Coordinates: 39°51′33″N 75°19′38″W / 39.85917°N
75.32722°W / 39.85917; -75.32722
Locomotive Works in 1875
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S. (1825)
Matthias W. Baldwin
Eddystone, Pennsylvania, U.S.
Locomotive Works builder's plate, 1922
Locomotive Works c. 1900
Locomotive Works was an American manufacturer of railroad
locomotives from 1825 to 1956. Originally located in Philadelphia, it
moved to nearby Eddystone, Pennsylvania, in the early 20th century.
The company was for decades the world's largest producer of steam
locomotives, but struggled to compete as demand switched to diesel
locomotives. Baldwin produced the last of its 70,000-plus locomotives
in 1956 and went out of business in 1972.
The company has no relation to the E.M. Baldwin and Sons locomotive
builder of New South Wales, Australia.
1 History: 19th century
1.2 Early years
2 History: 20th century
2.1 Gilded age
2.2 World War I
2.4 World War II
3.1 Later steam locomotives
Narrow gauge and unconventional
3.3 Electric locomotives
3.4 Steam-turbine locomotives
3.5 Diesel-electric locomotives
4 Street railways and tramway steam motors
5 See also
8 Further reading
9 External links
History: 19th century
Matthias W. Baldwin
Locomotive Works had a humble beginning. Matthias W.
Baldwin, the founder, was a jeweller and whitesmith, who, in 1825,
formed a partnership with a machinist, and engaged in the manufacture
of bookbinders' tools and cylinders for calico printing. Baldwin then
designed and constructed for his own use a small stationary engine,
the workmanship of which was so excellent and its efficiency so great
that he was solicited to build others like it for various parties, and
thus led to turn his attention to steam engineering. The original
engine was in use and powered many departments of the works for well
over 60 years, and is currently on display at the Smithsonian
Institution in Washington, DC.
In 1831, at the request of the
Philadelphia Museum, Baldwin built a
miniature locomotive for exhibition which was such a success that he
received that year an order from a railway company for a locomotive to
run on a short line to the suburbs of Philadelphia. The Camden and
Railroad Company (C&A) had shortly before imported a
locomotive (John Bull) from England, which was stored in Bordentown,
New Jersey. It had not yet been assembled by
Isaac Dripps (under the
direction of C&A president Robert L. Stevens) when Baldwin visited
the spot. He inspected the detached parts and made notes of the
principal dimensions. Aided by these figures, he commenced his
The difficulties attending the execution of this first order were such
that they are not easily understood by present-day mechanics. Modern
machine tools simply did not exist; the cylinders were bored by a
chisel fixed in a block of wood and turned by hand; the workmen had to
be taught how to do nearly all the work; and Baldwin himself did a
great deal of it with his own hands.
It was under such circumstances that his first locomotive, christened
Old Ironsides, was completed and tried on the Philadelphia, Germantown
Railroad on November 23, 1832. It was at once put in
active service, and did duty for over 20 years. It was a four-wheeled
engine, weighing a little over five tons; the driving wheels were 54
inches (1.4 m) in diameter, and the cylinders were of
9 1⁄2 inches (24 cm) bore by 18 inches (46 cm)
stroke. The wheels were of heavy cast iron hubs, with wooden spokes
and rims, and wrought iron tires, and the frame was made of wood
placed outside the wheels. It had a 30 inches (0.76 m) diameter
boiler which took 20 minutes to raise steam. Top speed was 28 mph
Baldwin struggled to survive the Panic of 1837. Production fell from
40 locomotives in 1837 to just nine in 1840 and the company was
heavily in debt. As part of the survival strategy, Matthias Baldwin
took on two partners, George Vail and George Hufty. Although the
partnerships proved relatively short-lived, they helped Baldwin pull
through the economic hard times.
Zerah Colburn was one of many engineers who had a close association
Locomotive Works. Between 1854, (and the start of his
weekly paper, (the
Railroad Advocate)), and 1861, when Colburn went to
work more or less permanently in London, England, the journalist was
in frequent touch with M. W. Baldwin, as recorded in Zerah Colburn:
The Spirit of Darkness. Colburn was full of praise for the quality of
In the 1850s, railroad building became a national obsession, with
many new carriers starting up, particularly in the Midwest and South.
While this helped drive up demand for Baldwin products, it also
increased competition as more companies entered the locomotive
Still, Baldwin had trouble keeping pace with orders and in the early
1850s began paying workers piece-rate pay. Taking advantage of
human nature, this increased incentives and productivity. By 1857, the
company turned out 66 locomotives and employed 600 men. But another
economic downturn, this time the Panic of 1857, cut into business
again. Output fell by 50 percent in 1858.
The Civil War at first appeared disastrous for Baldwin. According to
John K. Brown in The Baldwin
Locomotive Works, 1831-1915: A Study in
American Industrial Practice, at the start of the conflict Baldwin had
a great dependence on Southern railways as its primary market. In
1860, nearly 80 percent of Baldwin's output went to carriers in states
that would soon secede from the Union. As a result, Baldwin's
production in 1861 fell more than 50 percent compared to the previous
year. However, the loss in Southern sales was counterbalanced by
purchases by the U.S. Military Railroads and the Pennsylvania
Railroad, which saw its traffic soar, as Baldwin produced more than
100 engines for carriers during the 1861–1865 war.
