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
and George W. Bush,[397] and from many countries around the world.[398]

Iran nuclear talks Main article: Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action

Obama
Obama
talks with Benjamin Netanyahu, March 2013

In November 2013, the Obama administration
Obama administration
opened negotiations with Iran to prevent it from acquiring nuclear weapons, which included an interim agreement. Negotiations took two years with numerous delays, with a deal being announced July 14, 2015. The deal, titled the "Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action", saw the removal of sanctions in exchange for measures that would prevent Iran from producing nuclear weapons. While Obama
Obama
hailed the agreement as being a step towards a more hopeful world, the deal drew strong criticism from Republican and conservative quarters, and from Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu.[399][400][401] In order to advance the deal, the Obama administration shielded Hezbollah
Hezbollah
from the Drug Enforcement Administration's project cassandra investigation regarding drug smuggling and from the Central Intelligence Agency.[402][403] Relations with Cuba Main article: United States–Cuban Thaw

President Obama
Obama
meeting with Cuban President Raúl Castro
Raúl Castro
in Panama, April 2015

Since the spring of 2013, secret meetings were conducted between the United States and Cuba in the neutral locations of Canada and Vatican City.[404] The Vatican first became involved in 2013 when Pope Francis advised the U.S. and Cuba to exchange prisoners as a gesture of goodwill.[405] On December 10, 2013, Cuban President Raúl Castro, in a significant public moment, greeted and shook hands with Obama
Obama
at the Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
memorial service in Johannesburg.[406] In December 2014, after the secret meetings, it was announced that Obama, with Pope Francis
Pope Francis
as an intermediary, had negotiated a restoration of relations with Cuba, after nearly sixty years of détente.[407] Popularly dubbed the Cuban Thaw, The New Republic deemed the Cuban Thaw
Cuban Thaw
to be "Obama's finest foreign policy achievement."[408] On July 1, 2015, President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
announced that formal diplomatic relations between Cuba and the United States would resume, and embassies would be opened in Washington and Havana.[409] The countries' respective "interests sections" in one another's capitals were upgraded to embassies on July 20 and August 13, 2015, respectively.[410] Obama
Obama
visited Havana, Cuba for two days in March 2016, becoming the first sitting U.S. President to arrive since Calvin Coolidge
Calvin Coolidge
in 1928.[411] Africa Obama
Obama
spoke in front of the African Union
African Union
in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, on July 29, 2015, the first sitting U.S. president to do so. He gave a speech encouraging the world to increase economic ties via investments and trade with the continent, and lauded the progresses made in education, infrastructure, and economy. He also criticized the lack of democracy and leaders who refuse to step aside, discrimination against minorities ( LGBT
LGBT
people, religious groups and ethnicities), and corruption. He suggested an intensified democratization and free trade, to significantly improve the quality of life for Africans.[412][413] During his July 2015 trip, Obama
Obama
also was the first U.S. president ever to visit Kenya, which is the homeland of his father.[414] Hiroshima
Hiroshima
speech On May 27, 2016, 2½ months before the 71st anniversary of the U.S. atomic bombing of Hiroshima
Hiroshima
that ended World War II, Obama
Obama
became the first sitting American president to visit Hiroshima, Japan. Accompanied by Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, Obama
Obama
paid tribute to the victims of the bombing at the Hiroshima
Hiroshima
Peace Memorial Museum.[415] Russia See also: Russia–United States relations § Obama's tenure (2009–2017)

Obama
Obama
meets Russian President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
in September 2015.

After Russia's invasion of Crimea in 2014, military intervention in Syria
Syria
in 2015, and the interference in the 2016
2016
U.S. presidential election,[416] Obama's Russia policy was widely seen as a failure.[417] George Robertson, a former UK defense secretary and NATO secretary-general, said that Obama
Obama
had "allowed Putin to jump back on the world stage and test the resolve of the West", adding that the legacy of this disaster would last.[418] Cultural and political image Main article: Public image of Barack Obama See also: International reaction to the United States presidential election, 2008 and International reactions to the United States presidential election, 2012 Obama's family history, upbringing, and Ivy League
Ivy League
education differ markedly from those of African-American politicians who launched their careers in the 1960s through participation in the civil rights movement.[419] Expressing puzzlement over questions about whether he is "black enough", Obama
Obama
told an August 2007 meeting of the National Association of Black Journalists that "we're still locked in this notion that if you appeal to white folks then there must be something wrong."[420] Obama
Obama
acknowledged his youthful image in an October 2007 campaign speech, saying: "I wouldn't be here if, time and again, the torch had not been passed to a new generation."[421] Obama
Obama
is frequently referred to as an exceptional orator.[422] During his pre-inauguration transition period and continuing into his presidency, Obama
Obama
delivered a series of weekly Internet video addresses.[423] Former presidential campaign surrogate and Georgetown professor, Michael Eric Dyson, is both critical and sympathetic of President Obama's leadership in race relations, indicating that Obama's speeches and action on racial disparity and justice have been somewhat reactive and reluctant when, especially in the later part of his second term, racial violence demanded immediate presidential action and conversation.[424]

Presidential approval ratings

According to the Gallup Organization, Obama
Obama
began his presidency with a 68% approval rating[425] before gradually declining for the rest of the year, and eventually bottoming out at 41% in August 2010,[426] a trend similar to Ronald Reagan's and Bill Clinton's first years in office.[427] He experienced a small poll bounce shortly after the death of Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
on May 2, 2011. This bounce lasted until around June 2011, when his approval numbers dropped back to where they were previously.[428][429] His approval ratings rebounded around the same time as his reelection in 2012, with polls showing an average job approval of 52% shortly after his second inauguration.[430] Despite approval ratings dropping to 39% in late-2013 due to the ACA roll-out, they climbed to 50% in January 2015 according to Gallup.[431] Polls showed strong support for Obama
Obama
in other countries both before and during his presidency.[432][433] In a February 2009 poll conducted in Western Europe and the U.S. by Harris Interactive
Harris Interactive
for France 24
France 24
and the International Herald Tribune, Obama
Obama
was rated as the most respected world leader, as well as the most powerful.[434] In a similar poll conducted by Harris in May 2009, Obama
Obama
was rated as the most popular world leader, as well as the one figure most people would pin their hopes on for pulling the world out of the economic downturn.[435][436]

G8 leaders watching the 2012 UEFA Champions League Final

Obama
Obama
won Best Spoken Word Album Grammy Awards for abridged audiobook versions of Dreams from My Father
Dreams from My Father
in February 2006 and for The Audacity of Hope in February 2008.[437] His concession speech after the New Hampshire primary was set to music by independent artists as the music video "Yes We Can", which was viewed 10 million times on YouTube
YouTube
in its first month[438] and received a Daytime Emmy Award.[439] In December 2008 and in 2012, Time magazine named Obama
Obama
as its Person of the Year.[440] The 2008 awarding was for his historic candidacy and election, which Time described as "the steady march of seemingly impossible accomplishments".[441] On May 25, 2011, Obama became the first President of the United States
President of the United States
to address both houses of the UK Parliament in Westminster Hall, London. This was only the fifth occurrence since the start of the 20th century of a head of state being extended this invitation, following Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
in 1960, Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
in 1996, Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
in 2002 and Pope Benedict XVI in 2010.[442][443] On October 9, 2009, the Norwegian Nobel Committee
Norwegian Nobel Committee
announced that Obama had won the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
"for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples".[444] Obama
Obama
accepted this award in Oslo, Norway on December 10, 2009, with "deep gratitude and great humility."[445] The award drew a mixture of praise and criticism from world leaders and media figures.[446][447][448][449][450][451][452][excessive citations] Obama's peace prize was called a "stunning surprise" by The New York Times.[453] Obama
Obama
is the fourth U.S. president to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize and the third to become a Nobel laureate while in office.[454] Obama's Nobel Prize has been viewed skeptically in subsequent years, especially after the director of the Nobel Institute, Geir Lundestad, said Obama's Peace Prize did not have the desired effect.[455] Post-presidency (2017–present)

Obama, with Joe Biden
Joe Biden
and Donald Trump
Donald Trump
at the latter's inauguration on January 20, 2017

