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Authoritarianism
Authoritarianism
is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms. Individual freedoms are subordinate to the state and there is no constitutional accountability under an authoritarian regime.[1] Juan Linz's influential 1964 description of authoritarianism[2] characterized authoritarian political systems by four qualities:

Limited political pluralism, that is such regimes place constraints on political institutions and groups like legislatures, political parties and interest groups; A basis for legitimacy based on emotion, especially the identification of the regime as a necessary evil to combat "easily recognizable societal problems" such as underdevelopment or insurgency; Minimal social mobilization most often caused by constraints on the public such as suppression of political opponents and anti-regime activity; Informally defined executive power with often vague and shifting powers.[3]

Contents

1 Authoritarian
Authoritarian
government and states

1.1 Authoritarianism
Authoritarianism
and totalitarianism 1.2 Authoritarianism
Authoritarianism
and democracy 1.3 Examples of states considered to be authoritarian 1.4 Examples of states which were historically authoritarian

2 Systemic weakness and resilience 3 Anti-authoritarianism 4 Gender and authoritarianism 5 See also 6 Notes 7 Works cited 8 External links

Authoritarian
Authoritarian
government and states Linz distinguished new forms of authoritarianism from personalistic dictatorships and totalitarian states, taking Francoist Spain
Francoist Spain
as an example. Unlike personalistic dictatorships, new forms of authoritarianism have institutionalized representation of a variety of actors (in Spain's case, including the military, the Catholic Church, Falange, monarchists, technocrats and others). Unlike totalitarian states, the regime relies on passive mass acceptance rather than popular support.[4] Several subtypes of authoritarian regimes have been identified by Linz and others.[5] Linz identified the two most basic subtypes as traditional authoritarian regimes and bureaucratic-military authoritarian regimes:

Traditional authoritarian regimes are those "in which the ruling authority (generally a single person)" is maintained in power "through a combination of appeals to traditional legitimacy, patron-client ties and repression, which is carried out by an apparatus bound to the ruling authority through personal loyalties". An example is Ethiopia under Haile Selassie I.[5] Bureaucratic-military authoritarian regimes are those "governed by a coalition of military officers and technocrats who act pragmatically (rather than ideologically) within the limits of their bureaucratic mentality.[5] Mark J. Gasiorowski suggests that it is best to distinguish "simple military authoritarian regimes" from "bureaucratic authoritarian regimes" in which "a powerful group of technocrats uses the state apparatus to try to rationalize and develop the economy" such as South Korea
South Korea
under Park Chung-hee.[5]

Linz also has identified three other subtypes of authoritarian regime: corporatist or organic-statistic, racial and ethnic "democracy" and post-totalitarian.[5]

Corporatist authoritarian regimes "are those in which corporatism institutions are used extensively by the state to coopt and demobilize powerful interest groups". This type has been studied most extensively in Latin America.[5] Racial and ethnic "democracies" are those in which "certain racial or ethnic groups enjoy full democratic rights while others are largely or entirely denied those rights", such as in South Africa
South Africa
under apartheid.[5] Post-totalitarian authoritarian regimes are those in which totalitarian institutions (such as the party, secret police and state-controlled mass media) remain, but where "ideological orthodoxy has declined in favor of routinization, repression has declined, the state's top leadership is less personalized and more secure, and the level of mass mobilization has declined substantially".[5] Examples include the Russian Federation
Federation
and Soviet Eastern bloc
Eastern bloc
states in the mid-1980s.[5]

Authoritarian
Authoritarian
regimes are also sometimes subcategorized by whether they are personalistic or populist.[5] Personalistic authoritarian regimes are characterized by arbitrary rule and authority exercised "mainly through patronage networks and coercion rather than through institutions and formal rules".[5] Personalistic authoritarian regimes have been seen in post-colonial Africa. By contrast, populist authoritarian regimes "are mobilizational regimes in which a strong, charismatic, manipulative leader rules through a coalition involving key lower-class groups".[5] Examples include Argentina
Argentina
under Perón,[5] Egypt
Egypt
under Nasser[5] and Venezuela
Venezuela
under Chávez and Maduro.[6][7] Authoritarianism
Authoritarianism
is characterized by highly concentrated and centralized power maintained by political repression and the exclusion of potential challengers. It uses political parties and mass organizations to mobilize people around the goals of the regime.[8] Adam Przeworski has theorized that "authoritarian equilibrium rests mainly on lies, fear and economic prosperity".[9] Authoritarianism
Authoritarianism
also tends to embrace the informal and unregulated exercise of political power, a leadership that is "self-appointed and even if elected cannot be displaced by citizens' free choice among competitors", the arbitrary deprivation of civil liberties and little tolerance for meaningful opposition.[8] A range of social controls also attempt to stifle civil society,[10] while political stability is maintained by control over and support of the armed forces, a bureaucracy staffed by the regime and creation of allegiance through various means of socialization and indoctrination.[8] Authoritarian
Authoritarian
political systems may be weakened through "inadequate performance to demands of the people".[8] Vestal writes that the tendency to respond to challenges to authoritarianism through tighter control instead of adaptation is a significant weakness and that this overly rigid approach fails to "adapt to changes or to accommodate growing demands on the part of the populace or even groups within the system".[8] Because the legitimacy of the state is dependent on performance, authoritarian states that fail to adapt may collapse.[8] Authoritarianism
Authoritarianism
is marked by "indefinite political tenure" of the ruler or ruling party (often in a one-party state) or other authority.[8] The transition from an authoritarian system to a more democratic form of government is referred to as democratization.[8] John Duckitt suggests a link between authoritarianism and collectivism, asserting that both stand in opposition to individualism.[11] Duckitt writes that both authoritarianism and collectivism submerge individual rights and goals to group goals, expectations and conformities.[12] Authoritarianism
Authoritarianism
and totalitarianism