By the time Matthias Baldwin died in 1866, his company was vying with
Locomotive and Machine Works for the top spot among locomotive
producers. By 1870 Baldwin had taken the lead and a decade later,
it was producing 2½ times as many engines as its nearest competitor,
according to the U.S. Manufacturing Census.
1882 advertisement for the Baldwin
Locomotive Works, Erecting Floor, 1896.
In 1897 the Baldwin
Locomotive Works was presented as one of the
examples of successful shop management in a series of articles by
Horace Lucian Arnold. The article specifically described the Piece
Rate System used in the shop management.
Burton (1899) commented, that "in the Baldwin
piecework rates are seldom altered... Some rates have remained
unchanged for the past twenty years, and a workman is there more
highly esteemed when he can, by his own exertions and ability,
increase his weekly earnings. He has an absolute incentive to increase
his output as much as he possibly can, because he knows that he will
not, by increasing his own income, lead to cutting piece-work rates,
and so be forced to make still further exertions in order to maintain
the same weekly wage."
History: 20th century
Plan of the Baldwin
Locomotive Works in Philadelphia, c. 1903
Initially, Baldwin built many more steam locomotives at its cramped
196 acres (0.79 km2) Broad Street
Philadelphia shop but would
begin an incremental shift in production to a 616 acres
(2.49 km2) site located at Spring Street in nearby Eddystone,
Pennsylvania, in 1906. Broad Street was constricted, but even so, it
was a huge complex, occupying the better part of 8 square city blocks
from Broad to 18th Streets and Spring Garden Street to the Reading
tracks just past Noble Street. Eddystone on the other hand was spread
out over 600 acres. Its capacity was well over 3000 locomotives per
year. The move from Broad Street was completed in the late 1920s.
2-8-0 Consolidation-type locomotive was built for the
Oneida & Western
Railroad in 1916, and was operated from 1937 to
1953 on the Rahway Valley Railroad's New Jersey short line. Preserved
at Steamtown National Historic Site.
Railroad #45 (builder #58045 of 1924), is a 2-8-2
"Mikado" locomotive still in use on the Skunk Train
The American railroad industry expanded significantly between 1898 and
1907, with domestic demand for locomotives hitting its highest point
in 1905. Baldwin’s business boomed during this period while it
modernized its Broad Street facilities. Despite this boom, Baldwin
faced many challenges including the constraints of space in the
Philadelphia facility, inflation, increased labor costs, Labor
tensions, the substantial increase in the size of the locomotives
being manufactured and the formation of the American Locomotive
Company, an aggressive competitor which eventually became known simply
From 1904 to 1943, Baldwin and Westinghouse marketed
Baldwin-Westinghouse electric locomotives
Baldwin-Westinghouse electric locomotives and A.C. electrification of
railroads, particularly to the New Haven Railroad.
In 1906 the
Hepburn Act authorized greater governmental authority over
railroad companies, and revitalized the Interstate Commerce Commission
(ICC), which stepped up its activities. The ICC was given the power to
set maximum railroad rates, and to replace existing rates with
“just-and-reasonable” maximum rates, as defined by the ICC.
The limitation on railroad rates depreciated the value of railroad
securities, and meant that railroads stopped ordering new equipment,
including locomotives. This may have been a factor in precipitating
the Panic of 1907, which in turn disrupted finance and investment in
new plants. Both of these events had a direct
negative effect on the railroad industry, especially the locomotive
Baldwin’s locomotive output dropped from 2,666 in 1906 to 614 in
1908. The company cut its workforce from 18,499 workers in 1907 to
4,600 the following year. Baldwin’s business was further
imperiled when William P. Henszey, one of Baldwin’s partners, died.
His death left Baldwin with a US $6 million liability. In
response, Baldwin incorporated and released US $10 million worth of
bonds. Samuel Vauclain wanted to use these funds to expand
Baldwin’s capacities so it would be prepared for another boom.
While other Baldwin officers opposed this expansion, Vauclain’s
vision won out; Baldwin would continue to expand its Eddystone plant
until its completion in 1928. By 1928, the company moved all
locomotive production to this location, though the plant would never
exceed more than one-third of its production capacity.
World War I
Baldwin was an important contributor to the Allied war effort in World
War I. Baldwin built 5,551 locomotives for the Allies including
separate designs for Russian, French, British and United States trench
railways. Baldwin built railway gun carriages for the United States
Navy and manufactured 6,565,355 artillery shells for Russia, England
and the United States. From 1915 to 1918,
Remington Arms subcontracted
the production of nearly 2 million
Pattern 1914 Enfield
Pattern 1914 Enfield and M1917
Enfield rifles to the Baldwin
After the end of
World War I
World War I Baldwin continued to supply export
orders, as the European powers strove to replace large numbers of
locomotives worn out by the war effort and European locomotive
factories were still re-tooling from armaments production back to
railroad production. In 1919 and 1920 Baldwin supplied 50 4-6-0
locomotives to the Palestine Military
Railway that became the
Palestine Railways H class.
Grand Trunk Western
Railway purchased this 4-8-2 Mountain locomotive
(#6039) from Baldwin in 1925. This locomotive burned coal, and had
Vanderbilt tenders and an enclosed all-weather cab. Preserved at
Steamtown National Historic Site.
