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Assam
Assam
(English: /əˈsæm/, /-sɑːm/  listen (help·info)) is a state in Northeast India, situated south of the eastern Himalayas along the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
and Barak River
Barak River
valleys. Assam
Assam
covers an area of 78,438 km2 (30,285 sq mi). The state is bordered by Bhutan
Bhutan
and the state of Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
to the north; Nagaland
Nagaland
and Manipur
Manipur
to the east; Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram
Mizoram
and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to the south; and West Bengal
West Bengal
to the west via the Siliguri Corridor, a 22 kilometres (14 mi) strip of land that connects the state to the rest of India. Assam
Assam
is known for Assam tea
Assam tea
and Assam
Assam
silk. The state has conserved the one-horned Indian rhinoceros
Indian rhinoceros
from near extinction, along with the wild water buffalo, pygmy hog, tiger and various species of Asiatic birds, and provides one of the last wild habitats for the Asian elephant. The Assamese economy is aided by wildlife tourism to Kaziranga National Park
Kaziranga National Park
and Manas National Park, which are World Heritage Sites. Sal tree forests are found in the state which, as a result of abundant rainfall, look green all year round. Assam
Assam
receives more rainfall than most parts of India; this rain feeds the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
River, whose tributaries and oxbow lakes provide the region with a hydro-geomorphic environment.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Pre-history 2.2 Legendary 2.3 Ancient 2.4 Medieval 2.5 Colonial era 2.6 Modern history

3 Geography

3.1 Climate

3.1.1 Flooding

3.2 Fauna 3.3 Flora 3.4 Geology

4 Demographics

4.1 Population 4.2 Religions 4.3 Languages

5 Government and politics

5.1 Local government

6 Education

6.1 Universities 6.2 Medical colleges 6.3 Engineering and technological colleges 6.4 Law colleges

7 Economy

7.1 Tea plantations 7.2 Macro-economy 7.3 Employment 7.4 Agriculture 7.5 Industry 7.6 Tourism

8 Culture

8.1 Symbols 8.2 Festivals and traditions 8.3 Music, dance, and drama 8.4 Cuisine 8.5 Literature 8.6 Fine arts 8.7 Traditional crafts

9 Media 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

Etymology[edit] Main article: Etymology of Assam The precise etymology of modern anglicised word "Assam" is ambiguous. In the classical period and up to the 12th century the region east of the Karatoya river, largely congruent to present-day Assam, was called Kamarupa, and alternatively, Pragjyotisha.[6] In medieval times the Mughals used Asham (eastern Assam) and Kamrup (western Assam),[7][8][9] and during British colonialism, the English used Assam. Though many authors have associated the name with the 13th century Shan invaders[10] the precise origin of the name is not clear. It was suggested by some that the Sanskrit word Asama ("unequalled", "peerless", etc.) was the root, which has been rejected by Kakati,[11] and more recent authors have concurred that it is a latter-day Sanskritization of a native name.[12] Among possible origins are Tai (A-Cham)[13] and Bodo (Ha-Sam).[14] History[edit] Main article: History of Assam Pre-history[edit] Further information: Danava dynasty, Indo-Aryan migration to Assam, Bhauma dynasty, and Asura Kingdom Assam
Assam
and adjoining regions have evidences of human settlements from all the periods of the Stone ages. The hills at the height of 1,500–2,000 feet (460 to 615 m) were popular habitats probably due to availability of exposed dolerite basalt, useful for tool-making.[15] Legendary[edit] According to a late text, Kalika Purana
Kalika Purana
(c. 9th–10th century AD), the earliest ruler of Assam
Assam
was Mahiranga Danav of the Danava dynasty, which was removed by Naraka
Naraka
who established the Naraka
Naraka
dynasty. The last of these rulers, also Naraka, was slain by Krishna. Naraka's son Bhagadatta became the king, who (it is mentioned in the Mahabharata) fought for the Kauravas in the battle of Kurukshetra with an army of kiratas, chinas and dwellers of the eastern coast. At the same time towards east in central Assam, Asura Kingdom
Asura Kingdom
was ruled by indigenous line of kings of Mariachi dynasty.[16] Ancient[edit]

Kamrupa
Kamrupa
kingdom at its height

Madan Kamdev
Madan Kamdev
ruins

Further information: Kamarupa Samudragupta's 4th century Allahabad pillar inscription mentions Kamarupa
Kamarupa
(Western Assam)[17] and Davaka
Davaka
(Central Assam)[18] as frontier kingdoms of the Gupta Empire. Davaka
Davaka
was later absorbed by Kamarupa, which grew into a large kingdom that spanned from Karatoya river
Karatoya river
to near present Sadiya
Sadiya
and covered the entire Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
valley, North Bengal, parts of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and, at times Purnea
Purnea
and parts of West Bengal.[19] The kingdom was ruled by three dynasties; the Varmanas (c. 350–650 CE), the Mlechchha dynasty
Mlechchha dynasty
(c.655–900 CE) and the Kamarupa-Palas (c. 900–1100 CE), from their capitals in present-day Guwahati (Pragjyotishpura), Tezpur
Tezpur
(Haruppeswara) and North Gauhati
North Gauhati
(Durjaya) respectively. All three dynasties claimed descent from Narakasura. In the reign of the Varman king, Bhaskaravarman
Bhaskaravarman
(c. 600–650 AD), the Chinese traveller Xuanzang
Xuanzang
visited the region and recorded his travels. Later, after weakening and disintegration (after the Kamarupa-Palas), the Kamarupa
Kamarupa
tradition was extended to c. 1255 AD by the Lunar I (c. 1120–1185 AD) and Lunar II (c. 1155–1255 AD) dynasties.[15] Medieval[edit]

The Ahom Kingdom, c. 1826

Kareng ghar, the palace of the Ahom kings

First Ahom king Sworgodeu Chao-lung Siu-ka-phaa (Sukaphaa).