Barack Obama's presidency ended at noon on January 20, 2017, immediately following the inauguration of his Republican successor, Donald Trump. After the inauguration, Obama
Obama
lifted off on Executive One, circled the White House, and flew to Joint Base Andrews.[456] The family currently rents a house in Kalorama, Washington, D.C.[457] A 2018 survey of historians by the American Political Science Association ranked Obama
Obama
the 8th-greatest American President.[3] Obama gained 10 spots from the same survey in 2015 from the Brookings Institute that ranked Obama
Obama
the 18th-greatest American President.[458] During the 2017 Democratic National Committee
Democratic National Committee
chairmanship election, the Obama administration
Obama administration
pushed Tom Perez
Tom Perez
to run against Keith Ellison.[459] President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
personally called DNC members to vote for Perez.[460] On March 2, 2017, the John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
Presidential Library and Museum awarded the annual Profile in Courage Award to Obama
Obama
"for his enduring commitment to democratic ideals and elevating the standard of political courage."[461] On April 24, 2017, in his first public appearance out of office, Obama
Obama
appeared at a seminar at the University of Chicago
Chicago
aimed at the engagement with a new generation as well as an appeal for their participation in politics.[462] On May 4, 2017, three days ahead of the French presidential election, Obama publicly endorsed Emmanuel Macron: "He appeals to people's hopes and not their fears, and I enjoyed speaking to Emmanuel recently to hear about his independent movement and his vision for the future of France."[463] Macron went on to win the election. On May 9, 2017, Obama
Obama
delivered a speech urging civic engagement during a food innovation summit in Milan, Italy, saying in part, "if you don't vote and you don't pay attention, you'll get policies that don't reflect your interest."[464] While in Berlin
Berlin
on May 25, 2017, Obama
Obama
made a joint public appearance with Chancellor Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
where he stressed inclusion and for leaders to question themselves, Obama
Obama
having been formally invited to Berlin
Berlin
while still in office as part of an effort to boost Merkel's re-election campaign.[465] Obama
Obama
traveled to Kensington Palace
Kensington Palace
in England and met with Prince Harry
Prince Harry
on May 27, 2017; Obama
Obama
tweeted afterward that the two discussed their foundations and offering condolences in the wake of the Manchester Arena bombing that occurred five days prior.[466] On June 1, 2017, after President Trump announced his withdrawal of the United States from the Paris Agreement, Obama
Obama
released a statement disagreeing with the choice: "But even in the absence of American leadership; even as this administration joins a small handful of nations that reject the future; I'm confident that our states, cities, and businesses will step up and do even more to lead the way, and help protect for future generations the one planet we've got."[467] On July 1, when Obama
Obama
was visiting Indonesia, the first Asian country that he visited after his presidency as well as the country of his childhood, he urged the world to stand against "aggressive nationalism" while making a speech in Jakarta, notably standing for Basuki Tjahaja Purnama, a jailed former Jakarta
Jakarta
Governor and an ally of the current Indonesian president Joko Widodo.[468] During an appearance at the Seoul conference on July 3, Obama
Obama
said the Paris Agreement
Paris Agreement
"will still be a critical factor in helping our children solve the enormous challenge in civilization."[469] After the Congressional baseball shooting, Obama
Obama
telephoned Senator Jeff Flake
Jeff Flake
to express condolences for the victims and to request Flake inform House Majority Whip Steve Scalise, injured during the shooting, of his sentiments for him.[470]

Obama
Obama
playing golf with the President of Argentina Mauricio Macri, October 2017

On June 22, 2017, after Senate Republicans revealed the Better Care Reconciliation Act of 2017, their discussion draft of a health care bill to replace the Affordable Care Act, Obama
Obama
released a Facebook post calling the bill "a massive transfer of wealth from middle-class and poor families to the richest people in America."[471] On September 19, while delivering the keynote address at Goalkeepers, Obama admitted his frustration with Republicans backing "a bill that will raise costs, reduce coverage, and roll back protections for older Americans and people with pre-existing conditions".[472] On September 5, 2017, after Attorney General Jeff Sessions
Jeff Sessions
announced the termination of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals
Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals
(DACA) program, Obama
Obama
released a Facebook post rebuking the decision.[473] On September 7, 2017, Obama
Obama
partnered with former presidents Jimmy Carter, George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush
George W. Bush
to work with One America Appeal
One America Appeal
to help the victims of Hurricane Harvey
Hurricane Harvey
and Hurricane Irma
Hurricane Irma
in the Gulf Coast and Texas
Texas
communities.[474] On October 31, 2017, Obama
Obama
hosted the inaugural summit of the Obama Foundation in Chicago. Obama
Obama
intends for the foundation to be the central focus of his post-presidency and part of his ambitions for his subsequent activities following his presidency to be more consequential than his time in office.[475] Obama
Obama
went on an international trip from November 28 to December 2, 2017 and visited China, India and France. In China, he delivered remarks at the Global Alliance of SMEs Summit in Shanghai and met with Chinese President Xi Jinping
Xi Jinping
in Beijing.[476][477] He then went to India where he spoke at the Hindustan Times Leadership Summit, before meeting with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi
Narendra Modi
over lunch. In addition, he held a town hall for young leaders, organized by the Obama
Obama
Foundation.[478][479] He also met with Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
while in New Delhi.[480] He ended his five-day trip in France where he met with French President Emmanuel Macron, former President Francois Hollande and Paris Mayor Anne Hidalgo
Anne Hidalgo
and then spoke at an invitation-only event, touching on climate issues.[481] Legacy

Job growth during the presidency of Obama
Obama
compared to predecessors, as measured as cumulative percentage change from month after inauguration to end of his term

Obama's most significant legacy is generally considered to be the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, provisions of which went into effect from 2010 to 2020.[482] Together with the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act amendment, it represents the U.S. healthcare system's most significant regulatory overhaul and expansion of coverage since the passage of Medicare and Medicaid
Medicaid
in 1965.[483][484][485][486] Many commentators credit Obama
Obama
with averting a threatened depression and pulling the economy back from the Great Recession.[482] According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the Obama
Obama
administration created 11.3 million jobs from the month after his first inauguration to the end of his term.[487] In 2009, President Obama
Obama
signed into law the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010, which contained in it the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act, the first addition to existing federal hate crime law in the United States since Democratic President Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
signed into law the Church Arson Prevention Act of 1996. The Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act expanded existing federal hate crime laws in the United States to apply to crimes motivated by a victim's actual or perceived gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability, and dropped the prerequisite that the victim be engaging in a federally protected activity. In 2010, President Obama
Obama
signed into effect the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. Passed as a response to the financial crisis of 2007–08, it brought the most significant changes to financial regulation in the United States since the regulatory reform that followed the Great Depression
Great Depression
under Democratic President Franklin D. Roosevelt.[488] As president, Obama
Obama
advanced LGBT
LGBT
rights.[489] In 2010, Obama
Obama
signed the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act, which brought an end to "don't ask, don't tell" policy in the U.S. armed forces that banned open service from LGB people; the law went into effect the following year.[490] In 2016, the Obama administration
Obama administration
brought an end to the ban on transgender people serving openly in the US armed forces.[491][216] A Gallup poll, taken in the final days of Obama's term, showed that 68% of Americans believed that the U.S. had made progress in the situation for gays and lesbians during Obama's eight years in office.[492] President Obama
Obama
continued the drone strikes that President George W. Bush started during his presidency in Afghanistan, Iraq, Pakistan, Somalia, and Yemen. Obama
Obama
also ordered drone strikes in Libya
Libya
in 2011, the Philippines
Philippines
in 2012, and Syria
Syria
in 2014.[493] In 2016, the last year of his presidency, the US dropped 26,171 bombs on seven different countries.[494][495] Obama
Obama
left about 9,800 US troops in Afghanistan, 5,262 US troops in Iraq, 503 US troops in Syria, 133 US troops in Pakistan, 106 US troops in Somalia, 7 US troops in Yemen, and 2 US troops in Libya
Libya
at the end of his presidency.[496][497] According to Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center
and United States Bureau of Justice Statistics, from December 31, 2009 to December 31, 2015, that inmates sentenced in US federal custody declined by 5% under US President Obama. This is the largest decline in sentenced inmates in US federal custody since Democrat US President Jimmy Carter. By contrast, the federal prison population increased significantly under US presidents Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush.[498] Obama
Obama
left office in January 2017 with a 60% approval rating.[499][500] A 2017 C-SPAN
C-SPAN
Presidential Historians Survey ranked Obama
Obama
as the 12th-best US president.[501][502] Presidential library Main article: Barack Obama
Barack Obama
Presidential Center The Obama
Obama
Presidential Center is the planned presidential library of Barack Obama. The center will be hosted by the University of Chicago, and will be located in Jackson Park on the South Side of Chicago, Illinois.[503] Books written

Dreams from My Father, 1995 The Audacity of Hope, 2006 Of Thee I Sing, 2010

Audiobooks

2006: The Audacity of Hope: Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream (read by the author), Random House Audio, ISBN 978-0-7393-6641-7

See also

Barack Obama
Barack Obama
portal Government of the United States portal 2010s portal

