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Athena[Notes 2] or Athene,[Notes 3] often given the epithet Pallas,[Notes 4] is the ancient Greek goddess of wisdom, handicraft, and warfare,[1] who was later syncretized with the Roman goddess Minerva.[2] Athena
Athena
was regarded as the patron and protectress of various cities across Greece, particularly the city of Athens, from which she most likely received her name.[3] She is usually shown in art wearing a helmet and holding a spear. Her major symbols include owls, olive trees, snakes, and the Gorgoneion. From her origin as an Aegean palace goddess, Athena
Athena
was closely associated with the city. She was known as Polias and Poliouchos (both derived from polis, meaning "city-state"), and her temples were usually located atop the fortified Acropolis
Acropolis
in the central part of the city. The Parthenon
Parthenon
on the Athenian Acropolis
Acropolis
is dedicated to her, along with numerous other temples and monuments. As the patron of craft and weaving, Athena
Athena
was known as Ergane. She was also a warrior goddess, and was believed to lead soldiers into battle as Athena Promachos. Her main festival in Athens
Athens
was the Panathenaia, which was celebrated during the month of Hekatombaion in midsummer and was the most important festival on the Athenian calendar. In Greek mythology, Athena
Athena
was believed to have been born from the head of her father Zeus. In the founding myth of Athens, Athena
Athena
bested Poseidon
Poseidon
in a competition over patronage of the city by creating the first olive tree. She was known as Athena Parthenos
Athena Parthenos
(" Athena
Athena
the Virgin"), but, in one archaic Attic myth, the god Hephaestus
Hephaestus
tried and failed to rape her, resulting in Gaia
Gaia
giving birth to Erichthonius, an important Athenian founding hero. Athena
Athena
was the patron goddess of heroic endeavor; she was believed to have also aided the heroes Perseus, Heracles, Bellerophon, and Jason. Along with Aphrodite
Aphrodite
and Hera, Athena
Athena
was one of the three goddesses whose feud resulted in the beginning of the Trojan War. She plays an active role in the Iliad, in which she assists the Achaeans and, in the Odyssey, she is the divine counselor to Odysseus. In the later writings of the Roman poet Ovid, Athena
Athena
was said to have competed against the mortal Arachne
Arachne
in a weaving competition, afterwards transforming Arachne
Arachne
into the first spider; Ovid
Ovid
also describes how she transformed Medusa
Medusa
into a Gorgon
Gorgon
after witnessing her being raped by Poseidon
Poseidon
in her temple. Since the Renaissance, Athena
Athena
has become an international symbol of wisdom, the arts, and classical learning. Western artists and allegorists have often used Athena
Athena
as a symbol of freedom and democracy.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Origins 3 Cult and patronages 4 Epithets and attributes 5 Mythology

5.1 Birth 5.2 Pallas Athena 5.3 Lady of Athens 5.4 Patron of heroes 5.5 Punishment myths 5.6 Trojan War

6 Classical art 7 Post-classical culture

7.1 Art and symbolism 7.2 Modern interpretations

8 Genealogy 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References

11.1 Bibliography

11.1.1 Ancient sources 11.1.2 Modern sources

12 External links

Etymology[edit]

The Acropolis
Acropolis
at Athens
Athens
(1846) by Leo von Klenze. Athena's name probably comes from the name of the city of Athens.[3][4]

Athena
Athena
is associated with the city of Athens.[3] The name of the city in ancient Greek is Ἀθῆναι (Athenai), a plural toponym, designating the place where—according to myth—she presided over the Athenai, a sisterhood devoted to her worship.[4] In ancient times, scholars argued whether Athena
Athena
was named after Athens
Athens
or Athens
Athens
after Athena.[3] Now scholars generally agree that the goddess takes her name from the city;[3] the ending -ene is common in names of locations, but rare for personal names.[3] Testimonies from different cities in ancient Greece
Greece
attest that similar city goddesses were worshipped in other cities[4] and, like Athena, took their names from the cities where they were worshipped.[4] For example, in Mycenae there was a goddess called Mykene, whose sisterhood was known as Mykenai,[4] whereas at Thebes an analogous deity was called Thebe, and the city was known under the plural form Thebai (or Thebes, in English, where the ‘s’ is the plural formation).[4] The name Athenai is likely of Pre-Greek origin[5] because it contains the presumably Pre-Greek morpheme *-ān-.[5] In his dialogue Cratylus, the Greek philosopher Plato
Plato
(428–347 BC) gives some rather imaginative etymologies of Athena's name, based on the theories of the ancient Athenians and his own etymological speculations:

That is a graver matter, and there, my friend, the modern interpreters of Homer
Homer
may, I think, assist in explaining the view of the ancients. For most of these in their explanations of the poet, assert that he meant by Athena
Athena
"mind" [νοῦς, noũs] and "intelligence" [διάνοια, diánoia], and the maker of names appears to have had a singular notion about her; and indeed calls her by a still higher title, "divine intelligence" [θεοῦ νόησις, theoũ nóēsis], as though he would say: This is she who has the mind of God [ἁ θεονόα, a theonóa). Perhaps, however, the name Theonoe may mean "she who knows divine things" [τὰ θεῖα νοοῦσα, ta theia noousa] better than others. Nor shall we be far wrong in supposing that the author of it wished to identify this Goddess with moral intelligence [εν έθει νόεσιν, en éthei nóesin], and therefore gave her the name Etheonoe; which, however, either he or his successors have altered into what they thought a nicer form, and called her Athena. — Plato, Cratylus 407b

Thus, Plato
Plato
believed that Athena's name was derived from Greek Ἀθεονόα, Atheonóa—which the later Greeks rationalised as from the deity's (θεός, theós) mind (νοῦς, noũs). The second-century AD orator Aelius Aristides
Aelius Aristides
attempted to derive natural symbols from the etymological roots of Athena's names to be aether, air, earth, and moon.[6] Origins[edit] Athena
Athena
was originally the Aegean goddess of the palace, who presided over household crafts and protected the king.[7][8][9][10] A single Mycenaean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
inscription 𐀀𐀲𐀙𐀡𐀴𐀛𐀊 a-ta-na po-ti-ni-ja /Athana potnia/ appears at Knossos
Knossos
in the Linear B
Linear B
tablets from the Late Minoan II-era "Room of the Chariot
Chariot
Tablets";[11][12] these comprise the earliest Linear B
Linear B
archive anywhere.[12] Although Athana potnia is often translated Mistress Athena,[13] it could also mean "the Potnia
Potnia
of Athana", or the Lady of Athens.[13] However, any connection to the city of Athens
Athens
in the Knossos
Knossos
inscription is uncertain.[14] In the still undeciphered corpus of Linear A tablets—written in the unclassified Minoan language—a sign series a-ta-no-dju-wa-ja is to be found.[15] This could be connected with the Linear B
Linear B
Mycenaean expressions a-ta-na po-ti-ni-ja and di-u-ja or di-wi-ja (Diwia, "of Zeus" or, possibly, related to a homonymous goddess),[12] resulting in a translation " Athena
Athena
of Zeus" or "divine Athena". Similarly, in the Greek mythology
Greek mythology
and epic tradition, Athena figures as a daughter of Zeus
Zeus
(Διός θυγάτηρ; cfr. Dyeus).[16] However, the inscription quoted seems to be very similar to "a-ta-nū-tī wa-ya", quoted as SY Za 1 by Jan Best.[16] Best translates the initial a-ta-nū-tī, which is recurrent in line beginnings, as "I have given".[16]

Marble Greek copy signed "Antiokhos", a first-century BC variant of Phidias' fifth-century Athena Promachos
Athena Promachos
that stood on the Acropolis

A Mycenean fresco depicts two women extending their hands towards a central figure, who is covered by an enormous figure-eight shield;[17] this may depict the warrior-goddess with her palladion, or her palladion in an aniconic representation.[17] In the "Procession Fresco" at Knossos, which was reconstructed by the Mycenaeans,[18] two rows of figures carrying vessels seem to meet in front of a central figure,[18] which is probably the Minoan precursor to Athena.[18] The early twentieth-century scholar Martin Persson Nilsson argued that the Minoan snake goddess figurines
Minoan snake goddess figurines
are early representations of Athena.[7][8] Nilsson and others have claimed that, in early times, Athena
Athena
was either an owl herself or a bird goddess in general.[19] In the third book of the Odyssey, she takes the form of a sea-eagle.[19] Proponents of this view argue that she dropped her prophylactic owl-mask before she lost her wings. "Athena, by the time she appears in art," Jane Ellen Harrison remarks, "has completely shed her animal form, has reduced the shapes she once wore of snake and bird to attributes, but occasionally in black-figure vase-paintings she still appears with wings."[20] It is generally agreed that the cult of Athena
Athena
preserves some aspects of the Proto-Indo-European transfunctional goddess.[21][22] The cult of Athena
Athena
may have also been influenced by those of Near Eastern warrior goddesses such as the East Semitic Ishtar
Ishtar
and the Ugaritic Anat,[8] both of whom were often portrayed bearing arms.[8] Athena's birth from the head of Zeus
Zeus
may be derived from the earlier Sumerian myth of Inanna's descent into and return from the Netherworld.[23] Miriam Robbins Dexter has suggested that, at least at some point in her history, Athena
Athena
was a solar deity.[24] Athena
Athena
bears traits common with Indo-European solar goddesses,[24] including the possession of a mirror and the invention of weaving, characteristics which are also held by the Baltic goddess Saulė.[24] Athena's association with Medusa, who is also suspected of being a solar goddess,[24] adds further solar iconography to her cultus.[24] Athena
Athena
was later syncretized with Sulis, a Celtic goddess whose name is derived from the common Proto-Indo-European root for many solar deities.[24] Though the sun in Greek myth is personified as the male Helios, several relictual solar goddesses are known, such as Alectrona.[24] Plato
Plato
notes that the citizens of Sais
Sais
in Egypt worshipped a goddess known as Neith,[Notes 5] whom he identifies with Athena.[25] Neith
Neith
was the ancient Egyptian goddess of war and hunting, who was also associated with weaving; her worship began during the Egyptian Pre-Dynastic period. In Greek mythology, Athena
Athena
was reported to have visited mythological sites in North Africa, including Libya's Triton River and the Phlegraean plain.[Notes 6] Based on these similarities, the sinologist Martin Bernal created the "Black Athena" hypothesis, which claimed that Neith
Neith
was brought to Greece
Greece
from Egypt, along with "an enormous number of features of civilization and culture in the third and second millennia".[26][27] The "Black Athena" hypothesis stirred up widespread controversy near the end of the twentieth century,[28][29] but it has now been widely rejected by modern scholars.[30][31]

Cult and patronages[edit]

Athenian tetradrachm representing the goddess Athena

A new peplos was woven for Athena
Athena
and ceremonially brought to dress her cult image (British Museum).