Further information: Kamata kingdom, Ahom kingdom, Chutiya kingdom, Kachari kingdom, and Baro-Bhuyan Three later dynasties were the Ahoms, the Chutiya and the Koch. The Ahoms, a Tai group, ruled Upper Assam[20] The Shans built their kingdom and consolidated their power in Eastern Assam
Assam
with the modern town of Sibsagar
Sibsagar
as their capital and brought the whole tract down to the border of the modern district of Goalpara
Goalpara
permanently under their sway. Ahoms ruled for nearly 600 years (1228–1826 AD) with major expansions in the early 16th century at the cost of Chutia and Dimasa Kachari kingdoms. Since c. the 13th century AD, the nerve centre of Ahom polity was upper Assam; the kingdom was gradually extended to the Karatoya River
Karatoya River
in the 17th or 18th century. It was at its zenith during the reign of Sukhrungphaa
Sukhrungphaa
or Sworgodeu Rudra Sinha (c. 1696–1714 AD). The Chutiya rulers (1187–1673 AD) held the regions on both the banks of Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
with its domain in the area eastwards from Vishwanath (north bank) and Buridihing (south bank), in Upper Assam
Upper Assam
and in the state of Arunachal Pradesh. It was partially annexed in the early 1500s by the Ahoms, finally getting absorbed in 1673 AD. The rivalry between the Chutiyas and Ahoms for the supremacy of eastern Assam
Assam
led to a series of battles between them from the early 16th century until the start of the 17th century, which saw great loss of men and money. The Koch, a Tibeto-Burmese dynasty, established sovereignty in c. 1510 AD. The Koch kingdom
Koch kingdom
in Western Assam
Western Assam
and present North Bengal
North Bengal
was at its zenith in the early reign of Nara Narayan (c. 1540–1587 AD). It split into two in c. 1581 AD, the western part as a Moghul
Moghul
vassal and the eastern as an Ahom satellite state. Later, in 1682, Koch Hajo was entirely annexed by the Ahoms. Among other dynasties, the Kacharis (13th century-1854 AD) ruled from Dikhow River to central and southern Assam
Assam
and had their capital at Dimapur. With expansion of Ahom kingdom, by the early 17th century, the Chutiya areas were annexed and since c. 1536 AD the Kacharis remained only in Cachar
Cachar
and North Cachar, and more as an Ahom ally than a competing force. Despite numerous invasions, mostly by the Muslim rulers, no western power ruled Assam
Assam
until the arrival of the British. Though the Mughals made seventeen attempts to invade, they were never successful. The most successful invader Mir Jumla, a governor of Aurangzeb, briefly occupied Garhgaon
Garhgaon
(c. 1662–63 AD), the then capital, but found it difficult to prevent guerrilla attacks on his forces, forcing them to leave. The decisive victory of the Assamese led by general Lachit Borphukan on the Mughals, then under command of Raja Ram Singha, at Saraighat
Saraighat
in 1671 almost ended Mughal ambitions in this region. The Mughals were finally expelled from Lower Assam
Lower Assam
during the reign of Gadadhar Singha in 1682 AD.[citation needed] Colonial era[edit]

Map of Assam
Assam
during 1907–1909

A map of the British Indian Empire in 1909 during the partition of Bengal
Bengal
(1905–1911), showing British India
India
in two shades of pink (coral and pale) and the princely states in yellow. The Assam
Assam
Province (initially as the Province of Eastern Bengal
Bengal
and Assam) can be seen towards the north-eastern side of India.

Further information: Colonial Assam
Colonial Assam
and Assam
Assam
Province The discovery of Camellia sinensis
Camellia sinensis
in 1834 in Assam
Assam
was followed by testing in 1836–37 in London. The British allowed companies to rent land from 1839 onwards. Thereafter tea plantations mushroomed in Eastern Assam,[21] where the soil and the climate were most suitable. Problems with the imported labourers from China and hostility from native Assamese resulted in the migration of forced labourers from central and eastern parts of India. After initial trial and error with planting the Chinese and the Assamese-Chinese hybrid varieties, the planters later accepted the local Camellia assamica
Camellia assamica
as the most suitable variety for Assam. By the 1850s, the industry started seeing some profits. The industry saw initial growth, when in 1861, investors were allowed to own land in Assam
Assam
and it saw substantial progress with invention of new technologies and machinery for preparing processed tea during the 1870s. Despite the commercial success, tea labourers continued to be exploited,[clarification needed] working and living under poor conditions.[clarification needed] Fearful of greater government interference, the tea growers formed the Indian Tea Association in 1888 to lobby to retain the status quo. The organisation was successful in this, but even after India’s independence, conditions of the labourers have improved very little.[22] In the later part of the 18th century, religious tensions and atrocities by the nobles led to the Moamoria rebellion (1769–1805), resulting in tremendous casualties of lives and property. The rebellion was suppressed but the kingdom was severely weakened by the civil war. Political rivalry between Prime Minister Purnananda Burhagohain and Badan Chandra Borphukan, the Ahom Viceroy of Western Assam, led to an invitation to the Burmese by the latter,[23][24][25][26] in turn leading to three successive Burmese invasions of Assam. The reigning monarch Chandrakanta Singha tried to check the Burmese invaders but he was defeated after fierce resistance.[27][28][29] A reign of terror was unleashed by the Burmese on the Assamese people,[30][31][32][33] who fled to neighbouring kingdoms and British-ruled Bengal.[34][35] The Burmese reached the East India Company's borders, and the First Anglo-Burmese War ensued in 1824. The war ended under the Treaty of Yandabo[36] in 1826, with the Company taking control of Western Assam
Western Assam
and installing Purandar Singha
Purandar Singha
as king of Upper Assam
Upper Assam
in 1833. The arrangement lasted till 1838 and thereafter the British gradually annexed the entire region. Initially Assam
Assam
was made a part of the Bengal
Bengal
Presidency, then in 1906 it was made a part of Eastern Bengal and Assam
Eastern Bengal and Assam
province, and in 1912 it was reconstituted into a chief commissioners' province. In 1913, a legislative council and, in 1937, the Assam
Assam
Legislative Assembly, were formed in Shillong, the erstwhile capital of the region. The British tea planters imported labour from central India
India
adding to the demographic canvas. The Assam
Assam
territory was first separated from Bengal
Bengal
in 1874 as the 'North-East Frontier' non-regulation province, also known as the Assam Chief-Commissionership. It was incorporated into the new province of Eastern Bengal and Assam
Eastern Bengal and Assam
in 1905 after the partition of Bengal (1905–1911) and re-established in 1912 as Assam Province
Assam Province
.[37] After a few initially unsuccessful attempts to gain independence for Assam
Assam
during the 1850s, anti-colonial Assamese joined and actively supported the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
against the British from the early 20th century, with Gopinath Bordoloi
Gopinath Bordoloi
emerging as the preeminent nationalist leader in the Assam
Assam
Congress.[38] Bordoloi's major political rival in this time was Sir Saidullah, who was representing the Muslim League, and had the backing of the influential Muslim cleric Maulana Bhasani.[39] The Assam
Assam
Postage Circle was established by 1873 under the headship of the Deputy Post Master General.[40] At the turn of the 20th century, British India
India
consisted of eight provinces that were administered either by a governor or a lieutenant-governor. Assam Province
Assam Province
was one among major eight provinces of British India. The table below shows the major original provinces during British India
India
covering the Assam Province
Assam Province
under the Administrative Office of the Chief Commissioner. The following table lists their areas and populations. It does not include those of the dependent Native States:[41]