Book: Barack Obama

Politics

Social policy of Barack Obama DREAM Act Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 List of international presidential trips made by Barack Obama Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012 Fraud Enforcement and Recovery Act of 2009 National Broadband Plan (United States) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy SPEECH Act Stay with It White House
White House
Office of Energy and Climate Change Policy

Other

Speeches of Barack Obama Roberts Court

Lists

Assassination threats against Barack Obama List of people pardoned by Barack Obama Federal political scandals, 2009–17 List of Barack Obama
Barack Obama
presidential campaign endorsements, 2008 List of Barack Obama
Barack Obama
presidential campaign endorsements, 2012 List of African-American United States Senators List of things named after Barack Obama

Notes and references Notes

^ "Barack Hussein Obama
Obama
Takes The Oath Of Office" on YouTube ^ Inc., Gallup,. "Obama's First Retrospective Job Approval Rating Is 63%". Gallup.com. Retrieved 2018-04-05.  ^ a b "How Does Trump Stack Up Against the Best — and Worst — Presidents?". The New York Times. February 19, 2018. Retrieved February 19, 2018.  ^ "President Barack Obama". The White House. 2008. Archived from the original on October 26, 2009. Retrieved December 12, 2008.  ^ "Certificate of Live Birth: Barack Hussein Obama
Obama
II, August 4, 1961, 7:24 pm, Honolulu" (PDF). Department of Health, State of Hawaii. The White House. April 27, 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 3, 2017. Retrieved March 11, 2017.  ^ Maraniss, David (August 24, 2008). "Though Obama
Obama
had to leave to find himself, it is Hawaii
Hawaii
that made his rise possible". The Washington Post. p. A22. Retrieved October 28, 2008.  ^ Nakaso, Dan (December 22, 2008). "Twin sisters, Obama
Obama
on parallel paths for years". The Honolulu
Honolulu
Advertiser. p. B1. Retrieved January 22, 2011.  ^ Rudin, Ken (December 23, 2009). "Today's Junkie segment on TOTN: a political review Of 2009". Talk
Talk
of the Nation (Political Junkie blog). NPR. Retrieved April 18, 2010. We began with the historic inauguration on January 20 – yes, the first president ever born in Hawaii  ^ Barreto, Amílcar Antonio; O'Bryant, Richard L. (November 12, 2013). "Introduction". American Identity in the Age of Obama. Taylor & Francis. pp. 18–19. ISBN 9781317937159. Retrieved May 8, 2017.  ^ Obama
Obama
(1995, 2004), p. 12. ^ Smolenyak, Megan Smolenyak (November–December 2008). "The quest for Obama's Irish roots". Ancestry. 26 (6): 46–47, 49. ISSN 1075-475X. Retrieved December 20, 2011. 

Smolenyak, Megan (May 9, 2011). "Tracing Barack Obama's Roots to Moneygall". HuffPost. Retrieved May 19, 2011.  Rising, David; Noelting, Christoph (June 4, 2009). "Researchers: Obama has German roots". USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved May 13, 2010.  Hutton, Brian; Nickerson, Matthew (May 3, 2007). "For sure, Obama's South Side Irish; One of his roots traces back to small village" (paid archive). Chicago
Chicago
Sun-Times. Press Association of Ireland. p. 3. Retrieved November 24, 2008.  Jordon, Mary (May 13, 2007). "Tiny Irish village is latest place to claim Obama
Obama
as its own". The Washington Post. p. A14. Retrieved May 13, 2007.  David Williamson (July 5, 2008). "Wales link in US presidential candidate's past". walesonline.co.uk. Archived from the original on May 21, 2011. Retrieved April 30, 2011. 

^ Jones, Tim (March 27, 2007). "Barack Obama: Mother not just a girl from Kansas; Stanley Ann Dunham
Ann Dunham
shaped a future senator". Chicago Tribune. p. 1 (Tempo). Archived from the original on February 7, 2017.  ^ a b Obama
Obama
(1995, 2004), pp. 9–10.

Scott (2011), pp. 80–86. Jacobs (2011), pp. 115–118. Maraniss (2012), pp. 154–160.

^ Ripley, Amanda (April 9, 2008). "The story of Barack Obama's mother". Time. Retrieved April 9, 2007.  ^ Scott (2011), p. 86.

Jacobs (2011), pp. 125–127. Maraniss (2012), pp. 160–163.

^ Scott (2011), pp. 87–93.

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"The Truth about Barack's Faith" (PDF). Obama
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Obama
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Obama
to join and become fully engaged in Wright's church, a place where he would be baptized and married; that would not happen until later, during his second time around in Chicago, but the process started then, in October 1987 ... Jerry Kellman: "He wasn't a member of the church during those first three years, but he was drawn to Jeremiah." Peter, Baker (2017). Obama: The Call of History. New York: The New York Times/Callaway. ISBN 9780935112900. OCLC 1002264033. 

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visits Hiroshima". BBC News. Retrieved June 19, 2016.  ^ "US election: The Russia factor: Officials say Moscow's interference is unprecedented. Has the Kremlin achieved its goal?". Financial Times. November 4, 2016.  ^ "Let's Get Putin's Attention". The New York Times. October 5, 2016.  ^ "Europeans View Obama's Exit With a Mix of Admiration and Regret". The New York Times. November 6, 2016.  ^ Wallace-Wells, Benjamin (November 2004). "The Great Black Hope: What's Riding on Barack Obama?". Washington Monthly. Archived from the original on May 13, 2008. Retrieved April 7, 2008.  See also:Scott, Janny (December 28, 2007). "A Member of a New Generation, Obama
Obama
Walks a Fine Line". International Herald Tribune. Archived from the original on January 17, 2008. Retrieved April 7, 2008.  ^ Payne, Les (August 19, 2007). "In One Country, a Dual Audience" (paid archive). Newsday. New York. Retrieved April 7, 2008.  ^ Dorning, Mike (October 4, 2007). " Obama
Obama
Reaches Across Decades to JFK" (paid archive). Chicago
Chicago
Tribune. Retrieved April 7, 2008.  See also:Harnden, Toby (October 15, 2007). " Barack Obama
Barack Obama
is JFK Heir, Says Kennedy Aide". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on May 15, 2008. Retrieved April 7, 2008.  ^ Holmes, Stephanie (November 30, 2008). "Obama: Oratory and originality". The Age. Melbourne. Archived from the original on December 18, 2008. Retrieved December 11, 2008. 

Gallo, Carmine (March 3, 2008). "How to Inspire People Like Obama Does". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Archived from the original on February 26, 2009. Retrieved February 21, 2009.  Zlomislic, Diana (December 11, 2008). "New emotion dubbed 'elevation'". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on December 12, 2008. Retrieved December 11, 2008.  Greene, Richard (January 25, 2011). " Obama
Obama
Is America's Third Greatest Presidential Orator in Modern Era". HuffPost. Retrieved July 2, 2011. 

