ATHENA (/əˈθiːnə/ ;
Attic Greek : Ἀθηνᾶ, Athēnā, or
Ἀθηναία, Athēnaia; Epic : Ἀθηναίη, Athēnaiē; Doric
: Ἀθάνα, Athānā) or ATHENE (/əˈθiːniː/ ; Ionic :
Ἀθήνη, Athēnē), often given the epithet PALLAS (/ˈpæləs/ ;
Παλλὰς), is the goddess of wisdom, craft, and war in ancient
Greek religion and mythology . In later times,
Athena was syncretized
Athena was portrayed as having a
calm temperament, and moving slowly to anger. She was believed to only
fight for just causes and never fight without a purpose.
In ancient Greek literature ,
Athena is portrayed as the astute
companion of heroes and as the patron goddess of heroic endeavour.
Athena probably takes her name from the city of
Athens , of which she
was the patron. The Athenians constructed the
Parthenon atop their
Acropolis as a temple to Athena; it takes its name from her epithet
Parthenos, which means "Virgin ". Throughout the Greek world, Athena
was venerated as the protectress of the city (polis ); she was known
as Polias and Poliouchos and her temples were usually located atop
Acropolis in the central part of the city.
* 1 Etymology
* 2 Origins
* 3 Cult and patronages
* 4 Epithets and attributes
* 5.1 Birth
* 5.1.1 Other tales
* 5.2 Pallas
* 5.3.1 Erichthonius
* 5.4 Lady of
* 5.4.1 Other cult sites
* 5.5 Counselor
* 5.6 Judgment of Paris
* 5.7 Roman fable of
* 5.8 A changed status in classical mythology
* 6 Classical art
* 7 Post-classical culture
* 8 Genealogy
* 9 See also
* 10 Footnotes
* 11 References
* 11.1 Ancient sources
* 11.2 Modern sources
* 12 External links
Athena is associated with the city of
Athens . The name of the city
in ancient Greek is Ἀθῆναι (Athenai), a plural toponym ,
designating the place where—according to myth—she presided over
her sisterhood, the Athenai. In ancient times, scholars argued
Athena was named after
Athens after Athena. Now
scholars generally agree that the goddess takes her name from the
city; the ending -ene is common in names of locations, but rare for
personal names. Testimonies from different cities in ancient Greece
attest that similar city goddesses were worshipped in other cities
and, like Athena, took their names from the cities where they were
worshipped. For example, in
Mycenae there was a goddess called
Mykene, whose sisterhood was known as Mykenai, whereas at Thebes an
analogous deity was called Thebe, and the city was known under the
plural form Thebai (or Thebes, in English, where the ‘s’ is the
plural formation). The name Athenai is likely of
because it contains the presumably
Pre-Greek morpheme *-ān-.
In his dialogue
Cratylus , the Greek philosopher
Plato (428–347 BC)
gives some rather imaginative etymologies of Athena's name, based on
the theories of the ancient Athenians and his own etymological
That is a graver matter, and there, my friend, the modern
Homer may, I think, assist in explaining the view of
the ancients. For most of these in their explanations of the poet,
assert that he meant by
Athena "mind" and "intelligence" , and the
maker of names appears to have had a singular notion about her; and
indeed calls her by a still higher title, "divine intelligence" , as
though he would say: This is she who has the mind of God better than
others. Nor shall we be far wrong in supposing that the author of it
wished to identify this
Goddess with moral intelligence , and
therefore gave her the name Etheonoe; which, however, either he or his
successors have altered into what they thought a nicer form, and
called her Athena. — Plato,
Plato believed that Athena's name was derived from Greek
Ἀθεονόα, Atheonóa—which the later Greeks rationalised as
from the deity's (θεός, theós) mind (νοῦς, noũs). Other
Greek authors attempted to derive natural symbols from the
etymological roots of Athena's names to be aether, air, earth, and
Mycenaean Greek , at
Knossos a single inscription
𐀀𐀲𐀙𐀡𐀴𐀛𐀊 a-ta-na po-ti-ni-ja /Athana potnia/
appears in the
Linear B tablets from the Late Minoan II-era "Room of
Chariot Tablets"; these comprise the earliest
Linear B archive
anywhere. Although Athana potnia often is translated Mistress
Athena, it could also mean "the
Potnia of Athana", and thus perhaps
the Lady of Athens. However, any connection to the city of
Knossos inscription is uncertain. In the still undeciphered
Linear A tablets—written in the unclassified Minoan
language —a sign series a-ta-no-dju-wa-ja is to be found. This
could be connected with the
Linear B Mycenaean expressions a-ta-na
po-ti-ni-ja and di-u-ja or di-wi-ja (Diwia, "of Zeus" or, possibly,
related to a homonymous goddess ), resulting in a translation "Athena
of Zeus" or "divine Athena". Similarly, in the
Greek mythology and
Athena figures as a daughter of
Dyeus ). However, the inscription quoted seems to
be very similar to "a-ta-nū-tī wa-ya", quoted as SY Za 1 by Jan
Best. Best translates the initial a-ta-nū-tī, which is recurrent in
line beginnings, as "I have given".
In a Mycenean fresco, there is a composition of two women extending
their hands towards a central figure who is covered by an enormous
figure-eight shield and could also depict the warrior-goddess with her
palladium , or her palladium in an aniconic representation. Therefore,
Mylonas believes that
Athena was a Mycenaean creation. Martin Persson
Nilsson , the former professor emeritus of classical archaeology and
ancient history at the University of Lund , claims that she was the
goddess of the palace who protected the king, and that the origin of
Athena was the Minoan domestic snake-goddess. In the so-called
Knossos which was reconstructed by the
Mycenaeans, two rows of figures carrying vessels, seem to meet in
front of a central figure, which is probably the Minoan palace goddess
"Atano". Marble Greek copy signed "Antiokhos", a 1st-century BC
Phidias ' 5th century
Athena Promachos that stood on the
Nilsson and others have claimed that, in early times,
either an owl herself or a bird goddess in general. In the third book
Odyssey , she takes the form of a sea-eagle . Proponents of
this view argue that she dropped her prophylactic owl-mask before she
lost her wings. "Athena, by the time she appears in art," Jane Ellen
Harrison remarks, "has completely shed her animal form, has reduced
the shapes she once wore of snake and bird to attributes, but
occasionally in black-figure vase-paintings she still appears with
It is generally agreed that the cult of
Athena preserves some aspects
of the Proto-Indo-European transfunctional goddess . The cult of
Athena may have also been influenced by those of Near Eastern warrior
goddesses such as the
Ishtar and the Ugaritic
both of whom were often portrayed bearing arms.