Province of British India[41] Area ( '0002 miles) Population (in millions) Chief Administrative Officer

Burma 170 9 Lieutenant-Governor

Bengal 151 75 Lieutenant-Governor

Madras 142 38 Governor-in-Council

Bombay 123 19 Governor-in-Council

United Provinces 107 48 Lieutenant-Governor

Central Provinces and Berar 104 13 Chief Commissioner

Punjab 97 20 Lieutenant-Governor

Assam 49 6 Chief Commissioner

Showing an historical incident at Kanaklata Udyan, Tezpur

With the partition of India
India
in 1947, Assam
Assam
became a constituent state of India. The district of Sylhet of Assam
Assam
(excluding the Karimganj subdivision) was given up to East Pakistan, which later became Bangladesh. Modern history[edit]

Assam
Assam
till the 1950s; The new states of Nagaland, Meghalaya
Meghalaya
and Mizoram
Mizoram
formed in the 1960-70s. From Shillong, the capital of Assam was shifted to Dispur, now a part of Guwahati. After the Indo-China war in 1962, Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
was also separated out.

The government of India, which has the unilateral powers to change the borders of a state, divided Assam
Assam
into several states beginning in 1970 within the borders of what was then Assam. In 1963 the Naga Hills district became the 16th state of India
India
under the name of Nagaland. Part of Tuensang was added to Nagaland. In 1970, in response to the demands of the Khasi, Jaintia and Garo people of the Meghalaya Plateau, the districts embracing the Khasi Hills, Jaintia Hills, and Garo Hills were formed into an autonomous state within Assam; in 1972 this became a separate state under the name of Meghalaya. In 1972, Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
(the North East Frontier Agency) and Mizoram
Mizoram
(from the Mizo Hills in the south) were separated from Assam
Assam
as union territories; both became states in 1986.[citation needed] Since the restructuring of Assam
Assam
after independence, communal tensions and violence remain. Separatist groups began forming along ethnic lines, and demands for autonomy and sovereignty grew, resulting in the fragmentation of Assam. In 1961, the government of Assam
Assam
passed legislation making use of the Assamese language
Assamese language
compulsory. It was withdrawn later under pressure from Bengali speaking people in Cachar. In the 1980s the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
valley saw a six-year Assam
Assam
Agitation[42] triggered by the discovery of a sudden rise in registered voters on electoral rolls. It tried to force the government to identify and deport foreigners illegally migrating from neighbouring Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and changing the demographics of the Indigenous Assamese people
Assamese people
and also provide constitutional, legislative, administrative and cultural safeguards for the Indigenous Assamese people. The agitation ended after an accord ( Assam Accord 1985) between its leaders and the Union Government, which remained unimplemented, causing simmering discontent.[43] The post 1970s experienced the growth of armed separatist groups such as the United Liberation Front of Asom
United Liberation Front of Asom
(ULFA)[42] and the National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB). In November 1990, the Government of India
India
deployed the Indian army, after which low-intensity military conflicts and political homicides have been continuing for more than a decade. In recent times, ethnically based militant groups have grown. Panchayati Raj
Panchayati Raj
Institutions have been applied[clarification needed] in Assam, after agitation of the communities due to the sluggish rate of development and general apathy of successive state governments towards Indigenous Assamese communities.[citation needed] Geography[edit] Main article: Physical Geography of Assam See also: Tourism in North East India

Environs: Assam, dissected hills of the South Indian Plateau system and the Himalayas
Himalayas
all around its north, north-east and east.

