AUSTRIA-HUNGARY, often referred to as the AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN EMPIRE in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or _ Cisleithania _) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or _ Transleithania _) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I . The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867. Austria- Hungary consisted of two monarchies ( Austria and Hungary), and one autonomous region: the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia under the Hungarian crown, which negotiated the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement (_Nagodba_) in 1868. It was ruled by the House of Habsburg , and constituted the last phase in the constitutional evolution of the Habsburg Monarchy . Following the 1867 reforms, the Austrian and the Hungarian states were co-equal. Foreign affairs and the military came under joint oversight, but all other governmental faculties were divided between respective states.
Austria- Hungary was a multinational state and one of the world's great powers at the time. Austria- Hungary was geographically the second-largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire , at 621,538 km2 (239,977 sq mi), and the third-most populous (after Russia and the German Empire ). The Empire built up the fourth-largest machine building industry of the world, after the United States , Germany, and the United Kingdom . Austria- Hungary also became the world's third largest manufacturer and exporter of electric home appliances, electric industrial appliances and power generation apparatus for power plants, after the United States and the German Empire.
After 1878, Bosnia and Herzegovina was under Austro-Hungarian military and civilian rule until it was fully annexed in 1908, provoking the Bosnian crisis among the other powers. Sandžak/Raška , _de jure_ northern part of the Ottoman Sanjak of Novi Pazar (in modern-day Montenegro and Serbia), was also under _de facto_ joint occupation during that period but the Austro-Hungarian army withdrew as part of their annexation of Bosnia. The annexation of Bosnia also led to Islam being recognized as an official state religion due to Bosnia's Muslim population.
Austria- Hungary was one of the Central Powers in World War I . It was already effectively dissolved by the time the military authorities signed the armistice of Villa Giusti on 3 November 1918. The Kingdom of Hungary and the First Austrian Republic were treated as its successors _de jure_ , whereas the independence of the West Slavs and South Slavs of the Empire as the First Czechoslovak Republic , the Second Polish Republic and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia , respectively, and most of the territorial demands of the Kingdom of Romania were also recognized by the victorious powers in 1920.
* 1 Structure and name
* 1.1 Creation
* 2 Politics and government
* 2.1 Government
* 2.2 Judicial system
* 2.3 Public administration and local governments
* 3 Politics
* 3.1 Political struggles in the Empire * 3.2 Ethnic relations * 3.3 Foreign policy
* 4 Economy
* 4.1 Automotive industry * 4.2 Aeronautic industry * 4.3 Locomotive engine and railway vehicle manufacturers
* 5 Infrastructure
* 5.1 Transport
* 5.1.1 Railways
* 5.1.2 Metropolitan transit systems
* 220.127.116.11 Tramway lines in the cities * 18.104.22.168 Electrified Commuter Railway lines * 22.214.171.124 Underground
* 5.1.3 Canals and River Regulations
* 5.1.4 Shipping and ports
* 5.2 Telecommunication
* 5.2.1 Telegraph * 5.2.2 Telephone * 5.2.3 Electronic Broadcasting
* 6 Demographics
* 6.1 Demographics (1910 census) * 6.2 Linguistic distribution * 6.3 Religions (1910 census) * 6.4 Largest cities of the dual monarchy
* 6.5 Education
* 7 Military
* 8 World War I
* 8.1 Preludes: Bosnia and Herzegovina
* 8.1.1 Status of Bosnia-Herzegovina * 8.1.2 Sarajevo assassination * 8.1.3 Escalation of violence in Bosnia * 8.1.4 Decision for war
* 8.2 Wartime foreign policy * 8.3 Homefront
* 8.4 Military events
* 8.4.1 Serbian front 1914–1916 * 8.4.2 Russian front 1914–1917 * 8.4.3 Italian front 1915–1918 * 8.4.4 Romanian front 1916
* 8.5 Role of Hungary * 8.6 Analysis of defeat
* 9 Dissolution
* 9.1 Consequences
* 9.1.1 Successor states * 9.1.2 Territorial legacy
* 10 Flags and heraldry
* 10.1 Flags * 10.2 Coat of arms
* 11 See also
* 12 References
* 12.1 Notes
* 13 Further reading
* 13.1 Surveys * 13.2 World war * 13.3 Specialty topics * 13.4 Primary sources * 13.5 Historiography and memory * 13.6 In German
* 14 External links
STRUCTURE AND NAME
Franz Joseph I. (1885)
The realm's full, official name was THE KINGDOMS AND LANDS REPRESENTED IN THE IMPERIAL COUNCIL AND THE LANDS OF THE HOLY HUNGARIAN CROWN OF ST. STEPHEN .
German : _Die im Reichsrat vertretenen Königreiche und Länder und die Länder der Heiligen Ungarischen Stephanskrone_
Hungarian : _A Birodalmi Tanácsban képviselt királyságok és országok és a Magyar Szent Korona országai_
The Habsburg monarch ruled as Emperor of Austria over the western and northern half of the country that was the Austrian Empire ("Lands Represented in the Imperial Council", or Cisleithania ) and as King of Hungary over the Kingdom of Hungary ("Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen ", or Transleithania ). Each enjoyed considerable sovereignty with only a few joint affairs (principally foreign relations and defence).
Certain regions, such as Polish Galicia within Cisleithania and Croatia (officially the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia- Dalmatia , even Dalmatia was in Cisleithanian part of the _ Dual Monarchy _) within Transleithania, enjoyed autonomous status, each with its own unique governmental structures (see: Polish Autonomy in Galicia and Croatian–Hungarian Settlement ).