Miriam Robbins Dexter has suggested that, at least at some point in
Athena was a solar deity .
Athena bears traits common
with Indo-European solar goddesses, including the possession of a
mirror and the invention of weaving, characteristics which are also
held by the Baltic goddess
Saulė . Athena's association with Medusa,
who is also suspected of being a solar goddess, adds further solar
iconography to her cultus.
Athena was later syncretized with
a Celtic goddess whose name is derived from the common
Proto-Indo-European root for many solar deities. Though the sun in
Greek myth is personified as the male
Helios , several relictual solar
goddesses are known, such as
Plato notes that the citizens of
Sais in Egypt worshipped a goddess
Neith , whom he identifies with Athena.
Neith was the
ancient Egyptian goddess of war and hunting, who was also associated
with weaving; her worship began during the Egyptian Pre-Dynastic
period. In Greek mythology,
Athena was reported to have visited
mythological sites in North Africa, including Libya's Triton River and
the Phlegraean plain . Based on these similarities, the sinologist
Martin Bernal created the controversial "
Black Athena " hypothesis,
which claims that
Neith was brought to
Greece from Egypt, along with
"an enormous number of features of civilization and culture in the
third and second millennia". The "Black Athena" hypothesis has been
rejected by modern scholars.
CULT AND PATRONAGES
Athenian tetradrachm representing the goddess
new peplos was woven for
Athena and ceremonially brought to dress her
cult image (
British Museum ).
During the late 5th century BC, the role of goddess of philosophy
became a major aspect of Athena's cult . She is the patroness of
various crafts, especially of weaving , as
Athena Ergane, and was
honored as such at festivals such as
Chalceia . The metalwork of
weapons also fell under her patronage. She led battles (Athena
Promachos or the warrior maiden
Athena Parthenos ) as the
disciplined, strategic side of war, in contrast to her brother
the patron of violence, bloodlust and slaughter—"the raw force of
Athena is the goddess of knowledge, purity, arts, crafts,
learning, justice and wisdom. She represents intelligence, humility,
consciousness, cosmic knowledge, creativity, education, enlightenment,
the arts, eloquence and power. She stands for truth, justice, and
moral values and is known to be tough, clever and independent. Not
only was this version of
Athena the opposite of
Ares in combat, it was
also the polar opposite of the serene earth goddess version of the
Athena appears in
Greek mythology as the patron and helper of many
Jason , and
Heracles . In Classical Greek
myths, she never consorts with a lover, nor does she ever marry,
earning the title
Athena Parthenos (
Athena the Virgin). A remnant of
archaic myth depicts her as the adoptive mother of Erechtheus
/Erichthonius through the foiled rape by
Hephaestus . Other variants
relate that Erichthonius, the serpent that accompanied Athena, was
born to Gaia : when the rape failed, the semen landed on Gaia and
impregnated her. After Erechthonius was born, Gaia gave him to Athena.
Athena is a goddess of war strategy, she disliked fighting
without purpose and preferred to use wisdom to settle predicaments.
The goddess approved fighting only for a reasonable cause or to
resolve conflict. She encouraged people to use intuitive wisdom rather
than anger or violence. As patron of
Athens she fought in the Trojan
war on the side of the Achaeans.
EPITHETS AND ATTRIBUTES
See also: Category:Epithets of
Athena Bust of the Velletri
Pallas type, copy after a votive statue of Kresilas in
Athens (c. 425
Athena's most famous epithets include ATRYTONE (Άτρυτώνη "the
Unwearying"), PARTHENOS (Παρθένος "Virgin"), and PROMACHOS
(Πρόμαχος "she who fights in front"). As
Athena Parthenos she
was especially worshipped in the festivals of the
Pamboeotia where both militaristic and athletic displays took place.
Athena Promachos she led in battle (see
Promachos ). With the
epithet POLIAS (Πολιάς "of the city"),
Athena was the protector
of not only
Athens but also of many other cities, including
Lindos , and
Larisa . The epithet ERGANE
(Εργάνη "the Industrious") pointed her out as the patron of
craftsmen and artisans. In her role as judge at Orestes\' trial on the
murder of his mother,
Clytemnestra (which he won),
Athena won the
epithet AREIA (Αρεία). The various
Athena cults, all branching
from her panhellenic cult, often proctored various initiation rites of
Grecian youth, e. g. the passage into citizenship by young men or the
passage of young women into marriage. Her various cults were portals
of a uniform socialization, even beyond mainland Greece. The owl
Athena , surrounded by an olive wreath. Reverse of an Athenian
silver tetradrachm, c. 175 BC
Homer 's epic works , Athena's most common epithet is GLAUKOPIS
(γλαυκῶπις), which usually is translated as, "bright-eyed"
or "with gleaming eyes". The word is a combination of glaukós
(γλαυκός, meaning "gleaming, silvery", and later,
"bluish-green" or "gray") and ṓps (ὤψ, "eye, face"). It is
interesting to note that glaúx (γλαύξ, "little owl") is from
the same root, presumably according to some, because of the bird's own
distinctive eyes. The bird which sees well in the night is closely
associated with the goddess of wisdom : in archaic images,
frequently depicted with an owl (or "owl of Athena" and later under
Roman Empire , "owl of
Minerva ") perched on her hand. This
pairing evolved in tandem so that even today the owl is a symbol of
wisdom. Unsurprisingly, the owl became a sort of Athenian mascot. The
olive tree is likewise sacred to her. In earlier times,
well have been a bird goddess , similar to the unknown goddess
depicted with owls, wings, and bird talons on the
Burney relief , a
Mesopotamian terracotta relief of the early second millennium BC.
A little owl , sacred bird of the goddess (
Owl of Athena )
Other epithets include
Itonia and AETHYIA under which she
was worshiped in
Megara . The word aíthyia (αἴθυια) signifies
a "diver", also some diving bird species (the shearwater ?), and
figuratively, a "ship", so the name must reference
Athena teaching the
art of shipbuilding or navigation. In a temple at Phrixa in
reportedly built by
Clymenus , she was known as CYDONIA
(Κυδωνία), which is possibly connected to Greek kũdos
(κῦδος "glory"). Cult statue of
Athena with the face of the
Carpegna type (late 1st century BC to early 1st century AD), from the
Piazza dell'Emporio, Rome
Iliad (4.514), the
Homeric Hymns , and in
Athena is also given the curious epithet TRITOGENEIA
(Τριτογένεια), whose significance remains unclear. It could
mean various things, including "Triton-born", perhaps indicating that
the homonymous sea-deity was her parent according to some early myths.
