Babylon (𒆍𒀭𒊏𒆠KAN4.DIĜIR.RAKI Akkadian: Bābili(m);
Aramaic: בבל, Babel; Arabic: بَابِل, Bābil; Hebrew:
בָּבֶל, Bavel; Classical Syriac: ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a
key kingdom in ancient
Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
The city was built on the
Euphrates river and divided in equal parts
along its left and right banks, with steep embankments to contain the
river's seasonal floods.
Babylon was originally a small
dating from the period of the
Akkadian Empire c. 2300 BC.
The town became part of a small independent city-state with the rise
of the First
Amorite Babylonian Dynasty in the nineteenth century BC.
Hammurabi created a short-lived empire in the
18th century BC, he built
Babylon up into a major city and declared
himself its king, and southern
Mesopotamia became known as Babylonia
Nippur as its holy city. The empire waned under
Babylon spent long periods under
Assyrian, Kassite and Elamite domination. After being destroyed and
then rebuilt by the Assyrians,
Babylon became the capital of the short
Neo-Babylonian Empire from 609 to 539 BC. The Hanging
Babylon was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World,
although a number of scholars believe these were actually in the
Assyrian capital of Nineveh. After the fall of the Neo-Babylonian
Empire, the city came under the rule of the Achaemenid, Seleucid,
Parthian, Roman, and Sassanid empires.
It has been estimated that
Babylon was the largest city in the world
from c. 1770 – c. 1670 BC, and again between
c. 612 – c. 320 BC. It was perhaps the first city to
reach a population above 200,000. Estimates for the maximum extent
of its area range from 890 to 900 hectares (2,200 acres).
The remains of the city are in present-day Hillah, Babil Governorate,
Iraq, about 85 kilometres (53 mi) south of Baghdad, comprising a
large tell of broken mud-brick buildings and debris.
The main sources of information about Babylon—excavation of the site
itself, references in cuneiform texts found elsewhere in Mesopotamia,
references in the Bible, descriptions in classical writing (especially
by Herodotus), and second-hand descriptions (citing the work of
Ctesias and Berossus)—present an incomplete and sometimes
contradictory picture of the ancient city even at its peak in the
sixth century BC.
3.1 Early references
3.2 Classical dating
4.1 Old Babylonian period
4.2 Middle Babylon
4.3 Assyrian period
4.5 Persian conquest
4.7 Renewed Persian rule
5 Modern era
5.1 Excavation and research
5.3 US and Polish occupation
5.4 Present day
6 Cultural importance
6.1 Biblical narrative
7 See also
9.2 Further reading
10 External links
Look up 𒆍𒀭𒊏𒆠 in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Babylon comes from Greek Babylṓn (Βαβυλών), a
transliteration of the
Akkadian Bābilim.[not in citation given]
Archibald Sayce, writing in the 1870s, considered "Bab-ilu" or
"Bab-ili" to be the translation of an earlier Sumerian (formerly
thought to be in the obsolete "Turanian" language-family) name
"Ca-dimirra", meaning "gate of god", based on the characters
KAN4 DIĜIR.RAKI (corresponding to the Sumerian phrase kan diĝirak
"god's gate") or perhaps based on other characters.
According to Professor Dietz-Otto Edzard, the city was originally
called Babilla, but by the time of the Third Dynasty of Ur, through a
process of etymological speculation, had become Bāb-ili(m) meaning
"gate of god" or "god's gate" (Bab-Il). The "gate of god"
translation is increasingly viewed as a folk etymology to explain an
unknown original non-Semitic placename. Linguist I.J. Gelb
suggested in 1955 that Babil/Babilla is the basis of the city name, of
unknown meaning and origin, as there were other similarly-named places
in Sumer, and there are no other examples of Sumerian place-names
being replaced with
Akkadian translations. He deduced that it later
Akkadian Bāb-ili(m), and that the Sumerian
Ka-dingirra was a later translation of that, rather than
Joan Oates states in her book
Babylon that the
rendering Gateway of the gods is no longer accepted by modern
In the Bible, the name appears as Babel (Hebrew: בָּבֶל,
Bavel, Tib. בָּבֶל, Bāvel; Classical Syriac: ܒܒܠ,
Bāwēl), interpreted in the Hebrew Scriptures'
Book of Genesis
Book of Genesis to
mean "confusion", from the verb bilbél (בלבל, "to
confuse"). The modern English verb, to "babble", or to speak
meaningless words, is popularly thought to derive from this name, but
there is no direct connection.
Ancient records in some situations use
Babylon as a name for other
cities, including cities like
Borsippa within Babylon's sphere of
Nineveh for a short period after the Assyrian sack of
Babylon on the
Euphrates River with major areas
within inner and outer walls.
Babylon in 1932
Brick structures in Babylon, photographed in 2016
The remains of the city are in present-day Hillah, Babil
Governorate, Iraq, about 85 kilometers (53 mi) south of Baghdad,
comprising a large tell of broken mud-brick buildings and debris. The
Babylon consists of a number of mounds covering an area of
about 2 by 1 kilometer (1.24 mi × 0.62 mi), oriented
north to south, along the
Euphrates to the west.
Originally, the river roughly bisected the city, but the course of the
river has since shifted so that most of the remains of the former
western part of the city are now inundated. Some portions of the city
wall to the west of the river also remain.
Only a small portion of the ancient city (3% of the area within the
inner walls; 1.5% of the area within the outer walls; 0.1% at the
depth of Middle and Old Babylon) has been excavated. Known remains
Kasr – also called Palace or Castle, it is the location of the
Etemenanki and lies in the center of the
Amran Ibn Ali – the highest of the mounds at 25 meters, to
the south. It is the site of Esagila, a temple of
Marduk which also
contained shrines to Ea and Nabu.
Homera – a reddish-colored mound on the west side. Most of the
Hellenistic remains are here.
Babil – a mound about 22 meters high at the northern end
of the site. Its bricks have been subject to looting since ancient
times. It held a palace built by Nebuchadnezzar.
Archaeologists have recovered few artifacts predating the
Neo-Babylonian period. The water table in the region has risen greatly
over the centuries, and artifacts from the time before the
Neo-Babylonian Empire are unavailable to current standard
archaeological methods. Additionally, the Neo-Babylonians conducted
significant rebuilding projects in the city, which destroyed or
obscured much of the earlier record.
Babylon was pillaged numerous
times after revolting against foreign rule, most notably by the
Elamites in the 2nd millennium, then by the Neo-Assyrian
Empire and the
Achaemenid Empire in the 1st millennium. Much of the
western half of the city is now beneath the river, and other parts of
the site have been mined for commercial building materials.