Part of a series on

Revolution

Types

Colour Communist Democratic Nonviolent Permanent Political Proletarian Social Wave

Methods

Boycott Civil disobedience Civil war Class conflict Coup d'état Demonstration Guerrilla warfare Insurgency Nonviolent resistance Protest Rebellion Revolutionary terror Samizdat Strike action Tax resistance

Causes

Authoritarianism Autocracy Capitalism Collaborationism Colonialism Cronyism Despotism Dictatorship Discrimination Economic depression Economic inequality Electoral fraud Famine Fascism Feudalism Imperialism Military
Military
occupation Monarchy Natural disaster Nepotism Persecution Political corruption Political repression Poverty Totalitarianism Unemployment

Examples

Commercial Revolution Industrial Revolution English Revolution Atlantic Revolutions American Revolution French Revolution Haitian Revolution Serbian Revolution Revolutions of 1820 Revolutions of 1830 Belgian Revolution Texas Revolution Revolutions of 1848 Hungarian Revolution
Revolution
of 1848 Philippine Revolution Persian Constitutional Revolution Young Turk Revolution Mexican Revolution Xinhai Revolution Revolutions of 1917–23 Russian Revolution German Revolution
Revolution
of 1918–19 Spanish Revolution
Revolution
of 1936 Guatemalan Revolution Chinese Communist Revolution Hungarian Revolution
Revolution
of 1956 Cuban Revolution Rwandan Revolution Cultural Revolution Nicaraguan Revolution Iranian Revolution Saur Revolution People Power Revolution Carnation Revolution Revolutions of 1989 Velvet Revolution Romanian Revolution Singing Revolution Bolivarian Revolution Bulldozer Revolution Rose Revolution Orange Revolution Tulip Revolution Kyrgyz Revolution
Revolution
of 2010 Arab Spring Tunisian Revolution Yemeni Revolution Euromaidan

Politics
Politics
portal

v t e

Totalitarianism
Totalitarianism
is an extreme version of authoritarianism. Authoritarianism
Authoritarianism
primarily differs from totalitarianism in that social and economic institutions exist that are not under governmental control. Building on the work of Yale political scientist Juan Linz, Paul C. Sondrol of the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs
University of Colorado at Colorado Springs
has examined the characteristics of authoritarian and totalitarian dictators and organized them in a chart:[13]

Totalitarianism Authoritarianism

Charisma High Low

Role conception Leader as function Leader as individual

Ends of power Private Public

Corruption Low High

Official ideology Yes No

Limited pluralism No Yes

Legitimacy Yes No

Sondrol argues that while both authoritarianism and totalitarianism are forms of autocracy, as they differ in "key dichotomies":

(1) Unlike their bland and generally unpopular authoritarian brethren, totalitarian dictators develop a charismatic "mystique" and a mass-based, pseudo-democratic interdependence with their followers via the conscious manipulation of a prophetic image. (2) Concomitant role conceptions differentiate totalitarians from authoritarians. Authoritarians view themselves as individual beings largely content to control and often maintain the status quo. Totalitarian self-conceptions are largely teleological. The tyrant is less a person than an indispensable function to guide and reshape the universe. (3) Consequently, the utilisation of power for personal aggrandizement is more evident among authoritarians than totalitarians. Lacking the binding appeal of ideology, authoritarians support their rule by a mixture of instilling fear and granting rewards to loyal collaborators, engendering a kleptocracy.[13]

Compared to totalitarianism, "the authoritarian state still maintains a certain distinction between state and society. It is only concerned with political power and as long as that is not contested it gives society a certain degree of liberty. Totalitarianism, on the other hand, invades private life and asphyxiates it".[14] Another distinction is that "authoritarianism is not animated by utopian ideals in the way totalitarianism is. It does not attempt to change the world and human nature".[14] Carl Joachim Friedrich writes that "a totalist ideology, a party reinforced by a secret police, and monopoly control of ... industrial mass society" are the three features of totalitarian regimes that distinguish them from other autocracies.[14] Authoritarianism
Authoritarianism
and democracy

Part of a series on

Individualism

Topics and concepts

Autonomy Civil liberties Do it yourself Eremitism Free love Freethought Human rights Individual Individual rights Individual reclamation Individuation Laissez-faire Libertinism Liberty Methodological individualism Negative liberty Personal property Positive liberty Private property Self-actualization Self-ownership Self reliance Subjectivity