In fact there is a myth relating the foster father relationship of
this Triton towards the half-orphan Athena, whom he raised besides his
own daughter Pallas .
Karl Kerényi suggests that "Tritogeneia did not
mean that she came into the world on any particular river or lake, but
that she was born of the water itself; for the name Triton seems to be
associated with water generally." In
occasionally referred to as "Tritonia".
Another possible meaning may be "triple-born" or "third-born", which
may refer to a triad or to her status as the third daughter of
the fact she was born from Metis, Zeus, and herself; various legends
list her as being the first child after
Artemis and Apollo, though
other legends identify her as Zeus' first child. Some researchers in
Indo-European studies , linking the philology of Indo-European
languages to the presumed Indo-European mythology , have suggested a
connection to the Indian deity
Trita , sometimes grouped in a
threefold body of mythological poets. Michael Janda has connected the
Vedic myth of
Trita to the presentation of Zeus,
Iliad where they are "three brothers" having shared the reign of
the world, each ruling one third of it:
Hades the underworld, Poseidon
the sea whereas
Zeus received the "broad sky". Janda furthermore
connects this narrative with the myth of
Athena being born of the head
(i. e. the uppermost part) of
Zeus and understands Trito- (that
perhaps originally meant "the third") as another word for "the sky" in
this context. In Janda's analysis of Indo-European mythology, this
heavenly sphere is also connected to the mythological body of water
surrounding the inhabited world (cfr. Triton's mother,
She was given the epithet HIPPIA (Ἵππια "of the horses",
"equestrian"), as the inventor of the chariot , and was worshiped
under this title at Athens,
Tegea and Olympia . As
Athena Hippia she
was given an alternative parentage:
Poseidon and Polyphe, daughter of
Oceanus . In each of these cities her temple frequently was the
major temple on the acropolis.
The Greek biographer
Plutarch (46–120 AD) refers to an instance
during the Parthenon's construction of her being called ATHENA HYGIEIA
(Ὑγίεια, i. e. personified "Health"):
A strange accident happened in the course of building, which showed
that the goddess was not averse to the work, but was aiding and
co-operating to bring it to perfection. One of the artificers, the
quickest and the handiest workman among them all, with a slip of his
foot fell down from a great height, and lay in a miserable condition,
the physicians having no hope of his recovery. When
Pericles was in
distress about this, the goddess appeared to him at night in a dream,
and ordered a course of treatment, which he applied, and in a short
time and with great ease cured the man. And upon this occasion it was
that he set up a brass statue of
Athena Hygeia, in the citadel near
the altar, which they say was there before. But it was
wrought the goddess's image in gold, and he has his name inscribed on
the pedestal as the workman of it.
In classical times the
Plynteria , or "Feast of Adorning", was
observed every May, it was a festival lasting five days. During this
period the Priestesses of Athena, or "plyntrídes", performed a
cleansing ritual within the
Erechtheion , a sanctuary devoted to
Athena and Poseidon. Here Athena's statue was undressed, her clothes
washed, and body purified.
Athena was frequently equated with
a local goddess of the island of
Aegina , originally from
also associated with
Artemis and the nymph
Britomartis . In
she was assimilated with the ancient goddess Alea and worshiped as
Athena Alea .
Athena is "born" from Zeus's forehead as a result of him having
swallowed her mother Metis , as he grasps the clothing of Eileithyia
on the right; black-figured amphora , 550–525 BC, Louvre.
Athena appears before
Linear B , as
𐀀𐀲𐀙𐀡𐀴𐀛𐀊, a-ta-na po-ti-ni-ja, "Mistress Athena"
—in the Classical Olympian pantheon ,
Athena was remade as the
favourite daughter of Zeus, born fully armed from his forehead. The
story of her birth comes in several versions. In the one most commonly
Zeus lay with Metis, the goddess of crafty thought and wisdom,
but he immediately feared the consequences. It had been prophesied
that Metis would bear children more powerful than the sire, even Zeus
himself. In order to prevent this,
Zeus swallowed Metis but it was
too late because Metis had already conceived.
Zeus experienced an enormous headache;
Ares , or Palaemon (depending on the sources
examined) cleaved Zeus’ head with the double-headed Minoan axe , the
Athena leaped from Zeus’ head, fully grown and armed, with
a shout—"and pealed to the broad sky her clarion cry of war. And
Ouranos trembled to hear, and Mother Gaia…" (
Pindar , Seventh
Olympian Ode). Plato, in the Laws , attributes the cult of
the culture of
Crete , introduced, he thought, from
Libya during the
dawn of Greek culture. Classical myths thereafter note that
so annoyed at
Zeus for having produced a child that she conceived and
Hephaestus by herself , but in Imagines 2. 27 (trans. Fairbanks),
the third century AD Greek rhetorician
Philostratus the Elder writes
Hera "rejoices" at Athena's birth "as though
Athena were her
daughter also." In accordance with this mythological tradition, Plato,
Cratylus (407B), gives the etymology of her name as signifying "the
mind of god", theou noesis. The Christian apologist of the 2nd century
Justin Martyr takes issue with those pagans who erect at springs
images of Kore , whom he interprets as Athena:
They said that
Athena was the daughter of
Zeus not from intercourse,
but when the god had in mind the making of a world through a word
(logos ) his first thought was Athena.
Atena farnese, Roman copy of a Greek original from Phidias'
circle, c. 430 AD, Museo Archeologico, Naples
Some origin stories tell of
Athena having been born outside of
Olympus and raised by the god Triton. Fragments attributed by the
Eusebius of Caesarea
Eusebius of Caesarea to the semi-legendary Phoenician
Sanchuniathon , which Eusebius thought had been written
Trojan war , make
Athena instead the daughter of
Cronus , a
Byblos who visited 'the inhabitable world' and bequeathed
Attica to Athena. Sanchuniathon's account would make
Zeus and Hera, not Zeus' daughter.
The tradition regarding Athena's parentage involves some of her more
mysterious epithets : Pallas, as in the ancient-Greek Παλλάς
Ἀθήνη (also Pallantias) and Tritogeneia (also Trito, Tritonis,
Tritoneia, Tritogenes). A distant archaic separate entity named Pallas
is invoked as Athena's father, sister, foster sister, companion, or
opponent in battle. One of these is Pallas , a daughter of Triton (a
sea god) and, according to some later sources, a childhood friend of
In every case,
Athena kills Pallas, accidentally, and thereby gains
the name for herself. In one telling, they practice the arts of war
together until one day they have a falling out. As Pallas is about to
Zeus intervenes. With Pallas stunned by a blow from
Athena takes advantage and kills her. Distraught over what she
Athena takes the name Pallas for herself.