Only the Koldewey expedition recovered artifacts from the Old
Babylonian period. These included 967 clay tablets, stored in private
houses, with Sumerian literature and lexical documents.
Nearby ancient settlements are Kish, Borsippa, Dilbat, and Kutha.
Sippar were 60 km in either direction along the
Leonard William King of fragment K. 8532, a part of
Dynastic Chronicle listing rulers of
Babylon grouped by dyansty.
Historical knowledge of early
Babylon must be pieced together from
epigraphic remains found elsewhere, such as at Uruk, Nippur, and
Information on the
Neo-Babylonian city is available from
archaeological excavations and from classical sources.
described, perhaps even visited, by a number of classical historians
including Ctesias, Herodotus, Quintus Curtius Rufus, Strabo, and
Cleitarchus. These reports are of variable accuracy and some of the
content was politically motivated, but these still provide useful
References to the city of
Babylon can be found in
Sumerian literature from the late third millennium BC. One of the
earliest is a tablet describing the
Akkadian king Šar-kali-šarri
laying the foundations in
Babylon of new temples for Annūnı̄tum and
Babylon also appears in the administrative records of the Third
Dynasty of Ur, which collected in-kind tax payments and appointed an
ensi as local governor.
The so-called Weidner Chronicle (also known as ABC 19) states that
Sargon of Akkad
Sargon of Akkad (c. 23d century BC in the short chronology) had
Babylon "in front of Akkad" (ABC 19:51). A later chronicle
states that Sargon "dug up the dirt of the pit of Babylon, and made a
Babylon next to Akkad". (ABC 20:18–19). Van de
Mieroop has suggested that those sources may refer to the much later
Sargon II of the
Neo-Assyrian Empire rather than Sargon
The Book of Genesis, chapter 10, claims that king
Babel, Uruk, and Akkad.
Ctesias, quoted by
Diodorus Siculus and in George Syncellus's
Chronographia, claimed to have access to manuscripts from Babylonian
archives, which date the founding of
Babylon to 2286 BC, under
the reign of its first king, Belus. A similar figure is found in
the writings of Berossus, who according to Pliny, stated that
astronomical observations commenced at
Babylon 490 years before
the Greek era of Phoroneus, indicating 2243 BC. Stephanus of
Byzantium wrote that
Babylon was built 1002 years before the date
Hellanicus of Lesbos
Hellanicus of Lesbos for the siege of Troy (1229 BC),
which would date Babylon's foundation to 2231 BC. All of
these dates place Babylon's foundation in the 23rd century BC;
however, cuneiform records have not been found to correspond with
these classical (post-cuneiform) accounts.
The Queen of the Night relief. The figure could be an aspect of the
goddess Ishtar, Babylonian goddess of sex and love.
By around the 19th century BC, much of southern
occupied by Amorites, nomadic tribes from the northern
Levant who were
Northwest Semitic speakers, unlike the native Akkadians of southern
Mesopotamia and Assyria, who spoke East Semitic. The
Amorites at first
did not practice agriculture like more advanced Mesopotamians,
preferring a semi-nomadic lifestyle, herding sheep. Over time, Amorite
grain merchants rose to prominence and established their own
independent dynasties in several south Mesopotamian city-states, most
notably Isin, Larsa, Eshnunna, Lagash, and later, founding
Old Babylonian period
Map showing the Babylonian territory upon Hammurabi's ascension in
1792 BC and upon his death in 1750 BC
Old Babylonian cylinder seal, hematite. This seal was probably made in
a workshop at
Sippar (about 40 miles north of
Babylon on the map
above) either during, or shortly before, the reign of Hammurabi.
It depicts the king making an animal offering to the Sun god Shamash.
Linescan camera image of the cylinder seal above (reversed to resemble
According to a Babylonian date list, Amorite[a] rule in
(c. 19th or 18th century BC) with a chieftain named Sumu-abum, who
declared independence from the neighboring city-state of Kazallu.
Sumu-la-El, whose dates may be concurrent with those of Sumu-abum, is
usually given as the progenitor of the First Babylonian Dynasty. Both
are credited with building the walls of Babylon. In any case, the
records describe Sumu-la-El’s military successes establishing a
regional sphere of influence for Babylon.
Babylon was initially a minor city-state, and controlled little
surrounding territory; its first four
Amorite rulers did not assume
the title of king. The older and more powerful states of Assyria,
Babylon until it became the capital
of Hammurabi's short lived empire about a century later.
1792–1750 BC) is famous for codifying the laws of Babylonia
into the Code of Hammurabi. He conquered all of the cities and city
states of southern Mesopotamia, including Isin, Larsa, Ur, Uruk,
Nippur, Lagash, Eridu, Kish, Adab, Eshnunna, Akshak, Akkad, Shuruppak,
Sippar and Girsu, coalescing them into one kingdom, ruled
Hammurabi also invaded and conquered
Elam to the east,
and the kingdoms of Mari and
Ebla to the north west. After a
protracted struggle with the powerful Assyrian king
Ishme-Dagan of the
Old Assyrian Empire, he forced his successor to pay tribute late in
his reign, spreading Babylonian power to Assyria's Hattian and Hurrian
colonies in Asia Minor.
After the reign of Hammurabi, the whole of southern
to be known as Babylonia, whereas the north had already coalesced
centuries before into Assyria. From this time,
Eridu as the major religious centers of southern
Mesopotamia. Hammurabi's empire destabilized after his death.
Assyrians defeated and drove out the Babylonians and Amorites. The far
Mesopotamia broke away, forming the native Sealand Dynasty,
Elamites appropriated territory in eastern Mesopotamia. The
Amorite dynasty remained in power in Babylon, which again became a
small city state.
Texts from Old
Babylon often include references to Shamash, the
sun-god of Sippar, treated as a supreme deity, and Marduk, considered
as his son.
Marduk was later elevated to a higher status and Shamash
lowered, perhaps reflecting Babylon’s rising political power
In 1595 BC[b] the city was overthrown by the
Hittite Empire from
Asia Minor. Thereafter,
Kassites from the
Zagros Mountains of north
Ancient Iran captured Babylon, ushering in a dynasty that
lasted for 435 years, until 1160 BC. The city was renamed
Karanduniash during this period. Kassite
Babylon eventually became
subject to the
Middle Assyrian Empire
Middle Assyrian Empire (1365–1053 BC) to the north,
Elam to the east, with both powers vying for control of the city.