Thinkers

Antiphon Aristippus Aristotle Émile Armand Albert Camus Diogenes of Sinope Ralph Waldo Emerson Epicurus William Godwin Emma Goldman Friedrich Hayek Karl Hess Miguel Giménez Igualada Thomas Jefferson Laozi Albert Libertad John Locke Hipparchia of Maroneia H. L. Mencken John Stuart Mill Ludwig von Mises Michel de Montaigne Friedrich Nietzsche Renzo Novatore Robert Nozick Michel Onfray Georges Palante Horst Matthai Quelle Ayn Rand Murray Rothbard Han Ryner Marquis de Sade Arthur Schopenhauer Adam Smith Herbert Spencer Lysander Spooner Max Stirner Henry David Thoreau Benjamin Tucker James L. Walker Josiah Warren Oscar Wilde Zeno Yang Zhu

Philosophies

Anarchism Anarcho-capitalism Classical liberalism Egoist anarchism Ethical egoism Existentialism Hedonism Humanism Individualist anarchism Individualist feminism

Equity feminism Liberal feminism

Left-libertarianism Left-wing market anarchism Liberalism Libertarianism Libertarian socialism Minarchism Mutualism Objectivism Right libertarianism Social anarchism Voluntaryism

Principal concerns

Anti-individualism Authoritarianism Collectivism Conformity Dogmatism Group rights Herd mentality Indoctrination Mass society Mobbing Social engineering Statism Tyranny Tyranny
Tyranny
of the majority Theocracy Totalitarianism

v t e

Authoritarianism
Authoritarianism
and democracy are not fundamentally opposed to one another, as it is possible for democracies to possess authoritarian elements. An illiberal democracy (or procedural democracy) is distinguished from liberal democracy (or substantive democracy) in that illiberal democracies lack features such as the rule of law, protections for minority groups and an independent judiciary.[15] A further distinction that liberal democracies have rarely made war with one another; research has extended the theory and finds that more democratic countries tend to have few wars (sometimes called militarized interstate disputes) causing fewer battle deaths with one another and that democracies have far fewer civil wars.[16][17] Some commentators, such as Seymour Martin Lipset, believed that low-income authoritarian regimes have certain technocratic "efficiency-enhancing advantages" over low-income democracies, helping authoritarian regimes generate development.[18] Morton H. Halperin, Joseph T. Siegle and Michael M. Weinstein (2005) counter this belief, arguing that the evidence has showed that there is no "authoritarian advantage" and that there is a "democratic advantage" instead.[18] Halperin et al. argue that democracies "realize superior development performance" over authoritarianism. They point out that poor democracies are more likely to have steadier economic growth and less likely to experience economic and humanitarian catastrophes than authoritarian regimes; that civil liberties act as a curb on corruption and misuse of resources; and that democracies are more adaptable.[18] Halperin point out that the vast majority of refugee crises and financial catastrophes occur in authoritarian regimes.[18] Studies suggest that several health indicators (life expectancy and infant and maternal mortality) have a stronger and more significant association with democracy than they have with GDP per capita, size of the public sector or income inequality.[19] Prominent economist Amartya Sen
Amartya Sen
has theorized that no functioning liberal democracy has ever suffered a large-scale famine.[20] Research shows that the democratic nations have much less democide or murder by government. Those were also moderately developed nations before applying liberal democratic policies.[21] Research by the World Bank suggests that political institutions are extremely important in determining the prevalence of corruption and that parliamentary systems, political stability and freedom of the press are all associated with lower corruption.[22] One study has concluded that terrorism is most common in nations with intermediate political freedom. The nations with the least amount of terrorism are the most and least democratic nations.[23] Examples of states considered to be authoritarian There is no precise definition of authoritarianism, but several annual measurements are attempted, including Freedom House’s annual Freedom in the World report. The following is a non-exhaustive list of examples of states which are currently (or frequently) characterized as authoritarian:

  Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
under Ilham Aliyev
Ilham Aliyev
(2003–)[24]   Bahrain
Bahrain
under the House of Khalifa
House of Khalifa
(1746–)[25]   Belarus
Belarus
under Alexander Lukashenko
Alexander Lukashenko
(1994–)[26][27] on account of Lukashenko's self-described authoritarian style of government[28][29][30]   Cambodia
Cambodia
under the Khmer Rouge
Khmer Rouge
and Hun Sen
Hun Sen
(1985–)[31]   Cameroon
Cameroon
under Paul Biya
Paul Biya
(1982–)[32][33]  People's Republic
Republic
of China
China
under the Communist Party of China (1949–) “Some scholars have deemed the Chinese system a 'fragmented authoritarianism' (Lieberthal), a 'negotiated state' or a 'consultative authoritarian regime'"[34]   Cuba
Cuba
under Fidel and Raúl Castro
Raúl Castro
(1959–)[35]   Egypt
Egypt
under Hosni Mubarak
Hosni Mubarak
(1981–2011) and Abdel Fattah el-Sisi (2014–)[36]   Iran
Iran
under Ruhollah Khomeini
Ruhollah Khomeini
and Ali Khamenei
Ali Khamenei
(1981–)[37] Linz wrote in 2000 that "it is difficult to fit the Iranian regime into the existing typology, as it combines the ideological bent of totalitarianism with the limited pluralism of authoritarianism and holds regular elections in which candidates advocating differing policies and incumbents are often defeated"[38]   Jordan
Jordan
under Abdullah II bin Al-Hussein[39]   Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
under Nursultan Nazarbayev[32]   Laos
Laos
under the Lao People's Revolutionary Party
Lao People's Revolutionary Party
(1975–)[40]   Morocco
Morocco
under Mohammed VI[39]   North Korea
North Korea
under the rule of the Kim dynasty and the Korean Workers' Party (1947–)[41]   Qatar
Qatar
under the House of Thani.[42]  Russian Federation
Federation
under Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(1999–) (see Putinism for more) has tendencies towards authoritarianism, described as "really a mixture of authoritarianism and managed democracy"[43][44][45]   Singapore
Singapore
is considered authoritarian, especially under the Lee Kuan Yew until 2015.[46][47]   Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
under the House of Saud
House of Saud
(1744–)[48]   Sudan
Sudan
under Omar al-Bashir
Omar al-Bashir
(1989–)[32]   Syria
Syria
under Hafez and Bashar al-Assad
Bashar al-Assad
(1970–)[49]   Thailand
Thailand
under General Prayut Chan-o-cha
Prayut Chan-o-cha
who overthrew the democratically elected government of Yingluck Shinawatra
Yingluck Shinawatra
in a military coup and installed a military junta to oversee the governance of Thailand
Thailand
(2014–)[50]   Turkey
Turkey
under Recep Tayyip Erdogan
Recep Tayyip Erdogan
(2003–) described as a “competitive authoritarian regime”[51]   Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
under Saparmurat Nyazow (1991–2006) and Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow (2006–)[52]   United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
under the six royal families of the United Arab Emirates (10 February 1972–)[53][54]   Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
under Islam Karimov (1989–2016)[55][56] and Shavkat Mirziyoyev(2016-)[57]   Venezuela
Venezuela
under Hugo Chávez
Hugo Chávez
and Nicolás Maduro
Nicolás Maduro
(1999–)[58]   Vietnam
Vietnam
under the Vietnamese Communist Party
Vietnamese Communist Party
(1976–)[59]