After the boom years of World War I, Baldwin's business would decline
Great Depression gripped the country and diesel engines became
the growth market on American railways at the end of the 1930s. During
the 1920s the major locomotive manufacturers had strong incentives to
maintain the dominance of the steam engine. Nevertheless, ALCO,
while remaining committed to steam production, pursued R&D
strategies in the 1920s and '30s that would ensure its competitiveness
in the event that diesel locomotives would predominate. In
contrast, Baldwin in the 1930s discounted the possibility that diesel
could replace steam. In 1930 Samuel Vauclain, Chairman of the
Board, stated in a speech that advances in steam technology would
ensure the dominance of the steam engine until at least 1980.
Baldwin’s Vice President and Director of Sales stated in December
1937 that "Some time in the future, when all this is reviewed, it will
be found that our railroads are no more dieselized than they
electrified". Baldwin had deep roots in the steam locomotive
industry, and may have been influenced by heavy investment in its
In 1928 Baldwin began an attempt to diversify its product line to
include small internal combustion-electric locomotives but the Great
Depression thwarted these efforts, eventually leading Baldwin to
declare bankruptcy in 1935. At the invitation of the owners of the
Geo D. Whitcomb Company, a small manufacturer of gasoline and diesel
industrial locomotives in Rochelle, Illinois, Baldwin agreed to
participate in a recapitalization program, purchasing about half of
the issued stock. By March 1931 the small firm was in financial
trouble and Baldwin filed a voluntary bankruptcy for Whitcomb with
Baldwin gaining complete control and creating a new subsidiary, the
Locomotive Company. This action would lead to financial
losses, an ugly court battle between Baldwin and William Whitcomb, the
former owner of the company, and bankruptcy for both parties.
Baldwin lost its dominant position in electric locomotives when the
Railroad selected General Electric's
PRR GG1 instead of
Baldwin's design in 1934.
When Baldwin emerged from bankruptcy in 1938 it underwent a drastic
change in management. The new management revived their development
efforts with diesel power but the company was already too far
behind. In 1939 Baldwin offered its first standard line of diesel
locomotives, all designed for yard service. By this time, GM-EMD was
already ramping up production of diesel passenger locomotives and
developing its first diesel road freight locomotive.
As the 1930s drew to a close, Baldwin's coal-country customers such as
Pennsylvania Railroad, Chesapeake and Ohio, and Norfolk and Western
were more reluctant than other operators to embrace diesel technology,
which could undermine the demand for one of their main hauling
markets. All three continued to acquire passenger steam locomotives
into the early postwar years, as dieselization was gaining momentum
elsewhere in the rail industry.
In the late 1930s Baldwin and the
Railroad made an all-in
bet on the future of steam in passenger rail service with Baldwin's
duplex-drive S1 locomotive. It proved difficult to operate,
unreliable, costly to maintain, and unsuited for its intended service.
Baldwin developed a revision of the same basic design with the T1,
introduced in 1943. While the T1s were actually used for PRR's long
distance express trains, they still had many of the problems of the
S1. The whole S1-T1 venture resulted in losses for PRR and investment
in a dead-end development effort for Baldwin at a critical time for
both companies. In the early 1940s Baldwin embarked upon its efforts
to develop steam turbine power, producing the S2 direct-drive turbine
locomotive in 1944. Baldwin's steam turbine program failed to produce
a single successful design. Baldwin's steam-centered development path
had left them flat-footed in the efforts necessary to compete in the
postwar diesel market dominated by EMD and ALCO-GE.
World War II
SNCF Class 141R
SNCF Class 141R n° 1199, built by Baldwin in 1947, now preserved in
Surviving example of a
Baldwin DT-6-6-2000 transfer engine, a post-war
diesel electric locomotive produced between 1946 and 1950.
Soviet locomotive Еа-2201 built by Baldwin in 1944)
The United States' entry into
World War II
World War II impeded Baldwin's Diesel
development program when the
War Production Board
War Production Board dictated that Alco
and Baldwin produce only steamers and Diesel-electric yard switching
engines. The General Motors Electro-Motive Division was assigned the
task of producing road freight Diesels (namely, the FT series). EMD's
distinct advantage over its competitors in that product line in the
years that followed World War II, due to the head start in diesel
R&D and production, is beyond doubt, however, assigning it solely
to WPB directives is questionable. Longtime GM chairman Alfred P.
Sloan presented a timeline in his memoir that belies this
assumption, saying that GM's diesel-engine R&D efforts of the
1920s and 1930s, and its application of model design standardization
(yielding lower unit costs) and marketing lessons learned in the
automotive industry, were the principal reason for EMD's competitive
advantage in the late 1940s and afterward (clearly implying that the
wartime production assignments were merely nails in a coffin that
Baldwin and Lima had already built for themselves before the war). In
his telling, the R&D needed to adapt earlier Diesels (best suited
to marine and stationary use) to locomotive use (smaller; higher
power-to-weight ratio; more reliable given more vibration and less
maintenance) was a capital-intensive project that almost no one among
the railroad owners or locomotive builders was willing (latter) or
able (former) to invest in during the 1920s and 1930s, save the people
of Winton, Electro-Motive, and
Charles F. Kettering
Charles F. Kettering of the GM Research
Baldwin was benefited by the petroleum crisis of 1942-43, which
boosted demand for their coal-fired steam locomotives while
acquisition of EMD's Diesel locomotives was in its most restricted
In 1943 Baldwin launched its belated road Diesel program, producing a
prototype "Centipede" locomotive which was later rebuilt to introduce
their first major product in the postwar market. Baldwin made steam
engines for domestic US railroads, the US Army, British Railways, and
sent around one thousand E or Ye type engines to the Soviet Union in
the Lend Lease arrangement (of an order of 2000 or so engines with
other builders contributing to the total).