^ "YouTube – ChangeDotGov's Channel". YouTube. Archived from the original on February 20, 2010. Retrieved April 18, 2010.  ^ Dyson, Michael Eric. (2016). The Black Presidency: Barack Obama
Barack Obama
and the Politics of Race in America. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 275. ISBN 978-0-544-38766-9. ^ " Obama
Obama
Starts With 68% Job Approval". Gallup.com. January 24, 2009. Archived from the original on June 16, 2011. Retrieved June 19, 2011.  ^ " Obama
Obama
hits low point in Gallup Poll – 41%". USA Today. April 15, 2011. Retrieved June 19, 2011.  ^ Jon Terbush (December 9, 2010). "Approval By Numbers: How Obama Compares To Past Presidents". Tpmdc.talkingpointsmemo.com. Retrieved June 19, 2011.  ^ Oliphant, James (May 11, 2011). "Bin Laden bounce? New poll shows jump in Obama
Obama
approval". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 7, 2011.  ^ Balz, Dan; Cohen, John (June 6, 2011). " Obama
Obama
loses bin Laden bounce; Romney on the move among GOP contenders". The Washington Post. Nash Holdings LLC. Retrieved June 7, 2011.  ^ "Presidential Job Approval Center". Gallup.com. Retrieved June 23, 2015.  ^ "Gallup Daily: Obama
Obama
Job Approval". Gallup Polling. January 22, 2015. Retrieved March 23, 2015.  ^ "World wants Obama
Obama
as president: poll". ABC News. Reuters. September 9, 2008.  ^ Wike, Richard; Poushter, Jacob; Zainulbhai, Hani (June 29, 2016). "As Obama
Obama
Years Draw to Close, President and U.S. Seen Favorably in Europe and Asia". Global Attitudes & Trends. Pew Research Center. Retrieved February 23, 2017.  ^ Freed, John C. (February 6, 2009). "Poll shows Obama
Obama
atop list of most respected". The New York Times. Retrieved January 22, 2012.  ^ " Obama
Obama
Most Popular Leader, Poll Finds". The New York Times. May 29, 2009. Retrieved January 22, 2012.  ^ " Obama
Obama
remains a popular symbol of hope". France 24. June 2, 2009. Archived from the original on May 13, 2011. Retrieved January 22, 2012.  ^ Goodman, Dean (February 10, 2008). " Obama
Obama
or Clinton? Grammys go for Obama". Reuters. Archived from the original on December 19, 2008. Retrieved November 24, 2008.  ^ Strange, Hannah (March 5, 2008). "Celebrities join YouTube revolution". The Times. London. Retrieved December 18, 2008.  (subscription required) ^ Wappler, Margaret (June 20, 2008). "Emmys give knuckle bump to will.i.am; more videos on the way". Los Angeles Times
Los Angeles Times
blogs. Archived from the original on May 16, 2011. Retrieved January 26, 2012.  ^ Scherer, Michael (December 19, 2012). "2012 Person of the Year: Barack Obama, the President". Time. Retrieved December 19, 2012.  ^ Von Drehle, David (December 16, 2008). "Why History Can't Wait". Time. Archived from the original on December 17, 2008. Retrieved December 17, 2008.  ^ Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(May 25, 2011). "Full transcript – Speech to UK Parliament". New Statesman. Retrieved June 14, 2014.  ^ "20th century to the present day". Parliament of the United Kingdom. April 21, 2010. Retrieved June 14, 2014.  ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
2009". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on October 10, 2009. Retrieved October 9, 2009.  ^ "Obama: 'Peace requires responsibility'". CNN. December 10, 2009. Retrieved May 21, 2011.  ^ Philp, Catherine (October 10, 2009). "Barack Obama's peace prize starts a fight". The Times. London. Retrieved October 10, 2009. (subscription required) ^ Samuelsohn, Darren (October 9, 2009). " Obama
Obama
Wins Nobel Prize in Part for Confronting 'Great Climatic Challenges'". The New York Times. Greenwire. Archived from the original on April 15, 2010. Retrieved April 18, 2010.  ^ Sharon Otterman (October 9, 2009). "World Reaction to a Nobel Surprise". The New York Times. Retrieved October 9, 2009.  ^ " Obama
Obama
Peace Prize win has Americans asking why?". Reuters. October 9, 2009. Retrieved October 9, 2009.  ^ "Obama: Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
'a call to action' – Politics – White House". MSNBC. Retrieved September 13, 2014.  ^ " Obama
Obama
is surprise winner of Nobel Peace Prize". Reuters. October 9, 2009. Retrieved October 9, 2009.  ^ "Remarks by the President on Winning the Nobel Peace Prize". Retrieved September 13, 2014.  ^ Steven Erlanger (October 10, 2009). "Surprise Nobel for Obama
Obama
Stirs Praise and Doubts". The New York Times. Retrieved May 20, 2010.  ^ "Obama's win unique among presidents". CNN. October 9, 2009.  ^ Taylor, Adam. "Obama's Nobel peace prize didn't have the desired effect, former Nobel official reveals". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 4, 2016.  ^ Korte, Gregory (January 20, 2017). "Inside Barack Obama's final hours in the White House". USA Today.  ^ Kosinski, Michelle; Daniella Diaz (May 27, 2016). "Peek inside Obama's post-presidential pad". CNN. Retrieved January 22, 2017.  ^ https://www.brookings.edu/blog/fixgov/2015/02/13/measuring-obama-against-the-great-presidents/ ^ Chang, Clio (February 23, 2017). "The Case for Tom Perez
Tom Perez
Makes No Sense". New Republic. Retrieved August 7, 2017.  ^ Carter, Zach; Marans, Daniel (December 16, 2016). " Obama
Obama
All But Endorses Tom Perez
Tom Perez
Against Keith Ellison
Keith Ellison
For DNC Chair". HuffPost.  ^ "Former President Barack H. Obama
Obama
Announced as Recipient of 2017 John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
Profile in Courage Award". John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum. John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
Presidential Library & Museum. March 2, 2017. Archived from the original on April 8, 2017. Retrieved April 8, 2017.  ^ Shear, Michael D. (April 24, 2017). " Obama
Obama
Steps Back into Public Life, Trying to Avoid One Word: Trump". The New York Times.  ^ " Obama
Obama
endorses Macron in French election". Politico. May 4, 2017.  ^ "Obama: 'You get the politicians you deserve'". Politico. May 9, 2017.  ^ Dovere, Edward-Isaac (May 25, 2017). " Obama
Obama
in Berlin: 'We can't hide behind a wall'". Politico.  ^ Seipel, Brooke (May 27, 2017). " Obama
Obama
visits Prince Harry
Prince Harry
at Kensington Palace". The Hill.  ^ Lee, MJ (June 1, 2017). " Obama
Obama
pans Trump withdrawal from climate deal". CNN.  ^ Bevins, Vincent (July 1, 2017). " Barack Obama
Barack Obama
urges world to stand against 'aggressive nationalism'". the Guardian.  ^ Savransky, Rebecca (July 3, 2017). " Obama
Obama
praises Paris climate deal despite Trump's withdrawal". The Hill.  ^ Schor, Elana (June 14, 2017). " Obama
Obama
reaches out to Sen. Flake after shooting". Politico.  ^ Greenwood, Max (June 22, 2017). " Obama
Obama
slams 'fundamental meanness' of Senate healthcare bill". The Hill.  ^ Abramson, Alana (September 20, 2017). " Barack Obama
Barack Obama
Criticizes '50th or 60th' Attempt to Repeal the Affordable Care Act". Time.  ^ Liptak, Kevin (September 5, 2017). " Obama
Obama
slams Trump for rescinding DACA, calls move 'cruel'". CNN.  ^ Shelbourne, Mallory (September 10, 2017). "Former presidents fundraise for Irma disaster relief". The Hill. Retrieved September 11, 2017.  ^ "Obama, opening his foundation's first summit, calls for fixing civic culture". Politico. October 31, 2017.  ^ Haas, Benjamin (1 December 2017). " Obama
Obama
and Xi: all smiles as 'veteran cadres' reunite in Beijing". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 December 2017.  ^ Zheng, Sarah. " Obama
Obama
to meet Xi in Beijing during three-day Asia trip". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 3 December 2017.  ^ Nandy, Sumana. "In New Delhi, Barack Obama's Message To Future Leaders: Highlights". NDTV.com. Retrieved 3 December 2017.  ^ " Barack Obama
Barack Obama
to PM Narendra Modi: 'India should not be split on sectarian lines'". The Indian Express. 2 December 2017. Retrieved 3 December 2017.  ^ Carter, Brandon (1 December 2017). " Obama
Obama
meets with Dalai Lama during trip abroad". TheHill. Retrieved 3 December 2017.  ^ " Obama
Obama
laments lack of U.S. climate leadership in Paris". Reuters. 2017. Retrieved 3 December 2017.  ^ a b " Obama
Obama
Legacy Will Be Recovery from Recession, Affordable Care Act". ABC News. January 20, 2017. Retrieved March 15, 2017.  ^ Oberlander, Jonathan (June 1, 2010). "Long Time Coming: Why Health Reform Finally Passed". Health Affairs. 29 (6): 1112–1116. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2010.0447. ISSN 0278-2715. Archived from the original on December 5, 2016.  ^ Blumenthal, David; Abrams, Melinda; Nuzum, Rachel (June 18, 2015). "The Affordable Care Act at 5 Years". New England Journal of Medicine. 372 (25): 2451–2458. doi:10.1056/NEJMhpr1503614. ISSN 0028-4793.  ^ Cohen, Alan B.; Colby, David C.; Wailoo, Keith A.; Zelizer, Julian E. (June 1, 2015). Medicare and Medicaid
Medicaid
at 50: America's Entitlement Programs in the Age of Affordable Care. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780190231569.  ^ Stolberg, Sheryl Gay; Pear, Robert (March 23, 2010). " Obama
Obama
Signs Health Care Overhaul into Law". The New York Times.  ^ Long, Heather (January 6, 2017). "Final tally: Obama
Obama
created 11.3 million jobs". CNN.  ^ "Barack Obama's Legacy: Dodd-Frank Wall Street reform". CBS News. Retrieved March 15, 2017.  ^ David Crary, LGBT
LGBT
activists view Obama
Obama
as staunch champion of their cause, Associated Press
Associated Press
(January 4, 2017). ^ Elisabeth Bumiller, Obama
Obama
Ends 'Don't Ask, Don't Tell' Policy, The New York Times (July 22, 2011). ^ Merrit Kennedy (June 30, 2016). "Pentagon Says Transgender
Transgender
Troops Can Now Serve Openly". NPR.  ^ Michael Smith & Frank Newport, Americans Assess Progress Under Obama, The Gallup Organization
Gallup Organization
(January 9, 2017). ^ Reimann, Jakob (January 11, 2017). "False hope, broken promises: Obama's belligerent legacy". ROAR Magazine. Retrieved March 11, 2017. [unreliable source?] ^ Grandin, Greg (January 15, 2017). "Why Did the US Drop 26,171 Bombs on the World Last Year?". The Nation. Retrieved January 11, 2018.  ^ Agerholm, Harriet (January 19, 2017). "Map shows where President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
dropped his 20,000 bombs". The Independent. Retrieved January 11, 2018.  ^ Parsons, Christi; Hennigan, W. J. (January 13, 2017). "President Obama, who hoped to sow peace, instead led the nation in war". Los Angeles Times.  ^ "DOD Personnel".  ^ Gramlich, John (January 5, 2017). "Federal prison population fell during Obama's term, reversing recent trend". Pew Research Center.  ^ " Obama
Obama
leaving office at 60% approval rating". United Press International. Retrieved 26 February 2017.  ^ Director, Jennifer Agiesta, CNN. " Obama
Obama
approval hits 60% as end of term approaches". CNN. Retrieved 26 February 2017.  ^ "Total Scores/Overall Rankings". Presidential Historians Survey. C-SPAN. 2017. Retrieved March 11, 2017.  ^ Von Drehle, David (February 17, 2017). " Barack Obama
Barack Obama
Ranked 12th Best U.S. President Ever in Major Survey of Historians". Time. Retrieved February 18, 2017.  ^ " Obama Foundation FAQs". Barack Obama
Barack Obama
Foundation. 