In her aspect of Athena
Athena
Polias, Athena
Athena
was venerated as the goddess of the city and the protectress of the citadel.[8][32] In Athens, the Plynteria, or "Feast of the Bath", was observed every year at the end of the month of Thargelion.[33] The festival lasted for five days. During this period, the priestesses of Athena, or plyntrídes, performed a cleansing ritual within the Erechtheion, a sanctuary devoted to Athena
Athena
and Poseidon.[34] Here Athena's statue was undressed, her clothes washed, and body purified.[34] Athena
Athena
was worshipped at festivals such as Chalceia as Athena Ergane,[35] the patroness of various crafts, especially weaving.[35] She was also the patron of metalworkers and was believed to aid in the forging of armor and weapons.[35] During the late 5th century BC, the role of goddess of philosophy became a major aspect of Athena's cult.[36] As Athena
Athena
Promachos, she was believed to lead soldiers into battle.[37][38] Athena
Athena
represented the disciplined, strategic side of war, in contrast to her brother Ares, the patron of violence, bloodlust, and slaughter—"the raw force of war".[39] Athena
Athena
was believed to only support those fighting for a just cause[39] and was thought to view war primarily as a means to resolve conflict.[39] In her aspect as a warrior maiden, Athena
Athena
was also known as Parthenos,[40] which means "virgin",[41][42] because she was believed to have never married or taken a lover.[43] Athena
Athena
was especially worshipped in this role during the festivals of the Panathenaea
Panathenaea
and Pamboeotia,[44] both of which prominently featured displays of athletic and military prowess.[44] As the patroness of heroes and warriors,[45] Athena
Athena
was believed to favor those who used cunning and intelligence rather than brute strength.[45]

Athena
Athena
depicted on a coin of Attalus I, ruler of Pergamon, c. 200 BC

Athena
Athena
was not only the patron goddess of Athens, but also other cities, including Argos, Sparta, Gortyn, Lindos, and Larisa.[38] The various cults of Athena
Athena
were all branches of her panhellenic cult[38] and often proctored various initiation rites of Grecian youth, such as the passage into citizenship by young men or the passage of young women into marriage.[38] These cults were portals of a uniform socialization, even beyond mainland Greece.[38] Athena
Athena
was frequently equated with Aphaea, a local goddess of the island of Aegina, originally from Crete
Crete
and also associated with Artemis
Artemis
and the nymph Britomartis.[46] In Arcadia, she was assimilated with the ancient goddess Alea and worshiped as Athena
Athena
Alea.[47] Sanctuaries dedicated to Athena Alea
Athena Alea
were located in the Laconian towns of Mantineia
Mantineia
and Tegea. The temple of Athena Alea
Athena Alea
in Tegea
Tegea
was an important religious center of ancient Greece.[Notes 7] The geographer Pausanias was informed that the temenos had been founded by Aleus.[48] Votive bronzes at the site from the Geometric and Archaic periods take the forms of horses and deer; there are sealstone and fibulae. In the Archaic period, the nine villages that underlie Tegea banded together in a synoecism to form one city.[Notes 8] Tegea
Tegea
was listed in Homer's Catalogue of Ships
Catalogue of Ships
as one of the cities that contributed ships and men for the Achaean assault on Troy. Athena
Athena
had a major temple on the Spartan Acropolis,[49] where she was venerated as Poliouchos and Khalkíoikos ("of the Brazen House", often latinized as Chalcioecus).[49] This epithet may refer to the fact that cult statue held there may have been made of bronze,[49] that the walls of the temple itself may have been made of bronze,[49] or that Athena
Athena
was the patron of metal-workers.[49] Bells made of terracotta and bronze were used in Sparta
Sparta
as part of Athena's cult.[49] An Ionic-style temple to Athena
Athena
Polias was built at Priene
Priene
in the fourth century BC.[50] It was designed by Pytheos of Priene,[51] the same architect who designed the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus.[51] The temple was dedicated by Alexander the Great[52] and an inscription from the temple declaring his dedication is now held in the British Museum.[50]

Epithets and attributes[edit] See also: Category:Epithets of Athena

Cult statue of Athena
Athena
with the face of the Carpegna type (late 1st century BC to early 1st century AD), from the Piazza dell'Emporio, Rome

Bust of the Velletri Pallas type, copy after a votive statue of Kresilas in Athens
Athens
(c. 425 BC)

Athena
Athena
was known as Atrytone (Άτρυτώνη "the Unwearying"), Parthenos (Παρθένος "Virgin"), and Promachos (Πρόμαχος "she who fights in front"). The epithet Polias (Πολιάς "of the city"), refers to Athena's role as protectress of the city.[38] The epithet Ergane (Εργάνη "the Industrious") pointed her out as the patron of craftsmen and artisans.[38] Burkert notes that the Athenians sometimes simply called Athena
Athena
"the Goddess", hē theós (ἡ θεός), certainly an ancient title.[3] After serving as the judge at the trial of Orestes
Orestes
in which he was acquitted of having murdered his mother Clytemnestra, Athena
Athena
won the epithet Areia (Αρεία).[38] Athena
Athena
was sometimes given the epithet Hippia (Ἵππια "of the horses", "equestrian"),[53][54] referring to her invention of the bit, bridle, chariot, and wagon.[53] The Greek geographer Pausanias mentions in his Guide to Greece
Greece
that the temple of Athena
Athena
Chalinitis ("the bridler")[54] in Corinth was located near the tomb of Medea's children.[54] Other epithets include Ageleia, Itonia and Aethyia, under which she was worshiped in Megara.[55][56] The word aíthyia (αἴθυια) signifies a "diver", also some diving bird species (possibly the shearwater) and figuratively, a "ship", so the name must reference Athena
Athena
teaching the art of shipbuilding or navigation.[57] In a temple at Phrixa in Elis, reportedly built by Clymenus, she was known as Cydonia (Κυδωνία).[58] The Greek biographer Plutarch
Plutarch
(46–120 AD) refers to an instance during the Parthenon's construction of her being called Athena
Athena
Hygieia (Ὑγίεια, i. e. personified "Health"):

A strange accident happened in the course of building, which showed that the goddess was not averse to the work, but was aiding and co-operating to bring it to perfection. One of the artificers, the quickest and the handiest workman among them all, with a slip of his foot fell down from a great height, and lay in a miserable condition, the physicians having no hope of his recovery. When Pericles
Pericles
was in distress about this, the goddess [Athena] appeared to him at night in a dream, and ordered a course of treatment, which he applied, and in a short time and with great ease cured the man. And upon this occasion it was that he set up a brass statue of Athena
Athena
Hygeia, in the citadel near the altar, which they say was there before. But it was Phidias who wrought the goddess's image in gold, and he has his name inscribed on the pedestal as the workman of it.[59]

The owl of Athena, surrounded by an olive wreath. Reverse of an Athenian silver tetradrachm, c. 175 BC

In Homer's epic works, Athena's most common epithet is Glaukopis (γλαυκῶπις), which usually is translated as, "bright-eyed" or "with gleaming eyes".[60] The word is a combination of glaukós (γλαυκός, meaning "gleaming, silvery", and later, "bluish-green" or "gray")[61] and ṓps (ὤψ, "eye, face").[62] The word glaúx (γλαύξ,[63] "little owl")[64] is from the same root, presumably according to some, because of the bird's own distinctive eyes. Athena
Athena
was clearly associated with the owl from very early on;[65] in archaic images, she is frequently depicted with an owl perched on her hand.[65] Through its association with Athena, the owl evolved into the national mascot of the Athenians and eventually became a symbol of wisdom.[2] In the Iliad
Iliad
(4.514), the Odyssey
Odyssey
(3.378), the Homeric Hymns, and in Hesiod's Theogony, Athena
Athena
is also given the curious epithet Tritogeneia (Τριτογένεια), whose significance remains unclear.[66] It could mean various things, including "Triton-born", perhaps indicating that the homonymous sea-deity was her parent according to some early myths.[66] One myth relates the foster father relationship of this Triton towards the half-orphan Athena, whom he raised alongside his own daughter Pallas.[67] Karl Kerényi
Karl Kerényi
suggests that "Tritogeneia did not mean that she came into the world on any particular river or lake, but that she was born of the water itself; for the name Triton seems to be associated with water generally."[68][69] In Ovid's Metamorphoses, Athena
Athena
is occasionally referred to as "Tritonia". Another possible meaning may be "triple-born" or "third-born", which may refer to a triad or to her status as the third daughter of Zeus
Zeus
or the fact she was born from Metis, Zeus, and herself; various legends list her as being the first child after Artemis
Artemis
and Apollo, though other legends identify her as Zeus' first child.[70] Several scholars have suggested a connection to the Rigvedic god Trita,[71] who was sometimes grouped in a body of three mythological poets.[71] Michael Janda has connected the myth of Trita to the scene in the Iliad
Iliad
in which the "three brothers" Zeus, Poseidon, and Hades
Hades
divide the world between them, receiving the "broad sky", the sea, and the underworld respectively.[72][73] Janda further connects the myth of Athena
Athena
being born of the head (i. e. the uppermost part) of Zeus, understanding Trito- (which perhaps originally meant "the third") as another word for "the sky".[72] In Janda's analysis of Indo-European mythology, this heavenly sphere is also associated with the mythological body of water surrounding the inhabited world (cfr. Triton's mother, Amphitrite).[72] Mythology[edit] Birth[edit]

Athena
Athena
is "born" from Zeus's forehead as a result of him having swallowed her mother Metis, as he grasps the clothing of Eileithyia
Eileithyia
on the right; black-figured amphora, 550–525 BC, Louvre.