Examples of states which were historically authoritarian

State Time period Ruling group or person Notes

 Argentina[60][61] 1966–1973 Military
Military
government Argentine Revolution
Revolution
period of military rule

1973–1974 Justicialista rule of Juan Perón Ideology
Ideology
is populist authoritarianism

1976–1983 Free trade
Free trade
and deregulatory rule of Jorge Rafael Videla National Reorganization Process
National Reorganization Process
period of military rule

Brazil[62] 1937–1945 Getúlio Vargas Estado Novo period

1964–1985 Military
Military
government

Burma[63] 1962–2011 Military
Military
government and Socialist Programme Party

 Chile[64] 1973–1990 Augusto Pinochet

 Egypt[65] 1952–2011 Gamal Abdel Nasser, Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
and Hosni Mubarak

 Indonesia 1967–1998 Suharto

Libya[66] 1969–2011 Muammar Gaddafi

 Lithuania[67] 1926–1940 Antanas Smetona

 Macedonia[68][69] 2006–2016 Nikola Gruevski

 Portugal[70] 1932–1974 António de Oliveira Salazar
António de Oliveira Salazar
and Marcelo Caetano Under Estado Novo regime

Spain[71] 1936–1975 Francisco Franco

South Africa[72][73] 1948–1994 National Party Regime ended with the end of apartheid

 South Korea[74][75] 1948–1960 Syngman Rhee

1962–1987 Park Chung-hee
Park Chung-hee
and Chun Doo-hwan

 Taiwan[76] 1945–1990 Kuomintang

 Turkey[77][78] 1925–1945 Republican People's Party

 Zimbabwe[79] 1980–2017 Robert Mugabe

Systemic weakness and resilience Andrew J. Nathan
Andrew J. Nathan
notes that "regime theory holds that authoritarian systems are inherently fragile because of weak legitimacy, overreliance on coercion, overcentralization of decision making, and the predominance of personal power over institutional norms....Few authoritarian regimes—be they communist, fascist, corporatist, or personalist—have managed to conduct orderly, peaceful, timely, and stable successions".[80] One exception to this general trend is the endurance of the authoritarian rule of the Chinese Communist Party, which has been unusually resilient among authoritarian regimes. Nathan posits that this can be attributed to four factors: (1) "the increasingly norm-bound nature of its succession politics"; (2) "the increase in meritocratic as opposed to factional considerations in the promotion of political elites"; (3) "the differentiation and functional specialization of institutions within the regime"; and (4) "the establishment of institutions for political participation and appeal that strengthen the CCP's legitimacy among the public at large".[80] Anti-authoritarianism Main article: Anti-authoritarianism After World War II
World War II
there was a strong sense of anti-authoritarianism based on anti-fascism in Europe. This was attributed to the active resistance from occupation and to fears arising from the development of superpowers.[81] Anti-authoritarianism
Anti-authoritarianism
also became associated with countercultural and bohemian movements such as the Beat Generation
Beat Generation
in the 1950s,[82] the hippies in the 1960s[83] and punks in the 1970s.[84] Gender and authoritarianism According to a study by Brandt and Henry, there is a direct correlation between the rates of gender inequality and the levels of authoritarian ideas in the male and female populations. It was found that in countries with less gender equality where individualism was encouraged and men occupied the dominant societal roles, women were more likely to support traits such as obedience which would allow them to survive in an authoritarian environment and less likely to encourage ideas such as independence and imagination. In countries with higher levels of gender equality, men held less authoritarian views. It is theorized that this occurs due to the stigma attached to individuals who question the cultural norms set by the dominant individuals and establishments in an authoritarian society as a way to prevent the psychological stress caused by the active ostracizing of the stigmatized individuals.[85] See also