When Pallas is Athena's father, the events, including her birth, are
located near a body of water named Triton or Tritonis . When Pallas is
Athena's sister or foster-sister, Athena's father or foster-father is
Triton , the son and herald of
Athena may be called the
Poseidon and a nymph named Tritonis, without involving
Pallas. Likewise, Pallas may be Athena's father or opponent, without
involving Triton. On this topic,
Walter Burkert says "she is the
Pallas of Athens, Pallas Athenaie, just as
Argos is Here
Argeie. For the Athenians, Burkert notes,
Athena was simply "the
Goddess", hē theós (ἡ θεός), certainly an ancient title.
In fact, "Pallas" is derived either from πάλλω, "brandish" (as a
weapon), or, more likely, from παλλακίς and related words,
"youth, young woman." The story that
Athena kills a friend or
relation called "Pallas" and takes the name to honor her is only
attested quite late, in Apollodorus and Philodemus. It seems to have
been invented to explain the name. The
Parthenon , Temple of
Athena never had a consort or lover and is thus known as Athena
Parthenos , "Virgin Athena". Her most famous temple, the
Athens takes its name from this title. It is not
merely an observation of her virginity, but a recognition of her role
as enforcer of rules of sexual modesty and ritual mystery. Even beyond
recognition, the Athenians allotted the goddess value based on this
pureness of virginity as it upheld a rudiment of female behavior in
the patriarchal society. Kerenyi's study and theory of Athena
accredits her virginal epithet to be a result of the relationship to
Zeus and a vital, cohesive piece of her character
throughout the ages.
This role is expressed in a number of stories about Athena. Marinus
of Neapolis reports that when Christians removed the statue of the
Goddess from the
Parthenon , a beautiful woman appeared in a dream to
Proclus , a devotee of Athena, and announced that the "Athenian Lady"
wished to dwell with him. The
Athena Giustiniani , a Roman copy
of a Greek statue of Pallas
Athena with her serpent, Erichthonius
Hephaestus attempted to rape Athena, but she eluded him. His semen
fell to the earth and impregnated the soil, and Erichthonius was born
from the Earth, Gaia .
Athena then raised the baby as a foster mother.
Athena puts the infant Erichthonius into a small box (cista) which
she entrusts to the care of three sisters,
Pandrosus , and
Aglaulus of Athens. The goddess does not tell them what the box
contains, but warns them not to open it until she returns. One or two
sisters opened the cista to reveal Erichthonius, in the form (or
embrace) of a serpent . The serpent, or insanity induced by the sight,
Herse and Aglaulus to throw themselves off the
Jane Harrison (Prolegomena) finds this to be a simple cautionary tale
directed at young girls carrying the cista in the Thesmophoria
rituals, to discourage them from opening it outside the proper
Another version of the myth of the Athenian maidens is told in
Metamorphoses by the Roman poet
Ovid (43 BC – 17 AD); in this late
Hermes falls in love with Herse. Herse, Aglaulus, and
Pandrosus go to the temple to offer sacrifices to Athena. Hermes
demands help from Aglaulus to seduce Herse. Aglaulus demands money in
Hermes gives her the money the sisters have already offered
to Athena. As punishment for Aglaulus's greed,
Athena asks the goddess
Envy to make Aglaulus jealous of Herse. When
Hermes arrives to seduce
Herse, Aglaulus stands in his way instead of helping him as she had
agreed. He turns her to stone.
With this mythic origin, Erichthonius became the founder-king of
Athens , and many beneficial changes to Athenian culture were ascribed
to him. During this time,
Athena frequently protected him.
Medusa And Tiresias
Arnold Böcklin , c. 1878
In a late myth,
Medusa , unlike her sister Gorgons , came to be
viewed by the Greeks of the 5th century as a beautiful mortal that
served as priestess in Athena's temple.
Poseidon lusted after Medusa,
and decided to rape her in the temple of Athena, refusing to allow her
vow of chastity to stand in his way. Upon discovering the desecration
of her temple,
Athena changed Medusa's form to match that of her
sister Gorgons as punishment. Medusa's hair turned into snakes, her
lower body was transformed also, and meeting her gaze would turn any
living man to stone. In the earliest myths, there is only one Gorgon,
but there are two snakes that form a belt around her waist.
In one version of the
Tiresias stumbled upon Athena
bathing, and he was struck blind by her to ensure he would never again
see what man was not intended to see but having lost his eyesight, he
was given a special gift—to be able to understand the language of
the birds and thus foretell the future.
LADY OF ATHENS
The Dispute of
Minerva and Neptune by René-Antoine Houasse
(circa 1689 or 1706)
Athena competed with
Poseidon to become the patron deity of Athens,
which was yet unnamed, in a version of one founding myth . They agreed
that each would give the Athenians one gift and that the Athenians
would choose the gift they preferred.
Poseidon struck the ground with
his trident and a salt water spring sprang up; this gave them a means
of trade and water—
Athens at its height was a significant sea power,
defeating the Persian fleet at the
Battle of Salamis
Battle of Salamis —but the water
was salty and not very good for drinking.
Athena, however, offered them the first domesticated olive tree . The
Athenians (or their king, Cecrops ) accepted the olive tree and with
it the patronage of Athena, for the olive tree brought wood, oil, and
Robert Graves was of the opinion that "Poseidon's attempts to
take possession of certain cities are political myths" which reflect
the conflict between matriarchal and patriarchal religions.
Other Cult Sites
Athena depicted on a coin of
Attalus I , ruler of
Pergamon , c.
Athena was also the patron goddess of several other Greek cities,
notably Sparta, where the archaic cult of
Athena Alea had its
sanctuaries in the surrounding villages of
Mantineia and, notably,
Tegea . In
Sparta itself, the temple of
Athena Khalkíoikos (Athena
"of the Brazen House", often latinized as Chalcioecus) was the
grandest and located on the Spartan acropolis; presumably it had a
roof of bronze. The forecourt of the Brazen House was the place where
the most solemn religious functions in
Sparta took place.
Tegea was an important religious center of ancient Greece,
containing the Temple of
Athena Alea . The temenos was founded by
Aleus , Pausanias was informed. Votive bronzes at the site from the
Geometric and Archaic periods take the forms of horses and deer; there
are sealstone and fibulae . In the Archaic period the nine villages
Tegea banded together in a synoecism to form one city.