The Assyrian king
Tukulti-Ninurta I took the throne of
By 1155 BC, after continued attacks and annexing of territory by
the Assyrians and Elamites, the
Kassites were deposed in Babylon. An
Akkadian south Mesopotamian dynasty then ruled for the first time.
Babylon remained weak and subject to domination by Assyria.
Its ineffectual native kings were unable to prevent new waves of
foreign West Semitic settlers from the deserts of the Levant,
Suteans in the 11th century BC, and finally
the Chaldeans in the 9th century BC, entering and appropriating areas
Babylonia for themselves. The
Arameans briefly ruled in Babylon
during the late 11th century BC.
Assyria during his Babylonian war, relief from his
palace in Nineveh
During the rule of the
Neo-Assyrian Empire (911–609 BC),
Babylonia was under constant Assyrian domination or direct control.
During the reign of
Sennacherib of Assyria,
Babylonia was in a
constant state of revolt, led by a chieftain named Merodach-Baladan,
in alliance with the Elamites, and suppressed only by the complete
destruction of the city of Babylon. In 689 BC, its walls, temples
and palaces were razed, and the rubble was thrown into the Arakhtu,
the sea bordering the earlier
Babylon on the south. Destruction of the
religious center shocked many, and the subsequent murder of
Sennacherib by two of his own sons while praying to the god Nisroch
was considered an act of atonement. Consequently, his successor
Esarhaddon hastened to rebuild the old city and make it his residence
during part of the year. After his death,
Babylonia was governed by
his elder son, the Assyrian prince Shamash-shum-ukin, who eventually
started a civil war in 652 BC against his own brother,
Ashurbanipal, who ruled in Nineveh.
Shamash-shum-ukin enlisted the
help of other peoples subject to Assyria, including Elam, Persia,
Suteans of southern Mesopotamia, and the
Arabs dwelling in the deserts south of Mesopotamia.
Babylon was besieged by the Assyrians, starved into
surrender and its allies were defeated.
Ashurbanipal celebrated a
"service of reconciliation", but did not venture to "take the hands"
of Bel. An Assyrian governor named
Kandalanu was appointed as ruler of
Ashurbanipal did collect texts from
Babylon for inclusion in
his extensive library at Ninevah.
After the death of Ashurbanipal, the Assyrian empire destabilized due
to a series of internal civil wars throughout the reigns of Assyrian
Sin-shumu-lishir and Sinsharishkun. Eventually
Babylon, like many other parts of the near east, took advantage of the
Assyria to free itself from Assyrian rule. In the
subsequent overthrow of the Assyrian Empire by an alliance of peoples,
the Babylonians saw another example of divine vengeance.
Cuneiform cylinder from reign of
Nebuchadnezzar II honoring the
exorcism and reconstruction of the ziggurat
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Detail of the
Ishtar Gate reconstruction
A reconstruction of the blue-tiled
Ishtar Gate which was the northern
entrance to Babylon. It was named for the goddess of love and war.
Bulls and dragons, symbols of the god Marduk, decorated the gate.
Under Nabopolassar, a previously unknown Chaldean chieftain, Babylon
escaped Assyrian rule, and in an alliance with Cyaxares, king of the
Medes and Persians together with the
Scythians and Cimmerians, finally
destroyed the Assyrian Empire between 612 BC and 605 BC.
became the capital of the
Neo-Babylonian (sometimes and possibly
erroneously called the Chaldean) Empire.
With the recovery of Babylonian independence, a new era of
architectural activity ensued, particularly during the reign of his
Nebuchadnezzar II (604–561 BC).
the complete reconstruction of the imperial grounds, including the
Etemenanki ziggurat, and the construction of the
most prominent of eight gates around Babylon. A reconstruction of the
Ishtar Gate is located in the
Pergamon Museum in Berlin.
Nebuchadnezzar is also credited with the construction of the Hanging
Gardens of Babylon—one of the seven wonders of the ancient
world—said to have been built for his homesick wife Amyitis. Whether
the gardens actually existed is a matter of dispute. German
Robert Koldewey speculated that he had discovered its
foundations, but many historians disagree about the location.
Stephanie Dalley has argued that the hanging gardens were actually
located in the Assyrian capital, Nineveh.
Nebuchandnezzar is also notoriously associated with the Babylonian
exile of the Jews, the result of an imperial technique of
pacification, used also by the Assyrians, in which ethnic groups in
conquered areas were deported en masse to the capital.
Chaldean rule of
Babylon did not last long; it is not clear whether
Neriglissar and Labashi-
Marduk were Chaldeans or native Babylonians,
and the last ruler
Nabonidus (556–539 BC) and his co-regent son
Belshazzar were Assyrians from Harran.
In 539 BC, the
Neo-Babylonian Empire fell to Cyrus the Great,
king of Persia, with a military engagement known as the Battle of
Opis. Babylon's walls were considered impenetrable. The only way into
the city was through one of its many gates or through the Euphrates
River. Metal grates were installed underwater, allowing the river to
flow through the city walls while preventing intrusion. The Persians
devised a plan to enter the city via the river. During a Babylonian
national feast, Cyrus' troops diverted the
Euphrates River upstream,
allowing Cyrus' soldiers to enter the city through the lowered water.
The Persian army conquered the outlying areas of the city while the
majority of Babylonians at the city center were unaware of the breach.
The account was elaborated upon by Herodotus and is also
mentioned in parts of the Hebrew Bible.
Herodotus also described a moat, an enormously tall and broad wall
cemented with bitumen and with buildings on top, and a hundred gates
to the city. He also writes that the Babylonians wear turbans and
perfume and bury their dead in honey, that they practice ritual
prostitution, and that three tribes among them eat nothing but fish.
The hundred gates can be considered a reference to Homer, and
following the pronouncement of
Archibald Henry Sayce
Archibald Henry Sayce in 1883,
Herodotus’s account of
Babylon has largely been considered to
represent Greek folklore rather than an authentic voyage to Babylon.
Dalley and others have recently suggested taking Herodotus’s account
According to 2 Chronicles 36 of the Hebrew Bible, Cyrus later issued a
decree permitting captive people, including the Jews, to return to
their own lands. Text found on the
Cyrus Cylinder has traditionally
been seen by biblical scholars as corroborative evidence of this
policy, although the interpretation is disputed because the text only
identifies Mesopotamian sanctuaries but makes no mention of Jews,
Jerusalem, or Judea.