The division between Austria and Hungary was so marked that there was no common citizenship: one was either an Austrian citizen or a Hungarian citizen, never both. This also meant that there were always separate Austrian and Hungarian passports, never a common one. However, neither Austrian nor Hungarian passports were used in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia- Dalmatia . Instead, the Kingdom issued its own passports which were written in Croatian and French and displayed the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia- Dalmatia on them. It is not known what kind of passports were used in Bosnia-Herzegovina, which was under the control of both Austria and Hungary.
The Kingdom of Hungary had always maintained a separate parliament, the Diet of Hungary , even after the Austrian Empire was created in 1804. The administration and government of the Kingdom of Hungary (until 1848-49 Hungarian revolution) remained largely untouched by the government structure of the overarching Austrian Empire. Hungary's central government structures remained well separated from the Austrian imperial government. The country was governed by the Council of Lieutenancy of Hungary (the Gubernium) – located in Pressburg and later in Pest – and by the Hungarian Royal Court Chancellery in Vienna. The Hungarian government and Hungarian parliament were suspended after the Hungarian revolution of 1848, and were reinstated after the Austro-Hungarian Compromise in 1867.
Hungary sharing a common currency, they were
fiscally sovereign and independent entities. Since the beginnings of
the personal union (from 1527), the government of the Kingdom of
Hungary could preserve its separated and independent budget. After the
revolution of 1848–1849, the Hungarian budget was amalgamated with
the Austrian, and it was only after the Compromise of 1867 that
Hungary obtained a separate budget. From 1527 (the creation of the
monarchic personal union ) to 1851, the Kingdom of
its own customs controls, which separated her from the other parts of
the Habsburg-ruled territories. After 1867, the Austrian and
Hungarian customs union agreement had to be renegotiated and
stipulated every ten years. The agreements were renewed and signed by
Austria- Hungary was a great power but it contained a large number of ethnic groups that sought their own nation. It was ruled by a coalition of two powerful minorities, the Germans and the Hungarians. Stresses regarding nationalism were building up, and the severe shock of a poorly handled war caused the system to collapse.
Following a decision of Franz Joseph I in 1868, the realm bore the official name AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN MONARCHY/REALM (German : _Österreichisch-Ungarische Monarchie/Reich_; Hungarian : _Osztrák–Magyar Monarchia/Birodalom_) in its international relations. It was often contracted to the DUAL MONARCHY in English, or simply referred to as AUSTRIA.
PART OF A SERIES ON THE
HISTORY OF AUSTRIA
* Assassination of Franz Ferdinand * World War I
World War II
* National Socialism
* Allied-occupied Austria * Second Austrian Republic
* Jews in
* v * t * e
PART OF A SERIES ON THE
HISTORY OF HUNGARY
High Medieval Kingdom 1000–1301
Late Medieval Kingdom 1301–1526
Ottoman Wars 1366–1526
Habsburg kingdom 1526–1867
Eastern kingdom 1526–1570
Ottoman Hungary 1541–1699
Principality of Transylvania 1570–1711
Rákóczi\'s War 1703–1711
Revolution of 1848 1848–1849
Lands of the Crown 1867–1918
World War I 1914–1918
Interwar period 1918–1941
First Hungarian Republic 1918–1920
Kingdom of Hungary 1920–1946
World War II 1941–1945
Second Hungarian Republic 1946–1949
Hungarian People\'s Republic 1949–1989
Revolution of 1956 1956
Third Hungarian Republic since 1989
* Christianity * Military * Music * Nobility
* v * t * e
Main article: Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867
The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 (called the _Ausgleich_ in German and the _Kiegyezés_ in Hungarian), which inaugurated the empire's dual structure in place of the former unitary Austrian Empire (1804–67), originated at a time when Austria had declined in strength and in power—both in the Italian Peninsula (as a result of the Second Italian War of Independence of 1859) and among the states of the German Confederation (it had been surpassed by Prussia as the dominant German-speaking power following the Austro-Prussian War of 1866).
Other factors in the constitutional changes were continued Hungarian
dissatisfaction with rule from
By the late 1850s, a large number of Hungarians who had supported the 1848–49 revolution were willing to accept the Habsburg monarchy. They argued that while Hungary had the right to full internal independence, under the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 , foreign affairs and defense were "common" to both Austria and Hungary.
After the Austrian defeat at Königgrätz , the government realized it needed to reconcile with Hungary to regain the status of a great power. The new foreign minister, Count Friedrich Ferdinand von Beust , wanted to conclude the stalemated negotiations with the Hungarians. To secure the monarchy, Emperor Franz Joseph began negotiations for a compromise with the Hungarian nobility, led by Ferenc Deák , to ensure their support. In particular, Hungarian leaders demanded and received the Emperor's coronation as King of Hungary and the re-establishment of a separate parliament at Pest with powers to enact laws for the lands of the Holy Crown of Hungary .
From 1867 onwards, the abbreviations heading the names of official institutions in Austria- Hungary reflected their responsibility: K. u. k. (_kaiserlich und königlich_ or Imperial and Royal ) was the label for institutions common to both parts of the Monarchy, e.g. the _k.u.k. Kriegsmarine_ (War Fleet) and, during the war, the _k.u.k. Armee_ (Army). There were three _k.u.k._ or joint ministries:
The last was responsible only for financing the Imperial and Royal household, the diplomatic service, the common army and the common war fleet. All other state functions were to be handled separately by each of the two states.
From 1867 onwards, common expenditures were allocated 70% to Austria and 30% to Hungary. This split had to be negotiated every 10 years. By 1907, the Hungarian share had risen to 36.4%. The negotiations in 1917 ended with the dissolution of the Dual Monarchy.
The common army changed its label from _k.k._ to _k.u.k._ only in 1889 at the request of the Hungarian government.