Tegea was listed in
Catalogue of Ships as one of the cities
that contributed ships and men for the Achaean assault on
Heracles on an Attic red-figure kylix , 480–470 BC
Silver coin showing
Scylla decorated helmet and
Heracles fighting the Nemean lion (
Heraclea Lucania , 390-340 BC)
According to Pseudo-Apollodorus's Bibliotheca ,
Athena guided the
Perseus in his quest to behead
Medusa . Other late sources
report that she instructed
Heracles to skin the
Nemean Lion by using
its own claws to cut through its thick hide. She also helped Heracles
to defeat the
Stymphalian Birds , and to navigate the underworld so as
Odysseus ' cunning and shrewd nature quickly wins
Athena's favour. For the first part of the poem, however, she largely
is confined to aiding him only from afar, mainly by implanting
thoughts in his head during his journey home from Troy. Her guiding
actions reinforce her role as the "protectress of heroes," or, as
Walter Friedrich Otto dubbed her, the "goddess of
nearness," due to her mentoring and motherly probing. It is not until
he washes up on the shore of the island of the
Phaeacians , where
Nausicaa is washing her clothes that
Athena arrives personally to
provide more tangible assistance. She appears in Nausicaa's dreams to
ensure that the princess rescues
Odysseus and plays a role in his
eventual escort to Ithaca.
Athena appears in disguise to
Odysseus upon his arrival, initially
lying and telling him that Penelope, his wife, has remarried and that
he is believed to be dead; but
Odysseus lies back to her, employing
skillful prevarications to protect himself. Impressed by his resolve
and shrewdness, she reveals herself and tells him what he needs to
know in order to win back his kingdom. She disguises him as an elderly
man or beggar so that he cannot be noticed by the suitors or Penelope,
and helps him to defeat the suitors.
Athena also appears to Odysseus's son Telemachos. Her actions lead
him to travel around to Odysseus's comrades and ask about his father.
He hears stories about some of Odysseus's journey. Athena's push for
Telemachos's journey helps him grow into the man role, that his father
She also plays a role in ending the resultant feud against the
suitors' relatives. She instructs
Laertes to throw his spear and to
Eupeithes , the father of Antinous .
JUDGMENT OF PARIS
Judgement of Paris Urteil des Paris by Anton
Raphael Mengs , c. 1857. Paris is awarding the golden apple to
Athena is the one on the right with the scowl, shown facing
In one myth, all the gods and goddesses as well as various mortals
were invited to the marriage of
Thetis (the eventual
Achilles ). Only Eris , goddess of discord, was not
invited. She was annoyed at this, so she arrived with a golden apple
inscribed with the word καλλίστῃ (kallistēi, "for the
fairest"), which she threw among the goddesses. Aphrodite, Hera, and
Athena all claimed to be the fairest, and thus the rightful owner of
The goddesses chose to place the matter before Zeus, who, not wanting
to favor one of the goddesses, put the choice into the hands of Paris,
a Trojan prince. After bathing in the spring of
Mount Ida where Troy
was situated, the goddesses appeared before Paris for his decision.
The goddesses undressed before him to be evaluated, either at his
request or by their own choice.
Still, Paris could not decide, as all three were ideally beautiful,
so they resorted to bribes.
Hera tried to bribe Paris with control
Europe , while
Athena offered wisdom, fame and glory
in battle, but
Aphrodite came forth and whispered to Paris that if he
were to choose her as the fairest he would have the most beautiful
mortal woman in the world as a wife, and he accordingly chose her.
This woman was Helen , who was, unfortunately for Paris, already
married to King
Sparta . The other two goddesses were
enraged by this and, as a direct result, sided with the Greeks in the
Trojan War .
ROMAN FABLE OF ARACHNE
René-Antoine Houasse (1706)
The fable of
Arachne is a late Roman addition to Classical Greek
mythology that does not appear in any Greek texts from the Classical
Era or in the myth repertoire of the Attic vase-painters. Arachne's
name means spider in ancient Greek.
Arachne was the daughter of a
famous dyer in
Tyrian purple in Hypaipa of
Lydia , and a weaving
student of Athena. She became so conceited of her skill as a weaver
that she began claiming that her skill was greater than that of Athena
Arachne a chance to redeem herself by assuming the form
of an old woman and warning
Arachne not to offend the deities. Arachne
scoffed and wished for a weaving contest, so she could prove her
Athena wove the scene of her victory over
Poseidon that had inspired
her patronage of Athens. According to Ovid's
Arachne's tapestry featured twenty-one episodes of the infidelity of
the deities, including
Zeus being unfaithful with Leda , with Europa ,
Athena admitted that Arachne's work was flawless,
but was outraged at Arachne's offensive choice of subjects that
displayed the failings and transgressions of the deities. Finally,
losing her temper,
Athena destroyed Arachne's tapestry and loom,
striking it with her shuttle.
Athena then struck
Arachne with her staff, which changed her into a
spider. In some versions, the destruction of her loom leads
hang herself in despair;
Athena takes pity on her, and transforms her
into a spider. In the aforementioned version,
Arachne weaved scenes of
Athena weaved scenes of horror.
The fable suggests that the origin of weaving lay in imitation of
spiders and that it was considered to have been perfected first in
Asia Minor .
A CHANGED STATUS IN CLASSICAL MYTHOLOGY
Minerva and the Triumph of Jupiter by René-Antoine Houasse
Greek mythology the role of
Athena changed as the
pantheon became organized under the leadership of Zeus. In earlier
mythology she is identified as a parthenogenic daughter of a goddess,
but the classical myths fashion for her a peculiar "birth from the
head of Zeus" that assigns a father for
Athena and eliminates a mother
for her, identifying the father as a deity who at one time was
portrayed as her brother.
Athens may have fallen in 404 BC but the
Athena was so dominant in the culture that it survived the
transitions seen in the mythic roles of other goddesses, albeit with a
juggling of "family" relationships.
J. J. Bachofen advocated that
Athena was originally a maternal figure
stable in her security and poise but was caught up and perverted by a
patriarchal society; this was especially the case in Athens. The
goddess adapted but could very easily be seen as a god. He viewed it
as "motherless paternity in the place of fatherless maternity" where
once altered, Athena's character was to be crystallized as that of a
Whereas Bachofen saw the switch to paternity on Athena's behalf as an
increase of power, Freud on the contrary perceived
Athena as an
"original mother goddess divested of her power". In this
Athena was demoted to be only Zeus's daughter, never
allowed the expression of motherhood. Still more different from
Bachofen's perspective is the lack of role permanency in Freud's view:
Freud held that time and differing cultures would mold
Athena to stand
for what was necessary to them.
Some modern authors classify the changes as an "androgynous
compromise" that allowed her traits and what she stood for to be
attributed to male and female rulers alike over the course of history
(such as Marie de\' Medici ,
Anne of Austria ,
Christina of Sweden ,
Catherine the Great
Catherine the Great ).