Totalitarianism Anti-democratic thought Autocracy Centralisation Criticism of liberal democracy Illiberal democracy Managed democracy

Notes

^ Sekiguchi, Masashi. Government
Government
and Politics
Politics
- Volume I. EOLSS Publications. p. 92. ISBN 9781905839698. Retrieved 26 December 2016.  ^ Richard Shorten, Modernism and Totalitarianism: Rethinking the Intellectual Sources of Nazism
Nazism
and Stalinism, 1945 to the Present (Palgrave Macmillan, 2012), p. 256 (note 67). ^ Gretchen Casper, Fragile Democracies: The Legacies of Authoritarian Rule, pp. 40–50 (citing Linz 1964). ^ Todd Landman, Studying Human Rights
Rights
(Routledge, 2003), p. 71 (citing Linz 1964 and others). ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Mark J. Gasiorowski, The Political Regimes Project, in On Measuring Democracy: Its Consequences and Concomitants (ed. Alex Inketes), 2006, p. 110–11. ^ Juan de Onis, "After Chavez, Authoritarianism
Authoritarianism
Still Threatens Latin America", World Affairs (May 15, 2013): "the followers of the late President Hugo Chávez
Hugo Chávez
continue to apply the playbook of authoritarian populism throughout Latin America
Latin America
in their pursuit of more power...one of the Mercosur partners are challenging the basic political practices of authoritarian populism implanted in Venezuela." ^ Kurt Weyland, "Latin America's Authoritarian
Authoritarian
Drift: The Threat from the Populist Left", Journal of Democracy, Vol. 23, Issue 3 (July 2013), pp. 18–32. ^ a b c d e f g h Theodore M. Vesta, Ethiopia: A Post-Cold War
War
African State. Greenwood, 1999, p. 17. ^ Przeworski, Adam (1991-07-26). Democracy
Democracy
and the Market: Political and Economic Reforms in Eastern Europe and Latin America. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521423359.  ^ Hsu, Jennifer Y. J.; Hsu, Carolyn L.; Hasmath, Reza (2016). "NGO Strategies in an Authoritarian
Authoritarian
Context, and their Implications for Citizenship: The Case of the People's Republic
Republic
of China". American Sociological Association Annual Meeting (Seattle), August 20–23.: 1. SSRN 2657187 .  ^ Duckitt, J. (1989). " Authoritarianism
Authoritarianism
and Group Identification: A New View of an Old Construct". Political Psychology. 10 (1): 63–84. doi:10.2307/3791588. JSTOR 3791588. (Registration required (help)).  ^ Kemmelmeier, M.; Burnstein, E.; Krumov, K.; Genkova, P.; Kanagawa, C.; Hirshberg, M. S.; Erb, H. P.; Wieczorkowska, G.; Noels, K. A. (2003). "Individualism, Collectivism, and Authoritarianism
Authoritarianism
in Seven Societies". Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 34 (3): 304. doi:10.1177/0022022103034003005.  ^ a b Sondrol, P. C. (2009). "Totalitarian and Authoritarian Dictators: A Comparison of Fidel Castro
Fidel Castro
and Alfredo Stroessner". Journal of Latin American Studies. 23 (3): 599. doi:10.1017/S0022216X00015868.  ^ a b c Radu Cinpoes, Nationalism
Nationalism
and Identity in Romania: A History of Extreme Politics
Politics
from the Birth of the State to EU Accession, p. 70. ^

Thomas H. Henriksen, American Power after the Berlin Wall (Palgrave MacMillian: 2007), p. 199: "experts emphasize that elections alone, without the full democratic panoply of an independent judiciary, free press, and viable political parties, constitute, in reality, illiberal democracies, which still menace their neighbors and destabilize their regions." David P. Forsythe, Human Rights
Rights
in International Relations (Cambridge University Press, 2012), p. 231: "Illiberal democracies may have reasonably free and fair national elections based on broad suffrage, but they do not counteract the tyranny of the majority with effective protections for ethnic and religious minorities or various types of dissenters." Rod Hague & Martin Harrop, Political Science: A Comparative Introduction (7th ed.: Palgrave MacMillian: 2007), p. 259: "The gradual implementation of the rule of law and due process is an accomplishment of liberal politics, provide a basis for distinguishing liberal from illiberal democracies, and both from authoritarian regimes." Vladimir Popov, "Circumstances versus Policy Choices: Why Has the Economic Performance of the Soviet Successor States Been So Poor" in After the Collapse of Communism: Comparative Lessons of Transition (eds. Michael McFaul
Michael McFaul
& Kathryn Stoner-Weiss: Cambridge University Press, 2004), p. 20: "The least efficient institutions are in illiberal democracies combining poor rule of law with democracy ... Less democratic regimes with weak rule of law ... appear to do better than illiberal democracies in maintaining institutional capacity."