Although Athena
Athena
appears before Zeus
Zeus
at Knossos—in Linear B, as 𐀀𐀲𐀙𐀡𐀴𐀛𐀊, a-ta-na po-ti-ni-ja, "Mistress Athena"[12][11]—in the Classical Olympian pantheon, Athena
Athena
was remade as the favourite daughter of Zeus, born fully armed from his forehead.[Notes 9] The story of her birth comes in several versions.[74] In the version recounted by Hesiod
Hesiod
in his Theogony, Zeus lay with Metis, the goddess of crafty thought and wisdom,[75] but he immediately feared the consequences[75] because Gaia
Gaia
and Ouranos
Ouranos
had prophesized that Metis would bear children wiser than he himself.[76] In order to prevent this, Zeus
Zeus
swallowed Metis,[77] but it was too late because Metis had already conceived.[77][78][Notes 10] Eventually Zeus
Zeus
experienced an enormous headache;[79] Prometheus, Hephaestus, Hermes, Ares, or Palaemon (depending on the sources examined)[80] cleaved Zeus’ head with the double-headed Minoan axe, the labrys.[80] Athena
Athena
leaped from Zeus's head, fully grown and armed,[80] with a shout—"and pealed to the broad sky her clarion cry of war. And Ouranos
Ouranos
trembled to hear, and Mother Gaia…"[81] Plato, in the Laws, attributes the cult of Athena
Athena
to the culture of Crete, introduced, he thought, from Libya during the dawn of Greek culture. Classical myths thereafter note that Hera
Hera
was so annoyed at Zeus
Zeus
for having produced a child that she conceived and bore Hephaestus
Hephaestus
by herself, but in Imagines 2. 27 (trans. Fairbanks), the third-century AD Greek rhetorician Philostratus the Elder writes that Hera "rejoices" at Athena's birth "as though Athena
Athena
were her daughter also." The second-century AD Christian apologist Justin Martyr
Justin Martyr
takes issue with those pagans who erect at springs images of Kore, whom he interprets as Athena: "They said that Athena
Athena
was the daughter of Zeus not from intercourse, but when the god had in mind the making of a world through a word (logos) his first thought was Athena."[82] A scholium on the Iliad[83] makes Athena
Athena
the daughter of Brontes the Cyclops,[84] who seduced Metis and impregnated her, prompting Zeus
Zeus
to swallow her.[84] The Etymologicum Magnum[83] instead deems Athena
Athena
the daughter of the Daktyl Itonos.[85] Fragments attributed by the Christian Eusebius of Caesarea
Eusebius of Caesarea
to the semi-legendary Phoenician historian Sanchuniathon, which Eusebius thought had been written before the Trojan war, make Athena
Athena
instead the daughter of Cronus, a king of Byblos
Byblos
who visited "the inhabitable world" and bequeathed Attica
Attica
to Athena.[86][87] Pallas Athena[edit]

Detail of a Roman fresco from Pompeii
Pompeii
showing Ajax the Lesser
Ajax the Lesser
dragging Cassandra
Cassandra
away from the palladion during the fall of Troy, an event which invoked Athena's wrath against the Greek armies[88]

Athena's epithet Pallas is derived either from πάλλω, meaning "to brandish [as a weapon]", or, more likely, from παλλακίς and related words, meaning "youth, young woman".[89] On this topic, Walter Burkert says "she is the Pallas of Athens, Pallas Athenaie, just as Hera
Hera
of Argos
Argos
is Here Argeie."[3] In later times, after the original meaning of the name had been forgotten, the Greeks invented myths to explain its origin, such as those reported by the Epicurean philosopher Philodemus and the ancient mythographer Pseudo-Apollodorus, which claim that Pallas was originally a separate entity, whom Athena
Athena
had slain in combat.[90] In one version of the myth, Pallas was the daughter of the sea-god Triton;[67] she and Athena
Athena
were childhood friends, but Athena accidentally killed her during a friendly sparring match.[91] Distraught over what she had done, Athena
Athena
took the name Pallas for herself as a sign of her grief.[91] In another version of the story, Pallas was a Gigante;[80] Athena
Athena
slew him during the Gigantomachy
Gigantomachy
and flayed off his skin to make her cloak, which she wore as a victory trophy.[80][8][92] In an alternate variation of the same myth, Pallas was instead Athena's father,[80][8] who attempted to assault his own daughter,[93] causing Athena
Athena
to kill him and take his skin as a trophy.[84] The palladion was a statue of Athena
Athena
that was said to have stood in her temple on the Trojan Acropolis.[94] Athena
Athena
was said to have carved the statue herself in the likeness of her dead friend Pallas.[94] The statue had special talisman-like properties[94] and it was thought that, as long as it was in the city, Troy
Troy
could never fall.[94] When the Greeks captured Troy, Cassandra, the daughter of Priam, clung to the palladion for protection,[94] but Ajax the Lesser
Ajax the Lesser
violently tore her away from it and dragged her over to the other captives.[94] Athena
Athena
was infuriated by this violation of her protection.[88] Though Agamemnon attempted to placate her anger with sacrifices, Athena
Athena
sent a storm at Cape Kaphereos to destroy almost the entire Greek fleet and scatter all of the surviving ships across the Aegean.[95] Lady of Athens[edit]

The Dispute of Minerva
Minerva
and Neptune by René-Antoine Houasse
René-Antoine Houasse
(c. 1689 or 1706)

In a founding myth reported by Pseudo-Apollodorus,[83] Athena
Athena
competed with Poseidon
Poseidon
for the patronage of Athens.[96] They agreed that each would give the Athenians one gift[96] and that Cecrops, the king of Athens, would determine which gift was better.[96] Poseidon
Poseidon
struck the ground with his trident and a salt water spring sprang up;[96] this gave the Athenians access to trade and water.[97] Athens
Athens
at its height was a significant sea power, defeating the Persian fleet at the Battle of Salamis[97]—but the water was salty and undrinkable.[97] In an alternative version of the myth from Vergil's Georgics,[83] Poseidon instead gave the Athenians the first horse.[96] Athena
Athena
offered the first domesticated olive tree.[96][42] Cecrops accepted this gift[96] and declared Athena
Athena
the patron goddess of Athens.[96] The olive tree brought wood, oil, and food,[97] and became a symbol of Athenian economic prosperity.[42][98] Robert Graves
Robert Graves
was of the opinion that "Poseidon's attempts to take possession of certain cities are political myths",[97] which reflect the conflict between matriarchal and patriarchal religions.[97]

The Athena
Athena
Giustiniani, a Roman copy of a Greek statue of Pallas Athena. The guardian serpent of the Athenian Acropolis
Acropolis
sits coiled at her feet.[99]

Pseudo-Apollodorus[83] records an archaic legend, which claims that Hephaestus
Hephaestus
once attempted to rape Athena, but she pushed him away, causing him to ejaculate on her thigh.[100][101] Athena
Athena
wiped the semen off using a tuft of wool,[100][101] which she tossed into the dust,[100][101] impregnating Gaia
Gaia
and causing her to give birth to Erichthonius,[100][101] whom Athena
Athena
adopted as her own child.[100] The Roman mythographer Hyginus[83] records a similar story in which Hephaestus
Hephaestus
demanded Zeus
Zeus
to let him marry Athena
Athena
since he was the one who had smashed open Zeus's skull, allowing Athena
Athena
to be born.[100] Zeus
Zeus
agreed to this and Hephaestus
Hephaestus
and Athena
Athena
were married,[100] but, when Hephaestus
Hephaestus
was about to consummate the union, Athena
Athena
vanished from the bridal bed, causing him to ejaculate on the floor, thus impregnating Gaia
Gaia
with Erichthonius.[100] The geographer Pausanias[83] records that Athena
Athena
placed the infant Erichthonius into a small chest[102] (cista), which she entrusted to the care of the three daughters of Cecrops: Herse, Pandrosos, and Aglauros of Athens.[102] She warned the three sisters not to open the chest,[102] but did not explain to them why or what was in it.[102] Aglauros, and possibly one of the other sisters,[102] opened the chest.[102] Differing reports say that they either found that the child itself was a serpent, that it was guarded by a serpent, that it was guarded by two serpents, or that it had the legs of a serpent.[103] In Pausanias's story, the two sisters were driven mad by the sight of the chest's contents and hurled themselves off the Acropolis, dying instantly,[104] but an Attic vase painting shows them being chased by the serpent off the edge of the cliff instead.[104] Erichthonius was one of the most important founding heroes of Athens[101] and the legend of the daughters of Cecrops was a cult myth linked to the rituals of the Arrhephoria festival.[101][105] Pausanias records that, during the Arrhephoria, two young girls known as the Arrhephoroi, who lived near the temple of Athena
Athena
Polias, would be given hidden objects by the priestess of Athena,[106] which they would carry on their heads down a natural underground passage.[106] They would leave the objects they had been given at the bottom of the passage and take another set of hidden objects,[106] which they would carry on their heads back up to the temple.[106] The ritual was performed in the dead of night[106] and no one, not even the priestess, knew what the objects were.[106] The serpent in the story may be the same one depicted coiled at Athena's feet in Pheidias's famous statue of the Athena Parthenos
Athena Parthenos
in the Parthenon.[99] Many of the surviving sculptures of Athena
Athena
show this serpent.[99]

The Parthenon
Parthenon
on the Athenian Acropolis, which is dedicated to Athena Parthenos[101]