Under Cyrus and the subsequent Persian king Darius I,
the capital city of the 9th Satrapy (
Babylonia in the south and Athura
in the north), as well as a center of learning and scientific
Achaemenid Persia, the ancient Babylonian arts of
astronomy and mathematics were revitalized, and Babylonian scholars
completed maps of constellations. The city became the administrative
capital of the
Persian Empire and remained prominent for over two
centuries. Many important archaeological discoveries have been made
that can provide a better understanding of that era.
The early Persian kings had attempted to maintain the religious
ceremonies of Marduk, but by the reign of Darius III, over-taxation
and the strain of numerous wars led to a deterioration of Babylon's
main shrines and canals, and the destabilization of the surrounding
region. There were numerous attempts at rebellion and in 522 BC
Nebuchadnezzar III), 521 BC (
Nebuchadnezzar IV) and 482 BC
(Bel-shimani and Shamash-eriba) native Babylonian kings briefly
regained independence. However these revolts were quickly repressed
Babylon remained under Persian rule for two centuries, until
Alexander the Great's entry in 331 BC.
"Entry of Alexander into Babylon", a 1665 painting by Charles LeBrun,
depicts Alexander the Great's uncontested entry into the city of
Babylon, envisioned with pre-existing
In October of 331 BC, Darius III, the last
Achaemenid king of the
Persian Empire, was defeated by the forces of the Ancient Macedonian
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great at the Battle of Gaugamela. A native
account of this invasion notes a ruling by Alexander not to enter the
homes of its inhabitants.
Babylon again flourished as a center of learning and
commerce. However, following Alexander's death in 323 BC in the
palace of Nebuchadnezzar, his empire was divided amongst his generals,
the Diadochi, and decades of fighting soon began. The constant turmoil
virtually emptied the city of Babylon. A tablet dated 275 BC
states that the inhabitants of
Babylon were transported to Seleucia,
where a palace and a temple (Esagila) were built. With this
Babylon became insignificant as a city, although more
than a century later, sacrifices were still performed in its old
Renewed Persian rule
Babylonia § Persian_Babylonia
Under the Parthian and Sassanid Empires,
Babylon (like Assyria) became
a province of these Persian Empires for nine centuries, until after
AD 650. It maintained its own culture and people, who spoke
varieties of Aramaic, and who continued to refer to their homeland as
Babylon. Examples of their culture are found in the Babylonian Talmud,
Gnostic Mandaean religion, Eastern Rite
Christianity and the
religion of the prophet Mani.
Christianity was introduced to
Mesopotamia in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD, and
Babylon was the seat
of a Bishop of the
Church of the East
Church of the East until well after the
Muslim conquest of Persia
In the mid-7th century,
Mesopotamia was invaded and settled by the
Muslim Empire, and a period of
Babylon was dissolved as a province and
Aramaic and Church of the East
Christianity eventually became marginalized. Ibn Hauqal mentions a
small village called Babel in the tenth century; subsequent travelers
describe only ruins.
Babylon is mentioned in medieval Arabic writings as a source of
bricks, said to have been used in cities from
European travelers in many cases could not discover the city's
location, or mistook
Fallujah for it. Twelfth-century traveler
Benjamin of Tudela
Benjamin of Tudela mentions
Babylon but it’s not clear if he really
went there. Others referred to
Babylon or New
described various structures encountered in the region as the Tower of
Pietro della Valle
Pietro della Valle found the ancient site in the
seventeenth century and noted the existence of both baked and dried
mudbricks cemented with bitumen.
From the accounts of modern travellers, I had expected to have found
on the site of
Babylon more, and less, than I actually did. Less,
because I could have formed no conception of the prodigious extent of
the whole ruins, or of the size, solidity, and perfect state, of some
of the parts of them; and more, because I thought that I should have
distinguished some traces, however imperfect, of many of the principle
structures of Babylon. I imagined, I should have said: “Here were
the walls, and such must have been the extent of the area. There stood
the palace, and this most assuredly was the tower of Belus.” – I
was completely deceived: instead of a few insulated mounds, I found
the whole face of the country covered with vestiges of building, in
some places consisting of brick walls surprisingly fresh, in others
merely of a vast succession of mounds of rubbish of such indeterminate
figures, variety and extent, as to involve the person who should have
formed any theory in inextricable confusion.
Claudius J. Rich, Memoir on the Ruins of
Babylon (1815), pp.
Lion of Babylon
The eighteenth century saw an increasing flow of travelers to Babylon,
Carsten Niebuhr and Pierre-Joseph de Beauchamp, as well as
measurements of its latitude. Beauchamp’s memoir, published in
English translation in 1792, provoked the British East India Company
to direct its agents in
Baghdad and Basra to acquire Mesopotamian
relics for shipment to London.
Excavation and research
Claudius Rich, working for the East India Company in Baghdad,
Babylon in 1811–12 and again in 1817. Robert
Mignan excavated at the site briefly in 1827. William Loftus
visited there in 1849.
Austen Henry Layard
Austen Henry Layard made some soundings during a brief visit in 1850
before abandoning the site.
Fulgence Fresnel and Julius Oppert
Babylon from 1852 to 1854. However, many of the
fruits of their work was lost when a raft containing over forty crates
of artifacts sank into the Tigris river.
Original tiles of the processional street. Ancient Babylon,
Sir Henry Rawlinson, 1st Baronet
Sir Henry Rawlinson, 1st Baronet and George Smith worked there briefly
in 1854. The next excavation was conducted by
Hormuzd Rassam on behalf
of the British Museum. Work began in 1879, continuing until 1882, and
was prompted by widespread looting of the site. Using industrial scale
digging in search of artifacts, Rassam recovered a large quantity of
cuneiform tablets and other finds. The zealous excavation methods,
common at the time, caused significant damage to the archaeological
context. Many tablets had appeared on the market in 1876
before Rassam's excavation began.
Mušḫuššu (sirrush) and aurochs on either side of the processional
street. Ancient Babylon, Mesopotamia, Iraq
A team from the German Oriental Society led by Robert Koldewey
conducted the first scientific archaeological excavations at Babylon.
The work was conducted daily from 1899 until 1917. Primary efforts of
the dig involved the temple of
Marduk and the processional way leading
up to it, as well as the city wall. Artifacts
including pieces of the
Ishtar Gate and hundreds of recovered tablets
were sent back to Germany, where Koldewey's colleague Walter Andrae
reconstructed them into displays at Vorderasiatisches Museum
Berlin., The German archaeologists fled before oncoming
British troops in 1917 and again many objects went missing in the
Further work by the
German Archaeological Institute
German Archaeological Institute was conducted by
Heinrich J. Lenzen in 1956 and Hansjörg Schmid in 1962. Lenzen's work
dealt primarily with the
Hellenistic theatre, and Schmid focused on
the temple ziggurat Etemenanki.