Athena is portrayed wearing a full-length chiton , and
sometimes in armor, with her helmet raised high on the forehead to
reveal the image of Nike . Her shield bears at its centre the aegis
with the head of the gorgon (gorgoneion) in the center and snakes
around the edge. It is in this standing posture that she was depicted
Phidias 's famous lost gold and ivory statue of her, 36 m tall, the
Athena Parthenos in the
Athena also often is depicted with
an owl sitting on one of her shoulders.
Mourning Athena is a relief sculpture that dates around 460 BC
and portrays a weary
Athena resting on a staff. In earlier, archaic
Athena in black-figure pottery , the goddess retains some
of her Minoan-Mycenaean character, such as great bird wings although
this is not true of archaic sculpture such as those of Aphaean Athena
Athena has subsumed an earlier, invisibly numinous—Aphaea
—goddess with Cretan connections in her mythos.
Other commonly received and repeated types of
Athena in sculpture may
be found in this list .
Apart from her attributes, there seems to be a relative consensus in
late sculpture from the Classical period, the 5th century onward, as
Athena looked like. Most noticeable in the face is perhaps the
full round strong, chin with a high nose that has a high bridge as a
natural extension of the forehead. The eyes typically are somewhat
deeply set. The unsmiling lips are usually full, but the mouth is
depicted fairly narrow, usually just slightly wider than the nose. The
neck is somewhat long. The net result is a serene, serious, somewhat
aloof, and very classical beauty.
Restoration of the polychrome decoration of the
Athena statue from
Aphaea temple at
Aegina , c. 490 BC (from the exposition "Bunte
Götter" by the Munich
Classical mosaic from a villa at
Tusculum , 3rd century AD, now at
Museo Pio-Clementino , Vatican
Mythological scene with
Athena (left) and
Herakles (right), on a
stone palette of the
Greco-Buddhist art of
Euro coin commemorating 60 years of the Second Republic of
Austria , featuring
A brief summary of Athena's evolution of myriad motifs after her
Greece may be seen as follows: The rise of Christianity
Greece largely ended the worship of Greek deities and polytheism in
general, but she resurfaced in the Middle Ages as a defender of
sagacity and virtue so that her warrior status was still intact (she
may be found on some family crests of nobility). During the
Renaissance she donned the mantle of patron of the arts and human
endeavor and finally, although not ultimately,
Athena personified the
miracles of freedom and republic during the French Revolution (a
statue of the goddess was centered on the Place de la Revolution in
For over a century a full-scale replica of the
Parthenon has stood in
Nashville, Tennessee , which is known as the
Athens of the South. In
1990, a gilded 41 feet (12.5 m) tall replica of Phidias\' statue of
Athena Parthenos was added. The state seal of California features an
Athena (or Minerva) kneeling next to a brown grizzly bear.
Modern silver medallion depicting
Athena from the Academie voor
Beeldende Kunst en Technische Wetenshappen in Rotterdam, the
Athena is a natural patron of universities: she is the symbol of the
Darmstadt University of Technology , in Germany, and the Federal
University of Rio de Janeiro , in Brazil. Her image can be found in
the shields of the Faculty of Philosophy and Letters and the Faculty
of Sciences of the
National Autonomous University of Mexico
National Autonomous University of Mexico , where
her owl is the symbol of the Faculty of Chemistry. Her helmet appears
upon the shield of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York.
Bryn Mawr College in Pennsylvania a statue of
Athena (a replica of
the original bronze one in the arts and archaeology library) resides
in the Great Hall. It is traditional at exam time for students to
leave offerings to the goddess with a note asking for good luck, or to
repent for accidentally breaking any of the college's numerous other
traditions. Athena's owl also serves as the mascot of the college, and
one of the college hymns is "Pallas Athena". Pallas
Athena is the
tutelary goddess of the international social fraternity Phi Delta
Theta . Her owl is also a symbol of the fraternity.
Jean Boucher 's statue of the seated skeptical thinker Ernest Renan
caused great controversy when it was installed in Tréguier, Brittany
in 1902. Renan's 1862 biography of Jesus had denied his divinity, and
he had written the "
Prayer on the Acropolis" addressed to the goddess
Athena. The statue was placed in the square fronted by the cathedral.
Renan's head was turned away from the building, while Athena, beside
him, was depicted raising her arm, which was interpreted as indicating
a challenge to the church during an anti-clerical phase in French
official culture. The installation was accompanied by a mass protest
from local Roman Catholics and a religious service against the growth
of skepticism and secularism .
Athena has been used numerous times as a symbol of a republic by
different countries and appears on currency as she did on the ancient
drachma of Athens.
Athena (Minerva) is the subject of the $50 1915-S
Panama-Pacific commemorative coin . At 2.5 troy oz (78 g) gold, this
is the largest (by weight ) coin ever produced by the U.S. Mint . This
was the first $50 coin issued by the U.S. Mint and no higher was
produced until the production of the $100 platinum coins in 1997. Of
course, in terms of face-value in adjusted dollars, the 1915 is the
highest denomination ever issued by the U.S. Mint.
French car maker
Citroën named the top line of its DS models
(pronounced Déesse in French, for Goddess) Pallas. It was voted the
most beautiful car of all time by Classic border:solid #aaa 1px">
Greek mythology portal
* Hellenismos portal
* ^ According to
Theogony , Metis was Athena's mother,
but, according to
Iliad , after
Zeus swallowed Metis because
she was pregnant with
Athena (to prevent the birth),
forth from the head of
Zeus nonetheless and later it was declared that
she "had no mother"
* ^ Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of Literature, s.v. "
* ^ A B C D Deacy, Susan, and Alexandra Villing.
Athena in the
Classical World. Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill,
* ^ Loewen, Nancy (1998).
Athena Greek and Roman Mythology.
Mankato, Minnesota: Capstone Press. p. 15. ISBN 9780736800488 .
* ^ A B C D E F Burkert 1985 , p. 139.
* ^ A B C D E Burkert 1985 , p. 140.
* ^ A B C D E Ruck & Staples 1994 , p. 24.
* ^ A B Beekes 2009 , p. 29.
* ^ Gerhard Johrens (1981), Der Athenahymnus des Ailios Aristeides,
* ^ KN V 52, text 208 in Ventris and Chadwick, Documents in
Mycenaean Greek, p. 126 f.
* ^ "Palaeolexicon, Word study tool of ancient languages".
Palaeolexicon.com. Retrieved 2010-08-25.
* ^ Palaima, p. 444.
* ^ Burkert, p. 44.