Herodotus records that a serpent lived in a crevice on the north side of the summit of the Athenian Acropolis[99] and that the Athenians left a honey cake for it each month as an offering.[99] On the eve of the Second Persian invasion of Greece
Second Persian invasion of Greece
in 480 BC, the serpent did not eat the honey cake[99] and the Athenians interpreted it as a sign that Athena
Athena
herself had abandoned them.[99] Another version of the myth of the Athenian maidens is told in Metamorphoses
Metamorphoses
by the Roman poet Ovid (43 BC – 17 AD); in this late variant Hermes
Hermes
falls in love with Herse. Herse, Aglaulus, and Pandrosus go to the temple to offer sacrifices to Athena. Hermes
Hermes
demands help from Aglaulus to seduce Herse. Aglaulus demands money in exchange. Hermes
Hermes
gives her the money the sisters have already offered to Athena. As punishment for Aglaulus's greed, Athena
Athena
asks the goddess Envy to make Aglaulus jealous of Herse. When Hermes
Hermes
arrives to seduce Herse, Aglaulus stands in his way instead of helping him as she had agreed. He turns her to stone.[107] Athena
Athena
never had a consort or lover and is thus known as Athena Parthenos, "Virgin Athena".[108] Her most famous temple, the Parthenon, on the Acropolis
Acropolis
in Athens
Athens
takes its name from this title.[108] It is not merely an observation of her virginity, but a recognition of her role as enforcer of rules of sexual modesty and ritual mystery.[108] Even beyond recognition, the Athenians allotted the goddess value based on this pureness of virginity as it upheld a rudiment of female behavior in the patriarchal society.[108] Kerényi's study and theory of Athena
Athena
accredits her virginal epithet to be a result of the relationship to her father Zeus
Zeus
and a vital, cohesive piece of her character throughout the ages.[108] This role is expressed in a number of stories about Athena. Marinus of Neapolis reports that when Christians removed the statue of the Goddess from the Parthenon, a beautiful woman appeared in a dream to Proclus, a devotee of Athena, and announced that the "Athenian Lady" wished to dwell with him.[109] Patron of heroes[edit] According to Pseudo-Apollodorus's Bibliotheca, Athena
Athena
guided the hero Perseus
Perseus
in his quest to behead Medusa.[110][111][112] She and Hermes, the god of travelers, appeared to Perseus
Perseus
after he set off on his quest and gifted him with tools he would need to kill the Gorgon.[112][113] Athena
Athena
gave Perseus
Perseus
a polished bronze shield to view Medusa's reflection rather than looking at her directly and thereby avoid being turned to stone.[112][114] Hermes
Hermes
gave him an adamantine scythe to cut off Medusa's head.[112][115] When Perseus
Perseus
swung his blade to behead Medusa, Athena
Athena
guided it, allowing his scythe to cut it clean off.[112][114] According to Pindar's Thirteenth Olympian Ode, Athena
Athena
helped the hero Bellerophon
Bellerophon
tame the winged horse Pegasus
Pegasus
by giving him a bit.[116][117] In ancient Greek art, Athena
Athena
is frequently shown aiding the hero Heracles.[118] She appears in four of the twelve metopes on the Temple of Zeus
Zeus
at Olympia depicting Heracles's Twelve Labors,[119][118] including the first, in which she passively watches him slay the Nemean lion,[118] and the tenth, in which she is shown actively helping him hold up the sky.[120] She is presented as his "stern ally",[121] but also the "gentle... acknowledger of his achievements."[121] Artistic depictions of Heracles's apotheosis show Athena
Athena
driving him to Mount Olympus
Mount Olympus
in her chariot and presenting him to Zeus
Zeus
for his deification.[120] In Aeschylus's tragedy Orestes, Athena
Athena
intervenes to save Orestes
Orestes
from the wrath of the Erinyes
Erinyes
and presides over his trial for the murder of his mother Clytemnestra.[122] When half the jury votes to acquit and the other half votes to convict, Athena
Athena
casts the deciding vote to acquit Orestes[122] and declares that, from then on, whenever a jury is tied, the defendant shall always be acquitted.[123] In The Odyssey, Odysseus' cunning and shrewd nature quickly wins Athena's favour.[124] For the first part of the poem, however, she largely is confined to aiding him only from afar, mainly by implanting thoughts in his head during his journey home from Troy. Her guiding actions reinforce her role as the "protectress of heroes," or, as mythologian Walter Friedrich Otto dubbed her, the "goddess of nearness," due to her mentoring and motherly probing.[125][110][126] It is not until he washes up on the shore of the island of the Phaeacians, where Nausicaa
Nausicaa
is washing her clothes that Athena
Athena
arrives personally to provide more tangible assistance.[127] She appears in Nausicaa's dreams to ensure that the princess rescues Odysseus
Odysseus
and plays a role in his eventual escort to Ithaca.[128] Athena
Athena
appears to Odysseus
Odysseus
upon his arrival, disguised as a herdsman;[129][130][124] she initially lies and tells him that Penelope, his wife, has remarried and that he is believed to be dead,[129] but Odysseus
Odysseus
lies back to her, employing skillful prevarications to protect himself.[131][130] Impressed by his resolve and shrewdness, she reveals herself and tells him what he needs to know in order to win back his kingdom.[132][130][124] She disguises him as an elderly beggar so that he will not be recognized by the suitors or Penelope,[133][130] and helps him to defeat the suitors.[133][134][130] Athena
Athena
also appears to Odysseus's son Telemachus.[135] Her actions lead him to travel around to Odysseus's comrades and ask about his father.[136] He hears stories about some of Odysseus's journey.[136] Athena's push for Telemachos's journey helps him grow into the man role, that his father once held.[137] She also plays a role in ending the resultant feud against the suitors' relatives. She instructs Laertes to throw his spear and to kill Eupeithes, the father of Antinous.

Athena
Athena
and Heracles
Heracles
on an Attic red-figure kylix, 480–470 BC

Attic red-figure kylix painting from c. 480-470 BC showing Athena observing as the Colchian dragon disgorges the hero Jason[138]

Silver coin showing Athena
Athena
with Scylla
Scylla
decorated helmet and Heracles fighting the Nemean lion
Nemean lion
(Heraclea Lucania, 390-340 BC)

Paestan red-figure bell-krater (c. 330 BC), showing Orestes
Orestes
at Delphi flanked by Athena
Athena
and Pylades
Pylades
among the Erinyes
Erinyes
and priestesses of Apollo, with the Pythia
Pythia
sitting behind them on her tripod

Punishment myths[edit]

Classical Greek depiction of Medusa
Medusa
from the fourth century BC

The Gorgoneion
Gorgoneion
appears to have originated as an apotropaic symbol intended to ward off evil.[139] In a late myth invented to explain the origins of the Gorgon,[140] Medusa
Medusa
is described as having been a young priestess who served in the temple of Athena
Athena
in Athens.[141] Poseidon lusted after Medusa, and raped her in the temple of Athena,[141] refusing to allow her vow of chastity to stand in his way.[141] Upon discovering the desecration of her temple, Athena
Athena
transformed Medusa into a hideous monster with serpents for hair whose gaze would turn any mortal to stone.[142] In his Twelfth Pythian Ode, Pindar
Pindar
recounts the story of how Athena invented the aulos, a kind of flute, in imitation of the lamentations of Medusa's sisters, the Gorgons, after she was beheaded by the hero Perseus.[143] According to Pindar, Athena
Athena
gave the aulos to mortals as a gift.[143] Later, the comic playwright Melanippides of Melos (c. 480-430 BC) embellished the story in his comedy Marsyas,[143] claiming that Athena
Athena
looked in the mirror while she was playing the aulos and saw how blowing into it puffed up her cheeks and made her look silly, so she threw the aulos away and cursed it so that whoever picked it up would meet an awful death.[143] The aulos was picked up by the satyr Marsyas, who was later killed by Apollo
Apollo
for his hubris.[143] Later, this version of the story became accepted as canonical[143] and the Athenian sculptor Myron
Myron
created a group of bronze sculptures based on it, which was installed before the western front of the Parthenon
Parthenon
in around 440 BC.[143] In one version of the Tiresias
Tiresias
myth, Tiresias
Tiresias
stumbled upon Athena bathing,[144] and she struck him blind to ensure he would never again see what man was not intended to see.[145][146] Tiresias's mother Chariclo intervened on his behalf and begged Athena
Athena
to have mercy.[146][147] Athena
Athena
could not restore Tiresias's eyesight,[146][147] so instead she gave him the ability to understand the language of the birds and thus foretell the future.[148][147]

Minerva
Minerva
and Arachne
Arachne
by René-Antoine Houasse
René-Antoine Houasse
(1706)

The fable of Arachne
Arachne
appears in Ovid's Metamorphoses
Metamorphoses
(8 AD) (vi.5–54 and 129–145),[149][150] which is nearly the only extant source for the legend.[149][150] The story does not appear to have been well known prior to Ovid's rendition of it[149] and the only earlier reference to it is a brief allusion in Virgil's Georgics, (29 BC) (iv, 246) that does not mention Arachne
Arachne
by name.[150] According to Ovid, Arachne
Arachne
(whose name means spider in ancient Greek[151]) was the daughter of a famous dyer in Tyrian purple
Tyrian purple
in Hypaipa of Lydia, and a weaving student of Athena. She became so conceited of her skill as a weaver that she began claiming that her skill was greater than that of Athena
Athena
herself.[152] Athena
Athena
gave Arachne
Arachne
a chance to redeem herself by assuming the form of an old woman and warning Arachne
Arachne
not to offend the deities.[152] Arachne
Arachne
scoffed and wished for a weaving contest, so she could prove her skill.[152] Athena
Athena
wove the scene of her victory over Poseidon
Poseidon
in the contest for the patronage of Athens.[153][152] Arachne's tapestry featured twenty-one episodes of the deities' infidelity,[153][152] including Zeus
Zeus
being unfaithful with Leda, with Europa, and with Danaë.[153] Athena
Athena
admitted that Arachne's work was flawless,[152][153] but was outraged at Arachne's offensive choice of subject, which displayed the failings and transgressions of the deities.[152][153] Finally, losing her temper, Athena
Athena
destroyed Arachne's tapestry and loom, striking it with her shuttle.[152][153] Athena
Athena
then struck Arachne
Arachne
across the face with her staff four times.[152][153] Arachne
Arachne
hanged herself in despair,[152][153] but Athena
Athena
took pity on her and brought her back from the dead in the form of a spider.[152][153]

Trojan War[edit] Main article: Judgement of Paris

Ancient Greek mosaic from Antioch
Antioch
dating to the second century AD, depicting the Judgement of Paris

The myth of the Judgement of Paris
Judgement of Paris
is mentioned briefly in the Iliad,[154] but is described in depth in an epitome of the Cypria, a lost poem of the Epic Cycle,[155] which records that all the gods and goddesses as well as various mortals were invited to the marriage of Peleus
Peleus
and Thetis
Thetis
(the eventual parents of Achilles).[154] Only Eris, goddess of discord, was not invited.[155] She was annoyed at this, so she arrived with a golden apple inscribed with the word καλλίστῃ (kallistēi, "for the fairest"), which she threw among the goddesses.[156] Aphrodite, Hera, and Athena
Athena
all claimed to be the fairest, and thus the rightful owner of the apple.[156] The goddesses chose to place the matter before Zeus, who, not wanting to favor one of the goddesses, put the choice into the hands of Paris, a Trojan prince.[156] After bathing in the spring of Mount Ida
Mount Ida
where Troy
Troy
was situated, the goddesses appeared before Paris for his decision.[156] In the extant ancient depictions of the Judgement of Paris, Aphrodite
Aphrodite
is only occasionally represented nude, and Athena
Athena
and Hera
Hera
are always fully clothed.[157] Since the Renaissance, however, western paintings have typically portrayed all three goddesses as completely naked.[157] All three goddesses were ideally beautiful and Paris could not decide between them, so they resorted to bribes.[156] Hera
Hera
tried to bribe Paris with power over all Asia
Asia
and Europe,[156] and Athena
Athena
offered wisdom, fame and glory in battle,[156] but Aphrodite
Aphrodite
promised Paris that, if he were to choose her as the fairest, she would let him marry the most beautiful woman on earth.[158] This woman was Helen, who was already married to King Menelaus
Menelaus
of Sparta.[158] Paris selected Aphrodite
Aphrodite
and awarded her the apple.[158] The other two goddesses were enraged and, as a direct result, sided with the Greeks in the Trojan War.[158] In Books V-VI of the Iliad, Athena
Athena
aids the hero Diomedes, who, in the absence of Achilles, proves himself to be the most effective Greek warrior.[159] Several artistic representations from the early sixth century BC may show Athena
Athena
and Diomedes,[159] including an early sixth-century BC shield band depicting Athena
Athena
and an unidentified warrior riding on a chariot, a vase painting of a warrior with his charioteer facing Athena, and an inscribed clay plaque showing Diomedes
Diomedes
and Athena
Athena
riding in a chariot.[159] Numerous passages in the Iliad
Iliad
also mention Athena
Athena
having previously served as the patron of Diomedes's father Tydeus.[160][161] When the Trojan women go to the temple of Athena
Athena
on the Acropolis
Acropolis
to plead her for protection from Diomedes, Athena
Athena
ignores them.[88] In Book XXII of the Iliad, while Achilles
Achilles
is chasing Hector
Hector
around the walls of Troy, Athena
Athena
appears to Hector
Hector
disguised as his brother Deiphobus[162] and persuades him to hold his ground so that they can fight Achilles
Achilles
together.[162] Then, Hector
Hector
throws his spear at Achilles
Achilles
and misses, expecting Deiphobus to hand him another,[163] but Athena
Athena
disappears instead, leaving Hector
Hector
to face Achilles
Achilles
alone without his spear.[163] In Sophocles's tragedy Ajax, she punishes Odysseus's rival Ajax the Great, driving him insane and causing him to massacre the Achaeans' cattle, thinking that he is slaughtering the Achaeans themselves.[164] Even after Odysseus
Odysseus
himself expresses pity for Ajax,[165] Athena
Athena
declares, "To laugh at your enemies - what sweeter laughter can there be than that?" (lines 78-9).[165] Ajax later commits suicide as a result of his humiliation.[165] Classical art[edit] In early, archaic portraits of Athena
Athena
in black-figure pottery, the goddess retains some of her Minoan-Mycenaean character,[19] such as great bird wings,[19] although this is not true of archaic sculpture such as those of Aphaean Athena, where Athena
Athena
has subsumed an earlier, invisibly numinous—Aphaea—goddess with Cretan connections in her mythos. In classical depictions, Athena
Athena
is usually portrayed standing upright, wearing a full-length chiton.[166] She is sometimes dressed in armor,[166] and is often represented wearing a Corinthian helmet raised high atop her forehead.[167] Her shield bears at its centre the aegis with the head of the gorgon (gorgoneion) in the center and snakes around the edge.[140] It is in this standing posture that she was depicted in Phidias's famous lost gold and ivory statue of her, 36 m tall, the Athena Parthenos
Athena Parthenos
in the Parthenon.[166] Apart from her attributes, there seems to be a relative consensus in late sculpture from the Classical period, the fifth century BC onward, as to what Athena
Athena
looked like. Most noticeable in the face is perhaps the full round strong, chin with a high nose that has a high bridge as a natural extension of the forehead. The eyes typically are somewhat deeply set. The unsmiling lips are usually full, but the mouth is depicted fairly narrow, usually just slightly wider than the nose. The neck is somewhat long. The Mourning Athena
Mourning Athena
is a famous relief sculpture dating to around 470-460 BC[167] that has been interpreted to represent Athena Polias.[167] Athena
Athena
Polias is also represented in a Neo-Attic relief now held in the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts,[167] which depicts her holding an owl in her hand[Notes 11] and wearing her characteristic Corinthian helmet
Corinthian helmet
while resting her shield against a nearby herma.[167]