A significant geographical aspect of Assam
Assam
is that it contains three of six physiographic divisions of India
India
– The Northern Himalayas (Eastern Hills), The Northern Plains ( Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
plain) and Deccan Plateau (Karbi Anglong). As the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
flows in Assam
Assam
the climate here is cold and there is rainfall most of the month. Geomorphic studies conclude that the Brahmaputra, the life-line of Assam, is an antecedent river older than the Himalayas. The river with steep gorges and rapids in Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
entering Assam, becomes a braided river (at times 10 mi/16 km wide) and with tributaries, creates a flood plain ( Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
Valley: 50–60 mi/80–100 km wide, 600 mi/1000 km long).[44] The hills of Karbi Anglong, North Cachar
Cachar
and those in and close to Guwahati
Guwahati
(also Khasi-Garo Hills) now eroded and dissected are originally parts of the South Indian Plateau system.[44] In the south, the Barak originating in the Barail Range (Assam- Nagaland
Nagaland
border) flows through the Cachar
Cachar
district with a 25–30 miles (40–50 km) wide valley and enters Bangladesh
Bangladesh
with the name Surma River. Urban Centres include Guwahati, one of the 100 fastest growing cities in the world.[45] Guwahati
Guwahati
is the gateway to the North-East India. Silchar, (in the Barak valley) the 2nd most populous city in Assam
Assam
and an important centre of business, education and tourism. Other large cities include Dibrugarh, an oil, natural gas, tea and tourism industry centre,[46] Jorhat, and Tinsukia. Climate[edit] With the "Tropical Monsoon Rainforest
Rainforest
Climate", Assam
Assam
is temperate (summer max. at 95–100 °F or 35–38 °C and winter min. at 43–46 °F or 6–8 °C) and experiences heavy rainfall and high humidity.[44][47] The climate is characterised by heavy monsoon downpours reducing summer temperatures and affecting foggy nights and mornings in winters, frequent during the afternoons. Spring (Mar–Apr) and autumn (Sept–Oct) are usually pleasant with moderate rainfall and temperature. Assam's agriculture usually depends on the south-west monsoon rains. Flooding[edit] See also: 2016 Assam
Assam
floods Every year, flooding from the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
and other rivers deluges places in Assam. The water levels of the rivers rise because of rainfall resulting in the rivers overflowing their banks and engulfing nearby areas. Apart from houses and livestock being washed away by flood water, bridges, railway tracks and roads are also damaged by the calamity, which causes communication breakdown in many places. Fatalities are also caused by the natural disaster in many places of the State.[48][49] Fauna[edit] See also: Biodiversity
Biodiversity
of Assam

An Indian rhino at Kaziranga
Kaziranga
National Park

An endangered golden langur

Assam
Assam
is one of the richest biodiversity zones in the world and consists of tropical rainforests,[50] deciduous forests, riverine grasslands,[51] bamboo[52] orchards and numerous wetland[53] ecosystems; Many are now protected as national parks and reserved forests. Assam
Assam
has wildlife sanctuaries, the most prominent of which are two UNESCO World Heritage sites[54]-the Kaziranga
Kaziranga
National Park, on the bank of the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
River, and the Manas Wildlife Sanctuary, near the border with Bhutan. The Kaziranga
Kaziranga
is a refuge for the fast-disappearing Indian one-horned rhinoceros. The state is the last refuge for numerous other endangered and threatened species including the white-winged wood duck or deohanh, Bengal
Bengal
florican, black-breasted parrotbill, red-headed vulture, white-rumped vulture, greater adjutant, Jerdon's babbler, rufous-necked hornbill, Bengal
Bengal
tiger, Asian elephant, pygmy hog, gaur, wild water buffalo, Indian hog deer, hoolock gibbon, golden langur, capped langur, barasingha, Ganges river dolphin, Barca snakehead, Ganges shark, Burmese python, brahminy river turtle, black pond turtle, Asian forest tortoise, and Assam
Assam
roofed turtle. Threatened species that are extinct in Assam
Assam
include the gharial, a critically endangered fish-eating crocodilian, and the pink-headed duck (which may be extinct worldwide). For the state bird, the white-winged wood duck, Assam
Assam
is a globally important area.[clarification needed][55] In addition to the above, there are three other National Parks in Assam
Assam
namely Dibru Saikhowa National Park, Nameri National Park
Nameri National Park
and the Orang National Park. Assam
Assam
has conserved the one-horned Indian rhinoceros
Indian rhinoceros
from near extinction, along with the pygmy hog, tiger and numerous species of birds, and it provides one of the last wild habitats for the Asian elephant. Kaziranga
Kaziranga
and Manas are both World Heritage Sites. The state contains Sal tree forests and forest products, much depleted from earlier times. A land of high rainfall, Assam
Assam
displays greenery. The Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
River tributaries and oxbow lakes provide the region with hydro-geomorphic environment.[citation needed] The state has the largest population of the wild water buffalo in the world.[56] The state has the highest diversity of birds in India
India
with around 820 species.[57] With subspecies the number is as high as 946.[58] The mammal diversity in the state is around 190 species.[59]

Blooming of Kopou Orchid marks the beginning of festive season Bihu
Bihu
in Assam.

Flora[edit] Assam
Assam
is remarkably rich in Orchid species and the Foxtail orchid is the state flower of Assam.[60] The recently established Kaziranga National Orchid and Biodiversity
Biodiversity
Park boasts more than 500 of the estimated 1,314 orchid species found in India. Geology[edit] Assam
Assam
has petroleum, natural gas, coal, limestone and other minor minerals such as magnetic quartzite, kaolin, sillimanites, clay and feldspar.[61] A small quantity of iron ore is available in western districts.[61] Discovered in 1889, all the major petroleum-gas reserves are in Upper parts. A recent USGS
USGS
estimate shows 399 million barrels (63,400,000 m3) of oil, 1,178 billion cubic feet (3.34×1010 m3) of gas and 67 million barrels (10,700,000 m3) of natural gas liquids in the Assam
Assam
Geologic Province.[62][citation needed] The region is prone to natural disasters like annual floods and frequent mild earthquakes. Strong earthquakes were recorded in 1869, 1897, and 1950. Demographics[edit] Main articles: Assamese people
Assamese people
and People of Assam Population[edit]

District-wise Demographic Characteristics in 2001

Population Growth 

Census Pop.

1951 8,029,000

1961 10,837,000

35.0%

1971 14,625,000

35.0%

1981 18,041,000

23.4%

1991 22,414,000

24.2%

2001 26,656,000

18.9%

2011 31,169,272

16.9%

Source:Census of India[63] The 1981 Census could not be held in Assam. Total population for 1981 has been worked out by interpolation.