^ Hegre, Håvard; Tanja Ellington; Scott Gates & Nils Petter Gleditsch (2001). "Towards A Democratic Civil Peace? Opportunity, Grievance and Civil War
War
1816-1992". American Political Science Review. 95: 33–48. Archived from the original on 2004-04-06.  ^ Ray, James Lee (2013). Colin Elman; Miriam Fendius Elman, eds. A Lakatosian View of the Democratic Peace
Peace
Research Program From Progress in International Relations Theory (PDF). MIT Press. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-06-25.  ^ a b c d Morton H. Halperin, Joseph T. Siegle, & Michael M. Weinstein, The Democracy
Democracy
Advantage: How Democracies Promote Prosperity and Peace
Peace
(Council on Foreign Relations/ Psychology
Psychology
Press, 2005). ^ Franco, Á.; Álvarez-Dardet, C.; Ruiz, M. T. (2004). "Effect of democracy on health: ecological study". BMJ. 329 (7480): 1421–23. doi:10.1136/bmj.329.7480.1421. PMC 535957 . PMID 15604165.  ^ Sen, A. K. (1999). " Democracy
Democracy
as a Universal Value". Journal of Democracy. 10 (3): 3–17. doi:10.1353/jod.1999.0055.  ^ R. J. Rummel
R. J. Rummel
(1997). Power kills: democracy as a method of nonviolence. New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States U.S.A: Transaction Publishers. ISBN 1-56000-297-2.  ^ Daniel Lederman, Norman Loayza, & Rodrigo Res Soares, " Accountability
Accountability
and Corruption: Political Institutions Matter", World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 2708 (November 2001). ^ Harvard News Office (2004-11-04). "Harvard Gazette: Freedom squelches terrorist violence". News.harvard.edu. Archived from the original on 2015-09-19. Retrieved 2012-02-02.  ^ Vincent, Rebecca (19 May 2013). "When the music dies: Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
one year after Eurovision". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 10 June 2013. Over the past several years, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
has become increasingly authoritarian, as the authorities have used tactics such as harassment, intimidation, blackmail, attack and imprisonment to silence the regime’s critics, whether journalists, bloggers, human rights defenders, political activists or ordinary people taking to the streets in protest.  ^ Nebil Husayn, Authoritarianism
Authoritarianism
in Bahrain: Motives, Methods and Challenges, AMSS 41st Annual Conference (September 29, 2012); Parliamentary Elections and Authoritarian
Authoritarian
Rule in Bahrain
Bahrain
(January 13, 2011), Stanford University ^ Rausing, Sigrid (7 October 2012). "Belarus: inside Europe's last dictatorship". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 7 August 2014.  ^ "Belarus's Lukashenko: "Better a dictator than gay"". Berlin. Reuters. 4 March 2012. ...German Foreign Minister's branding him 'Europe's last dictator'  ^ "Profile: Alexander Lukashenko". BBC News. BBC. 9 January 2007. Retrieved 7 August 2014. '..an authoritarian ruling style is characteristic of me [Lukashenko]'  ^ "Essential Background – Belarus". Human Rights
Rights
Watch. 2005. Retrieved 26 March 2006.  ^ " Human rights
Human rights
by country – Belarus". Amnesty International Report 2007. Amnesty International. 2007. Archived from the original on 12 December 2007. Retrieved 22 December 2007.  ^ Elisabeth Bumiller (November 16, 2012). "In Cambodia, Panetta Reaffirms Ties With Authoritarian
Authoritarian
Government". New York Times.  ^ a b c Freedom House
Freedom House
(2016). Freedom in the World
Freedom in the World
2016: Anxious Dictators, Wavering Democracies: Global Freedom Under Pressure (PDF).  ^ "" Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Report 2009: State of the World's Human Rights"". Amnesty International. 2009. Archived from the original on 2011-10-08.  ^ Ming Xia, China
China
Rises Companion: Political Governance, New York Times. See also Cheng Li, The End of the CCP’s Resilient Authoritarianism? A Tripartite Assessment of Shifting Power in China (September 2012), The China
China
Quarterly, Vol. 211; Perry Link and Joshua Kurlantzick, China's Modern Authoritarianism
Authoritarianism
(May 25, 2009), Wall Street Journal; Ariana Eunjung Cha, China, Cuba, Other Authoritarian Regimes Censor News From Iran
Iran
(June 27, 2009), Washington Post. ^ Ariana Eunjung Cha, China, Cuba, Other Authoritarian
Authoritarian
Regimes Censor News From Iran
Iran
(June 27, 2009), Washington Post; Shanthi Kalathil and Taylor Boas, Internet and State Control in Authoritarian
Authoritarian
Regimes: China, Cuba
Cuba
and the Counterrevolution (July 16, 2001), Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. ^ Amr Adly, The Economics of Egypt’s Rising Authoritarian
Authoritarian
Order, Carnegie Middle East Center, June 18, 2014; Nathan J. Brown & Katie Bentivoglio, Egypt's Resurgent Authoritarianism: It's a Way of Life, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, October 9, 2014; Roula Khalaf, Sisi’s Egypt: The march of the security state, Financial Times (December 19, 2016); Peter Hessler, Egypt's Failed Revolution, New Yorker, January 2, 2017. ^ Mehrdad Kia, The Making of Modern Authoritarianism
Authoritarianism
in Contemporary Iran, in Modern Middle East Authoritarianism: Roots, Ramifications, and Crisis (Routledge: 2013; eds. Noureddine Jebnoun, Mehrdad Kia & Mimi Kirk), pp. 75–76. ^ Juan José Linz, Totalitarian and Authoritarian
Authoritarian
Regimes (Lynne Rienner, 2000), p. 36. ^ a b Yom, Sean (16 May 2017). "Why Jordan
Jordan
and Morocco
Morocco
are doubling down on royal rule". Washington Post.  ^ Beckert, Jen. "Communitarianism." International Encyclopedia of Economic Sociology. London: Routledge, 2006. 81. ^ Daniel Byman, Pyongyang’s Survival Strategy: Tools of Authoritarian
Authoritarian
Control in North Korea, International Security, Vol. 35, issue 1, pp. 44–74 (Summer 2010); Chico Harlan, In authoritarian North Korea, hints of reform, Washington Post, September 3, 2012. ^ "Dictators Continue to Score in International Sporting Events". Freedom House.  ^ Nikolay Petrov and Michael McFaul, The Essence of Putin's Managed Democracy
Democracy
(October 18, 2005), Carnegie Endowment for International Peace; Tom Parfitt, Billionaire tycoon Mikhail Prokhorov who is running in the 4 March election says it is time for evolution not revolution (January 11, 2012), Guardian; Richard Denton, Russia's 'managed democracy' (May 11, 2006), BBC News. ^ "Nations in Transit 2014 – Russia". Freedom House.  ^ "The Myth of the Authoritarian