* ^ KO Za 1 inscription, line 1.
* ^ Cfr. Ventris and Chadwick, Documents in Mycenaean Greek, p. 126
* ^ Jan Best, Fred Woudhuizen (edd.), Lost Languages from the
Mediterranean, Brill, Leiden et al. 1989, p. 30 (online text).
* ^ G. Mylonas,
Mycenae and the Mycenaean world, Princeton
University Press, Princeton 1965, p. 159.
* ^ Also the later Greek
Athena was closely related with snakes and
birds: Martin Persson Nilsson,Die Geschichte der griechischen
Religion, C. F. Beck, München 1967, pp. 347, 433.
* ^ A. Fururmark, "The Thera catastrophe-Consequences for the
European civilization". In: Thera and the Aegean world I, London 1978,
* ^ A B Nilsson 1950 , p. 496.
* ^ Harrison 1922:306. "Cfr. ibid., p. 307, fig. 84: Detail of a
cup in the Faina collection". Archived from the original on 5 November
2004. Retrieved 2007-05-06. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status
unknown (link ).
* ^ Puhvel 1987 , pp. 133-134.
* ^ Mallory she is called in the Egyptian tongue Neith, and is
asserted by them to be the same whom the Hellenes call Athena; they
are great lovers of the Athenians, and say that they are in some way
related to them." (Timaeus 21e.)
* ^ Cf. also Herodotus, Histories 2:170–175.
Aeschylus , Eumenides , v. 292 f.. Cf. the tradition that she
was the daughter of Neilos: see, e. g. Clement of Alexandria Protr.
De Natura Deorum 3.59.
* ^ Jacques Berlinerblau, Heresy in the University: The Black
Athena Controversy and the Responsibilities of American Intellectuals,
Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick 1999, p. 93ff.
* ^ Martin Bernal, Black Athena: The Afroasiatic Roots of Classical
Civilization, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick 1987, pp. 21, 51
* ^ Jay H. Jasanoff and Alan Nussbaum, "Word games: the Linguistic
Evidence in Black Athena", in: Mary R. Lefkowitz and Guy MacLean
Black Athena Revisited, The University of North
Carolina Press, 1996, p. 194.
Walter Burkert , Greek Religion 1985:VII "Philosophical
Religion" treats these transformations.
* ^ A B C.J. Herrington,
Athena Parthenos and
Athena Polias .
Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1955
* ^ Darmon."
Athena and Ares". Chicago and London: University of
Chicago Press, 1978.
* ^ S. Goldhill. Reading Greek Tragedy (Aesch.Eum.737). Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1986.
* ^ A B Pseudo-Apollodorus,
* ^ Loewen, Nancy. Athena. ISBN 0-7368-0048-4 .
* ^ Noel Robertson: Festivals and Legends: The Formation of Greek
Cities in the Light of Public Ritual. Toronto: University of Toronto
* ^ P. Schmitt, "
Athena Apatouria et la ceinture. Les aspects
féminins des apatouries à Athènes" in Annales: Economies,
Societies, Civilisations (1059–1073). London: Thames and Hudson,
* ^ γλαυκῶπις in Liddell and Scott .
* ^ γλαυκός in Liddell and Scott .
* ^ ὤψ in Liddell and Scott .
* ^ Thompson, D\'Arcy Wentworth . A glossary of Greek birds.
Oxford: Clarendon Press 1895, p. 45f.
* ^ γλαύξ in Liddell and Scott .
* ^ Nilsson, Martin Persson (1950). The Minoan-Mycenaean Religion
and Its Survival in Greek Religion (Second ed.). New York: Biblo &
Tannen. pp. 491–496. ISBN 0-8196-0273-6 . "It may perhaps be
conjectured that the wings are not only due to the Orientalizing
fashion of the time, but are reminiscent of the old bird epiphany."
* ^ Pausanias , i. 5. § 3; 41. § 6.
John Tzetzes , ad Lycophr., l.c..
* ^ Schmitz, Leonhard (1867). "Aethyia". In Smith, William.
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology . 1. Boston, MA.
* ^ Schmitz, Leonhard (1867). "Cydonia". In Smith, William.
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology . 1. Boston, MA.
* ^ Kerényi, p. 128.
* ^ Τριτογένεια in Liddell and Scott .
* ^ Hesiod,
Theogony II, 886–900.
* ^ Homer,
Iliad XV, 187–195.
* ^ Michael Janda: Elysion. Entstehung und Entwicklung der
griechischen Religion. Innsbruck 2005, p. 293 ff.
* ^ "Polyphe". Theoi.com. Retrieved 2010-08-25.
* ^ "Titles of Athena". Theoi.com. Retrieved 2010-08-25.
* ^ Burkert, p. 140.
* ^ Plutarch, Life of Pericles, 13.8.
Knossos tablet V 52 (
John Chadwick , The Mycenaean World,
1976:88, fig 37.) Athana
Potnia does not appear at Mycenaean
where the mistress goddess is ma-te-re te-i-ja, Mater
literally "Mother Goddess".
* ^ Jane Ellen Harrison's famous characterization of this
myth-element as, "a desperate theological expedient to rid an
earth-born Kore of her matriarchal conditions" (Harrison 1922:302) has
never been refuted nor confirmed.
* ^ Compare the prophecy concerning
* ^ Hesiod,
Theogony 890ff and 924ff.
* ^ Justin, Apology 64.5, quoted in Robert McQueen Grant, Gods and
the One God, vol. 1:155, who observes that it is Porphyry "who
Athena with 'forethought'".
* ^ "\'\'Sacred Texts: Ancient Fragments\'\', ed. and trans. I. P.
Cory, 1832: "The Theology of the Phœnicians from Sanchoniatho"".
Sacred-texts.com. Archived from the original on 5 September 2010.
* ^ "Pallas". Theoi.com. Retrieved 2011-07-24.
* ^ Graves, Robert, The Greek Myths I, "The Birth of Athena", 8.a.,
p. 51. The story comes from Libyan (modern Berbers ) where the Greek
Athena and the Egyptian
Neith blend into one deity. The story is not
often referenced because some of the details are contradicted by
other, better-documented theories. Frazer, vol. 2 p.41
* ^ Burkert, p. 139.
* ^ Chantraine, s.v.; the New Pauly says the etymology is simply
* ^ New Pauly s.v. Pallas
* ^ K.Kerenyi,Die Jungfrau und Mutter der griechischen Religion.
Eine Studie uber Pallas Athene.Zurich:Rhein Verlag, 1952.