The site was excavated in 1974 on behalf of the Turin Centre for
Archaeological Research and Excavations in the Middle East and Asia
and the Iraqi-Italian Institute of Archaeological Sciences.
The focus was on clearing up issues raised by re-examination of the
old German data. Additional work in 1987–1989 concentrated on the
area surrounding the Ishara and
Ninurta temples in the Shu-Anna
city-quarter of Babylon.
During the restoration efforts in Babylon, the Iraqi State
Organization for Antiquities and Heritage excavation and clearing, but
wider publication of these archaeological activities has been
limited. Indeed, most of the known tablets from all modern
excavation remain unpublished.
The site of
Babylon has been a cultural asset to
Iraq since the
creation of the modern Iraqi government in 1920. Babylonian images
periodically appear on Iraqi postcards and stamps. In the 1960s a
replica of the
Ishtar gate and a reconstruction of Ninmakh temple were
built on site.
On 14 February 1978, the
Baathist government of
Iraq under Saddam
Hussein began the "Archaeological Restoration of
reconstructing features of the ancient city atop its ruins. These
features included the Southern Palace of Nebuchandnezzar, with 250
rooms, five courtyards, and a 30-meter entrance arch. The project also
reinforced the Processional Way, the Lion of Babylon, and an
amphitheater constructed in the city's
Hellenistic era. In 1982 the
government minted a set of seven coins displaying iconic features of
Babylon International Festival was held in September 1987,
and annually thereafter until 2002 (excepting 1990 and 1991), to
showcase this work. Proposed reconstruction of the Hanging Gardens and
the great ziggurat never took place.
Hussein installed a portrait of himself and
Nebuchadnezzar at the
entrance to the ruins and inscribed his name on many of the bricks, in
imitation of Nebuchadnezzar. One frequent inscription reads: "This was
built by Saddam Hussein, son of Nebuchadnezzar, to glorify Iraq".
These bricks became sought after as collectors' items after Hussein's
downfall. Similar projects were conducted at Nineveh, Nimrud,
Assur and Hatra, to demonstrate the magnificence of Arab
When the 1991
Gulf War ended, Hussein wanted to build a modern palace
called Saddam Hill over some of the old ruins, in the pyramidal style
of a ziggurat. In 2003, he intended the construction of a cable car
line over Babylon, but plans were halted by the 2003 invasion of Iraq.
US and Polish occupation
US Marines in front of the rebuilt ruins of Babylon, 2003
World Monuments Fund
World Monuments Fund video on conservation of Babylon
Following the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the area around
under the control of US troops, before being handed over to Polish
forces in September 2003. US forces under the command of General
James T. Conway
James T. Conway of the
I Marine Expeditionary Force
I Marine Expeditionary Force were criticized
for building the military base "Camp Alpha", with a helipad and other
facilities on ancient Babylonian ruins during the
Iraq War. US forces
have occupied the site for some time and have caused irreparable
damage to the archaeological record. In a report of the British
Museum's Near East department, Dr. John Curtis described how parts of
the archaeological site were levelled to create a landing area for
helicopters, and parking lots for heavy vehicles. Curtis wrote of the
They caused substantial damage to the
Ishtar Gate, one of the most
famous monuments from antiquity [...] US military vehicles crushed
2,600-year-old brick pavements, archaeological fragments were
scattered across the site, more than 12 trenches were driven into
ancient deposits and military earth-moving projects contaminated the
site for future generations of scientists.
A US Military spokesman claimed that engineering operations were
discussed with the "head of the
Babylon museum". The head of the
Iraqi State Board for Heritage and Antiquities, Donny George, said
that the "mess will take decades to sort out" and criticised Polish
troops for causing "terrible damage" to the site. Poland
resolved in 2004 to place the city under
Iraq control, and
commissioned a report titled Report Concerning the Condition of the
Preservation of the
Babylon Archaeological Site, which it presented at
a meeting on 11–13 December 2004. In 2005 the site was handed
over to the Iraqi Ministry of Culture.
In April 2006, Colonel John Coleman, former Chief of Staff for the 1st
Marine Expeditionary Force, offered to issue an apology for the damage
done by military personnel under his command. However, he also claimed
that the US presence had deterred far greater damage by other
looters. An article published in April 2006 stated that UN
officials and Iraqi leaders have plans to restore Babylon, making it
into a cultural center.
Two museums and a library, containing replicas of artifacts and local
maps and reports, were raided and destroyed.
In May 2009, the provincial government of Babil reopened the site to
tourists, but not many have come. An oil pipeline runs through an
outer wall of the city.
Panoramic view of ruins in
Babylon photographed in 2005 during a tour
for U.S. soldiers.
Woodcut in 1493
Nuremberg Chronicle depicting the fall of Babylon.
"The Walls of
Babylon and the Temple of Bel (Or Babel)", by
19th-century illustrator William Simpson – influenced by early
Before modern archaeological excavations in Mesopotamia, the
Babylon was largely a mystery, and typically envisioned
by Western artists as a hybrid between ancient Egyptian, classical
Greek, and contemporary Ottoman culture.
Due to Babylon's historical significance as well as references to it
in the Bible, the word "Babylon" in various languages has acquired a
generic meaning of a large, bustling diverse city. Examples include:
Babylon is used in reggae music as a concept in the Rastafari belief
system, denoting the materialistic capitalist world.
Freemasonry, which has its own versions of biblical legends,
Babylon as its birthplace and a haven for
science and knowledge.
Babylon 5 – a science fiction series about a multi-racial
futuristic space station.
Babylon A.D. takes place in New York City, decades in the future.
Babilonas (Lithuanian name for "Babylon") – a real estate
development in Lithuania.
In Genesis 10:10, Babel (Babylon) is described as founded by Nimrod
along with Uruk, Akkad and perhaps Calneh—all of them in Shinar
("Calneh" is now sometimes translated not as a proper name but as the
phrase "all of them"). Another story is given in Genesis 11, which
describes a united human race, speaking one language, migrating to
Shinar to establish a city and tower—the Tower of Babel. God halts
construction of the tower by scattering humanity across the earth and
confusing their communication so they are unable to understand each
other in the same language.
Babylon appears throughout the Hebrew Bible, including several
prophecies and in descriptions of the destruction of Jerusalem and
subsequent Babylonian captivity. Consequently, in
Babylon symbolizes an oppressor against which righteous believers must
struggle. In Christianity,
worldliness and evil. Prophecies sometimes symbolically link the
Babylon with Lucifer. Nebuchadnezzar, sometimes conflated
with Nabonidus, appears as the foremost ruler in this narrative.