People gathered at Kamakhya Temple
Kamakhya Temple
for the Ambubachi Mela

The total population of Assam
Assam
was 26.66 million with 4.91 million households in 2001.[64] Higher population concentration was recorded in the districts of Kamrup, Nagaon, Sonitpur, Barpeta, Dhubri, Darrang, and Cachar. Assam's population was estimated at 28.67 million in 2006 and at 30.57 million in 2011 and is expected to reach 34.18  million by 2021 and 35.60 million by 2026.[65] As per the 2011 census, the total population of Assam
Assam
was 31,169,272. The total population of the state has increased from 26,638,407 to 31,169,272 in the last ten years with a growth rate of 16.93%.[66] Of the 32 districts, eight districts registered a rise in the decadal population growth rate. Religious minority-dominated districts like Dhubri, Goalpara, Barpeta, Morigaon, Nagaon, and Hailakandi, recorded growth rates ranging from 20 per cent to 24 per cent during the last decade. Eastern Assamese districts, including Sivasagar
Sivasagar
and Jorhat, registered around 9 per cent population growth. These districts do not have any international border.[67] In 2011, the literacy rate in the state was 73.18%. The male literacy rate was 78.81% and the female literacy rate was 67.27%.[66] In 2001, the census had recorded literacy in Assam
Assam
at 63.3% with male literacy at 71.3% and female at 54.6%. The urbanisation rate was recorded at 12.9%.[68] The growth of population in Assam
Assam
has increased since the middle decades of the 20th century. The population grew from 3.29 million in 1901 to 6.70 million in 1941. It increased to 14.63 million in 1971 and 22.41 million in 1991.[64] The growth in the western and southern districts was high primarily due to the influx of people from East Pakistan, now Bangladesh.[43] The mistrust and clashes between Indigenous Assamese people
Assamese people
and Bengali Muslims
Bengali Muslims
started as early as 1952,[69][70] but is rooted in anti Bengali sentiments of the 1940s.[71] At least 77 people died[72] and 400,000 people was displaced in the 2012 Assam violence
2012 Assam violence
between indigenous Bodos
Bodos
and Bengali Muslims.[73] The People of India
India
project has studied 115 of the ethnic groups in Assam. 79 (69%) identify themselves regionally, 22 (19%) locally, and 3 trans-nationally. The earliest settlers were Austroasiatic
Austroasiatic
and Dravidians
Dravidians
speakers, followed by Tibeto-Burman, Indo-Aryan speakers, and Tai–Kadai
Tai–Kadai
speakers.[74] Forty-five languages are spoken by different communities, including three major language families: Austroasiatic
Austroasiatic
(5), Sino-Tibetan (24) and Indo-European (12). Three of the spoken languages do not fall in these families. There is a high degree of bilingualism.[citation needed] Religions[edit]

Kamakhya Temple

See also: Islam in Assam
Islam in Assam
and Christianity
Christianity
in Assam

Religion in Assam
Assam
(2011)[75]    Hinduism
Hinduism
(61.47%)    Islam
Islam
(34.22%)    Christianity
Christianity
(3.7%)    Buddhism
Buddhism
(0.2%)    Jainism
Jainism
(0.01%)    Sikhism
Sikhism
(0.01%)    Animism
Animism
(0.01%)   Other or not religious (0.3%)

According to the 2011 census, 61.47% were Hindus, 34.22% were Muslims.[75][76] Christian minorities (3.7%) are found among the Scheduled Tribe population.[77] The scheduled Tribe population in Assam
Assam
is around 13%, of which Bodos
Bodos
account for 40%.[78] Other religions followed include Jainism
Jainism
(0.1%), Buddhism
Buddhism
(0.2%), Sikhism (0.1%) and Animism
Animism
(amongst Khamti, Phake, Aiton etc. communities). Many Hindus in Assam
Assam
are followers of the Ekasarana Dharma
Ekasarana Dharma
sect of Hinduism, which gave rise to Namghar, designed to be simpler places of worship than traditional Hindu temples.[citation needed] Out of 32 districts of Assam, 9 are Muslim majority according to the 2011 census of India. The districts are Dhubri, Goalpara, Barpeta, Morigaon, Nagaon, Karimganj, Hailakandi, Darrang
Darrang
and Bongaigaon.[79][80][81] Languages[edit] See also: Assamese language, Assamese literature, Bodo language, and Bengali language

7th–8th century specimen of Assamese (Kamrupi) literature

Languages of Assam
Assam
in 2001[82][83][84]   Assamese (48.84%)   Bengali (27.56%)    Hindi
Hindi
(5.88%)   Bodo (4.86%)   Nepali (2.12%)   Mishing (1.9%)   Karbi (1.5%)   Santali (0.91%)   Deori (0.22%)   Kukish (0.11%)   Others (6.05%)