Authoritarian
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Russia
Back" (PDF). The Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies, Stanford.  ^ " Lee Kuan Yew
Lee Kuan Yew
leaves a legacy of authoritarian pragmatism". Retrieved 5 May 2017.  ^ "January 5, 2017 Fear, smear and the paradox of authoritarian politics in Singapore". Retrieved 5 May 2017.  ^ Toby Craig Jones, Desert Kingdom: How Oil and Water Forged Modern Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
(2011), Harvard University Press, pp. 5, 14–15; Kira D. Baiasu, Sustaining Authoritarian
Authoritarian
Rule Archived January 2, 2013, at the Wayback Machine., Fall 2009, Volume 10, Issue 1 (September 30, 2009), Northwestern Journal of International Affairs. ^ Heydemann, Steven; Leenders, Reinoud (2013). Middle East Authoritarianisms: Governance, Contestation, and Regime Resilience in Syria
Syria
and Iran. Stanford University Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0804793339.  ^ Jakubowski, Andrzej (2016). Cultural Rights
Rights
as Collective Rights: An International Law
Law
Perspective. Brill – Nijhoff. p. 196. ISBN 978-9004312012.  ^ Berk Esena & Sebnem Gumuscub, Rising competitive authoritarianism in Turkey, Third World Quarterly (February 19, 2016). doi:10.1080/01436597.2015.1135732; Ramazan Kılınç, Turkey: from conservative democracy to popular authoritarianism, openDemocracy (December 5, 2015). ^ "Turkmenistan". hrw.org. Retrieved 4 September 2016.  ^ "The dark side of the United Arab Emirates". newint.org. 7 September 2015. Retrieved 22 October 2017.  ^ " United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
profile". 29 August 2017. Retrieved 22 October 2017 – via www.bbc.com.  ^ Neil J. Melvin, Uzbekistan: Transition to Authoritarianism
Authoritarianism
on the Silk Road (Harwood Academic, 2000), pp. 28–30. ^ Shahram Akbarzadeh, "Post-Soviet Central Asia: The Limits of Islam" in Constitutionalism in Islamic Countries: Between Upheaval and Continuity (Oxford University Press, 2012: eds. Rainer Grote & Tilmann J. Röder), p. 428. ^ https://www.economist.com/news/asia/21732574-new-president-less-brutal-his-predecessor-no-democrat-uzbek-spring-has-sprung ^ Human Rights
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Watch, Venezuela: Chávez’s Authoritarian
Authoritarian
Legacy: Dramatic Concentration of Power and Open Disregard for Basic Human Rights, March 5, 2013; Kurt Weyland, Latin America's Authoritarian Drift: The Threat from the Populist Left, Journal of Democracy, Vol. 24, No. 3 (July 2013), pp. 18–32. ^ Thomas Fuller, In Hard Times, Open Dissent and Repression Rise in Vietnam
Vietnam
(April 23, 2013), New York Times ^ Todd L. Edwards, Argentina: A Global Studies Handbook (2008), pp. 45–46; Steven E. Sanderson, The Politics
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(1985), eds. Philip J. O'Brien & Paul A. Cammack, Manchester University Press. ^ Guillermo A. O'Donnell, Bureaucratic Authoritarianism: Argentina, 1966–1973, in Comparative Perspective (University of California Press, 1988); James M. Malloy, Authoritarianism
Authoritarianism
and Corporatism
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in Latin America: The Modal Pattern, in Democracy
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in Latin America: Patterns and Cycles (1996; ed. Roderic A. Camp), p. 122; Howard J. Wiards, Corporatism
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in Latin America: The Modal Pattern, in Democracy
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Democratizing? (April 2, 2012), Carnegie Endowment for International Peace; President Discusses Burma/Myanmar in Transition at World Affairs Council Sacramento (April 3, 2013), Asia Foundation; Louise Arbour, In Myanmar, Sanctions Have Had Their Day (March 5, 2012), New York Times. ^ Steven E. Sanderson, The Politics
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Regime in Egypt
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Story (October 21, 2011), BBC News; Alistair Dawber, One Libyan in three wants return to authoritarian rule (February 16, 2012), Independent. ^ Misiunas, Romuald J. (1970). "Fascist Tendencies in Lithuania". Slavonic and East European Review. 48 (110): 88–109. JSTOR 4206165.  ^ Matthew Brunwasser, Concerns Grow About Authoritarianism
Authoritarianism
in Macedonia, The New York Times, October 13, 2011. ^ Andrew MacDowall, Fears for Macedonia's fragile democracy amid 'coup' and wiretap claims, The Guardian, February 27, 2015. ^ Pinto, António Costa (2006). " Authoritarian
Authoritarian
legacies, transitional justice and state crisis in Portugal's democratization". Democratization. 13 (2): 173–204. doi:10.1080/13510340500523895.  Working paper. ^ Richard Gunther, The Spanish Model Revisited, in The Politics
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and Memory of Democratic Transition: The Spanish Model, (eds. Diego Muro & Gregorio Alonso), Taylor & Francis 2010, p. 19. ^ Tracy Kuperus, Building a Pluralist Democracy: An Examination of Religious Associations in South Africa
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and Zimbabwe, in Race and Reconciliation in South Africa: A Multicultural Dialogue in Comparative Perspective (eds. William E. Van Vugt & G. Daan Cloete), Lexington Books, 2000. ^ The South Africa
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(eds. Clifton Crais & Thomas V. McClendon; Duke University Press, 2014), p. 279. ^ The Other R.O.K.: Memories of Authoritarianism
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Archived December 24, 2012, at the Wayback Machine., July 2007, Taiwan
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Journal of Democracy, Volume 3, No. 1, pp. 99–125. ^ Hyug Baeg Im, The Rise of Bureaucratic Authoritarianism
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Vol. 39, Issue 2 (January 1987), pp. 231–57 ^ Leng, Shao-chuan; Lin, Cheng-yi (1993). "Political Change on Taiwan: Transition to Democracy?". The China
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Quarterly. Cambridge University Press (136): 805–39. ISSN 0305-7410. JSTOR 655592. (Registration required (help)). ; Shirley A. Kan, Congressional Research Service, Democratic Reforms in Taiwan: Issues for Congress (May 26, 2010); Taiwan's Electoral Politics
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Works cited