References

Jacobs, Sally H. (2011). The Other Barack: The Bold and Reckless Life of President Obama's Father. New York: PublicAffairs. ISBN 978-1-58648-793-5.  Maraniss, David (2012). Barack Obama: The Story. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4391-6040-4.  Mendell, David (2007). Obama: From Promise to Power. New York: Amistad/HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-085820-9.  Obama, Barack (2004) [1st. Pub. 1995]. Dreams from My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance. New York: Three Rivers Press. ISBN 978-1-4000-8277-3.  Obama, Barack (2006). The Audacity of Hope: Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream. New York: Crown Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-307-23769-9.  Scott, Janny (2011). A Singular Woman: The Untold Story of Barack Obama's Mother. New York: Riverhead Books. ISBN 978-1-59448-797-2. 

Further reading

Graff, Garrett M. (November 1, 2006). "The Legend of Barack Obama". Washingtonian. Archived from the original on February 14, 2008. Retrieved January 14, 2008.  Koltun, Dave (2005). "The 2004 Illinois
Illinois
Senate Race: Obama
Obama
Wins Open Seat and Becomes National Political "Star"". In Ahuja, Sunil; Dewhirst, Robert. The Road to Congress 2004. Hauppauge, New York: Nova Science Publishers. ISBN 978-1-59454-360-9.  Lizza, Ryan (September 2007). "Above the Fray". GQ. Retrieved October 27, 2010.  MacFarquhar, Larissa (May 7, 2007). "The Conciliator: Where is Barack Obama
Obama
Coming From?". The New Yorker. Retrieved January 14, 2008.  McClelland, Edward (2010). Young Mr. Obama: Chicago
Chicago
and the Making of a Black President. New York: Bloomsbury Press. ISBN 978-1-60819-060-7.  Zutter, Hank De (December 8, 1995). "What Makes Obama
Obama
Run?". Chicago Reader. Retrieved April 25, 2015. 

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B. United States Health Care Reform: Progress to Date and Next Steps. JAMA. Published online July 11, 2016. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.9797. Teague Beckwith, Ryan (March 23, 2017). "Read Barack Obama's Statement on the Anniversary of Obamacare". Time magazine. Archived from the original on March 31, 2017. Retrieved March 31, 2017. See also: Taylor, Jessica (March 23, 2017). "Obama: 'America Is Stronger Because Of The Affordable Care Act'". National Public Radio. Archived from the original on March 31, 2017. Retrieved March 31, 2017. Obama
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B. "The President's Role in Advancing Criminal Justice Reform". Harvard Law Review. Published January 5, 2017. Barack Obama
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at Curlie (based on DMOZ)

United States Congress. " Barack Obama
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(id: O000167)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.  Appearances on C-SPAN Barack Obama
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Tribune Collected news and commentary at the Tampa Bay Times's PolitiFact.com Collected news and commentary at The Washington Post's Fact Checker blog " Barack Obama
Barack Obama
is officially one of the most consequential presidents in American history" by Vox author Dylan Matthews on March 24, 2017. Archived from the original on March 24, 2017. Retrieved April 2, 2017. The article describes the successes and failures of Barack Obama's domestic and foreign policy as well as provides articles for further reading in this context. Works by Barack Obama
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v t e

Barack Obama

44th President of the United States
President of the United States
(2009–2017) U.S. Senator from Illinois
Illinois
(2005–2008) Illinois
Illinois
Senator from the 13th district (1997–2004)

Life and politics

Early life and career Illinois
Illinois
Senate career 2004 Democratic National Convention U.S. Senate career Political positions

Administration foreign policy Economic Energy Mass surveillance Social Space

Nobel Peace Prize West Wing Week

Presidency

Transition 2009 inauguration 2013 inauguration First 100 days Timeline

2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 January 2017

Foreign policy

War in Afghanistan Iraq
Iraq
withdrawal Death of Osama bin Laden Iran deal Cuban Thaw Obama
Obama
Doctrine

Health Care reform Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act New START Pardons Presidential trips

international 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

Judicial appointments

Supreme Court controversies

Cabinet Presidential Library and Center

Books

Dreams from My Father
Dreams from My Father
(1995) The Audacity of Hope
The Audacity of Hope
(2006) Of Thee I Sing (2010)

Speeches

"The Audacity of Hope" (2004) "Yes We Can" (2008) "A More Perfect Union" (2008) "Change Has Come to America" (2008) "A New Birth of Freedom" (2009) Joint session of Congress (2009) "A New Beginning" (2009) Joint session of Congress (health care reform) (2009) State of the Union
State of the Union
address

2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

Tucson memorial speech (2011) Joint session of Congress (jobs) (2011) "You didn't build that" (2012) Selma 50th anniversary (2015) Farewell address (2017)

Elections

Illinois
Illinois
State Senate election, 1996, 1998, 2002 Illinois's 1st congressional district
Illinois's 1st congressional district
election, 2000 United States Senate
United States Senate
election, 2004 Democratic presidential primaries, 2008 2012

Obama
Obama
primary campaign, 2008

Democratic National Convention, 2008 2012 Presidential campaign, 2008

endorsements GOP/conservative support

Presidential election, 2008 Presidential campaign, 2012

endorsements

Presidential election, 2012

international reactions

Family

Michelle Obama
Michelle Obama
(wife) Ann Dunham
Ann Dunham
(mother) Barack Obama Sr.
Barack Obama Sr.
(father) Lolo Soetoro
Lolo Soetoro
(step-father) Maya Soetoro-Ng
Maya Soetoro-Ng
(maternal half-sister) Stanley Armour Dunham
Stanley Armour Dunham
(maternal grandfather) Madelyn Dunham
Madelyn Dunham
(maternal grandmother) Marian Shields Robinson
Marian Shields Robinson
(mother-in-law) Craig Robinson (brother-in-law) Bo (family dog) Sunny (family dog)

Public image

News and political events

Oprah Winfrey's endorsement Citizenship conspiracy theories

litigation legislation

Religion conspiracy theories Bill Ayers controversy Jeremiah Wright
Jeremiah Wright
controversy Republican and conservative support (2008) Assassination threats

2008 Denver 2008 Tennessee

First inauguration invitations Inaugural Celebration at the Lincoln Memorial Citizen's Briefing Book Tea Party protests New Energy for America Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Gates-Crowley Rose Garden meeting Firing of Shirley Sherrod Impeachment efforts

Books about

Bibliography Obama: From Promise to Power Barack Obama: Der schwarze Kennedy Redemption Song The Case Against Barack Obama The Obama
Obama
Nation Culture of Corruption Catastrophe Barack and Michelle The Speech The Obama
Obama
Story Game Change Game Change
Game Change
2012 Rising Star