World War II
World War II Baldwin's contributions to the war effort included
not only locomotives and switchers but also tanks. Baldwin was one of
the manufacturers of several variants of the M3 tank (M3 Lee, M3A2,
M3A3, M3A5) and later the M4 Sherman. A Baldwin subsidiary, the
Locomotive Company, produced hundreds of 65-ton diesel
electric locomotives for the Army and received the Army-Navy "E" award
for production. Baldwin ranked 40th among United States
corporations in the value of wartime production contracts.
1954 Baldwin 0-
4-4-0 Diesel-Electric Switcher at the Texas
Between 1940 and 1948, domestic steam locomotive sales declined from
30 percent of the market to 2 percent. By 1949, there was no
demand for steam locomotives. Baldwin's attempts to adapt to the
changed market for road locomotives had been unsuccessful; the
reliability of their offerings was unsatisfactory, epitomized by
notorious failures such as their "Centipede" diesel locomotives and
their steam turbine-electric locomotives, which proved to be money
pits unsuited for their intended service. In July 1948 Westinghouse
Electric, which had teamed with Baldwin to build diesel and electric
locomotives and wanted to keep their main customer in the rail
industry afloat, purchased 500,000 shares, or 21 percent, of Baldwin
stock, which made Westinghouse Baldwin's largest shareholder. Baldwin
used the money to cover various debts. Westinghouse vice president
Marvin W. Smith became Baldwin's president in May 1949. In a move to
diversify into the construction equipment market, Baldwin merged with
Lima-Hamilton on December 4, 1950, to become Baldwin-Lima-Hamilton.
However, Lima-Hamilton's locomotive technology was unused after the
merger and market share continued to dwindle. By January, 1952 Baldwin
closed its factory in
Rochelle, Illinois and consolidated Whitcomb
production at Eddystone. In 1953 Westinghouse discontinued building
electrical traction equipment, so Baldwin was forced to reconfigure
their drive systems based on
General Electric equipment. In 1954,
during which time they were being virtually shut out of the diesel
market, Baldwin delivered one steam turbine-electric locomotive to the
Norfolk and Western
Norfolk and Western railroad, which proved unsatisfactory in service.
In 1956, after 125 years of continuous locomotive production, Baldwin
closed most of its Eddystone plant and ceased producing locomotives.
The company instead concentrated on production of heavy construction
equipment. More than 70,500 locomotives had been built when
production ended. In 1965 Baldwin became a wholly owned subsidiary of
Armour and Company. Greyhound Corporation purchased Armour and
Company in 1970, and in 1972 Greyhound closed Baldwin-Lima-Hamilton
Later steam locomotives
0-4-0 type Boston & Maine Achilles, 1871
An 1872 Baldwin locomotive of
4-4-0 type used on the Hanko-Hyvinkää
Railroad in Finland.
A 1902 Baldwin locomotive of
2-6-2 type used on the Atchison, Topeka
and Santa Fe
New Mexico where it is now on permanent
display in Las Vegas, NM.
Baldwin works photo of Lyn', May 1898
M&PP 5, an 0-4-2T, at the depot in Manitou Springs
2-8-0 2 ft 6 in (762 mm) narrow gauge on static
display, Toa Baja, Puerto Rico.
Baldwin built many
4-4-0 "American" type locomotives (the locomotive
that built America). Surviving examples of which include the 1872
Countess of Dufferin and 1875's Virginia and Truckee
"Inyo", but it was perhaps best known for the
2-8-2 "Mikado" and 2-8-0
"Consolidation" types. It was also well known for the unique
4-8-8-2 articulateds built for the Southern Pacific
Company and massive
2-10-2 for the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe
Railway. Baldwin also produced their most powerful steam engines in
2-8-8-4 "Yellowstone" for the Duluth, Missabe and Iron
Range Railway. The Yellowstone could put down over 140,000 lbf
(622.8 kN) of Tractive force. They routinely hauled 180 car
trains weighing over 18,000 short tons (16,071 long tons;
16,329 t). The Yellowstones were so good that the DM&IR
refused to part with them; they hauled ore trains well into the diesel
era, and the last one retired in 1963. Three have been preserved. One
of Baldwin's last new and improved locomotive designs were the 4-8-4
"Northern" locomotives. Baldwin's last domestic steam locomotives were
2-6-6-2s built for the Chesapeake and Ohio
Railway in 1949. Baldwin
60000, the company's 1926 demonstration steam locomotive, is on
display at the
Franklin Institute in Philadelphia. On a separate note,
the restored and running
2-6-2 steam locomotive at Fort Edmonton Park
was built by Baldwin in 1919.
Preserved Baldwin steam locomotives
There are many Baldwin built steam locomotives currently operating in
the United States, Canada, and several other countries around the
world. Out of all the Baldwin built steam locomotives that are
operational or have operated in recent years, the most recognized
locomotives are Reading 2101, Southern
Railway 4501, Frisco 1522,
Nickel Plate 587, Southern
Pacific 2467, Southern
Spokane, Portland and Seattle 700, and the oldest surviving 4-8-4
Northern type steam locomotive, Santa Fe 3751.