* ^ Marinus of Samaria, "The Life of
Proclus or Concerning
Happiness", Translated by Kenneth S. Guthrie (1925), pp.15–55:30,
retrieved 21 May 2007.Marinus, Life of Proclus
* ^ Graves, Robert, The Greek Myths I, "The Nature and Deeds of
Ovid , Metamorphoses, X. Aglaura, Book II, 708–751; XI. The
Envy, Book II, 752–832.
* ^ "
Medusa in Myth and Literary History". Archived from the
original on 23 January 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-06.
* ^ Pseudo-Apollodorus of Athens, --. "The Library". Perseus.
Translated by Frazer, Sir James George. Tufts University. Retrieved 20
* ^ A B Graves 1960:16.3p 62.
* ^ "This sanctuary had been respected from early days by all the
Peloponnesians , and afforded peculiar safety to its suppliants"
(Pausanias, Description of
* ^ Pausanias, Description of
* ^ Compare the origin of
* ^ Smith, R. Scott; Trzaskoma, Stephen M. (2007). Apollodorus'
Library and Hyginus' Fabulae: Two Handbooks of Greek Mythology.
Indianapolis, Indiana: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc. pp. 24–26.
ISBN 978-0-87220-820-9 . access-date= requires url= (help )
* ^ W.F.Otto,Die Gotter Griechenlands(55-77).Bonn:F.Cohen,1929
* ^ Trahman in Phoenix, p. 35.
* ^ The
Arachne narrative is in
and 129–145) and mentioned in
Georgics , iv, 246.
* ^ ἀράχνη, ἀράχνης. Liddell, Henry George ; Scott,
A Greek–English Lexicon at the
Perseus Project .
* ^ J. J. Bachofen. "Mother Right: An investigation of religious
and juridical character of matriarchy in the ancient world", Myth,
Religion and Mother Right. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1967.
* ^ Shearer, Athene, pp. 224–235.
* ^ F. Zeitlin, "The Dynamics of Misogyny: Myth and Mythmaking in
the Oresteia", Arethusa 15 (1978), 182.
* ^ The owl's role as a symbol of wisdom originates in this
association with Athena.
* ^ "Symbols of the Seal of California". LearnCalifornia.org.
Archived from the original on 24 November 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-25.
* ^ A B "
Phi Delta Theta International - Symbols".
phideltatheta.org. Archived from the original on 7 June 2008.
* ^ "Musee Virtuel Jean Boucher". Jeanboucher.net. Retrieved
* ^ "1955 Citroen DS – The Most Beautiful Car of All Time".
Motorcities.com. Retrieved 9 July 2009.
* ^ According to
Theogony 886–890, of Zeus' children by
his seven wives,
Athena was the first to be conceived, but the last to
Zeus impregnated Metis then swallowed her, later
gave birth to
Athena "from his head", see Gantz, pp. 51–52, 83–84.
* ^ According to
Iliad 1.570–579, 14.338,
Hephaestus was apparently the son of
Hera and Zeus, see Gantz, p. 74.
* ^ According to
Hera alone, with no father, see Gantz, p. 74.
* ^ According to
Aphrodite was born
from Uranus' severed genitals, see Gantz, pp. 99–100.
* ^ According to
Aphrodite was the daughter of
Odyssey 8.308, 320) and Dione (
Iliad 5.370–71), see
Gantz, pp. 99–100.
* Apollodorus, Library, 3,180
* Augustine, De civitate dei xviii.8–9
* Cicero, De natura deorum iii.21.53, 23.59
* Eusebius, Chronicon 30.21–26, 42.11–14
Homer , The
Iliad with an English Translation by A.T. Murray,
Ph.D. in two volumes. Cambridge, MA., Harvard University Press;
London, William Heinemann, Ltd. 1924. Online version at the Perseus
Homer ; The
Odyssey with an English Translation by A.T. Murray,
PH.D. in two volumes. Cambridge, MA., Harvard University Press;
London, William Heinemann, Ltd. 1919. Online version at the Perseus
Theogony , in The
Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an
English Translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White, Cambridge, MA., Harvard
University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1914. Online version
Perseus Digital Library.
* Lactantius, Divinae institutions i.17.12–13, 18.22–23
Ab urbe condita libri vii.3.7
* Lucan, Bellum civile ix.350
* Beekes, Robert S. P. (2009), Etymological Dictionary of Greek,
Leiden and Boston: Brill
* Burkert, Walter (1985), Greek Religion, Cambridge, Massachusetts:
Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-36281-0
* Dexter, Miriam Robbins (1984), "Proto-Indo-European Sun Maidens
and Gods of the Moon", Mankind Quarterly, 25 (1 & 2): 137–144
* Gantz, Timothy, Early Greek Myth: A Guide to Literary and Artistic
Sources, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996, Two volumes: ISBN
978-0-8018-5360-9 (Vol. 1), ISBN 978-0-8018-5362-3 (Vol. 2).
* Graves, Robert , (1955) 1960. The Greek Myths revised edition.
* Kerenyi, Karl , 1951. The Gods of the Greeks (Thames and Hudson).
* Harrison, Jane Ellen , 1903. Prolegomena to the Study of Greek
* Mallory, James P. ; Adams, Douglas Q. (2006), Oxford Introduction
to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World, London:
Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-929668-2
* Nilsson, Martin Persson (1950), The Minoan-Mycenaean Religion and
Its Survival in Greek Religion (second ed.), New York: Biblo & Tannen,
* Palaima, Thomas, 2004. "Appendix One:
Linear B Sources." In
Trzaskoma, Stephen, et al., eds., Anthology of Classical Myth: Primary
Sources in Translation (Hackett).
* Puhvel, Jaan (1987), Comparative Mythology, Baltimore, Maryland:
Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 0-8018-3938-6
* Ruck, Carl A.P.; Staples, Danny (1994), The World of Classical
Myth: Gods and Goddesses, Heroines and Heroes, Durham, North Carolina:
Carolina Academic Press, ISBN 978-0890895757
* Telenius, Seppo Sakari , (2005) 2006. Athena-
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Phoenix, Vol. 6, No. 2 (Classical Association of Canada), pp. 31–43.
* Ventris, Michael and
John Chadwick , 1973. Documents in Mycenaean
* Friel, Brian , 1980. Translations
* Smith, William ; Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and
Mythology , London (1873). "Athe\'na"
Wikiquote has quotations related to: ATHENA
Wikimedia Commons has media related to ATHENA .
* Theoi.com Cult of Athena—Extracts of classical texts
* Roy George, "Athena: The sculptures of the goddess"—A repertory
of Greek and Roman types
* Temples of Athena
ARTICLES RELATED TO ATHENA
Greek deities series
* Primordial deities
* Titan deities
* Aquatic deities