The Revelation of St. John in the Christian
Bible refers to Babylon
many centuries after it ceased to be a major political center. The
city is personified by the “Whore of Babylon”, riding on a scarlet
beast with seven heads and ten horns, and drunk on the blood of the
righteous. Some scholars of apocalyptic literature believe this New
Testament “Babylon” to be a dysphemism for the Roman Empire.
Cities of the ancient Near East
Jehoiachin's Rations Tablets
List of Kings of Babylon
Tomb of Daniel
Amorites were not native to Mesopotamia, but were semi-nomadic
Northwest Semitic invaders from the northern Levant. They
(together with the
Elamites to the east) had originally been prevented
from taking control of the
Akkadian states of southern
the intervention of powerful Assyrian kings of the Old Assyrian Empire
during the 21st and 20th centuries BC, intervening from northern
Mesopotamia. However, when the Assyrians turned their attention to
expanding their colonies in Asia Minor, the
Amorites eventually began
to supplant native rulers across the region.
^ Please see
Chronology of the ancient Near East
Chronology of the ancient Near East for more discussion
on dating events in the 2nd millennium BC, including the Sack of
^ a b c The Cambridge Ancient History: Prolegomena & Prehistory:
Vol. 1, Part 1. Accessed 15 Dec 2010.]
^ Tertius Chandler. Four Thousand Years of Urban Growth: An Historical
Census (1987), St. David's University Press ("etext.org". Archived
from the original on 2008-02-11. Retrieved 2010-04-18. CS1 maint:
BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ). ISBN 0-88946-207-0.
See Historical urban community sizes.
^ Mieroop, Marc van de (1997). The Ancient Mesopotamian City. Oxford:
Oxford University Press. p. 95. ISBN 9780191588457.
^ Boiy, T. (2004). Late
Hellenistic Babylon. Orientalia
Lovaniensia Analecta. 136. Leuven: Peeters Publishers. p. 233.
^ Seymour (2006), pp. 140–142.
^ Sayce 1878, p. 182.
^ Archibald Henry Sayce, "The Origin of Semitic Civilisation, Chiefly
Upon Philological Evidence", Transactions of the Society of Biblical
Archaeology Vol. 1, p. 298; read 2 April 1872.
^ a b Sayce, Archibald Henry (1878b). "Babylon–Babylonia".
Encyclopædia Britannica. III (9th ed.). pp. 182–194.
^ Ernest A. Budge, The history of
Esarhaddon (son of Sennacherib) king
of Assyria, B.C. 681–688; London: Trübner & Co., 1880; pp.
^ Dietz Otto Edzard: Geschichte Mesopotamiens. Von den Sumerern bis zu
Alexander dem Großen, Beck, München 2004, p. 121.
^ Liane Jakob-Rost, Joachim Marzahn: Babylon, ed. Staatliche Museen zu
Berlin. Vorderasiatisches Museum, (Kleine Schriften 4),
2. Auflage, Putbus 1990, p. 2
^ Gelb, I. J. (1994). "The Name of Babylon". In Hess, Richard S.;
Tsumura, David Toshio. I studied inscriptions from before the
flood : ancient Near Eastern, literary, and linguistic approaches
to Genesis 1-11. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns. pp. 266–269.
ISBN 9780931464881. OCLC 31239619.
^ a b c Wilfred G. Lambert, “Babylon: Origins”; in
Cancik-Kirschbaum et al. (2011), pp. 71–76.
^ Gen. 11:9.
^ Magnus Magnusson, BC: The Archaeology of the
Bible Lands. BBC
Publications 1977, pp. 198–199.
^ "Online Etymology Dictionary – babble".
^ Stephanie Dalley, "Nineveh,
Babylon and the Hanging Gardens:
Cuneiform and Classical Sources Reconciled";
Iraq 56, 1994.
^ a b Stephanie Dalley,
Babylon as a Name for other Cities Including
Nineveh, in Proceedings of the 51st Rencontre Assyriologique
Internationale, Oriental Institute SAOC 62, pp. 25–33, 2005
^ a b c d e f g h Olof Pedersén, "Excavated and Unexcavated Libraries
in Babylon", in Cancik-Kirschbaum et al. (2011), pp. 47–67.
^ a b MacGinnis, John (1986). "Herodotus' Description of Babylon".
Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies. 33: 67–86. Retrieved
18 March 2015.
^ Vedeler (2006), pp. 7–8.
^ Records of the Past, Archibald Sayce, 2nd series, Vol. 1, 1888, p.
^ N.H. vii. 57
^ The Seven Great Monarchies of the Ancient Eastern World, George
Rawlinson, Vol. 4, p. 526–527.
^ Al-Gailani Werr, L., 1988. Studies in the chronology and regional
style of Old Babylonian Cylinder Seals. Bibliotheca Mesopotamica,
^ Vedeler (2006), pp. 8–15. “However, this later tradition is
almost certainly a simplification or even a reworking of the actual
events surrounding Sumu-abum, who was never regarded as an actual
ancestor to the other kings of the
Babylon I dynasty (Edzard
1957:122); in reality the relationship of
much more complex. It was long been noted that many of Sumu-abum’s
year names are identical or virtually identical to the year names of
Sumu-la-el, whom we know for certain was king of Babylon. Goddeeris
(2002:319–320) sums these parallels up as follows: Sa 1 and 2 / Sl 5
and 6: building the wall of Babylon. Sa 9 / Sl ‘b’: building the
wall of Dilbat. Sa 13/14 / Sl 20/21: the destruction and seizure of
^ Albert Houtum-Schindler, "Babylon," Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th
^ "170. MMA 86.11.284" in Ira Spar & Michael Jursa, Cuneiform
Texts in the Metropolitan Museum of Art: IV. The Ebabbar Temple
Archive and Other Texts from the Fourth to the First Millennium B.C.;
Eisenbrauns, 2014; pp. 288–290.
^ Bradford, Alfred S. (2001). With Arrow, Sword, and Spear: A History
of Warfare in the Ancient World, pp. 47–48. Greenwood Publishing
Group. ISBN 0-275-95259-2.
^ Curtis, Adrian; Herbert Gordon May (2007). Oxford
Bible Atlas Oxford
University Press ISBN 978-0-19-100158-1 p. 122 Google Books
^ von Soden, Wilfred; Donald G. Schley (1996). William B. Eerdmanns
ISBN 978-0-8028-0142-5 p. 60 Google Books Search
^ Saggs, H.W.F. (2000). Babylonians, p. 165. University of California
Press. ISBN 0-520-20222-8.