Attic black-figure exaleiptron of the birth of Athena
Athena
from the head of Zeus
Zeus
(c. 570–560 BC)

Attic red-figure kylix of Athena Promachos
Athena Promachos
holding a spear and standing beside a Doric column (c. 500-490 BC)

Restoration of the polychrome decoration of the Athena
Athena
statue from the Aphaea
Aphaea
temple at Aegina, c. 490 BC (from the exposition "Bunte Götter" by the Munich Glyptothek)

The Mourning Athena
Mourning Athena
relief (c. 470-460 BC)

Attic red-figure kylix showing Athena
Athena
slaying the Gigante Enkelados (c. 550–500 BC)

Relief of Athena
Athena
and Nike slaying the Gigante Alkyoneus from the Gigantomachy
Gigantomachy
Frieze on the Pergamon
Pergamon
Altar (early second century BC)

Classical mosaic from a villa at Tusculum, 3rd century AD, now at Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican

Mythological scene with Athena
Athena
(left) and Herakles
Herakles
(right), on a stone palette of the Greco-Buddhist art
Greco-Buddhist art
of Gandhara, India

Atena farnese, Roman copy of a Greek original from Phidias' circle, c. 430 AD, Museo Archeologico, Naples

Post-classical culture[edit] Art and symbolism[edit]

Statue of Pallas Athena
Athena
in front of the Austrian Parliament Building. Athena
Athena
has been used throughout western history as a symbol of freedom and democracy.[168]

Early Christian writers such as Clement of Alexandria
Clement of Alexandria
and Firmicus denigrated Athena
Athena
as representative of all the things that were detestable about paganism;[169] they condemned her as "immodest and immoral".[170] During the Middle Ages, however, many attributes of Athena
Athena
were given to the Virgin Mary,[170] who, in fourth century portrayals, was often depicted wearing the Gorgoneion.[170] Some even viewed the Virgin Mary
Virgin Mary
as a warrior maiden, much like Athena Parthenos;[170] one anecdote tells that the Virgin Mary
Virgin Mary
once appeared upon the walls of Constantinople
Constantinople
when it was under siege by the Avars, clutching a spear and urging the people to fight.[171] During the Middle Ages, Athena
Athena
became widely used as a Christian symbol and allegory, and she appeared on the family crests of certain noble houses.[172] During the Renaissance, Athena
Athena
donned the mantle of patron of the arts and human endeavor;[173] allegorical paintings involving Athena
Athena
were a favorite of the Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
painters.[173] In Sandro Botticelli's painting Pallas and the Centaur, probably painted sometime in the 1480s, Athena
Athena
is the personification of chastity, who is shown grasping the forelock of a centaur, who represents lust.[174][175] Andrea Mantegna's 1502 painting Minerva
Minerva
Expelling the Vices from the Garden of Virtue uses Athena
Athena
as the personification of Graeco-Roman learning chasing the vices of medievalism from the garden of modern scholarship.[176][175] During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Athena
Athena
was used as a symbol for female rulers.[177] In his book A Revelation of the True Minerva
Minerva
(1582), Thomas Blennerhassett portrays Queen Elizabeth I of England as a "new Minerva" and "the greatest goddesse nowe on earth".[178] A series of paintings by Peter Paul Rubens
Peter Paul Rubens
depict Athena as Marie de' Medici's patron and mentor;[179] the final painting in the series goes even further and shows Marie de' Medici
Marie de' Medici
with Athena's iconography, as the mortal incarnation of the goddess herself.[179] During the French Revolution, statues of pagan gods were torn down all throughout France, but statues of Athena
Athena
were not.[179] Instead, Athena
Athena
was transformed into the personification of freedom and the republic[179] and a statue of the goddess stood in the center of the Place de la Revolution
Place de la Revolution
in Paris.[179] In the years following the Revolution, artistic representations of Athena
Athena
proliferated.[180] A statue of Athena
Athena
stands directly in front of the Austrian Parliament Building in Vienna,[181] and depictions of Athena
Athena
have influenced other symbols of western freedom, including the Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
and Britannia.[181] For over a century, a full-scale replica of the Parthenon
Parthenon
has stood in Nashville, Tennessee.[182] In 1990, the curators added a gilded forty-two foot (12.5 m) tall replica of Phidias's Athena
Athena
Parthenos, built from concrete and fiberglass.[182] The state seal of California bears the image of Athena
Athena
kneeling next to a brown grizzly bear.[183] Athena
Athena
has occasionally appeared on modern coins, as she did on the ancient Athenian drachma. Her head appears on the $50 1915-S Panama-Pacific commemorative coin.[184]

Pallas and the Centaur
Pallas and the Centaur
(c. 1482) by Sandro Botticelli

Minerva
Minerva
Expelling the Vices from the Garden of Virtue (1502) by Andrea Mantegna

Athena
Athena
Scorning the Advances of Hephaestus
Hephaestus
(c. 1555-1560) by Paris Bordone

Minerva
Minerva
Victorious Over Ignorance (c. 1591) by Bartholomeus Spranger

Maria de Medici (1622) by Peter Paul Rubens, showing her as the incarnation of Athena[179]

Minerva
Minerva
Protecting Peace from Mars (1629) by Peter Paul Rubens

Pallas Athena
Athena
(c. 1655) by Rembrandt

Minerva
Minerva
Revealing Ithaca to Ulysses (fifteenth century) by Giuseppe Bottani

Minerva
Minerva
and the Triumph of Jupiter (1706) by René-Antoine Houasse

The Combat of Mars and Minerva
Minerva
(1771) by Joseph-Benoît Suvée

Minerva
Minerva
Fighting Mars (1771) by Jacques-Louis David

Minerva
Minerva
of Peace mosaic in the Library of Congress

Athena
Athena
on the Great Seal of California

Modern interpretations[edit]

Modern Neopagan Hellenist altar dedicated to Athena
Athena
and Apollo

One of Sigmund Freud's most treasured possessions was a small, bronze statue of Athena, which sat on his desk.[185] Freud once described Athena
Athena
as "a woman who is unapproachable and repels all sexual desires - since she displays the terrifying genitals of the Mother."[186] Feminist views on Athena
Athena
are sharply divided;[187] some feminists regard her as a symbol of female empowerment,[187] while others regard her as "the ultimate patriarchal sell out... who uses her powers to promote and advance men rather than others of her sex."[187] In contemporary Wicca, Athena
Athena
is venerated as an aspect of the Goddess[188] and some Wiccans believe that she may bestow the "Owl Gift" ("the ability to write and communicate clearly") upon her worshippers.[188] Due to her status as one of the twelve Olympians, Athena
Athena
is a major deity in Hellenismos,[189] a Neopagan religion which seeks to authentically revive and recreate the religion of ancient Greece
Greece
in the modern world.[190] Athena
Athena
is a natural patron of universities: At Bryn Mawr College
Bryn Mawr College
in Pennsylvania a statue of Athena
Athena
(a replica of the original bronze one in the arts and archaeology library) resides in the Great Hall.[191] It is traditional at exam time for students to leave offerings to the goddess with a note asking for good luck,[191] or to repent for accidentally breaking any of the college's numerous other traditions.[191] Pallas Athena
Athena
is the tutelary goddess of the international social fraternity Phi Delta Theta.[192] Her owl is also a symbol of the fraternity.[192]

Genealogy[edit]

Athena's family tree

Uranus

Gaia

Uranus' genitals

Oceanus

Tethys

Cronus

Rhea

Metis

Zeus

Hera

Poseidon

Hades

Demeter

Hestia

ATHENA

    a [Notes 12]

     b [Notes 13]

Ares

Hephaestus

Leto

Apollo

Artemis

Maia

Hermes

Semele

Dionysus

Dione

    a [Notes 14]

     b [Notes 15]

Aphrodite

See also[edit]

Greek mythology
Greek mythology
portal Hellenismos portal

Athenaeum (other)

Notes[edit]