Assamese and Bodo are the major indigenous and official languages while Bengali is the indigenous and official language in the three districts in the Barak Valley
Barak Valley
and is the second most widely spoken language of the state.[83] According to the language census of 2001 in Assam, out of a total population of 26,638,407, Assamese is spoken by 13,010,478 speakers (48.84%), Bengali is spoken by 7,343,388 speakers (27.56%), Hindi
Hindi
by 1,569,662 speakers (5.88%), Bodo by 1,296,162 speakers (4.86%), Nepali by 564,790 speakers (2.12%), Mishing by 506,129 speakers (1.9%), Karbi by 401,212 speakers (1.5%), Santali by 242,886 speakers (0.91%), Odia by 231,474 speakers (0.87%), Kukish by 33,399 speakers (0.11%) and 1,611,623 (6.05%) speak other languages.[85] Traditionally, Assamese was the language of the common folk (of mixed origin – Austroasiatic, Tibeto-Burman, Prakrit) in the ancient Kamarupa
Kamarupa
kingdom and in the medieval kingdoms of Kamatapur, Kachari, Chutiya, Borahi, Ahom and Koch. Traces of the language are found in many poems by Luipa, Sarahapa, and others, in Charyapada
Charyapada
(c. 7th–8th century AD). Modern dialects such as Kamrupi and Goalpariya are remnants of this language. Moreover, Assamese in its traditional form was used by the ethno-cultural groups in the region as lingua-franca, which spread during the stronger kingdoms and was required for economic integration. Localised forms of the language still exist in Nagaland
Nagaland
and Arunachal Pradesh. The form used in upper Assam
Assam
was enriched by the advent of Tai-Shans in the 13th century. Linguistically modern Assamese traces its roots to the version developed by the American Missionaries based on the local form used near Sivasagar
Sivasagar
(Xiwôxagôr) district. Assamese (Ôxômiya) is a rich language due to its hybrid nature and unique characteristics of pronunciation and softness. Assamese literature
Assamese literature
is also one of the richest.[citation needed] The word Dimasa etymologically translates to "Son of the big river " (Di- Water, ma- suffix for great, sa-sons), the river being the mighty Brahmaputra. The Dimasa word "Di" for water forms the root word for many of the major rivers of Assam
Assam
and the North East India
India
like Dikrang which means green river, Dikhow which means "fetched water", Diyung (huge river) etc. The Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
River is known as Dilao (long river) among the Dimasas. Many of the towns and cities in Assam
Assam
and Nagaland
Nagaland
derived their names from Dimasa words.[citation needed] For example, Dimapur
Dimapur
(a capital of Dimasa Kingdom), Dispur, Hojai, Diphu and Khaspur.[citation needed] Bodo is an ancient language of Assam. Spatial distribution patterns of the ethno-cultural groups, cultural traits and the phenomenon of naming all the major rivers in the North East Region with Bodo-Kachari words (e.g. Dihing, Dibru, Dihong, D/Tista, Dikrai, etc.) reveal that it was the most important language in the ancient times. Bodo is now spoken largely in the Western Assam
Western Assam
(Bodo Territorial Council area). After years of neglect, now Bodo language is getting attention and its literature is developing. Other native languages of Tibeto-Burman origin and related to Bodo-Kachari are Deori [2], Mising, Karbi, Rabha, and Tiwa.[citation needed] Kukish is another native language of Assam
Assam
belonging to the Tibeto-Burman
Tibeto-Burman
group. However it does not belong to the Bodo-Kachari group. There are approximately 5.64 lakhs Nepali speakers spread all over the state forming about 2.12% of Assam's total population according to 2001 census. There are speakers of Tai languages
Tai languages
in Assam. A total of six Tai language were spoken in Assam. Two are now extinct.[86]

Tai Phake Tai Aiton Khamti Khamyang (critically endangered) Ahom (extinct) Turung (extinct)

Government and politics[edit]

1. Tinsukia, 2. Dibrugarh, 3. Dhemaji, 4. Charaideo, 5. Sivasagar, 6. Lakhimpur, 7. Majuli, 8. Jorhat, 9. Biswanath, 10. Golaghat, 11. Karbi Anglong East, 12. Sonitpur, 13. Nagaon, 14. Hojai, 15. Karbi Anglong West, 16. Dima Hassao, 17. Cachar, 18. Hailakandi, 19. Karimganj, 20. Morigaon, 21. Udalguri, 22. Darrang, 23. Kamrup Metro, 24. Baksa, 25. Nalbari, 26. Kamrup, 27. Barpeta, 28. Chirang, 29. Bongaigaon, 30. Goalpara, 31. Kokrajhar, 32. Dhubri, 33. South Salmara- Mankachar
Mankachar
(as of 2016)

Main articles: Government of Assam
Government of Assam
and Politics of Assam Assam
Assam
has Governor Jagdish Mukhi as the head of the state,[1] the unicameral Assam Legislative Assembly
Assam Legislative Assembly
of 126 members, and a government led by the Chief Minister of Assam. The state is divided into five regional divisions. Local government[edit] Main article: Districts of Assam As of June 2016[update], the state has 33 administrative districts. On 15 August 2015, five new districts were formed in addition to former 27 districts. The five new districts are Biswanath (carved out of Sonitpur), Charaideo (of Sivasagar), Hojai (of Nagaon), South Salmara- Mankachar
Mankachar
(of Dhubri) and West Karbi Anglong
Karbi Anglong
(of Karbi Anglong).[87][88] On 27 June 2016, Majuli
Majuli
declared as district (1st river island district of India).[89] These districts are further sub-divided into 54 "Sub-divisions" or Mahakuma.[88] Every district is administered from a district headquarters with the office of the Deputy Commissioner, District Magistrate, Office of the District Panchayat and usually with a district court. The districts are delineated on the basis of the features such as the rivers, hills, forests, etc. and majority of the newly constituted districts are sub-divisions of the earlier districts. The local governance system is organised under the jila-parishad (District Panchayat) for a district, panchayat for group of or individual rural areas and under the urban local bodies for the towns and cities. There are now 2489 village panchayats covering 26247 villages in Assam.[90] The 'town-committee' or nagar-somiti for small towns, 'municipal board' or pouro-sobha for medium towns and municipal corporation or pouro-nigom for the cities consist of the urban local bodies. For the revenue purposes, the districts are divided into revenue circles and mouzas; for the development projects, the districts are divided into 219 'development-blocks' and for law and order these are divided into 206 police stations or thana. As on 19 May 2016, BJP under the leadership of Sarbananda Sonowal
Sarbananda Sonowal
won the Assembly elections, thus forming the first BJP
BJP
led government in Assam.[91] Guwahati
Guwahati
is the largest metropolitan area and urban conglomeration administered under the highest form of urban local body – Guwahati Municipal Corporation in Assam. The Corporation administers an area of 216.79 km².[92] All other urban centres are managed under Municipal Boards. A list of 9 oldest, classified and prominent, and constantly inhabited, recognised urban centres based on the earliest years of formation of the civic bodies, before the Indian independence of 1947 is tabulated below:

Oldest recognised urban centres of Assam[93]

Urban Centres Civic Body Year Airport Railway Station Railway Junction Road Networks Category† Notes

Guwahati Guwahati
Guwahati
Town
Town
Committee 1853 Yes Yes Yes Yes Tier – III

More Guwahati, the first township of Assam.[94]

Guwahati
Guwahati
Municipal Board 1873↑ Yes Yes Yes Yes Tier – II

Guwahati
Guwahati
Municipal Corporation 1974↑ Yes Yes Yes Yes Tier – I

More Establishment of Guwahati
Guwahati
Municipal Corporation.[95]

Dibrugarh Dibrugarh
Dibrugarh
Municipal Board 1873 Yes Yes Yes Yes Tier – II

More Dibrugarh, the second township of Assam.[96]

Goalpara Goalpara
Goalpara
Municipal Board 1875 No 1 Yes No 2 Yes Tier – II

More Formation of Goalpara
Goalpara
Municipality, 1875.[97]

Dhubri Dhubri
Dhubri
Municipal Board 1883 Yes Yes Yes Yes Tier – II

More Formation of Dhubri
Dhubri
Municipality, 1883.[98]

Nagaon Nagaon
Nagaon
Municipal Board 1893 No 3 Yes Yes Yes Tier – II

More Formation of Nagaon
Nagaon
Municipality, 1893.[99]

Tezpur Tezpur
Tezpur
Municipal Board 1894 Yes Yes Yes Yes Tier – II

More Formation of Tezpur
Tezpur
Municipality, 1894.[100]

Jorhat Jorhat
Jorhat
Municipal Board 1909 Yes Yes Yes Yes Tier – II

More Formation of Jorhat
Jorhat
Municipality, 1909.[101]

Golaghat Golaghat
Golaghat
Municipal Board 1920 No 4 Yes Yes Yes Tier – II

More Formation of Golaghat
Golaghat
Municipality, 1920.[102]

Silchar Silchar
Silchar
Municipal Board 1922 Yes Yes Yes Yes Tier – II

More Formation of Silchar
Silchar
Municipality, 1922.[103]

†Tier – I: a big city with an urban conglomeration (in the true sense) administered by a Municipal Corporation. Tier – II: a medium–sized city for an urban agglomeration administered by a Municipal Board. Tier – III: a small town, larger than a township with a sizeable human settlement. ↑Upgraged to the next highest form of civic body.

   Jointly shared with the other urban centre. ^1 and ^2 Shared with Guwahati. ^3 Shared with Tezpur. ^4 Shared with Jorhat.

The state has three autonomous councils. Education[edit] Main article: Education in Assam See also: List of colleges affiliated to Gauhati University See also: List of colleges affiliated to Assam
Assam
University See also: List of educational institutions in Assam

School girls in the classroom, Lakhiganj High School, Assam

Cotton College
Cotton College
of Gauhati University

Academic complex of IIT Guwahati

Jorhat
Jorhat
Engineering College of Dibrugarh
Dibrugarh
University

Assam
Assam
schools are run by the Indian government or by private organisations. Medium of instruction is mainly in Assamese, English or Bengali. Most of the schools follow the state’s examination board which is called the Secondary Education Board of Assam. Almost all private schools follow the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE), Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE) and Indian School Certificate (ISC) syllabuses.[citation needed] Assamese language
Assamese language
is the main medium in educational institutions but Bengali language
Bengali language
is also taught as a major Indian language. In Guwahati
Guwahati
and Digboi, many Jr. basic School and Jr. high School are Nepali linguistic and all the teachers are British Gorkha. Nepali is included by Assam
Assam
State Secondary Board, Assam
Assam
Higher Secondary Education Council and Gauhati University in their HSLC, higher secondary and graduation level respectively. In some junior basic and higher secondary schools and colleges, Nepali language
Nepali language
speaking British Gorkha
British Gorkha
teachers and lecturers are appointed.[citation needed] The capital, Dispur, contains institutions of higher education for students of the north-eastern region. Cotton College, Guwahati, dates back to the 19th century. Assam
Assam
has several institutions for tertiary education and research.[citation needed] Universities, Colleges and Institutions include: Universities[edit]

Assam
Assam
Agricultural University, Jorhat Assam
Assam
Don Bosco University,[104] (private) Assam
Assam
down town University,[105] (private) Assam
Assam
University, Silchar Assam
Assam
Women's University,[106] Jorhat Bodoland University,[107] Kokrajhar Dibrugarh
Dibrugarh
University,[108] Dibrugarh Gauhati University,[109] Guwahati Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati
Guwahati
(Deemed, Institute of National Importance) Indian Statistical Institute, Tezpur Kaziranga
Kaziranga
University,[110] Jorhat
Jorhat
(private) National Institute of Technology, Silchar
Silchar
(Deemed, Institute of National Importance) National Law University and Judicial Academy, Assam[citation needed] Tezpur
Tezpur
University,[111]Tezpur Royal Global University

Medical colleges[edit]

Assam Medical College in Dibrugarh Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed Medical College, Barpeta Gauhati Medical College and Hospital in Guwahati Jorhat
Jorhat
Medical College and Hospital, Jorhat Regional Dental College, Guwahati Silchar
Silchar
Medical College and Hospital, Silchar Tezpur
Tezpur
Medical College & Hospital, Tezpur

Engineering and technological colleges[edit]