* _K. k._ (_kaiserlich-königlich_) or Imperial-Royal was the term for institutions of Cisleithania (Austria); "royal" in this label referred to the Crown of Bohemia . * _K. u._ (_königlich-ungarisch_) or _M. k._ (_Magyar királyi_) ("Royal Hungarian") referred to Transleithania , the lands of the Hungarian crown. In the Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia , its autonomous institutions hold _k._ (_kraljevski_) ("Royal") as according to the Croatian-Hungarian Settlement the only official language in Croatia and Slavonia was Croatian and those institutions were "only" Croatian.
POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT
Austrian Parliament Building Hungarian Parliament Building
There were three parts to the rule of the Austro-Hungarian Empire:
* the common foreign, military and joint financial policy under the monarch * the "Austrian" or Cisleithanian government * the Hungarian government
Hungary and Austria maintained separate parliaments each with its own prime minister . Linking/co-ordinating the two parliaments fell to a government under the monarch. In this sense Austria- Hungary remained under an authoritarian government, as the Emperor-King appointed both Austrian and Hungarian Prime ministers along with their respective cabinets. This made both Governments responsible to the Emperor-King, as neither half could have a government with a program contrary to the views of the Monarch. The Emperor-King could appoint non-parliamentary governments, for example, or maintain in power a government which does not have a majority in Parliament to block the formation of another which he does not approve. The Monarch had other prerogatives such as the right of Royal Assent before any kind of Bill would be presented to the National Assembly (the common name for the Hungarian Diet), the right to Veto all legislation passed by the National Assembly, and the power to prorogue or dissolve the Assembly and call to new elections (he had the same prerogatives considering the Croatian-Slavonian Diet or Croatian Parliament, the common name for the Croatian-Slavonian Diet). In the Austrian half, however, the Monarchs's power was even greater, as the Emperor had the power to both appoint and dismiss its Prime minister and cabinet members. The monarch's common government, in which its ministers were appointed by the Monarch and responsible to him, had the responsibility for the army , for the navy , for foreign policy, and for the customs union .
Due to the lack of common law between Austria and Hungary, to conclude identical texts, each parliament elected 60 of its members to form a delegation that discussed motions of the Imperial * the county courts with collegiate judgeships (76 in number); to these were attached 15 jury courts for press offences. These were courts of first instance. In Croatia- Slavonia these were known as the court tables after 1874; * Royal Tables (12 in number), which were courts of second instance, established at Budapest, Debrecen, Győr, Kassa, Kolozsvár, Marosvásárhely, Nagyvárad, Pécs, Pressburg, Szeged, Temesvár and Ban's Table at Zagreb. * The Royal Supreme Court at Budapest, and the Supreme Court of Justice, or Table of Seven, at Zagreb, which were the highest judicial authorities. There were also a special commercial court at Budapest, a naval court at Fiume, and special army courts.
PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS
Empire Of Austria
Emperor Franz Joseph I visiting Prague and opening the new Emperor Francis I. Bridge in 1901 Kraków , a historical Polish city in the Austro-Hungarian Empire where in 1870 authorities allowed the use of the Polish language in the Jagiellonian University .
The organization of the administrative system in the Austrian Empire was complicated by the fact that between the State and the purely local communal administration there intruded yet a third element, grounded in history, the territories (Länder). The State administration comprised all affairs having relation to rights, duties and interests " which are common to all territories"; all other administrative tasks were left to the territories. Finally, the communes had self-government within their own sphere.
To this division of the work of administration corresponded a three-fold organization of the authorities: State, territorial and communal. The State authorities were divided on geographical lines into central, intermediate and local, and side by side with this there was a division of the offices for the transaction of business according to the various branches of the administration. The central authorities, which as early as the 18th century worked together in a common mother cell of the State chancery, became differentiated so soon as the growing tasks of administration called for specialization; in 1869 there were seven departments, and in the concluding decade of the Austrian Empire there were set up Ministries of Labour, Food, Public Health and Social Care. Under these ministries came the Statthalter, whose administrative area had ordinarily the proportions of a Crown territory (Kronland); but the immense variations in area of the Crown territories made a uniform and consistent intermediate administrative organization practically impossible. The lowest administrative unit was the political sub-district ( Bezirk ) under an official (Bezirkshauptmann ), who united nearly all the administrative functions which were divided among the various ministries according to their attributions.
Side by side with the State administration certain Crown territory administrations also existed in the 17 Crown territories, carried on by selected honorary officials, having under them a staff of professional officials. Many branches of the territorial administration had great similarities with those of the State, so that their spheres of activity frequently overlapped and came into collision. This administrative " double track," as it was called, led, it is true, in many cases to lively emulation, but was on the whole highly extravagant. The evils of this complicated system are obvious, and easy to condemn. They can be explained, partly by the origin of the State - for the most part through a voluntary union of countries possessed by a strong sense of their own individuality - partly by the influence in Austria of the Germanic spirit, well understood by the Slays, which has nothing of the Latin tendency to reduce all questions of administration to clear-cut formulae as part of a logically consistent system. Like the English administrative system, the Austrian presented a rich variety, a variety indeed so rich that it clamoured for drastic reform.
Bienerth's last act as premier in May 1911 was the appointment of a commission nominated by the Emperor, to draw up a scheme of administrative reform. So early as 1904 KOrber had declared a complete change in the principles of administration to be essential if the machinery of State were to continue working. After seven years of inaction, however, this imperial rescript was pitched in a far lower key. The continuous progress of society, it said, had made increased demands on the administration, that is to say, it was assumed that reform was not demanded so much by the defects of the administration but by the progress of the times, not because the administration was bad, but because life was better. It was an attempt to reform the administration without first reforming the State on equivalent lines.