Juan J. Linz, An Authoritarian
Authoritarian
Regime: The Case of Spain, in Cleavages, Ideologies and Party Systems (eds. Eric Allard & Yrjo Littunen) (Helsinki: Academic, 1964)

External links

"Are we entering the age of the autocrat?" by Francis Fukuyama, Washington Post, August 24, 2008

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and ideology Fascism
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worldwide Symbolism

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Southern Europe

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North America

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Gold shirts German American Bund Silver Legion of America

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People

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Works

Literature

The Doctrine of Fascism Fascist Manifesto Manifesto of the Fascist Intellectuals Mein Kampf My Life The Myth of the Twentieth Century Zweites Buch Zaveshchanie russkogo fashista

Periodicals

La Conquista del Estado Das Reich Der Angriff Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung Deutsche Zeitung in Norwegen Deutsche Zeitung in den Niederlanden Figli d'Italia Fronten Gândirea Gioventù Fascista Je suis partout La France au travail Münchener Beobachter Novopress NS Månedshefte Norsk-Tysk Tidsskrift Das Schwarze Korps Der Stürmer Il Popolo d'Italia Sfarmă-Piatră Signal Vlajka Völkischer Beobachter Nash Put' Fashist l'Alba

Film

Der Sieg des Glaubens Tag der Freiheit: Unsere Wehrmacht Triumph of the Will

Sculpture

Allach

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Activist

Fascist Union of Youth German American Bund National Youth Organisation (Greece) Russian Fascist Organization Union of Fascist Little Ones Union of Young Fascists – Vanguard (boys) Union of Young Fascists – Vanguard (girls)

Paramilitary

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1940s

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Lists

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Concepts

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Political ideologies

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Social and political philosophy

Pre-modern philosophers

Aquinas Aristotle Averroes Augustine Chanakya Cicero Confucius Al-Ghazali Han Fei Laozi Marsilius Mencius Mozi Muhammad Plato Shang Socrates Sun Tzu Thucydides

Modern philosophers

Bakunin Bentham Bonald Bosanquet Burke Comte Emerson Engels Fourier Franklin Grotius Hegel Hobbes Hume Jefferson Kant Kierkegaard Le Bon Le Play Leibniz Locke Machiavelli Maistre Malebranche Marx Mill Montesquieu Möser Nietzsche Paine Renan Rousseau Royce Sade Smith Spencer Spinoza Stirner Taine Thoreau Tocqueville Vivekananda Voltaire

20th–21th-century Philosophers

Ambedkar Arendt Aurobindo Aron Azurmendi Badiou Baudrillard Bauman Benoist Berlin Judith Butler Camus Chomsky De Beauvoir Debord Du Bois Durkheim Foucault Gandhi Gehlen Gentile Gramsci Habermas Hayek Heidegger Irigaray Kirk Kropotkin Lenin Luxemburg Mao Marcuse Maritain Michels Mises Negri Niebuhr Nozick Oakeshott Ortega Pareto Pettit Plamenatz Polanyi Popper Radhakrishnan Rand Rawls Rothbard Russell Santayana Sarkar Sartre Schmitt Searle Simonović Skinner Sombart Spann Spirito Strauss Sun Taylor Walzer Weber Žižek

Social theories

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