Music

Obama
Obama
Girl

"I Got a Crush... on Obama"

"Barack the Magic Negro" will.i.am

"Yes We Can" "We Are the Ones"

"There's No One as Irish as Barack O'Bama" "Sí Se Puede Cambiar" "My President" "Deadheads for Obama" "Air and Simple Gifts" Change Is Now Hope! – Das Obama
Obama
Musical " Barack Obama
Barack Obama
vs. Mitt Romney" Barack's Dubs "Signed, Sealed, Delivered I'm Yours"

Film

By the People: The Election
Election
of Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2009) 2016: Obama's America (2012) The Road We've Traveled
The Road We've Traveled
(2012) Southside with You
Southside with You
(2016) Barry (2016)

Other media

On social media Artists for Obama "Hope" poster "Joker" poster Situation Room Obama
Obama
logo In comics

Miscellaneous

Barack Obama
Barack Obama
Day (Illinois) Obama
Obama
Day (Kenya) Awards and honors Namesakes

← George W. Bush Donald Trump
Donald Trump

Book Category Portal

Offices and distinctions

Illinois
Illinois
Senate

Preceded by Alice Palmer Member of the Illinois
Illinois
Senate from the 13th district 1997–2004 Succeeded by Kwame Raoul

Party political offices

Preceded by Carol Moseley Braun Democratic nominee for U.S. Senator from Illinois (Class 3) 2004 Succeeded by Alexi Giannoulias

Preceded by Harold Ford Jr. Keynote Speaker of the Democratic National Convention 2004 Succeeded by Mark Warner

Preceded by John Kerry Democratic nominee for President of the United States 2008, 2012 Succeeded by Hillary Clinton

U.S. Senate

Preceded by Peter Fitzgerald United States Senator (Class 3) from Illinois 2005–2008 Served alongside: Dick Durbin Succeeded by Roland Burris

Political offices

Preceded by George W. Bush 44th President of the United States 2009–2017 Succeeded by Donald Trump

Positions in intergovernmental organisations

Preceded by Gordon Brown Chair of the Group of Twenty 2009 Succeeded by Stephen Harper

Preceded by Naoto Kan Chair of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation 2011 Succeeded by Vladimir Putin

Preceded by Nicolas Sarkozy Chair of the Group of Eight 2012 Succeeded by David Cameron

Awards and achievements

Preceded by Martti Ahtisaari Laureate of the Nobel Peace Prize 2009 Succeeded by Liu Xiaobo

Current U.S. order of precedence (ceremonial)

Preceded by George W. Bush as Former President Order of Precedence of the United States Former President Succeeded by Walter Mondale as Former Vice President

Links to related articles

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George Washington
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(2004 ←)    United States presidential election, 2008    (→ 2012)

United States elections, 2008 Candidates Comparison Debates Congressional support Fundraising Ballot access Timeline Super Tuesday Potomac primary Super Tuesday II General polls Statewide general polls International polls International reaction

Democratic Party

Convention Primary polls General polls Debates Primaries Primary results Superdelegates

Democratic candidates

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VP nominee Joe Biden (positions)

Other candidates: Evan Bayh
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(campaign)

Draft movements

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(movement)

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(movement)

Third party and independent candidates

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Candidates Daniel Imperato Alan Keyes
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Alan Keyes
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Objectivist Party

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Nominee Ralph Nader
Ralph Nader
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Candidates: Gloria La Riva Cynthia McKinney
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Prohibition Party

Nominee Gene Amondson

Reform Party

Nominee Ted Weill VP nominee Frank McEnulty

Socialism and Liberation Party

Nominee Gloria La Riva VP nominee Eugene Puryear

Socialist Party

Nominee Brian Moore (campaign) VP nominee Stewart Alexander

Candidates Eric Chester

Socialist Workers Party

Nominee Róger Calero Alternate nominee James Harris VP nominee Alyson Kennedy

Independent / Other

Jeff Boss Stephen Colbert Earl Dodge Bradford Lyttle Frank Moore Joe Schriner Jonathon Sharkey

Other 2008 elections: House Senate Gubernatorial

v t e

(2008 ←)    United States presidential election, 2012    (→ 2016)

United States elections, 2012 Fundraising National polls Statewide polls (pre-2012, early 2012) Timeline General election debates Newspaper endorsements International reactions Hurricane Sandy

Democratic Party

Convention Primaries

Newspaper endorsements

Incumbent nominee: Barack Obama

campaign endorsements positions

Incumbent VP nominee: Joe Biden

positions

Challengers: Bob Ely Keith Judd Warren Mosler Darcy Richardson Jim Rogers Vermin Supreme Randall Terry John Wolfe

Republican Party

Convention Primaries Debates

Statewide polls National polls

Straw polls

Newspaper endorsements

Nominee: Mitt Romney

campaign endorsements positions

VP nominee: Paul Ryan

positions

Candidates: Michele Bachmann
Michele Bachmann
(campaign) Herman Cain
Herman Cain
(campaign) Mark Callahan Jack Fellure Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
(campaign) Stewart Greenleaf Jon Huntsman (campaign) Gary Johnson
Gary Johnson
(campaign) Fred Karger Andy Martin Thaddeus McCotter
Thaddeus McCotter
(campaign) Jimmy McMillan Roy Moore Ron Paul
Ron Paul
(campaign) Tim Pawlenty
Tim Pawlenty
(campaign) Rick Perry
Rick Perry
(campaign) Buddy Roemer
Buddy Roemer
(campaign) Rick Santorum
Rick Santorum
(campaign)

Libertarian Party

Convention Primaries

Nominee: Gary Johnson

campaign positions

VP nominee: Jim Gray

Candidates: Jim Duensing R. J. Harris Carl Person Sam Sloan R. Lee Wrights

Green Party

Convention

Nominee: Jill Stein
Jill Stein
(campaign) VP nominee: Cheri Honkala

Candidates: Stewart Alexander Roseanne Barr Kent Mesplay

Other third-party and independent candidates

American Independent Party

Nominee Tom Hoefling

Candidates Wiley Drake Virgil Goode
Virgil Goode
(campaign) Edward C. Noonan Laurie Roth

American Third Position Party

Nominee Merlin Miller VP nominee Virginia Abernethy

America's Party

Nominee Tom Hoefling

Constitution Party

Convention

Nominee Virgil Goode
Virgil Goode
(campaign) VP nominee Jim Clymer

Candidates Darrell Castle Laurie Roth Robby Wells

Freedom Socialist Party

Nominee Stephen Durham

Grassroots Party

Nominee Jim Carlson

Justice Party

Nominee Rocky Anderson VP nominee Luis J. Rodriguez

Objectivist Party

Nominee Tom Stevens

Party for Socialism and Liberation

Nominee Peta Lindsay

Peace and Freedom Party

Nominee Roseanne Barr VP nominee Cindy Sheehan

Candidates Stewart Alexander Rocky Anderson Stephen Durham Peta Lindsay

Prohibition Party

Nominee Jack Fellure

Candidates James Hedges

Reform Party

Nominee Andre Barnett

Candidates Laurence Kotlikoff Darcy Richardson Buddy Roemer
Buddy Roemer
(campaign) Robert David Steele Robby Wells

Socialist Equality Party

Nominee Jerry White

Socialist Workers Party

Nominee James Harris

Socialist Party

Nominee Stewart Alexander
Stewart Alexander
(campaign) VP nominee Alejandro Mendoza

Independents

Candidates Lee Abramson Randy Blythe Jeff Boss Robert Burck Terry Jones Joe Schriner

Draft movements

Michael Bloomberg
Michael Bloomberg
(movement)

State results

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

Other 2012 elections: House Senate Gubernatorial

v t e

United States Democratic Party

Chairpersons of the DNC

Hallett McLane Smalley Belmont Schell Hewitt Barnum Brice Harrity Jones Taggart Mack McCombs McCormick Cummings White Hull Shaver Raskob Farley Flynn Walker Hannegan McGrath Boyle McKinney Mitchell Butler Jackson Bailey O'Brien Harris O'Brien Westwood Strauss Curtis White Manatt Kirk Brown Wilhelm DeLee Dodd/Fowler Romer/Grossman Rendell/Andrew McAuliffe Dean Kaine Wasserman Schultz Perez