A reform commission without a programme naturally first occupied itself with reforms about which there was no controversy. After a year had gone by it drew up " Proposals for the training of State officials." After another two years it had indeed brought to light carefully prepared material for study, which was of great scientific value; but its proposals. though politically of importance, did not provide any basis for reform on a large scale. And so when the World War broke out the commission dispersed without practical results, leaving behind it an imposing array of folio volumes of great scientific value. It was not till March 1918 that the Seidler Government decided upon a programme of national autonomy as a basis for administrative reform, which was, however, never carried into effect.
Kingdom Of Hungary
ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS AND THE COUNTIES OF HUNGARY
Since 1867 the administrative and political divisions of the lands belonging to the Hungarian crown have been in great measure remodelled. In 1868 Transylvania was definitely reunited to Hungary proper, and the town and district of Fiume declared autonomous. In 1873 part of the "Military Frontier" was united with Hungary proper and part with Croatia-Slavonia. Hungary proper, according to ancient usage, was generally divided into four great divisions or circles, and Transylvania up to 1876 was regarded as the fifth. In 1876 a general system of counties was introduced. According to this division Hungary proper is divided into seven circles, of which Transylvania forms one. The whole country is divided into the following counties:
(a) The circle on the left bank of the Danube contains eleven counties: (1) Árva, (2) Bars, (3) Esztergom, (4) Hont, (5) Liptó, (6) Nógrád, (7) Nyitra, (8) Pozsony (9) Trencsén, (10) Túrócz and (11) Zólyom.
(b) The circle on the right bank of the Danube contains eleven counties: Baranya, Fejér, Győr, Komárom, Moson, Somogy, Sopron, Tolna, Vas, Veszprém and Zala.
(d) The circle on the right bank of the Tisza contains eight counties: Abaúj-Torna, Bereg, Borsod, Gömör-es Kis-Hont, Sáros, Szepes, Ung, Zemplén.
(e) The circle on the left bank of the Tisza contains eight counties: Békés, Bihar, Hajdú, Máramaros, Szabolcs, Szatmár, Szilágy and Ugocsa.
(f) The circle between the Tisza and the Maros contains five counties: Arad, Csanád, Krassó-Szörény, Temes and Torontál.
(g) Transylvania contains fifteen counties: Also-Fehér, Besztercze-Naszód, Brassó, Csík, Fogaras, Háromszek, Hunyad, Kis-Küküllő, Kolozs, Maros-Torda, Nagy-Küküllő, Szeben, Szolnok-Doboka, Torda-Aranyos and Udvarhely.
Fiume town and district forms a separate division.
Croatia- Slavonia is divided into eight counties: Bjelovar-Križevci, Lika-Krbava, Modrus-Fiume, Pozega, Srijemska, Varaždin, Virovitica and Zagreb.
MUNICIPAL RIGHTS OF THE BIGGEST CITIES IN HUNGARY
In regard to local government, the country was divided into municipalities or counties, which possessed a certain amount of self-government. Hungary proper was divided into sixty-three rural, and—including Fiume—twenty-six urban municipalities (see section on Administrative Divisions). These urban municipalities were towns which for their local government were independent of the counties in which they were situated, and have, therefore, a larger amount of municipal autonomy than the communes or the other towns. The administration of the municipalities is carried on by an official appointed by the king, aided by a representative body. Since 1876 each municipality had a council of twenty members to exercise control over its administration. According to this division Hungary proper is divided into seven circles.
Besides these sixty-three rural counties for Hungary, and eight for Croatia-Slavonia, Hungary had twenty-six urban counties or towns with municipal rights. These were: Arad, Baja, Debreczen, Győr, Hódmezővásárhely, Kassa, Kecskemét, Kolozsvár, Komárom, Marosvásárhely, Nagyvárad, Pancsova, Pécs, Pozsony, Selmecz- és Bélabanya, Sopron, Szabadka, Szatmárnémeti, Szeged, Székesfehervár, Temesvár, Újvidék, Versecz, Zombor, the town of Fiume and Budapest, the capital of the country.
See also: Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen
The first prime minister of Hungary after the Compromise was Count Gyula Andrássy (1867–1871). The old Hungarian Constitution was restored, and Franz Joseph was crowned as King of Hungary. Andrássy next served as the Foreign Minister of Austria- Hungary (1871–1879).
The Empire relied increasingly on a cosmopolitan bureaucracy—in which Czechs played an important role—backed by loyal elements, including a large part of the German, Hungarian, Polish and Croat aristocracy.
POLITICAL STRUGGLES IN THE EMPIRE
The traditional aristocracy and land-based gentry class gradually
faced increasingly wealthy men of the cities, who achieved wealth
through trade and industrialization. The urban middle and upper class
tended to seek their own power and supported progressive movements in
the aftermath of revolutions in Europe. They were described as
"leftist liberals" and their representatives began to be elected to
the parliaments of
As in the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire frequently used liberal economic policies and practices. From the 1860s, businessmen succeeded in industrializing parts of the Empire. Newly prosperous members of the bourgeoisie erected large homes, and began to take prominent roles in urban life that rivaled the aristocracy's. In the early period, they encouraged the government to seek foreign investment to build up infrastructure, such as railroads, in aid of industrialization, transportation and communications, and development.
The influence of liberals in Austria, most of them ethnic Germans, weakened under the leadership of Count Eduard von Taaffe , the Austrian prime minister from 1879 to 1893. Taaffe used a coalition of clergy, conservatives and Slavic parties to weaken the liberals. In Bohemia , for example, he authorized Czech as an official language of the bureaucracy and school system, thus breaking the German speakers' monopoly on holding office. Such reforms encouraged other ethnic groups to push for greater autonomy as well. By playing nationalities off one another, the government ensured the monarchy's central role in holding together competing interest groups in an era of rapid change.