^ Stephanie Dalley, (2013) The Mystery of the Hanging Garden of
Babylon: an elusive World Wonder traced, OUP
^ Seymour (2006), pp. 88–89. “Preventing uprisings on the fringes
of the empire was a major concern for Assyrian kings, and a number of
policies developed to meet this need, among them mass deportations.
When new territory was conquered or a rebellious vassal crushed, an
increased imperial presence in the trouble spot was often complemented
by the removal of large numbers of the indigenous population to the
imperial core, effectively breaking up the rebellious population and
reducing the potential for future resistance. This practice was
effective, and continued throughout the Neo-Assyrian and
Neo-Babylonian empires until 539 BC and Cyrus’s conquest of Babylon.
The majority of the immigrant population were not slaves (Yamauchi
2002: 365), and some did rise to high status positions at the core of
the empire (a possibility reflected in the career of the biblical
Daniel, who rises to the status of trusted royal confidant).”
^ a b Herodotus, Book 1, ch. 178–200; or see "Herodotus' Description
Babylon and the Babylonians".
^ Isaiah 44:27
^ Jeremiah 50–51
^ Seymour (2006), pp. 107–115.
Cyrus Cylinder The British Museum. Retrieved July 23, 2011.
^ "Mesopotamia: The Persians". Wsu.edu:8080. 1999-06-06. Archived from
the original on 6 December 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-09.
^ Beck, Roger B.; Linda Black; Larry S. Krieger; Phillip C. Naylor;
Dahia Ibo Shabaka (1999). World History: Patterns of Interaction.
Evanston, IL: McDougal Littell. ISBN 0-395-87274-X.
^ Sayce 1911, p. 98
^ Seymour (2006), p. 148.
^ a b Julian E. Reade, "Disappearance and rediscovery"; in Finkel
& Seymour, eds.,
Babylon (2009); pp. 13–30.
^ Seymour (2006), p. 148–151.
^ Quoted in Seymour (2006), p. 175.
^ Seymour (2006), pp. 169–173.
^ Claudius J. Rich, Memoirs on the Ruins of Babylon, 1815
^ Claudius J. Rich, Second memoir on Babylon; containing an inquiry
into the correspondence between the ancient descriptions of Babylon,
and the remains still visible on the site, 1818
^ Google Books Search, Robert Mignan, Travels in Chaldæa, Including a
Journey from Bussorah to Bagdad, Hillah, and Babylon, Performed on
Foot in 1827, H. Colburn and R. Bentley, 1829 ISBN 1-4021-6013-5
^ Google Books Search, William K. Loftus, Travels and Researches in
Chaldaea and Susiana, Travels and Researches in Chaldaea and Susiana:
With an Account of Excavations at Warka, the "Erech" of Nimrod, and
Shush, "Shushan the Palace" of Esther, in 1849–52, Robert Carter
& Brothers, 1857
^ A. H. Layard, Discoveries among the Ruins of
Nineveh and Babylon;
New York: Harper & Brothers, 1853.
^ J. Oppert, Expédition scientifique en Mésopotamie exécutée par
ordre du gouvernement de 1851 à 1854. Tome I: Rélation du voyage et
résultat de l'expédition, 1863 (also as ISBN 0-543-74945-2)
Tome II: 'Déchiffrement des inscriptions cuneiforms, 1859 (also as
^ H V. Hilprecht, Exploration in the
Bible Lands During the 19th
Century; Philadelphia: A. J. Holman and Company, 1903.
^ Hormuzd Rassam, Asshur and the Land of Nimrod: Being an Account of
the Discoveries Made in the Ancient Ruins of Nineveh, Asshur,
Sepharvaim, Calah, [...], Curts & Jennings, 1897.
^ Julian Reade,
Hormuzd Rassam and his discoveries, Iraq, vol. 55, pp.
^ Robert Koldewey, Das wieder erstehende Babylon, die bisherigen
Ergebnisse der deutschen Ausgrabungen, J.C. Hinrichs, 1913; Agnes
Sophia Griffith Johns (translator), The Excavations at Babylon,
Macmillan and Co., 1914. "Up to the present time only about half the
work has been accomplished, although since it began we have worked
daily, both summer and winter, with from 200 to 250 workmen" (p. v).
^ R. Koldewey, Die Tempel von
Babylon und Borsippa, WVDOG, vol. 15,
pp. 37–49, 1911 (in German)
^ R. Koldewey, Das Ischtar-Tor in Babylon, WVDOG, vol. 32, 1918
^ F. Wetzel, Die Stadtmauren von Babylon, WVDOG, vol. 48, pp. 1–83,
^ F. Wetzel and F.H. Weisbach, Das Hauptheiligtum des
Esagila und Etemenanki, WVDOG, vol. 59, pp. 1–36, 1938
^ F. Wetzel et al., Das
Babylon der Spätzeit, WVDOG, vol. 62, Gebr.
Mann, 1957 (1998 reprint ISBN 3-7861-2001-3)
^ Brittney Garcia, "
Ishtar Gate", Ancient History Encyclopedia, 23
^ Can Bilsel, Antiquities on Display: Regimes of the Authentic in
Berlin's Pergamon Museum; Oxford University Press, 2012;
ISBN 978-0-19-957055-3; pp. 163–183.
^ Hansjörg Schmid, Der Tempelturm
Etemenanki in Babylon, Zabern,
1995, ISBN 3-8053-1610-0
^ Centro Ricerche Archeologiche e Scavi di Torino per il Medio Oriente
e l'Asia. Projects: IRAQ:
Babylon and The Iraqi-Italian Institute of
Archaeological Sciences and the Iraqi-Italian Centre for the
Restoration of Monuments in Baghdad.
^ G. Bergamini, "Levels of
Babylon Reconsidered", Mesopotamia, vol.
12, pp. 111–152, 1977
^ G. Bergamini, "Excavations in Shu-anna
Babylon 1987", Mesopotamia,
vol. 23, pp. 5–17, 1988
^ G. Bergamini, "Preliminary report on the 1988–1989 operations at
Babylon Shu-Anna", Mesopotamia, vol. 25, pp. 5–12, 1990
^ "Excavations in
Iraq 1981–1982", Iraq, vol. 45, no. 2, pp.
^ Farouk N. H. Al-Rawi, Nabopolassar's Restoration Work on the Wall
"Imgur-Enlil at Babylon, Iraq, vol. 47, pp. 1–13, 1985
^ a b John Curtis, "The Present Condition of Babylon"; in
Cancik-Kirschbaum et al. (2011).