In Australia, five of the twenty NSW 59 class Baldwin 2-8-2s which
entered service in 1952-3 survive.[better source needed]
NSW had several classes of 19th century Baldwin locomotives including
the L.304 (later Z21) class
2-6-0s;[better source needed] the O.446 (later Z23)
class 4-6-0s;[better source needed] and the J.483 (later
Z29) class 2-8-0s,[better source needed] of which none
Narrow gauge and unconventional
Locomotive Works built steam engines for narrow-gauge railways
as well. They also built many boilers for heating and powering
buildings and industry. One of the more notable series of narrow gauge
locomotives built by Baldwin was the K-36 class Mikados of the Denver
and Rio Grande Western RR. Built in 1925, the fleet of ten has seen
only one scrapped (485 in 1955, as a result of falling into the
turntable pit in Salida, CO). All of the nine remaining engines are
operating today on the Durango and Silverton Narrow Gauge Railroad, or
the Cumbres and Toltec Scenic Railroad.
New Zealand Railways (NZR) was a major customer from 1879 when it
2-8-0 based on the Denver and Rio Grande locomotives due
to their similar rail gauge, these were given the road class of T. The
next was a double emergency order of six
2-6-2 classed N and six 2-8-0
classed O after a British order for similar locomotives failed to meet
ontime delivery and weight limitations specified in contract. Baldwins
seized on the opportunity to impress the NZR with a prompt six-month
delivery of all 12 locomotives. Thereafter NZR ordered Baldwin
products to complement home built locomotives, including
2-6-2 Wb and
2-6-4 Wd classes. Another four of the hard working N
class were purchased in 1901. The popular
4-6-0 class of 22 Ub
locomotives consisting of 10 1898 flat valve and 10 1901 piston valve
(Baldwins supplying all but two) proved themselves well at the turn of
the twentieth century with the last retiring as late as 1958. A
requirement for a larger firebox version of the class ended up
creating a whole new locomotive with the birth of the
Pacific was born. They were classed as Q in NZR
service and remained in use until 1957. Being a new type of
locomotive, the Q class had their shortcomings but eventually
performed well (Sadly, none have been preserved except one engine,
originally sold to the Newfoundland
Railway in September 1920. Engine
#593, affectionately known as the "Newfie Bullet", is being restored
in Corner Brook, Newfoundland, Canada.) In 1914 a later larger
improved version, and last Baldwin product to be purchased by NZR was
classed as Aa. They lasted until 1959. Like all American locomotives
produced at the time, the Baldwins had 'short' lifespans built into
them but the NZR were happy to re-boiler almost their whole fleet to
give them a longer life of hard work. NZR were generally happy with
their Baldwin fleet. A private
Railway operating in New Zealand at the
time exclusively purchased Baldwin products after facing the same
difficulties with British builders the NZR had. The Wellington and
Railway (1881–1909) operated small fleets of 2-8-0(4),
2-6-2(6), 2-8-2(1), 4-6-0(2) and a large 2-8-4(1) tank locomotive.
When the NZR took over the railway, its fleet was absorbed into
sub-classes of those operating already in the main fleet. When NZR
placed tenders for Diesel locomotives in the 1950s, Baldwins applied
but failed when EMD won the contract instead. Surprisingly only one
NZR Baldwin product is operational, a class Wd
2-6-4 tank locomotive
operating at the
Ferrymead railway in Christchurch, the remains of a
2-6-2 N, NZR
4-6-0 Ub, and two NZR
2-6-2 Wb tank locomotives are
in the early stages of restoration.
A six-ton, 60-cm gauge
4-4-0 built for the Tacubaya
Railroad in 1897
was the smallest ever built by Baldwin for commercial use.
In the late 1890s, many British builders were recovering from an
engineers' strike over working hours, leaving backlogs of orders yet
to be fulfilled. This prompted British railways that were in immediate
need for additional motive power to turn to Baldwin and other US
builders. Examples of engines built in response include the 2501 class
of 2-6-0's built for the Midland
Railway and the Lyn, a 2-4-2T(tank
locomotive) for the 1 ft 11.5 in (597 mm) gauge Lynton
England in 1898. The Cape Government
Railways of South Africa also bought engines from Baldwin as a result
of the strikes. Unfortunately, many of these engines were unpopular
with the crews due to their designs being atypical, and many,
including all Midland
Railway 2501's and the Lynton and Barnstaple's
Lyn, were scrapped when no longer needed. A replica of the latter
locomotive is currently under construction for the revived Lynton
& Barnstaple Railway.
Also during the late 1890s, two 2-6-2T 'Prairie' tank engines were
Victorian Railways (VR). They were used as a trial on the
new 2 ft 6 in (762 mm)narrow gauge railways.
Fifteen more NA class locomotives were built by VR. Unfortunately only
six have survived and both of the original Baldwin engines were among
To supply troops in France, 495 4-6-0PTs were built to the order of
the British War Department in 1916/7. After the war surplus
locomotives were sold, finding new uses in France, Britain and India.
In Britain examples were used on the Ashover Light Railway, Glyn
Snailbeach District Railways
Snailbeach District Railways and the Welsh Highland
Railway. The Welsh Highland
Wales bought No 590, in 1923.