During the First World War, rising national sentiments and labour
movements contributed to strikes, protests and civil unrest in the
Empire. After the war, republican, national parties contributed to the
disintegration and collapse of the monarchy in
Austria and Hungary.
Republics were established in
See also: Trialism in Austria- Hungary , United States of Greater Austria , Magyarization , Austro-Slavism , and Panslavism Ethno-linguistic map of Austria-Hungary, 1910 Meyers Konversations-Lexikon map of Austria-Hungary, 1885 Religions in Austria-Hungary, from the 1881 edition of Andrees Allgemeiner Handatlas . Catholics (both Roman and Uniate ) are blue, Protestants purple, Eastern Orthodox yellow, and Muslims green. Literacy in Austria- Hungary (census 1880) Austria- Hungary 1914, physical
In July 1849, the Hungarian Revolutionary Parliament proclaimed and enacted ethnic and minority rights. (The next such laws were in Switzerland), but these were overturned after the Russian and Austrian armies crushed the Hungarian Revolution. After the Kingdom of Hungary reached the Compromise with the Habsburg Dynasty in 1867, one of the first acts of its restored Parliament was to pass a Law on Nationalities (Act Number XLIV of 1868). It was a liberal piece of legislation, and offered extensive language and cultural rights. It did not recognize non- Hungarians to have rights to form states with any territorial autonomy.
The "Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867" created the semi-independent states of Hungary and Austria linked by personal union under a common monarch. The Hungarian majority asserted more of their identity within the Kingdom of Hungary. The nationalism of German-speakers prevalent in the Empire of Austria created tension between ethnic Germans and ethnic Czechs . In addition, the emergence of national identity in the newly independent Romania and Serbia also contributed to ethnic issues in the empire.
Article 19 of the 1867 "Basic State Act" (_Staatsgrundgesetz_), valid only for the Cisleithanian (Austrian) part of Austria-Hungary, said:
All races of the empire have equal rights, and every race has an inviolable right to the preservation and use of its own nationality and language. The equality of all customary languages ("landesübliche Sprachen") in school, office and public life, is recognized by the state. In those territories in which several races dwell, the public and educational institutions are to be so arranged that, without applying compulsion to learn a second country language ("Landessprache"), each of the races receives the necessary means of education in its own language.
The implementation of this principle led to several disputes, as it was not clear which languages could be regarded as "customary". The Germans, the traditional bureaucratic, capitalist and cultural elite, demanded the recognition of their language as a customary language in every part of the empire. Italian was regarded as an old "culture language" (_Kultursprache_) by German intellectuals and had always been granted equal rights as an official language of the Empire, but the Germans had difficulty in accepting the Slavic languages as equal to their own. On one occasion Count A. Auersperg (Anastasius Grün) entered the Diet of Carniola carrying what he claimed to be the whole corpus of Slovene literature under his arm; this was to demonstrate that the Slovene language could not be substituted for German as the language of higher education.
The following years saw official recognition of several languages, at least in Austria. From 1867, laws awarded Croatian equal status with Italian in Dalmatia . From 1882, there was a Slovene majority in the Diet of Carniola and in the capital Laibach (Ljubljana) ; they ruled to replace German with Slovene as their primary official language. Galicia designated Polish instead of German in 1869 as the customary language of government. The Poles systematically disregarded the large Ukrainian minority in their territory, and did not grant Ukrainian the status of an official language.
The language disputes were most fiercely fought in Bohemia , where the Czech speakers formed a majority and sought equal status for their language to German. The Czechs had lived primarily in Bohemia since the 6th century and German immigrants had begun settling the Bohemian periphery since the 13th century. The constitution of 1627 made the German language a second official language and equal to Czech. German speakers lost their majority in the Bohemian Diet in 1880 and became a minority to Czech speakers in the cities of Prague and Pilsen (while retaining a slight numerical majority in the city of Brno (Brünn) ). The old Charles University in Prague , hitherto dominated by German speakers, was divided into German and Czech-speaking faculties in 1882.
At the same time, Hungarian dominance faced challenges from the local majorities of Romanians in Transylvania and in the eastern Banat , Slovaks in today's Slovakia , and Croats and Serbs in the crown lands of Croatia and of Dalmatia (today's Croatia), in Bosnia and Herzegovina , and in the provinces known as the Vojvodina (today's northern Serbia ). The Romanians and the Serbs began to agitate for union with their fellow nationalists and language speakers in the newly founded states of Romania (1859–78) and Serbia.
Hungary's leaders were generally less willing than their Austrian counterparts to share power with their subject minorities, but they granted a large measure of autonomy to Croatia in 1868. To some extent, they modelled their relation to that kingdom on their own compromise with Austria of the previous year. In spite of nominal autonomy, the Croatian government was an economic and administrative part of Hungary, which the Croatians resented. In the Triune Kingdom of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina many advocated the idea of a trialist Austro-Hungaro-Croatian monarchy among the supporters of the idea where Archduke Leopold Salvator , Archduke Franz Ferdinand and emperor and king Charles I. (IV.) who during his short reign supported the trialist idea only to be vetoed by the Hungarian government and Count Istvan Tisza . The count finally signed the trialist proclamation after heavy pressure from the king on 23 October 1918. one day after the king.