^ In other traditions, Athena's father is sometimes listed as Pallas the Gigante, Brontes the Cyclopes, or Itonos the Daktyl ^ /əˈθiːnə/; Attic Greek: Ἀθηνᾶ, Athēnā, or Ἀθηναία, Athēnaia; Epic: Ἀθηναίη, Athēnaiē; Doric: Ἀθάνα, Athānā ^ /əˈθiːniː/; Ionic: Ἀθήνη, Athēnē ^ /ˈpæləs/; Παλλὰς ^ "The citizens have a deity for their foundress; she is called in the Egyptian tongue Neith, and is asserted by them to be the same whom the Hellenes call Athena; they are great lovers of the Athenians, and say that they are in some way related to them." (Timaeus 21e.) ^ Aeschylus, Eumenides, v. 292 f.. Cf. the tradition that she was the daughter of Neilos: see, e. g. Clement of Alexandria
Clement of Alexandria
Protr. 2.28.2; Cicero, De Natura Deorum
De Natura Deorum
3.59. ^ "This sanctuary had been respected from early days by all the Peloponnesians, and afforded peculiar safety to its suppliants" (Pausanias, Description of Greece
Greece
iii.5.6) ^ Compare the origin of Sparta. ^ Jane Ellen Harrison's famous characterization of this myth-element as, "a desperate theological expedient to rid an earth-born Kore of her matriarchal conditions" (Harrison 1922:302) has never been refuted nor confirmed. ^ According to Hesiod's Theogony
Theogony
(885-923), Zeus
Zeus
had seven wives or companions. Zeus
Zeus
impregnated his first wife Metis and then swallowed her. Therefore, Athena
Athena
was the first child to be conceived. Later Zeus himself gave birth to Athena
Athena
from his head. ^ The owl's role as a symbol of wisdom originates in this association with Athena. ^ According to Homer, Iliad
Iliad
1.570–579, 14.338, Odyssey
Odyssey
8.312, Hephaestus
Hephaestus
was apparently the son of Hera
Hera
and Zeus, see Gantz, p. 74. ^ According to Hesiod, Theogony
Theogony
927–929, Hephaestus
Hephaestus
was produced by Hera
Hera
alone, with no father, see Gantz, p. 74. ^ According to Hesiod, Theogony
Theogony
183–200, Aphrodite
Aphrodite
was born from Uranus' severed genitals, see Gantz, pp. 99–100. ^ According to Homer, Aphrodite
Aphrodite
was the daughter of Zeus
Zeus
( Iliad
Iliad
3.374, 20.105; Odyssey
Odyssey
8.308, 320) and Dione ( Iliad
Iliad
5.370–71), see Gantz, pp. 99–100.

References[edit]

^ Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of Literature, s.v. " Athena
Athena
p. 81. ^ a b Deacy & Villing 2001. ^ a b c d e f g h Burkert 1985, p. 139. ^ a b c d e f Ruck & Staples 1994, p. 24. ^ a b Beekes 2009, p. 29. ^ Johrens 1981, pp. 438–452. ^ a b Nilsson 1967, pp. 347, 433. ^ a b c d e f g Burkert 1985, p. 140. ^ Puhvel 1987, p. 133. ^ Kinsely 1989, pp. 141–142. ^ a b Chadwick 1976, pp. 88–89. ^ a b c d Ventris & Chadwick 1973, p. 126. ^ a b Palaima 2004, p. 444. ^ Burkert 1985, p. 44. ^ KO Za 1 inscription, line 1. ^ a b c Best 1989, p. 30. ^ a b Mylonas 1966, p. 159. ^ a b c Fururmark 1978, p. 672. ^ a b c d Nilsson 1950, p. 496. ^ Harrison 1922:306. "Cfr. ibid., p. 307, fig. 84: Detail of a cup in the Faina collection". Archived from the original on 5 November 2004. Retrieved 2007-05-06. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) . ^ Puhvel 1987, pp. 133–134. ^ Mallory & Adams 2006, p. 433. ^ Deacy 2007, pp. 20–21, 41. ^ a b c d e f g Dexter 1984, pp. 137–144. ^ Cf. also Herodotus, Histories 2:170–175. ^ Bernal 1987, pp. 21, 51 ff. ^ Fritze 2009, pp. 221–229. ^ Berlinerblau 1999, p. 93ff. ^ Fritze 2009, pp. 221–255. ^ Jasanoff & Nussbaum 1996, p. 194. ^ Fritze 2009, pp. 250–255. ^ Herrington 1955, pp. 11–15. ^ Simon 1983, p. 46. ^ a b Simon 1983, pp. 46–49. ^ a b c Herrington 1955, pp. 1–11. ^ Burkert 1985, pp. 305–337. ^ Herrington 1955, pp. 11–14. ^ a b c d e f g h Schmitt 2000, pp. 1059–1073. ^ a b c Darmon 1992, pp. 114–115. ^ Harrington 1955, pp. 11–14. ^ Goldhill 1986, p. 121. ^ a b c Garland 2008, p. 217. ^ Goldhill 1986, p. 31. ^ a b Noel 1992, pp. 90–109. ^ a b Hurwit 1999, p. 18. ^ Pilafidis-Williams 1998. ^ Jost 1996, pp. 134–135. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece
Greece
viii.4.8. ^ a b c d e f Deacy 2008, p. 127. ^ a b Burn 2004, p. 10. ^ a b Burn 2004, p. 11. ^ Burn 2004, pp. 10–11. ^ a b Hurwit 1999, p. 15. ^ a b c Hubbard 1986, p. 28. ^ Bell 1993, p. 13. ^ Pausanias, i. 5. § 3; 41. § 6. ^ John Tzetzes, ad Lycophr., l.c.. ^ Schaus & Wenn 2007, p. 30. ^ Plutarch, Life of Pericles, 13.8. ^ γλαυκῶπις in Liddell and Scott. ^ γλαυκός in Liddell and Scott. ^ ὤψ in Liddell and Scott. ^ Thompson, D'Arcy Wentworth. A glossary of Greek birds. Oxford: Clarendon Press 1895, p. 45f. ^ γλαύξ in Liddell and Scott. ^ a b Nilsson 1950, pp. 491–496. ^ a b Graves 1960, p. 55. ^ a b Graves 1960, pp. 50–55. ^ Kerényi 1951, p. 128. ^ Τριτογένεια in Liddell and Scott. ^ Hesiod, Theogony
Theogony
II, 886–900. ^ a b Janda 2005, p. 289-298. ^ a b c Janda 2005, p. 293. ^ Homer, Iliad
Iliad
XV, 187–195. ^ Kerényi 1951, pp. 118–122. ^ a b Kerényi 1951, p. 118. ^ Kerényi 1951, pp. 118–119. ^ a b Kerényi 1951, p. 119. ^ Hesiod, Theogony
Theogony
885-900, 929e-929t ^ Kerényi 1951, pp. 119–120. ^ a b c d e f Kerényi 1951, p. 120. ^ Pindar, Seventh Olympian Ode ^ Justin, Apology 64.5, quoted in Robert McQueen Grant, Gods and the One God, vol. 1:155, who observes that it is Porphyry "who similarly identifies Athena
Athena
with 'forethought'". ^ a b c d e f g Kerényi 1951, p. 281. ^ a b c Kerényi 1951, p. 121. ^ Kerényi 1951, p. 122. ^ Oldenburg 1969, p. 86. ^ "''Sacred Texts: Ancient Fragments'', ed. and trans. I. P. Cory, 1832: "The Theology of the Phœnicians from Sanchoniatho"". Sacred-texts.com. Archived from the original on 5 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-25.  ^ a b c Deacy 2008, pp. 68-69. ^ Chantraine, s.v.; the New Pauly says the etymology is simply unknown ^ New Pauly s.v. Pallas ^ a b Graves 1960, p. 50. ^ Deacy 2008, p. 51. ^ Kerényi 1951, p. 120-121. ^ a b c d e f Deacy 2008, p. 68. ^ Deacy 2008, p. 71. ^ a b c d e f g h Kerényi 1951, p. 124. ^ a b c d e f Graves 1960, p. 62. ^ Kinsley 1989, p. 143. ^ a b c d e f g Deacy 2008, p. 88. ^ a b c d e f g h Kerényi 1951, p. 123. ^ a b c d e f g Burkert 1985, p. 143. ^ a b c d e f Kerényi 1951, p. 125. ^ Kerényi 1951, pp. 125–126. ^ a b Kerényi 1951, p. 126. ^ Deacy 2008, pp. 88–89. ^ a b c d e f Deacy 2008, p. 89. ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses, X. Aglaura, Book II, 708–751; XI. The Envy, Book II, 752–832. ^ a b c d e Kerényi 1952. ^ Marinus of Samaria, "The Life of Proclus or Concerning Happiness", Translated by Kenneth S. Guthrie (1925), pp.15–55:30, retrieved 21 May 2007.Marinus, Life of Proclus ^ a b Burkert 1985, p. 141. ^ Kinsley 1989, p. 151. ^ a b c d e Deacy 2008, p. 61. ^ Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2.37, 38, 39 ^ a b Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2.41 ^ Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2.39 ^ Deacy 2008, p. 48. ^ Pindar, Olympian Ode 13.75-78 ^ a b c Deacy 2007, pp. 64–65. ^ Pollitt 1999, pp. 48–50. ^ a b Deacy 2007, p. 65. ^ a b Pollitt 1999, p. 50. ^ a b Roman & Roman 2010, p. 161. ^ Roman & Roman 2010, pp. 161–162. ^ a b c Jenkyns 2016, p. 19. ^ W.F.Otto,Die Gotter Griechenlands(55-77).Bonn:F.Cohen,1929 ^ Deacy 2007, p. 59. ^ de Jong 2001, p. 152. ^ de Jong 2001, pp. 152–153. ^ a b Trahman 1952, pp. 31–35. ^ a b c d e Burkert 1985, p. 142. ^ Trahman 1952, p. 35. ^ Trahman 1952, pp. 35–43. ^ a b Trahman 1952, pp. 35–42. ^ Jenkyns 2016, pp. 19–20. ^ Murrin 2007, p. 499. ^ a b Murrin 2007, pp. 499–500. ^ Murrin 2007, pp. 499–514. ^ Deacy 2008, p. 62. ^ Phinney 1971, pp. 445–447. ^ a b Phinney 1971, pp. 445–463. ^ a b c Seelig 2002, p. 895. ^ Seelig 2002, p. 895-911. ^ a b c d e f g Poehlmann 2017, p. 330. ^ Morford & Lenardon 1999, p. 315. ^ Morford & Lenardon 1999, pp. 315–316. ^ a b c Kugelmann 1983, p. 73. ^ a b c Morford & Lenardon 1999, p. 316. ^ Edmunds 1990, p. 373. ^ a b c Roman & Roman 2010, p. 78. ^ a b c Norton 2013, p. 166. ^ ἀράχνη, ἀράχνης. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus
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Project. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Harries 1990, pp. 64–82. ^ a b c d e f g h i Leach 1974, pp. 102–142. ^ a b Walcot 1977, p. 31. ^ a b Walcot 1977, pp. 31–32. ^ a b c d e f g Walcot 1977, p. 32. ^ a b Bull 2005, pp. 346–347. ^ a b c d Walcot 1977, pp. 32–33. ^ a b c Burgess 2001, p. 84. ^ Iliad
Iliad
4.390, 5.115-120, 10.284-94 ^ Burgess 2001, pp. 84–85. ^ a b Deacy 2008, p. 69. ^ a b Deacy 2008, pp. 69-70. ^ Deacy 2007, pp. 59–60. ^ a b c Deacy 2007, p. 60. ^ a b c Palagia & Pollitt 1996, p. 28-32. ^ a b c d e Palagia & Pollitt 1996, p. 32. ^ Deacy 2008, pp. 145–149. ^ Deacy 2008, pp. 141–144. ^ a b c d Deacy 2008, p. 144. ^ Deacy 2008, pp. 144–145. ^ Deacy 2008, pp. 146–148. ^ a b Deacy 2008, pp. 145–146. ^ Randolph 2002, p. 221. ^ a b Deacy 2008, p. 145. ^ Brown 2007, p. 1. ^ Deacy 2008, p. 147-148. ^ Deacy 2008, p. 147. ^ a b c d e f Deacy 2008, p. 148. ^ Deacy 2008, pp. 148–149. ^ a b Deacy 2008, p. 149. ^ a b Garland 2008, p. 330. ^ "Symbols of the Seal of California". LearnCalifornia.org. Archived from the original on 24 November 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-25.  ^ Swiatek & Breen 1981, pp. 201–202. ^ Deacy 2008, p. 153. ^ Deacy 2003, p. 154. ^ a b c Deacy 2008, p. 154. ^ a b Gallagher 2005, p. 109. ^ Alexander 2007, pp. 31–32. ^ Alexander 2007, pp. 11–20. ^ a b c Friedman 2005, p. 121. ^ a b " Phi Delta Theta
Phi Delta Theta
International - Symbols". phideltatheta.org. Archived from the original on 7 June 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-07. 