Presidential tickets

Jackson/Calhoun Jackson/Van Buren Van Buren/R. Johnson Van Buren/None Polk/Dallas Cass/Butler Pierce/King Buchanan/Breckinridge Douglas/H. Johnson (Breckinridge/Lane, SD) McClellan/Pendleton Seymour/Blair Greeley/Brown Tilden/Hendricks Hancock/English Cleveland/Hendricks Cleveland/Thurman Cleveland/Stevenson I W. Bryan/Sewall W. Bryan/Stevenson I Parker/H. Davis W. Bryan/Kern Wilson/Marshall (twice) Cox/Roosevelt J. Davis/C. Bryan Smith/Robinson Roosevelt/Garner (twice) Roosevelt/Wallace Roosevelt/Truman Truman/Barkley Stevenson II/Sparkman Stevenson II/Kefauver Kennedy/L. Johnson L. Johnson/Humphrey Humphrey/Muskie McGovern/(Eagleton, Shriver) Carter/Mondale (twice) Mondale/Ferraro Dukakis/Bentsen B. Clinton/Gore (twice) Gore/Lieberman Kerry/Edwards Obama/Biden (twice) H. Clinton/Kaine

State/ Territorial Parties

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming District of Columbia Guam Puerto Rico

Conventions

(List)

1832 (Baltimore) 1835 (Baltimore) 1840 (Baltimore) 1844 (Baltimore) 1848 (Baltimore) 1852 (Baltimore) 1856 (Cincinnati) 1860 (Baltimore) 1864 (Chicago) 1868 (New York) 1872 (Baltimore) 1876 (Saint Louis) 1880 (Cincinnati) 1884 (Chicago) 1888 (Saint Louis) 1892 (Chicago) 1896 (Chicago) 1900 (Kansas City) 1904 (Saint Louis) 1908 (Denver) 1912 (Baltimore) 1916 (Saint Louis) 1920 (San Francisco) 1924 (New York) 1928 (Houston) 1932 (Chicago) 1936 (Philadelphia) 1940 (Chicago) 1944 (Chicago) 1948 (Philadelphia) 1952 (Chicago) 1956 (Chicago) 1960 (Los Angeles) 1964 (Atlantic City) 1968 (Chicago) 1972 (Miami Beach) 1976 (New York) 1980 (New York) 1984 (San Francisco) 1988 (Atlanta) 1992 (New York) 1996 (Chicago) 2000 (Los Angeles) 2004 (Boston) 2008 (Denver) 2012 (Charlotte) 2016
2016
(Philadelphia)

Affiliated groups

Fundraising

Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee Democratic Governors Association Democratic Legislative Campaign Committee Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee National Conference of Democratic Mayors

Sectional

College Democrats of America Democrats Abroad National Federation of Democratic Women Stonewall Democrats

Stonewall Young Democrats

Young Democrats of America High School Democrats of America

Related articles

History Primaries Debates Party factions Superdelegate 2005 chairmanship election 2017 chairmanship election

Liberalism portal

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Peace Prize

1901–1925

1901 Henry Dunant / Frédéric Passy 1902 Élie Ducommun / Charles Gobat 1903 Randal Cremer 1904 Institut de Droit International 1905 Bertha von Suttner 1906 Theodore Roosevelt 1907 Ernesto Moneta / Louis Renault 1908 Klas Arnoldson / Fredrik Bajer 1909 A. M. F. Beernaert / Paul Estournelles de Constant 1910 International Peace Bureau 1911 Tobias Asser / Alfred Fried 1912 Elihu Root 1913 Henri La Fontaine 1914 1915 1916 1917 International Committee of the Red Cross 1918 1919 Woodrow Wilson 1920 Léon Bourgeois 1921 Hjalmar Branting / Christian Lange 1922 Fridtjof Nansen 1923 1924 1925 Austen Chamberlain / Charles Dawes

1926–1950

1926 Aristide Briand / Gustav Stresemann 1927 Ferdinand Buisson / Ludwig Quidde 1928 1929 Frank B. Kellogg 1930 Nathan Söderblom 1931 Jane Addams / Nicholas Butler 1932 1933 Norman Angell 1934 Arthur Henderson 1935 Carl von Ossietzky 1936 Carlos Saavedra Lamas 1937 Robert Cecil 1938 Nansen International Office for Refugees 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 International Committee of the Red Cross 1945 Cordell Hull 1946 Emily Balch / John Mott 1947 Friends Service Council / American Friends Service Committee 1948 1949 John Boyd Orr 1950 Ralph Bunche

1951–1975

1951 Léon Jouhaux 1952 Albert Schweitzer 1953 George Marshall 1954 United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees 1955 1956 1957 Lester B. Pearson 1958 Georges Pire 1959 Philip Noel-Baker 1960 Albert Lutuli 1961 Dag Hammarskjöld 1962 Linus Pauling 1963 International Committee of the Red Cross / League of Red Cross Societies 1964 Martin Luther King Jr. 1965 UNICEF 1966 1967 1968 René Cassin 1969 International Labour Organization 1970 Norman Borlaug 1971 Willy Brandt 1972 1973 Lê Đức Thọ (declined award) / Henry Kissinger 1974 Seán MacBride / Eisaku Satō 1975 Andrei Sakharov

1976–2000

1976 Betty Williams / Mairead Corrigan 1977 Amnesty International 1978 Anwar Sadat / Menachem Begin 1979 Mother Teresa 1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel 1981 United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees 1982 Alva Myrdal / Alfonso García Robles 1983 Lech Wałęsa 1984 Desmond Tutu 1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War 1986 Elie Wiesel 1987 Óscar Arias 1988 UN Peacekeeping Forces 1989 Tenzin Gyatso (14th Dalai Lama) 1990 Mikhail Gorbachev 1991 Aung San Suu Kyi 1992 Rigoberta Menchú 1993 Nelson Mandela / F. W. de Klerk 1994 Shimon Peres / Yitzhak Rabin / Yasser Arafat 1995 Pugwash Conferences / Joseph Rotblat 1996 Carlos Belo / José Ramos-Horta 1997 International Campaign to Ban Landmines / Jody Williams 1998 John Hume / David Trimble 1999 Médecins Sans Frontières 2000 Kim Dae-jung

2001–present

2001 United Nations / Kofi Annan 2002 Jimmy Carter 2003 Shirin Ebadi 2004 Wangari Maathai 2005 International Atomic Energy Agency / Mohamed ElBaradei 2006 Grameen Bank / Muhammad Yunus 2007 Al Gore / Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2008 Martti Ahtisaari 2009 Barack Obama 2010 Liu Xiaobo 2011 Ellen Johnson Sirleaf / Leymah Gbowee / Tawakkol Karman 2012 European Union 2013 Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons 2014 Kailash Satyarthi / Malala Yousafzai 2015 Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet 2016
2016
Juan Manuel Santos 2017 International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons

v t e

Time Persons of the Year

1927–1950

Charles Lindbergh
Charles Lindbergh
(1927) Walter Chrysler
Chrysler
(1928) Owen D. Young
Owen D. Young
(1929) Mohandas Gandhi (1930) Pierre Laval
Pierre Laval
(1931) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1932) Hugh S. Johnson
Hugh S. Johnson
(1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1934) Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
(1935) Wallis Simpson
Wallis Simpson
(1936) Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
/ Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
(1937) Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(1938) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1939) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1940) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1941) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1942) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1943) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1944) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945) James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
(1946) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1947) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1948) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1949) The American Fighting-Man (1950)

1951–1975

Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951) Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(1952) Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
(1953) John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
(1954) Harlow Curtice
Harlow Curtice
(1955) Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956) Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
(1957) Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
(1958) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1959) U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser / Joshua Lederberg
Joshua Lederberg
/ Willard Libby
Willard Libby
/ Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
/ Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè
Emilio Segrè
/ William Shockley
William Shockley
/ Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen
James Van Allen
/ Robert Woodward (1960) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1961) Pope John XXIII
Pope John XXIII
(1962) Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
(1963) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1964) William Westmoreland
William Westmoreland
(1965) The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1967) The Apollo 8
Apollo 8
Astronauts: William Anders
William Anders
/ Frank Borman
Frank Borman
/ Jim Lovell (1968) The Middle Americans (1969) Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt
(1970) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1971) Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
/ Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1972) John Sirica
John Sirica
(1973) King Faisal (1974) American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly
Kathleen Byerly
/ Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford
Betty Ford
/ Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King
/ Susie Sharp / Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975)

1976–2000

Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
(1976) Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
(1977) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1978) Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1980) Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
(1981) The Computer (1982) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
/ Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
(1983) Peter Ueberroth
Peter Ueberroth
(1984) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1985) Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
(1986) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1987) The Endangered Earth (1988) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1989) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1990) Ted Turner
Ted Turner
(1991) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(1992) The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
/ F. W. de Klerk
F. W. de Klerk
/ Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
/ Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
(1993) Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
(1994) Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
(1995) David Ho
David Ho
(1996) Andrew Grove
Andrew Grove
(1997) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
/ Ken Starr
Ken Starr
(1998) Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2000)