It was apparently unpopular with crews although photographs show that
it was used regularly until the railway was closed. It was scrapped in
1941 when the derelict railway's assets were requisitioned for the war
effort. Some of the surviving examples in India have since been
imported to the UK, one of which by the Welsh Highland
who has restored it to represent the scrapped 590. Other Baldwin
4-6-0PT's imported from India include one owned by the Leighton
Buzzard Railway-based Greensand
Railway Trust that has been restored
to working order, as well as two acquired by the Statfold Barn Railway
in March 2013.
Baldwin also built six engines for the Manitou and Pike's Peak
Railway, three of which were delivered in 1890, with the fourth being
delivered in 1897. These engines featured steeply inclined boilers and
Abt rack system
Abt rack system to propel them up the average 16 percent
grade. The last Baldwin engine was taken out of regular service in
1955. During the following years the engines were used as back-up
engines and for snow removal. Three of the engines are currently on
static display around Colorado. One (No. 1) is located at the Colorado
Railroad Museum in Golden, Colorado. The other two on display are
located in Manitou Springs, Colorado: one (No. 2) near city hall and
the other (No. 5) at the Manitou and
Railway depot. The
engine No. 4 is still in limited operation for photo opportunities and
special events. However, it no longer completes the journey to the top
Pike's Peak due to the fact that many of the water tanks along the
line have been removed. Engines No. 3 and No. 6 were scrapped and used
for parts over the years.
MCRR Baldwin Mogul Number-6 001
Number 6 (builder plate number 12288), a 36"
2-6-0 was built by
Baldwin in 1891 for the Surry Sussex & Southampton
Virginia. The SS&S installed Southern valve gear, a graceful
outside drive gear. The 6 was eventually sold to the Argent Lumber
Company in South Carolina. In 1960, the 6 was purchased by
southeastern Iowa's Midwest Central
Railroad as part of a package deal
including the 2 (below). It was the first locomotive to operate on a
regular basis at the MCRR and was their main engine until 1971 when it
was taken out of service for a major overhaul. Completed in 1988, this
ground up rebuild included a new boiler and conversion to oil fire. A
"medium" boiler repair was started in 2009, with the work completed in
September 2010, in time for the 2010 Midwest Old Thresher's Reunion.
The Midwest Central
Railroad also owns Number 2, a 36" 2-6-0, which
was built for the New Berlin & Winfield
Railroad in 1906. The
NB&W operated an 8-mile (13 km) line in
Pennsylvania for an
agricultural community. The 2 hauled freight and passengers on this
small operation until the mid-1910s. In 1917, the locomotive was sold
to the Argent Lumber Company in South Carolina where it worked along
with the 6 in swamp trackage, hauling logs to the mill in Hardeeville.
Upon arrival at the MCRR in 1960, it received substantial repairs and
was put into service by the early 1970s, replacing the 6 as the MCRR's
main engine. In 1987, the 2 was taken out of service for a complete
rebuild which is still in progress as of January 2011.
The Walt Disney World Railroad, which runs around the Magic Kingdom in
Florida, has four operational Baldwin locomotives: a 1916 Class 8-C
4-4-0 #42915 (The Roy O. Disney), twin locomotives #58444 and #58445,
both 1925 Class 10-D
4-6-0 designs (The Walter E. Disney and the Roger
E. Broggie) and a 1928 Class 8-D
2-6-0 #60598 (The Lilly
Belle). They originally worked on the Ferrocarriles Unidos de
Yucatán, a 3 ft (914 mm) railroad that operated in the
Yucatán in Mexico. In the late 1960s, they were all
purchased by Disney imagineers
Roger E. Broggie
Roger E. Broggie and Earl Vilmer for
$8,000 each and significantly altered from their original appearance
to resemble steam locomotives from the 1880s.
From the early years of the 20th century Baldwin had a relationship
Westinghouse Electric Company to build electric locomotives
for the American market. The electric locomotive was increasingly
popular; electrification was expensive, but for high traffic levels or
mountainous terrain it could pay for itself, and in addition some
cities like New York, were banning the steam locomotive because of its
pollution and the propensity for accidents in smoke-choked terminals.
Baldwin built or subcontracted out the bodywork and running gear, and
Westinghouse built the electrical gear. Both combined to have a
similar arrangement with the Netherlands N.V. Heemaf and
Werkspoor (nl) for the foreign markets.
Baldwin built the famed EP-1 (1906), EF-1 (1912) and EP-2 (1923) box
cab electric locomotives for the New York, New Haven and Hartford
Railroad. Baldwin also delivered the EP-3 box cab electric locomotives
to the Milwaukee Road for use on their line between Harlowton,
Montana, and Avery, Idaho.
Baldwin built several electric locomotive types for the Pennsylvania
Railroad as well including the P5A, R1 and the famed GG1. Baldwin
built the first GG1 prototype electric locomotive for use on the
Pennsylvania Railroad’s electrified line, which was completed in
1935 between New York and Washington, D.C.
PRR class S2 #6200
C&O class M-1 #500
In the waning years of steam Baldwin also undertook several attempts
at alternative technologies to diesel power. In 1944 Baldwin
outshopped an S2 class
6-8-6 steam turbine locomotive for the
Between 1947 and 1948 Baldwin built three coal-fired steam
turbine-electric locomotives of a unique design, for passenger service
on the Chesapeake and Ohio
Railway (C&O), who numbered them 500 to
502 and classified them M-1. The 6,000 horsepower (4,500 kW)
units, which were equipped with Westinghouse electrical systems and
had a 2-C1+2-C1-B wheel arrangement, were 106 feet (32 m) long,
making them the longest locomotives ever built for passenger service.