Language was one of the most contentious issues in Austro-Hungarian politics. All governments faced difficult and divisive hurdles in deciding on the languages of government and of instruction. The minorities sought the widest opportunities for education in their own languages, as well as in the "dominant" languages—Hungarian and German. By the "Ordinance of 5 April 1897", the Austrian Prime Minister Count Kasimir Felix Badeni gave Czech equal standing with German in the internal government of Bohemia ; this led to a crisis because of nationalist German agitation throughout the empire. The Crown dismissed Badeni.
The Hungarian Minority Act of 1868 gave the minorities (Slovaks, Romanians, Serbs, et al.) individual (but not also communal) rights to use their language in offices, schools (although in practice often only in those founded by them and not by the state), courts and municipalities (if 20% of the deputies demanded it). From June 1907, all public and private schools in Hungary were obliged to ensure that after the fourth grade, the pupils could express themselves fluently in Hungarian . This led to the closing of several minority schools, devoted mostly to the Slovak and Rusyn languages.
The two kingdoms sometimes divided their spheres of influence . According to Misha Glenny in his book, _The Balkans, 1804–1999_, the Austrians responded to Hungarian support of Czechs by supporting the Croatian national movement in Zagreb .
In recognition that he reigned in a multi-ethnic country, Emperor Franz Joseph spoke (and used) German, Hungarian and Czech fluently, and Croatian, Serbian, Polish and Italian to some degree.
In 1914, Jews in the empire numbered about two million; their
position was ambiguous. Antisemitic parties and movements existed, but
the governments of
In that period, the majority of Jews in Austria- Hungary lived in small towns (_shtetls _) in Galicia and rural areas in Hungary and Bohemia, although there were large communities in Vienna, Budapest, Prague and other large cities. Of the pre-World War military forces of the major European powers, the Austro-Hungarian army was almost alone in its regular promotion of Jews to positions of command. While the Jewish population of the lands of the Dual Monarchy was about five percent, Jews made up nearly eighteen percent of the reserve officer corps. Thanks to the constitution's modern laws and to the benevolence of emperor Franz Joseph, the Austrian Jews came to regard the era of Austria- Hungary as a golden era of their history. By 1910 about 900,000 Jews made up approximately 5 percent of the population of Hungary and about 23 percent of Budapest's citizenry. Jews accounted for 54 percent of commercial business owners, 85 percent of financial institution directors and owners, and 62 percent of all employees in commerce
The minister of foreign affairs conducted the foreign relations of the Dual Monarchy, and negotiated treaties.
The Dual Monarchy was created in the wake of a losing war in 1866 with Prussia and Italy. To rebuild Habsburg prestige and gain revenge against Prussia, Count Friedrich Ferdinand von Beust became foreign secretary. He hated Prussia's diplomat, Otto von Bismarck , who had repeatedly outmaneuvered him. Beust looked to France and negotiated with Emperor Napoleon III and Italy for an anti-Prussian alliance. No terms could be reached. The decisive victory of Prusso-German armies in the war of 1870 with France and the founding of the German Empire ended all hope of revenge and Beust retired.
After being forced out of Germany and Italy, the Dual Monarchy turned to the Balkans, which were in tumult as nationalistic efforts were trying to end the rule of the Ottomans. Both Russia and Austria- Hungary saw an opportunity to expand in this region. Russia in particular took on the role of protector of the Slavs and the orthodox Christians. Austria envisioned a multi-ethnic, religiously diverse empire under Vienna's control. Count Gyula Andrássy , a Hungarian who was Foreign Minister (1871 to 1879), made the centerpiece of his policy one of opposition to Russian expansion in the Balkans and blocking Serbian ambitions to dominate a new South Slav federation. He wanted Germany to ally with Austria, not Russia.
When Russia defeated Turkey in a war the resulting Treaty of San Stefano was seen in Austria as much too favourable for Russia and its Orthodox-Slavic goals. The Congress of Berlin in 1878 let Austria occupy (but not annex) the province of Bosnia and Herzegovina , a predominantly Slavic area. In 1914, Slavic militants in Bosnia rejected Austria's plan to fully absorb the area; they assassinated the Austrian heir and precipitated World War I.
Main article: Economy of Austria- Hungary A 20-crown banknote of the Dual Monarchy, using all official languages
The Austro-Hungarian economy changed dramatically during the Dual
Monarchy. The capitalist way of production spread throughout the
Empire during its 50-year existence, replacing medieval institutions.
Technological change accelerated industrialization and urbanization .
The first Austrian stock exchange (the
Wiener Börse ) was opened in
1771 in Vienna, the first stock exchange of the Kingdom of Hungary
The gross national product per capita grew roughly 1.76% per year
from 1870 to 1913. That level of growth compared very favorably to
that of other European nations such as Britain (1%),
and Germany (1.51%). However, in a comparison with Germany and
Britain, the Austro-Hungarian economy as a whole still lagged
considerably, as sustained modernization had begun much later. Like
the German Empire, that of Austria-
Hungary frequently employed liberal
economic policies and practices. In 1873, the old Hungarian capital
Buda and Óbuda (Ancient Buda) were officially merged with the third
city, Pest, thus creating the new metropolis of Budapest. The dynamic
Pest grew into Hungary's administrative, political, economic, trade
and cultural hub. Many of the state institutions and the modern
administrative system of
Hungary were established during this period.
Economic growth centered on
However, by the end of the 19th century, economic differences
gradually began to even out as economic growth in the eastern parts of
the monarchy consistently surpassed that in the western. The strong
agriculture and food industry of the Kingdom of
Hungary with the
The empire's heavy industry had mostly focused on machine building, especially for the electric power industry , locomotive industry and automotive industry , while in light industry the precision mechanics industry was the most dominant. Through the years leading up to World War I the country became the 4th biggest machine manufacturer in the world.