Library resources about Athena

Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

Bibliography[edit] Ancient sources[edit]

Apollodorus, Library, 3,180 Augustine, De civitate dei xviii.8–9 Cicero, De natura deorum iii.21.53, 23.59 Eusebius, Chronicon 30.21–26, 42.11–14 Homer, The Iliad
Iliad
with an English Translation by A.T. Murray, Ph.D. in two volumes. Cambridge, MA., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, Ltd. 1924. Online version at the Perseus
Perseus
Digital Library. Homer; The Odyssey
Odyssey
with an English Translation by A.T. Murray, PH.D. in two volumes. Cambridge, MA., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, Ltd. 1919. Online version at the Perseus
Perseus
Digital Library. Hesiod, Theogony, in The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White, Cambridge, MA., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1914. Online version at the Perseus
Perseus
Digital Library. Lactantius, Divinae institutions i.17.12–13, 18.22–23 Livy, Ab urbe condita libri vii.3.7 Lucan, Bellum civile ix.350

Modern sources[edit]

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Athena
Controversy and the Responsibilities of American Intellectuals, New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, p. 93ff, ISBN 9780813525884  Best, Jan (1989), Fred Woudhuizen, ed., Lost Languages from the Mediterranean, Leiden, Germany et al.: Brill, p. 30, ISBN 9004089349  Brown, Jane K. (2007), The Persistence of Allegory: Drama and Neoclassicism from Shakespeare to Wagner, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Penssylvania Press, ISBN 978-0-8122-3966-9  Bull, Malcolm (2005), The Mirror of the Gods: How Renaissance
Renaissance
Artists Rediscovered the Pagan Gods, Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-521923-6  Burgess, Jonathan S. (2001), The Tradition of the Trojan War
Trojan War
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Athena
and Ares
Ares
in Greek Mythology, translated by Danielle Beauvais, Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press  Deacy, Susan; Villing, Alexandra (2001), Athena
Athena
in the Classical World, Leiden, The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV  Deacy, Susan (2008), Athena, London and New York: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-30066-5  de Jong, Irene J. F. (2001), A Narratological Commentary on the Odyssey, Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-46844-2  Dexter, Miriam Robbins (1984), "Proto-Indo-European Sun Maidens and Gods of the Moon", Mankind Quarterly, 25 (1 & 2): 137–144  Edmunds, Lowell (1990), Approaches to Greek Myth, Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 0-8018-3864-9  Friedman, Sarah (2005), Bryn Mawr College
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Off the Record, College Prowler, ISBN 1-59658-018-6  Fritze, Ronald H. (2009), Invented Knowledge: False History, Fake Science and Pseudo-Religions, London, England: Reaktion Books, ISBN 978-1-86189-430-4  Fururmark, A. (1978), "The Thera Catastrophe-Consequences for the European Civilization", Thera and the Aegean World I, London, England: Cambridge University Press  Gantz, Timothy, Early Greek Myth: A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996, Two volumes: ISBN 978-0-8018-5360-9 (Vol. 1), ISBN 978-0-8018-5362-3 (Vol. 2). Gallagher, Ann-Marie (2005), The Wicca
Wicca
Bible: The Definitive Guide to Magic and the Craft, New York City, New York: Sterling Publishing Co., Inc., ISBN 1-4027-3008-X  Garland, Robert (2008), Ancient Greece: Everyday Life in the Birthplace of Western Civilization, New York City, New York: Sterling, ISBN 978-1-4549-0908-8  Goldhill, S. (1986), Reading Greek Tragedy (Aesch.Eum.737), Cambridge, Enlgand: Cambridge University Press  Graves, Robert (1960) [1955], The Greek Myths, London, England: Penguin, ISBN 978-0241952740  Harries, Byron (1990), "The spinner and the poet: Arachne
Arachne
in Ovid's Metamorphoses", The Cambridge Classical Journal, Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 36: 64–82, doi:10.1017/S006867350000523X  Harrison, Jane Ellen, 1903. Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion. Herrington, C.J. (1955), Athena Parthenos
Athena Parthenos
and Athena
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Polias, Manchester, England: Manchester University Press  Hubbard, Thomas K. (1986), "Pegasus' Bridle
Bridle
and the Poetics of Pindar's Thirteenth Olympian", in Tarrant, R. J., Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, 90, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-37937-3  Hurwit, Jeffrey M. (1999), The Athenian Acropolis: History, Mythology, and Archaeology from the Neolithic Era to the Present, Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-41786-4  Janda, Michael (2005), Elysion. Entstehung und Entwicklung der griechischen Religion, Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachen und Literaturen, ISBN 9783851247022  Jasanoff, Jay H.; Nussbaum, Alan (1996), "Word games: the Linguistic Evidence in Black Athena" (PDF), in Mary R. Lefkowitz; Guy MacLean Rogers (eds.), Black Athena
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Revisited, The University of North Carolina Press, p. 194, ISBN 9780807845554 CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) Jenkyns, Richard (2016), Classical Literature: An Epic Journey from Homer
Homer
to Virgil
Virgil
and Beyond, NewYork City, New York: Basic Books, A Member of the Perseus
Perseus
Books Group, ISBN 978-0-465-09797-5  Johrens, Gerhard (1981), Der Athenahymnus des Ailios Aristeides, Bonn, Germany: Habelt, pp. 438–452, ISBN 9783774918504  Jost, Madeleine (1996), "Arcadian cults and myths", in Hornblower, Simon, Oxford Classical Dictionary, Oxford, England: Oxford University Press  Kerényi, Karl (1951), The Gods of the Greeks, London, England: Thames and Hudson, ISBN 0-500-27048-1  Kerényi, Karl (1952), Die Jungfrau und Mutter der griechischen Religion. Eine Studie uber Pallas Athene, Zurich: Rhein Verlag  Kinsley, David (1989), The Goddesses' Mirror: Visions of the Divine from East and West, Albany, New York: New York State University Press, ISBN 0-88706-836-7  Kugelmann, Robert (1983), The Windows of Soul: Psychological Physiology of the Human Eye and Primary Glaucoma, Plainsboro, New Jersey: Associated University Presses, ISBN 0-8387-5035-4  Leach, Eleanor Winsor (January 1974), "Ekphrasis and the Theme of Artistic Failure in Ovid's Metamorphoses", Ramus, Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 3 (2): 102–142, doi:10.1017/S0048671X00004549  Mallory, James P.; Adams, Douglas Q. (2006), Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World, London: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-929668-2  Morford, Mark P. O.; Lenardon, Robert J. (1999), Classical Mythology (sixth ed.), Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-514338-8  Murrin, Michael (Spring 2007), " Athena
Athena
and Telemachus", International Journal of the Classical Tradition, Berlin, Germany: Springer, 13 (4): 499–514, JSTOR 30222174  Mylonas, G. (1966), Mycenae
Mycenae
and the Mycenaean Age, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0691035239  Nilsson, Martin Persson (1950), The Minoan-Mycenaean Religion and Its Survival in Greek Religion (second ed.), New York: Biblo & Tannen, ISBN 0-8196-0273-6  Nilsson, Martin Persson (1967), Die Geschichte der griechischen Religion, München, Germany: C. F. Beck  Norton, Elizabeth (2013), Aspects of Ecphrastic Technique in Ovid's Metamorphoses, Newcastle upon Tyne, England: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, ISBN 978-1-4438-4271-6  Oldenburg, Ulf (1969), The Conflict Between El and Ba'al in Canaanite Religion, Leiden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill  Palagia, Olga; Pollitt, J. J. (1996), Personal Styles in Greek Sculpture, Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-65738-5  Palaima, Thomas (2004), "Appendix One: Linear B
Linear B
Sources", in Trzaskoma, Stephen, Anthology of Classical Myth: Primary Sources in Translation, Hackett  Phinney, Edward, Jr. (1971), "Perseus' Battle with the Gorgons", Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association, Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 102: 445–463, doi:10.2307/2935950, JSTOR 2935950  Pilafidis-Williams, K. (1998), The Sanctuary of Aphaia on Aigina in the Bronze Age, Munich, Germany: Hirmer, ISBN 3-7774-8010-X  Poehlmann, Egert (2017), "Aristotle on Music and Theatre (Politics VIII 6. 1340 b 20 - 1342 b 34; Poetics)", in Fountoulakis, Andreas; Markantonatos, Andreas; Vasilaros, Georgios, Theatre World: Critical Perspectives on Greek Tragedy and Comedy. Studies in Honour of Georgia Xanthakis-Karamenos, Berlin, Germany: Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 978-3-11-051896-2  Pollitt, J. J. (1999) [1972], Art and Experience in Classical Greece (revised ed.), Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-09662-1  Puhvel, Jaan (1987), Comparative Mythology, Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 0-8018-3938-6  Randolph, Adrian W. B. (2002), Engaging Symbols: Gender, Politics, and Public Art in Fifteenth-century Florence, New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-09212-1  Robertson, Noel (1992), Festivals and Legends: The Formation of Greek Cities in the Light of Public Ritual, Toronto: University of Toronto Press  Roman, Luke; Roman, Monica (2010), Encyclopedia of Greek and Roman Mythology, New York City, New York: Infobase Publishing, ISBN 978-0-8160-7242-2  Ruck, Carl A.P.; Staples, Danny (1994), The World of Classical Myth: Gods and Goddesses, Heroines and Heroes, Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press, ISBN 978-0890895757  Schaus, Gerald P.; Wenn, Stephen R. (2007), Onward to the Olympics: Historical Perspectives on the Olympic Games, Publications of the Canadian Institute in Greece, 5, Ontario, Canada: Wilfred Laurier University Press, ISBN 978-0-88920-505-5  Schmitt, P. (2000), " Athena
Athena
Apatouria et la ceinture. Les aspects féminins des apatouries à Athènes", Annales: Economies, Societies, Civilisations, London, England: Thames and Hudson, pp. 1059–1073  Seelig, Beth J. (August 2002), "The Rape of Medusa
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(Helsinki: Kirja kerrallaan). Trahman, C.R. (1952), "Odysseus' Lies ('Odyssey', Books 13-19)", Phoenix, Classical Association of Canada, 6 (2): 31–43  Ventris, Michael; Chadwick, John (1973) [1953], Documents in Mycenaean Greek, Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-1107503410  Friel, Brian, 1980. Translations Walcot, P. (April 1977), "The Judgement of Paris", Greece
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and mythology