2001–present

Rudolph Giuliani (2001) The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley
Coleen Rowley
/ Sherron Watkins (2002) The American Soldier (2003) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2004) The Good Samaritans: Bono
Bono
/ Bill Gates
Bill Gates
/ Melinda Gates
Melinda Gates
(2005) You (2006) Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(2007) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2008) Ben Bernanke
Ben Bernanke
(2009) Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
(2010) The Protester (2011) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2012) Pope Francis
Pope Francis
(2013) Ebola Fighters: Dr. Jerry Brown / Dr. Kent Brantly
Kent Brantly
/ Ella Watson-Stryker / Foday Gollah / Salome Karwah
Salome Karwah
(2014) Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(2015) Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(2016) The Silence Breakers (2017)

Book

v t e

United States Senators from Illinois

Class 2

Thomas McLean Baker Robinson McRoberts Semple S. Douglas Browning Richardson Yates Logan Davis Cullom Lewis McCormick Deneen Lewis Slattery Brooks P. Douglas Percy Simon Durbin

Class 3

Edwards McLean Kane Ewing Young Breese Shields Trumbull Oglesby Logan Farwell Palmer Mason Hopkins Lorimer Sherman McKinley Glenn Dieterich Lucas Dirksen Smith Stevenson III Dixon Moseley Braun Fitzgerald Obama Burris Kirk Duckworth

v t e

Patriot Act

Titles I · II · III · IV · V · VI · VII · VIII · IX · X (History)

Acts modified

Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 Electronic Communications Privacy Act Computer Fraud and Abuse Act Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act Money Laundering Control Act Bank Secrecy Act Right to Financial Privacy Act Fair Credit Reporting Act Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 Victims of Crime Act of 1984 Telemarketing and Consumer Fraud and Abuse Prevention Act

People

George W. Bush John Ashcroft Alberto Gonzales Patrick Leahy Orrin Hatch Jon Kyl Dianne Feinstein Viet D. Dinh Joe Biden Michael Chertoff Barack Obama Eric Holder Chuck Schumer Lamar Smith Bob Graham Jay Rockefeller Arlen Specter Mike Oxley Dick Armey Paul Sarbanes Trent Lott Tom Daschle Russ Feingold Ellen Huvelle Ron Paul Lisa Murkowski Ron Wyden Dennis Kucinich Larry Craig John E. Sununu Richard Durbin Bernie Sanders Jerrold Nadler John Conyers, Jr. Butch Otter

Government organizations

Federal Bureau of Investigation Department of Justice Select Committee on Intelligence Department of the Treasury FinCEN Department of State National Institute of Standards and Technology Customs Service U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement

Non-government organizations

American Civil Liberties Union American Library Association Center for Democracy and Technology Center for Public Integrity Electronic Frontier Foundation Electronic Privacy Information Center Humanitarian Law Project

v t e

Grammy Award
Grammy Award
for Best Spoken Word Album

1959−1980

Stan Freberg
Stan Freberg
– The Best of the Stan Freberg
Stan Freberg
Shows (1959) Carl Sandburg
Carl Sandburg
Lincoln Portrait (1960) Robert Bialek (producer) – FDR Speaks (1961) Leonard Bernstein
Leonard Bernstein
– Humor in Music (1962) Charles Laughton
Charles Laughton
– The Story-Teller: A Session With Charles Laughton (1963) Edward Albee
Edward Albee
(playwright) – Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
(1964) That Was the Week That Was
That Was the Week That Was
– BBC Tribute to John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1965) Goddard Lieberson
Goddard Lieberson
(producer) – John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
- As We Remember Him (1966) Edward R. Murrow
Edward R. Murrow
Edward R. Murrow
Edward R. Murrow
- A Reporter Remembers, Vol. I The War Years (1967) Everett Dirksen
Everett Dirksen
– Gallant Men (1968) Rod McKuen
Rod McKuen
– Lonesome Cities (1969) Art Linkletter
Art Linkletter
& Diane Linkletter – We Love You Call Collect (1970) Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
– Why I Oppose the War in Vietnam (1971) Les Crane
Les Crane
– Desiderata (1972) Bruce Botnick (producer) – Lenny performed by the original Broadway cast (1973) Richard Harris
Richard Harris
Jonathan Livingston Seagull (1974) Peter Cook
Peter Cook
and Dudley Moore
Dudley Moore
– Good Evening (1975) James Whitmore
James Whitmore
Give 'em Hell, Harry!
Give 'em Hell, Harry!
(1976) Henry Fonda, Helen Hayes, James Earl Jones
James Earl Jones
and Orson Welles
Orson Welles
- Great American Documents (1977) Julie Harris – The Belle of Amherst
The Belle of Amherst
(1978) Orson Welles
Orson Welles
Citizen Kane
Citizen Kane
Original Motion Picture Soundtrack (1979) John Gielgud
John Gielgud
– Ages of Man - Readings From Shakespeare
Shakespeare
(1980)

1981−2000

Pat Carroll – Gertrude Stein, Gertrude Stein, Gertrude Stein
Gertrude Stein
(1981) Orson Welles
Orson Welles
Donovan's Brain
Donovan's Brain
(1982) Tom Voegeli (producer) – Raiders of the Lost Ark
Raiders of the Lost Ark
- The Movie on Record performed by Various Artists (1983) William Warfield
William Warfield
Lincoln Portrait (1984) Ben Kingsley
Ben Kingsley
– The Words of Gandhi (1985) Mike Berniker (producer) & the original Broadway cast – Ma Rainey's Black Bottom (1986) Johnny Cash, Jerry Lee Lewis, Chips Moman, Ricky Nelson, Roy Orbison, Carl Perkins
Carl Perkins
and Sam Phillips
Sam Phillips
– Interviews From the Class of '55 Recording Sessions (1987) Garrison Keillor
Garrison Keillor
Lake Wobegon Days (1988) Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
– Speech by Rev. Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
(1989) Gilda Radner
Gilda Radner
– It's Always Something (1990) George Burns
George Burns
– Gracie: A Love Story (1991) Ken Burns
Ken Burns
– The Civil War (1992) Earvin "Magic" Johnson and Robert O'Keefe – What You Can Do to Avoid AIDS (1993) Maya Angelou
Maya Angelou
On the Pulse of Morning
On the Pulse of Morning
(1994) Henry Rollins
Henry Rollins
– Get in the Van (1995) Maya Angelou
Maya Angelou
– Phenomenal Woman (1996) Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
It Takes a Village (1997) Charles Kuralt
Charles Kuralt
– Charles Kuralt's Spring (1998) Christopher Reeve
Christopher Reeve
Still Me
Still Me
(1999) LeVar Burton
LeVar Burton
– The Autobiography of Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
(2000)

2001−present

Sidney Poitier, Rick Harris & John Runnette (producers) – The Measure of a Man: A Spiritual Autobiography (2001) Quincy Jones, Jeffrey S. Thomas, Steven Strassman (engineers) and Elisa Shokoff (producer) – Q: The Autobiography of Quincy Jones (2002) Maya Angelou
Maya Angelou
and Charles B. Potter (producer) – A Song Flung Up to Heaven / Robin Williams, Nathaniel Kunkel (engineer/mixer) and Peter Asher (producer) – Live 2002 (2003) Al Franken
Al Franken
and Paul Ruben (producer) – Lies and the Lying Liars Who Tell Them (2004) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
– My Life (2005) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
Dreams from My Father
Dreams from My Father
(2006) Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
– Our Endangered Values: America's Moral Crisis / Ossie Davis and Ruby Dee
Ruby Dee
- With Ossie and Ruby (2007) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
and Jacob Bronstein (producer) – The Audacity of Hope (2008) Beau Bridges, Cynthia Nixon
Cynthia Nixon
and Blair Underwood
Blair Underwood
– An Inconvenient Truth by Al Gore
Al Gore
(2009) Michael J. Fox
Michael J. Fox
– Always Looking Up (2010) Jon Stewart
Jon Stewart
– The Daily Show with Jon Stewart
Jon Stewart
Presents Earth (The Audiobook) (2011) Betty White
Betty White
– If You Ask Me (And Of Course You Won't) (2012) Janis Ian
Janis Ian
– Society's Child (2013) Stephen Colbert
Stephen Colbert
– America Again: Re-becoming The Greatness We Never Weren't (2014) Joan Rivers
Joan Rivers
– Diary of a Mad Diva (2015) Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
– A Full Life: Reflections at 90 (2016) Carol Burnett
Carol Burnett
– In Such Good Company: Eleven Years of Laughter, Mayhem, and Fun in the Sandbox (2017) Carrie Fisher
Carrie Fisher
The Princess Diarist
The Princess Diarist
(2018)

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