The two most important trading partners were traditionally Germany (1910: 48% of all exports, 39% of all imports), and Great Britain (1910: almost 10% of all exports, 8% of all imports), the third most important partner was the United States, it followed by Russia, France, Switzerland, Romania, the Balkan states and South America. Trade with the geographically neighbouring Russia, however, had a relatively low weight (1910: 3% of all exports /mainly machinery for Russia, 7% of all imports /mainly raw materials from Russia).
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KINGDOM OF HUNGARY:
The first Hungarian hydrogen filled experimental ballons were built by István Szabik and József Domin in 1784. The first Hungarian designed and produced airplane (powered by Hungarian built inline engine ) was flown at Rákosmező on 4 November 1909. The earliest Hungarian radial engine powered airplane was built in 1913. Between 1913 and 1918, the Hungarian aircraft industry began developing. The three greatest: UFAG Hungarian Aircraft Factory (1914), Hungarian General Aircraft Factory (1916), Hungarian Lloyd Aircraft, Engine Factory at Aszód (1916), and Marta in Arad (1914). During the First World War, fighter planes, bombers and reconnaissance planes were produced in these factories. The most important aeroengine factories were Weiss Manfred Works, GANZ Works, and Hungarian Automobile Joint-stock Company Arad.
LOCOMOTIVE ENGINE AND RAILWAY VEHICLE MANUFACTURERS
The locomotive (steam engines and wagons, bridge and iron structures)
factories were installed in
KINGDOM OF HUNGARY:
The Hungarian Locomotive (engines and wagons bridge and iron
structures) factories were the
MÁVAG company in
_ Detailed railway and canal map of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
in 1910. Hydrography of the
Pannonian basin before the
Hungarian river and lake regulations in the 19th century. Plan
(1900) to link the
Danube and the
Adriatic Sea by a canal. The
start of construction of the underground in
Main articles: Imperial Austrian State Railways and Hungarian State Railways
By 1913, the combined length of the railway tracks of the Austrian Empire and Kingdom of Hungary reached 43,280 kilometres (26,890 miles), in Western Europe only Germany had more extended railway network (63,378 km), the Austro-Hungarian Empire was followed by France (40,770 km), the United Kingdom (32,623 km), Italy (18,873 km) and Spain (15,088 km).
RAILWAY NETWORK OF AUSTRIAN EMPIRE
Rail transport expanded rapidly in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Its
predecessor state , the Habsburg
Empire , had built a substantial core
of railways in the west, originating from Vienna, by 1841. Austria's
first steam railway from
From 1854 to 1879, private interests conducted almost all rail construction. What would become Cisleithania gained 7,952 km (4,941 mi) of track, and Hungary built 5,839 km (3,628 mi) of track. During this time, many new areas joined the railway system and the existing rail networks gained connections and interconnections. This period marked the beginning of widespread rail transportation in Austria-Hungary, and also the integration of transportation systems in the area. Railways allowed the empire to integrate its economy far more than previously possible, when transportation depended on rivers.
After 1879, the Austrian and the Hungarian governments slowly began to renationalize their rail networks, largely because of the sluggish pace of development during the worldwide depression of the 1870s. Between 1879 and 1900, more than 25,000 km (16,000 mi) of railways were built in Cisleithania and Hungary. Most of this constituted "filling in" of the existing network, although some areas, primarily in the far east, gained rail connections for the first time. The railway reduced transportation costs throughout the empire, opening new markets for products from other lands of the Dual Monarchy. In 1914, of a total of 22,981 km (14,279.73 mi) of railway tracks in Austria, 18,859 km (11,718 mi) (82%) were state owned.
RAILWAY NETWORK IN KINGDOM OF HUNGARY
The first Hungarian steam locomotive railway line was opened on 15 July 1846 between Pest and Vác . In 1890 most large Hungarian private railway companies were nationalized as a consequence of the poor management of private companies, except the strong Austrian-owned Kaschau-Oderberg Railway (KsOd) and the Austrian-Hungarian Southern Railway (SB/DV). They also joined the zone tariff system of the MÁV (Hungarian State Railways). By 1910, the total length of the rail networks of Hungarian Kingdom reached 22,869 kilometres (14,210 miles), the Hungarian network linked more than 1,490 settlements. Nearly half (52%) of the empire's railways were built in Hungary, thus the railroad density there became higher than that of Cisleithania. This has ranked Hungarian railways the 6th most dense in the world (ahead of countries as Germany or France).
Metropolitan Transit Systems
Tramway Lines In The Cities
Horse-drawn tramways appeared in the first half of the 19th century.
Between the 1850s and 1880s many were built.
Electric tramway lines in the Austrian Empire:
* Austria: Gmunden (1894); Linz,
Electric tramway lines in the Kingdom of Hungary:
Electrified Commuter Railway Lines
Canals And River Regulations
In 1900 the engineer C. Wagenführer drew up plans to link the Danube
Adriatic Sea by a canal from
Regulation Of The Lower Danube And The Iron Gates
In 1831 a plan had already been drafted to make the passage navigable, at the initiative of the Hungarian politician István Széchenyi . Finally Gábor Baross , Hungary's "Iron Minister", succeeded in financing this project. The riverbed rocks and the associated rapids made the gorge valley an infamous passage for shipping. In German, the passage is still known as the Kataraktenstrecke, even though the cataracts are gone. Near the actual " Iron Gates " strait the Prigrada rock was the most important obstacle until 1896: the river widened considerably here and the water level was consequently low. Upstream, the Greben rock near the "Kazan" gorge was notorious.
Regulation Of The Tisza River
The length of the Tisza in Hungary used to be 1,419 kilometres (882 miles). It flowed through the Great Hungarian Plain , which is one of the largest flat areas in central Europe. Since plains can cause a river to flow very slowly, the Tisza used to follow a path with many curves and turns, which led to many large floods in the area.