^ a b John Curtis, "The Site of
Babylon Today"; in Finkel &
Babylon (2009); pp. 213–220.
^ Paul Lewis, "
Babylon Journal; Ancient King's Instructions to Iraq:
Fix My Palace" (archive), New York Times, 19 April 1989.
^ "Saddam removed from ancient
Babylon 'brick by brick'", ABC News 20
^ Lawrence Rothfield (1 Aug 2009). The Rape of Mesopotamia: Behind the
Looting of the
Iraq Museum. University of Chicago Press.
^ a b McCarthy, Rory; Kennedy, Maev (2016-05-15). "
Babylon wrecked by
war". The Guardian. Retrieved 2016-08-20.
^ Bajjaly, Joanne Farchakh (2005-04-25). "History lost in dust of
BBC News. Retrieved 2013-06-07.
^ Leeman, Sue (January 16, 2005). "Damage seen to ancient Babylon".
The Boston Globe.
^ Marozzi, Justin (2016-08-08). "Lost cities #1:
Babylon – how war
almost erased 'mankind's greatest heritage site'". The Guardian.
^ Heritage News from around the world, World Heritage Alert!.
Retrieved April 19, 2008.
^ Cornwell, Rupert. US colonel offers
Iraq an apology of sorts for
devastation of Babylon, The Independent, April 15, 2006. Retrieved
April 19, 2008.
^ Gettleman, Jeffrey. Unesco intends to put the magic back in Babylon
, International Herald Tribune, April 21, 2006. Retrieved April 19,
2008. Archived June 12, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.
^ McBride, Edward. Monuments to Self: Baghdad's grands projects in the
Saddam Hussein , MetropolisMag. Retrieved April 19, 2008.
Archived December 10, 2005, at the Wayback Machine.
^ Maryam U. Musa, "The Situation of the
Babylon Archaeological Site
until 2006", in Cancik-Kirschbaum et al. (2011).
^ Arawa Damon, "Bringing
Babylon back from the dead", CNN, 4 April
^ Steven Lee Myers, "
Babylon Ruins Reopen in Iraq, to Controversy",
New York Times, 2 May 2009.
^ Liverani 2016, pp. 21–22. "In practice, the solution adopted to
visualize cities which were in fact unknown was a mixture of classical
(Greek) and Egyptian elements, with long colonnades, even built on
more than one level—which will then prove totally foreign to the
unfired brick architecture of Mesopotamian cities—and with plenty of
obelisks and the odd sphinx. To this mixture is added, often and
willingly, something of Ottoman architecture, showing cupolas and
minarets, clearly useful in picturing an unchangeable Near East which
therefore needed to retain elements of remote antiquity in a modern
^ Albert Mackey, History of
Freemasonry (Vol. 1); New York and London:
Masonic History Company, 1898/1906; p. 61.
^ "What is the significance of the Babylonian Empire in biblical
history?". GotQuestions.org. Retrieved 2018-01-21.
^ Seymour (2006), pp. 91–101.
^ Merrill Tenney: New Testament Survey, Inter-varsity Press, 1985,
Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva, Margarete van Ess, & Joachim Marzahn, eds.
(2011). Babylon: Wissenskultur in Orient und Okzident. Berlin/Boston:
De Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-022212-8.
Finkel, I. L. and M. J. Seymour, eds. Babylon. Oxford University
Press, 2009. ISBN 0-19-538540-3 . Exhibition organized by British
Museum, Musée du Louvre & Réunion des Musées Nationaux, and
Staatliche Museen zu Berlin.
Liverani, Mario. Imagining Babylon: The Modern Story of an Ancient
City. Translated from Italian to English by Ailsa Campbell. Boston: De
Gruyter, 2016. ISBN 978-1-61451-602-6. Originally published as
Immaginare Babele in 2013.
Sayce, Archibald Henry (1878). "Babel". In Baynes, T.S.
Encyclopædia Britannica. III (9th ed.). New York: Charles Scribner's
Sons. p. 178.
Sayce, Archibald Henry (1911). "Babylon". In Chisholm, Hugh.
Encyclopædia Britannica. 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Seymour, Michael John. The Idea of Babylon: Archaeology and
Representation in Mesopotamia. Volume I: Text. PhD dissertation
accepted at University College, London, 2006.
Vedeler, Harold Torger. A Social and Economic Survey of the Reign of
Babylon (1794–1712 BC). PhD dissertation accepted at
Yale, May 2006.
"Babel". Encyclopædia Britannica. 3 (11th ed.). 1911.
Oates, Joan (1986). Babylon. Thames and Hudson.
ISBN 0-500-02095-7. and ISBN 0-500-27384-7 (paperback)
Maul, Stefan (1997). "The Ancient Middle Eastern Capital City –
Reflection and Navel of the World". Stanford Presidential Lectures and
Symposia in the Humanities and Arts. – originally published in
German "Die altorientalische Hauptstadt – Abbild und Nabel der Wel".
Die Orientalische Stadt: kontinuitat. Wandel. Bruch. 1 Internationale
Colloquium der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft. 9–10. Mai 1996 in
Halle/Saale. Saarbrücker Druckerei und Verlag: 109–124. 1997.
1815. Memoir on the Ruins of Babylon. Third Edition, 1818.
1818. Second Memoir on Babylon.
1839. Narrative of a journey to the site of
Babylon in 1811.
Iraq invasion harmed historic Babylon". Associated Press. 10
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Babylon.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Babylon.
Babylon on In Our Time at the BBC.
Iraq Image –
Babylon Satellite Observation
Site Photographs of
Babylon – Oriental Institute
Encyclopædia Britannica, Babylon
Jewish Encyclopedia, Babylon
Beyond Babylon : art, trade, and diplomacy in the second
millennium B.C., Issued in connection with an exhibition held Nov. 18,
2008-Mar. 15, 2009, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Osama S. M. Amin, "Visiting the ancient city of Babylon", Ancient
History Et Cetera, 17 November 2014.
Video of reconstructed palace:
Iraq elections: The palace that
Babylon wrecked by war, The Guardian, January 15, 2005
Mirosław Olbryś, The Polish contribution to protection of the
archaeological heritage in central south Iraq, November 2003 to April
2005, Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites, Volume 8,
Number 2, 2007 , pp. 88–104(17)
Iraq invasion harmed historic Babylon". Associated Press.
July 10, 2009.
UNESCO Final Report on Damage Ass