Classical religious forms

Ancient Greek religion Gnosticism Paleo-Balkan mythology Proto-Indo-European religion Hellenistic religion Alchemy Orphism Pythagoreanism Mycenaean deities

Mystery religions and sacred mysteries

Dionysian Mysteries Eleusinian Mysteries Imbrian Mysteries Mithraism Samotracian Mysteries

Main beliefs

Apotheosis Euhemerism Greek Heroic Age Monism Mythology Nympholepsy Paganism Paradoxography Polytheism Theism

Texts/ Epic poems/ Ode

Aretalogy Argonautica Bibliotheca Cyranides Derveni papyrus Ehoiai Greek Magical Papyri Homeric Hymns Iliad Odyssey Papyrus Graecus Holmiensis Telegony The golden verses of Pythagoras Theogony Works and Days Epic Cycle Theban Cycle

Rites and practices

Amphictyonic League Amphidromia Animal sacrifice Apotheosis Baptes Curse tablet Daduchos Delphinion Funeral and burial practices Hymns Hero cult Heroon Hierophany Hierophant Hierophylakes Hieros gamos Hypsistarians Iatromantis Interpretatio graeca Libations Mystagogue Nekyia Necromancy Necromanteion Nymphaeum Panegyris Pharmakos Prayers Orgia Sacrifices Temenos Temples Votive offerings

Sacred places

Athenian sacred ships Cave of Zeus Cretea Delphi Delos Dodona Eleusis Hiera Orgas Olympia Olympus Psychro Cave Sacred Way

Mythical beings

Dragons in Greek mythology Greek mythological creatures Greek mythological figures List of minor Greek mythological figures

Deities

Primordial deities

Aether Aion Ananke Chaos Chronos Erebus Eros Gaia Hemera Nyx Phanes Pontus Thalassa Tartarus Uranus

Titans

First generation

Coeus Crius Cronus Hyperion Iapetus Mnemosyne Oceanus Phoebe Rhea Tethys Theia Themis

Second generation

Asteria Astraeus Atlas Eos Epimetheus Helios Leto Menoetius Metis Pallas Perses Prometheus Selene

Third generation

Hecate Hesperus Phosphorus

Twelve Olympians

Aphrodite Apollo Ares Artemis Athena Demeter Dionysus Hephaestus Hera Hermes Hestia Poseidon Zeus

Aquatic deities

Amphitrite Alpheus Ceto Glaucus The Naiads The Nereids Nereus The Oceanids Phorcys Poseidon The Potamoi Potamides Proteus Scamander Thaumas Thetis Triton

Love deities

Erotes

Anteros Eros Hedylogos Hermaphroditus Himeros Hymen/Hymenaeus Pothos

Aphrodite Aphroditus Philotes Peitho

War deities

Adrestia Alala Alke Amphillogiai Androktasiai Ares Athena Bia Deimos Enyalius Enyo Eris Gynaecothoenas Homados Hysminai Ioke Keres Kratos Kydoimos Ma Makhai Nike Palioxis Pallas Perses Phobos Phonoi Polemos Proioxis

Chthonic
Chthonic
deities

Psychopomps

Hermanubis Hermes Thanatos

Achlys Angelos Hades
Hades
/ Pluto Hecate Hypnos Keres Lampad Macaria Melinoe Persephone

Health deities

Aceso Aegle Artemis Apollo Asclepius Chiron Eileithyia Epione Hebe Hygieia Iaso Paean Panacea Telesphorus

Sleep deities

Empusa Epiales Hypnos Morpheus Pasithea Phantasos Phobetor Oneiroi

Messenger deities

Angelia Arke Hermes Iris

Trickster deities

Apate Dolos Hermes Momus

Magic deities

Circe Hecate Hermes
Hermes
Trismegistus Triple deity

Other major deities

Azone The Erinyes Harmonia The Muses Nemesis Pan Unknown God Zelus

Heroes/Heroines

Abderus Achilles Actaeon Aeneas Argonauts Ajax the Great Ajax the Lesser Akademos Amphiaraus Amphitryon Antilochus Atalanta Autolycus Bellerophon Bouzyges Cadmus Chrysippus Cyamites Daedalus Diomedes Dioscuri
Dioscuri
(Castor and Pollux) Echetlus Eleusis Erechtheus Eunostus Ganymede Hector Heracles Icarus Iolaus Jason Meleager Odysseus Oedipus Orpheus Pandion Peleus Pelops Penthesilea Perseus Theseus Triptolemus

Mythical tribes

Amazons Anthropophage Atlantians Bebryces Curetes Dactyls Gargareans Halizones Korybantes Lapiths Lotus-eaters Myrmidons Pygmies Telchines

Oracles/Seers

Aesacus Aleuas Amphiaraus Amphilochus Ampyx Anius Asbolus Bakis Branchus Calchas Carnus Carya Cassandra Delphic Sibyl Elatus Ennomus Halitherses Helenus Iamus Idmon Manto Melampus Mopsus Munichus Phineus Polyeidos Polypheides Pythia Sibyl Telemus Theiodamas Theoclymenus Tiresias

Magic

Apotropaic magic Greek Magical Papyri Philia

Mythical realms

Aethiopia Atlantis Hyperborea Libya Nysa Panchaia Scythia Themiscyra

Underworld

Entrances to the underworld

Rivers

Acheron Cocytus Eridanos Lethe Phlegethon Styx

Lakes/ Swamps

Acherusia Avernus Lake Lerna
Lerna
Lake

Caves

Cave at Cape Matapan Cave Charonium Cave at Lake Avernus Cave at Heraclea Pontica

Ploutonion

Pluto's Gate

Places

Elysium Erebus Fields of Asphodel Fields of Punishment Isles of the Blessed Tartarus

Judges of the underworld

Aeacus Minos Rhadamanthus

Guards

Cerberus

Ferryman

Charon Charon's obol

Symbols-Objects

Bident Cap of invisibility

Animals-Daemons/Spirits

Ascalaphus Ceuthonymus Eurynomos Hade's cattle

Mythological wars

Amazonomachy Attic War Centauromachy Gigantomachy Cranes-Pygmies war Theomachy Titanomachy Trojan War

Mythological and religious objects

Adamant Aegis Ambrosia Apple of Discord Ara Baetylus Caduceus Cornucopia Dragon's teeth Diipetes Galatea Golden apple Golden Fleece Gorgoneion Greek terracotta figurines Harpe Ichor Lotus tree Minoan sealstone Moly Necklace of Harmonia Omphalos Orichalcum Palladium Panacea Pandora's box Petasos
Petasos
(Winged helmet) Philosopher's stone Ring of Gyges Rod of Asclepius Sacrificial tripod Sceptre Shield of Achilles Shirt of Nessus Sword of Damocles Talaria Thunderbolt Thymiaterion Thyrsus Trident Trojan Horse Winnowing Oar Wheel of Fortune Wheel of fire Xoanon

Symbols

Arkalochori Axe Labrys Ouroboros Owl
Owl
of Athena

Mythological powers

Anthropomorphism Divination Eternal youth Evocation Fortune-telling Immortality Language of the birds Nympholepsy Magic Ornithomancy Shamanism Shapeshifting Weather modification

Storage containers/ Cups

Amphora Calathus Chalice Ciborium Cotyla Hydria Hydriske Kalpis Kylix Kantharos Lebes Lekythos Loutrophoros Oenochoe Pelike Pithos Skyphos Stamnos

Musical Instruments

Aulos Barbiton Chelys Cithara Cochilia Crotalum
Crotalum
(Castanets) Epigonion Kollops Lyre Pan flute Pandura Phorminx Psaltery Salpinx Sistrum Tambourine Trigonon Tympanum Water organ

Games

Panhellenic Games

Olympic Games Pythian Games Nemean Games Isthmian Games

Agon Panathenaic Games Rhieia

Festivals/Feasts

Actia Adonia Agrionia Amphidromia Anthesteria Apellai Apaturia Aphrodisia Arrhephoria Ascolia Bendidia Boedromia Brauronia Buphonia Chalceia Diasia Delphinia Dionysia Ecdysia Elaphebolia Gamelia Haloa Heracleia Hermaea Hieromenia Iolaia Kronia Lenaia Lykaia Metageitnia Munichia Oschophoria Pamboeotia Pandia Plynteria Pyanopsia Skira Synoikia Soteria Tauropolia Thargelia Theseia Thesmophoria

Vessels

Argo Phaeacian ships

Modern offshoot religions

Discordianism Gaianism Hellenismos Decline of Greco-Roman polytheism

Modern popular culture

Greek mythology
Greek mythology
in popular culture

v t e

Symbols of Greece

National symbols

Flag Coat of arms

Anthem Hymn to Liberty Motto Elefthería í Thánatos National personifications Athena Greece
Greece
by Delacroix Grateful Hellas by Vryzakis National holidays 25 March (1821) 28 October (1940) Colours Blue and white

Other symbols

Historical symbols

Double-headed eagle Phoenix Drachma Meander

Other official symbols

Vergina Sun

Natural

Dolphin Owl Mount Olympus Olive
Olive
Tree Bay Laurel

Monuments

Acropolis
Acropolis
of Athens Delphi Delos Epidaurus Knossos Meteora Mount Athos Mycenae Mystras Olympia

Music

Aulos Lyre Tambourine Laouto Bouzouki Rebetiko

National poets

Ancient: Homer Modern: Dionysios Solomos, Kostis Palamas

National epics

Ancient: Iliad, Odyssey Modern: Digenis Acritas, Erotokritos

Cuisine

Taverna Wine Souvlaki Feta Greek salad Pita Olive
Olive
oil Retsina Ouzo

Patron Saints/Religion

Theotokos
Theotokos
(Our Lady of Tinos) Saint Andrew Saint George Saint Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church

Former national symbols

Coat of arms of the Kingdom of Greece Greek Crown Jewels

Related

List of cultural icons of Greece

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 74643725 LCCN: no2015006

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