After several small-scale attempts, István Széchenyi organised the "regulation of the Tisza" (Hungarian: a Tisza szabályozása) which started on August 27, 1846, and substantially ended in 1880. The new length of the river in Hungary was 966 km (600 mi) (1,358 km (844 mi) total), with 589 km (366 mi) of "dead channels" and 136 km (85 mi) of new riverbed. The resultant length of the flood-protected river comprises 2,940 km (1,830 mi) (out of 4,220 km (2,620 mi) of all Hungarian protected rivers).
Shipping And Ports
The first Hungarian steamship was built by Antal Bernhard in 1817, called S.S. "Carolina". It was also the first steamship in Habsburg ruled states. However it was Count István Széchenyi (with the help of Austrian ship's company Erste Donaudampfschiffahrtsgesellschaft (DDSG) ), who established the Óbuda Shipyard on the Hungarian Hajógyári Island in 1835, which was the first industrial scale steamship building company in the Habsburg Empire.
The most significant seaport was Trieste (today part of Italy), where the Austrian merchant marine was based. In addition, the two major shipping companies (Austrian Lloyd and Austro-Americana) and several shipyards were located there. The k.u.k. navy used the port's shipyards to construct new naval ships. This port grew as Venice declined. From 1815 to 1866, Venice was included within the monarchy and was prevented from competing with Austrian-ruled ports. The merchant marine did not develop until Venice's shipping interest declined. The navy became significant during the time of the k.u.k. monarchy, as industrialization and development provided sufficient revenues to develop it.
The most important seaport for the Hungarian part of the k.u.k. was Fiume ( Rijeka , today part of Croatia), where the Hungarian shipping companies, such as the Adria, operated. The largest Hungarian shipbuilding company was the Ganz-Danubius. Another significant seaport was Pola ( Pula , today part of Croatia) – especially for the navy. In 1889, the Austrian merchant marine consisted of 10,022 ships, with 7,992 fishing vessels. The coast and sea trade had a total of 1,859 sailboats with crews of 6,489 men and a load capacity of 140,838 tons; and 171 steamers with a load capacity of 96,323 tons and a crew of 3,199 men.
The first Danubian steamer company, Donau-Dampfschiffahrt-Gesellschaft (DDSG), was the largest inland shipping company in the world until the collapse of the k.u.k. The Austrian Lloyd was one of the biggest ocean shipping companies of the time. Prior to the beginning of World War I, the company owned 65 middle-sized and large steamers. The Austro-Americana owned one third of them, including the biggest Austrian passenger ship, the SS _Kaiser Franz Joseph I_. In comparison to the Austrian Lloyd, the Austro-American concentrated on destinations in North and South America.
In 1847, the first telegraph connection (
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Kingdom of Hungary:
In 1884, 2,406 telegraph post offices operated in the Kingdom of Hungary. By 1914 the number of telegraph offices reached 3,000 in post offices and further 2,400 were installed in the railway stations of the Kingdom of Hungary.
The first telephone exchange was opened in
Zagreb (8 January 1881),
the second was in
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In 1916, there were 366 million telephone calls in the Austrian half of the monarchy, among them 8.4 million long distant calls.
KINGDOM OF HUNGARY:
All telephone exchanges of the cities, towns and larger villages in Kingdom of Hungary were linked until 1893. By 1914, more than 2000 settlements had telephone exchange in Kingdom of Hungary.
Telefon Hírmondó (Telephone Herald) news and entertainment
service was introduced in
DEMOGRAPHICS (1910 CENSUS)
12.31.1910 CENSUS TERRITORY IN KM^2 POPULATION
Empire of Austria 300,005 (48% of Austria-Hungary) 28,571,934 (57.8% of Austria-Hungary)
Kingdom of Hungary 325,411 (52% of Austria-Hungary) 20,886,487 (42.2% of Austria-Hungary)
Bosnia ">Linguistic distribution of Austria– Hungary as a whole
Mother tongues in Cisleithania (1910 census) LAND MOST COMMON LANGUAGE OTHER LANGUAGES (MORE THAN 2%)
Bohemia 63.2% Czech 36.8% German
Dalmatia 96.2% Croatian 2.8% Italian
Galicia 58.6% Polish 40.2% Ukrainian
Lower Austria 95.9% German 3.8% Czech
Upper Austria 99.7% German
Bukovina 38.4% Ukrainian 34.4% Romanian 21.2% German 4.6% Polish
Carinthia 78.6% German 21.2% Slovene
Carniola 94.4% Slovene 5.4% German
Salzburg 99.7% German
Silesia 43.9% German 31.7% Polish 24.3% Czech
Styria 70.5% German 29.4% Slovene
Moravia 71.8% Czech 27.6% German
Tyrol 57.3% German 42.1% Italian
Littoral 37.3% Slovene 34.5% Italian 24.4% Croatian 2.5% German
Vorarlberg 95.4% German 4.4% Italian
Mother tongues in Hungary (1910 census) LANGUAGE HUNGARY PROPER CROATIA-SLAVONIA
SPEAKERS % OF POPULATION SPEAKERS % OF POPULATION
Hungarian 9,944,627 54.5% 105,948 4.1%
Links: ------ /wiki/Constitutional_monarchy /wiki/Austrian_Empire /wiki/Cisleithania /wiki/Kingdom_of_Hungary /wiki/Lands_of_the_Crown_of_Saint_Stephen /wiki/Transleithania /wiki/World_War_I /wiki/Austro-Hungarian_Compromise_of_1867 /wiki/Kingdom_of_Croatia-Slavonia