The cab was mounted in the center, with a coal bunker ahead of it and
a backwards-mounted boiler behind it, the tender only carrying water.
These locomotives were intended for a route from Washington, D.C., to
Cincinnati, Ohio, but could never travel the whole route without some
sort of failure.
Coal dust and water frequently got into the traction
motors. These problems could have been fixed given time, but it was
obvious that these locomotives would always be expensive to maintain,
and all three were scrapped in 1950.
In May 1954 Baldwin built a 4,500 horsepower (3,400 kW) steam
turbine-electric locomotive for freight service on the Norfolk and
Railway (N&W), nicknamed the "Jawn Henry" after the legend
of John Henry, a steel-driver on a track crew who famously raced
against a steam drill and won, only to die immediately afterwards. The
unit was similar in appearance to the C&O turbines but very
different mechanically; it had a C+C-C+C wheel arrangement, and an
improved watertube boiler which was fitted with automatic controls.
Unfortunately the boiler controls were sometimes problematic, and, as
with the C&O turbines, coal dust and water got into the motors.
"Jawn Henry" was retired from the N&W roster on January 4, 1958.
Railroad Baldwin #10. The Baldwin
Locomotive Works built this
locomotive in 1950 as a DRS 6-6-1500, diesel for the McCloud River
Railroad as #29.
Brazilian AS616 class
Baldwin switchers were well known for their haulage ability, but the
company failed to make the jump to building reliable road units.
Baldwin also misjudged the market, remaining fond of steam power and
concentrating on products of little interest to railroads.
Baldwin diesel locomotives, though fairly successful in the
marketplace, did not do so well as others. Baldwins, thanks to their
robust Westinghouse electrical gear, were excellent haulers, but the
diesel prime movers were less reliable than comparable EMD and Alco
Street railways and tramway steam motors
As well as railway locomotives, Baldwin built street tramway steam
motors in large numbers for operators in the United States and
worldwide. There were three basic models, with 9-inch, 11-inch and
13-inch motors, the sizes being determined by the cylinder size rather
than the boiler capacity. These were largely superseded by electric
tramcars, but some were built and operated well into the 20th century
for systems that were never electrified. There were well over 100
built for the New South
Wales Government Tramways in Sydney Australia
from 1879–1910. Mostly 11" and
0-4-0 in configuration.
Two operational NSWGT surviving steam motors:
Baldwin 11676 of 1891 NSWGT No. 103 Valley Heights
Heritage Museum, New South Wales, Australia.
Baldwin 11665 of 1891 NSWGT No. 100 Museum of Transport and
Technology, Auckland, NZ. No.100 was latterly used in Wanganui, New
Other Baldwin steam motor operators included:
Takapuna Tramways and Ferry Company, Auckland, New Zealand
1910–1927. Route was from
Bayswater to Milford via
Takapuna and Lake
Pupuke. No surviving locomotives.
List of Baldwin diesel locomotives
Samuel M. Vauclain
Samuel M. Vauclain Designer and
^ Morris, Charles R. Morris ; illustrations by J.E. (2012). The
dawn of innovation : the first American Industrial Revolution
(1st ed.). New York: PublicAffairs. p. 220.
^ Alexander 2003, p. 26.
^ Warner 1924, p. 7.
^ Kerr, James (1983). Illustrated Treasury of Baldwin Locomotives
(First ed.). Alburg, VT: DPA-LTA Enterprises, Inc. p. 4.
^ Brown 1995, p. 9.
^ a b Brown 1995, p. 19.
^ Brown 1995, p. 20.
^ Brown 1995, p. 21.
^ a b c Brown 1995, p. 25.
^ Brown 1995, p. 27.
^ Brown 1995, p. 244.
Arnold, Horace L.
Arnold, Horace L. "Modern Machine-Shop Economics. Part II" in
Engineering Magazine 11. 1896
Horace Lucian Arnold
Horace Lucian Arnold (Henry Roland). "Six examples of successful
shop management. IV. Pre-Eminent Success of the Differential Piece
Engineering Magazine 12. 1897. p. 831-37.
^ * Francis G. Burton. The Commercial Management of Engineering Works.
(1899). p. 148.
^ Hexamer, Ernest (1874), "Baldwin
Locomotive Works", Hexamer General
Surveys, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, 9, plates 756–758.
^ a b c d e f g Brown 1995, p. 216.
^ Brown 1995, pp. 208–214.
^ "The Rise of the Interstate Commerce Commission". Yale Law Journal.
24 (7): 534–535. May 1915. Retrieved 23 April 2014.
^ Brown 1995, p. 215.
^ Brown 1995, p. 241.
^ Brown 1995, p. 228.
^ Westing 1982, pp. 76–85.
^ Cotterell 1984, pp. 28–29.
^ Marx 1976, p. 5.
^ Marx 1976, p. 12.
^ a b c d Marx 1976, p. 15.
^ a b Marx 1976, p. 16.
^ National Archives, U.S. Federal Court, Northern District of
Illinois, Western Division,
Bankruptcy No. 2065, filed March 5, 1931
^ Archives of the Circuit Court of Cook County, Illinois, Case No. 34C
1936, filed February 14, 1934
^ a b Marx 1976, p. 17.
^ a b Sloan 1964, pp. 341–353.
^ Peck, Merton J. & Scherer, Frederic M. The Weapons Acquisition
Process: An Economic Analysis (1962)
Harvard Business School
Harvard Business School p.619.
^ a b Marx 1976, p. 18.
^ Staff Writer. "BLH, Armour Plan Merger; $87 Million Value is Seen."
Delaware County Daily Times 2 April 1965: 2.
^ Staff Writer. " 140-Year-Old Industry Dies: BLH Plant Grinds to a
Halt" Delaware County Daily Times 29 April 1972: 1.
^ New South
Wales D59 class locomotive
^ New South
Wales Z21 class locomotive
^ New South
Wales Z23 class locomotive
^ New South
Wales Z29 class locomotive
^ "The Newfoundland Railway". yourrailwaypictures.com.
^ Best 1968, p. 75.
^ 762club, Project to recreate Baldwin 2-4-2 Lyn
^ a b c Broggie, Michael. Walt Disney's
Railroad Story: The
Small-Scale Fascination That Led to a Full-Scale Kingdom, 4th ed., pp.
316-325, The Donning Company Publishers, 2014.
^ Leaphart (2016), pp. 37–65.
^ Leaphart (2016), pp. 104–106.
^ Jasper Faber The Perils and Advantages of Licensing Technology in
the Electrical Industry: Heemaf 1908-1970
also Heemaf (nl) (Dutch)
Alexander, E.P. (2003), Iron Horses: American
Courier Dover Publications, ISBN 0-486-42531-2
Best, Gerald M. (1968), Mexican Narrow Gauge, Howell-North
Brown, John K. (1995), The Baldwin
Locomotive Works, 1831-1915: A
Study in American Industrial Practice, Studies in Industry and Society
series, Baltimore, Maryland, USA: Johns Hopkins University Press,
Cotterell, Paul (1984), The Railways of Palestine and Israel,
Abingdon: Tourret Publishing, ISBN 0-905878-04-3.
Marx, Thomas G. (1976), "Technological Change and the Theory of the
Firm: The American
Locomotive Industry, 1920–1955", Business History
Review (50.1): 5–18.
Sloan, Alfred P. (1964), McDonald, John, ed., My Years with General
Motors, Garden City, NY, USA: Doubleday, LCCN 64011306,
OCLC 802024. Republished in 1990 with a new introduction by Peter
Drucker (ISBN 978-0385042352).
Warner, Paul Theodore (1924), Motive Power Development on the
Railroad System, 1831-1924,
Westing, Frederick (1982) , The locomotives that Baldwin built.
Containing a complete facsimile of the original "History of the
Locomotive Works, 1831-1923", Crown Publishing Group,
ISBN 978-0-517-36167-2, LCCN 66025422
Leaphart, David (2016). Walt Disney World Railroads Part 3: Yucatan
Jewels (1st ed.). Steel Wheel on Steel Rail Studio.
Locomotive Works (1897), History of the Baldwin Locomotive
Works from 1831 to 1897, Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company
History of the Baldwin
Locomotive Works, Philadelphia: The Edgell
Pinkepank, Jerry A. (1973), The Second Diesel Spotter's Guide,
Kalmbach Publishing Co.,
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Baldwin
Locomotive Works and
Preserved Baldwin Steam Locomotives
SteamLocomotive.com - a large amount of information on steam
Baldwin locomotives used in Finland
Locomotive Works collection (engine registers and order books)
1833-1956 Archives Center, National Museum of American History,
Locomotive Works drawings, 1870 - 1890 Archives Center,
National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Locomotive Works Records, 1825-1869, including
correspondence, accounts, diagrams and illustrations, are available
for research use at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
A brazilian Baldwin-Westinghouse electric box locomotive
Baldwin-Lima-Hamilton Corporation Records, 1854-1925 (5.5 linear ft.)
are housed in the Department of
Special Collections and University
Archives at Stanford University Libraries
Locomotive Works: Illustrated Catalogue of Locomotives, 1871
is located at the
Special Collections/Digital Library in Falvey
Memorial Library at Villanova University.
Information on Baldwin 590, one of the narrow-gauge engines that
Information about the "590 Restoration Project
Midwest Central Railroad
Locomotive Works engine specifications, 1869-1938 78
manuscript volumes digitized from microfilm reels containing engine
specifications of locomotives built for various United States and
foreign railroad companies. DeGolyer Library holds Volumes 5-82. The
Locomotive Works collection, which is devoted to the largest
and most influential manufacturer of steam railroad locomotive engines
in the world, includes books, specifications, engineering drawings,
advertising and corporate publications, ledgers, and manuscripts.
Locomotive Works Extra Order Books, 1890-1909 19 manuscript
volumes of digitized extra order books of shop and sales records
detailing orders by railroad companies for extra parts or repairs. The
Locomotive Works collection, which is devoted to the largest
and most influential manufacturer of steam railroad locomotive engines
in the world, includes books, specifications, engineering drawings,
advertising and corporate publications, ledgers, and manuscripts.
Works by Baldwin
Locomotive Works at Project Gutenberg
Works by or about Baldwin
Locomotive Works at Internet Archive
Diesel locomotives built by the Baldwin
Baldwin pre-production switchers
Soviet Railways ДБ20
(See also: List of Baldwin diesel locomotives)
North American locomotive builders
Mount Clare Shops
Progress Rail Services
See also: List of l