Assam Engineering College
Assam Engineering College
in Guwahati,[citation needed] Assam
Assam
Science and Technology University Bineswar Brahma Engineering College, Kokrajhar Central Institute of Technology, Kokrajhar,[citation needed] Girijananda Chowdhury Institute of Management and Technology, Guwahati[112] Girijananda Chowdhury Institute of Management and Technology, Tezpur Indian Institute of Information Technology, Guwahati Indian Institute of Technology
Indian Institute of Technology
in Guwahati,[citation needed] Institute of Engineering and Technology, Dibrugarh
Dibrugarh
University Institute of Science and Technology, Guwahati
Guwahati
University Jorhat
Jorhat
Institute of Science & Technology, Jorhat Jorhat
Jorhat
Engineering College in Jorhat.[citation needed] National Institute of Technology, Silchar,[113] NETES Institute of Technology & Science Mirza,[citation needed]

Law colleges[edit]

NEF Law College, Guwahati
Guwahati
(Kamrup), National Law University and Judicial Academy, Assam

Research institutes present in the state include National Research Centre on Pig, (ICAR) in Guwahati,[114] Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Assam

Assam
Assam
historical

Assam's economy is based on agriculture and oil. Assam
Assam
produces more than half of India's tea.[115] The Assam-Arakan basin holds about a quarter of the country's oil reserves, and produces about 12% of its total petroleum.[116] According to the recent estimates,[117] Assam's per capita GDP is ₹6,157 at constant prices (1993–94) and ₹10,198 at current prices; almost 40% lower than that in India.[118] According to the recent estimates,[117] per capita income in Assam
Assam
has reached ₹6756 (1993–94 constant prices) in 2004–05, which is still much lower than India's.

A paddy field of Assam

A tea garden in Assam: tea is grown at elevations near sea level, giving it a malty sweetness and an earthy flavor, as opposed to the more floral aroma of highland (e.g. Darjeeling, Taiwanese) teas

Tea plantations[edit] Main article: Assam
Assam
tea

This 1850 engraving shows the different stages in the process of making tea in Assam

Macro-economy[edit] The economy of Assam
Assam
today represents a unique juxtaposition of backwardness amidst plenty.[119] Despite its rich natural resources, and supplying of up to 25% of India's petroleum needs, Assam’s growth rate has not kept pace with that of India; the difference has increased rapidly since the 1970s.[120] The Indian economy grew at 6% per annum over the period of 1981 to 2000; the growth rate of Assam was only 3.3%.[121] In the Sixth Plan period, Assam
Assam
experienced a negative growth rate of 3.78% when India's was positive at 6%.[120] In the post-liberalised era (after 1991), the difference widened further. According to recent analysis, Assam’s economy is showing signs of improvement. In 2001–02, the economy grew (at 1993–94 constant prices) at 4.5%, falling to 3.4% in the next financial year.[122] During 2003–04 and 2004–05, the economy grew (at 1993–94 constant prices) at 5.5% and 5.3% respectively.[122] The advanced estimates placed the growth rate for 2005–06 at above 6%.[117] Assam's GDP in 2004 is estimated at $13 billion in current prices. Sectoral analysis again exhibits a dismal picture. The average annual growth rate of agriculture, which was 2.6% per annum over the 1980s, has fallen to 1.6% in the 1990s.[123] The manufacturing sector showed some improvement in the 1990s with a growth rate of 3.4% per annum than 2.4% in the 1980s.[123] For the past five decades, the tertiary sector has registered the highest growth rates of the other sectors, which even has slowed down in the 1990s than in the 1980s.[123] Employment[edit] Unemployment is one of the major problems of Assam
Assam
which can be attributed to overpopulation, and a faulty education system. Every year, large numbers of students obtain higher academic degrees but because of non-availability of proportional vacancies, most of these students remain unemployed.[124][125] A number of employers hire over-qualified or efficient, but under-certified, candidates, or candidates with narrowly-defined qualifications. The problem is exacerbated by the growth in the number of technical institutes in Assam
Assam
which increases the unemployed community of the State. Many job-seekers are eligible for jobs in sectors like Railways and Oil India
India
but don't get these jobs because of the appointment of candidates from outside of Assam
Assam
to these posts. The reluctance on the part of the departments concerned to advertise vacancies in vernacular language has also made matters worse for local unemployed youths particularly for the job-seekers of Grade C and D vacancies.[126][127] Reduction of the unemployed has been threatened by illegal immigration from Bangladesh. This has increased the workforce without a commensurate increase in jobs. Immigrants compete with local workers for jobs at lower wages, particularly in construction, domestics, Rickshaw-pullers, and vegetable sellers.[128][129] The government has been identifying (via NRC) and deporting illegals. Continued immigration is exceeding deportation.[130][131] Agriculture[edit] In Assam
Assam
among all the productive sectors, agriculture makes the highest contribution to its domestic sectors, accounting for more than a third of Assam’s income and employs 69% of workforce.[132] Assam's biggest contribution to the world is Assam
Assam
tea. It has its own variety Camellia assamica. The state produces rice, rapeseed, mustard seed, jute, potato, sweet potato, banana, papaya, areca nut, sugarcane and turmeric.[citation needed]

Assamese women busy in planting paddy seedlings in their agricultural field in Pahukata village in Nagaon district
Nagaon district
of Assam, India
India
.

Assam’s agriculture is yet to experience modernisation in a real sense. With implications for food security, per capita food grain production has declined in the past five decades.[133] Productivity has increased marginally, but is still low compared to highly productive regions. For instance, the yield of rice (staple food of Assam) was just 1531 kg per hectare against India’s 1927 kg per hectare in 2000–01[133] (which itself is much lower than Egypt’s 9283, US’s 7279, South Korea’s 6838, Japan’s 6635 and China’s 6131 kg per hectare in 2001[134]). On the other hand, after having strong domestic demand, and with 1.5 million hectares of inland water bodies, numerous rivers and 165 varieties of fishes,[135] fishing is still in its traditional form and production is not self-sufficient.[136] Flood in Assam
Assam
greatly affects the farmers and the families dependent on agriculture because of large-scale damage of agricultural fields and crops by flood water.[48][49]Every year, flooding from the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
and other rivers deluges places in Assam. The water levels of the rivers rise because of rainfall resulting in the rivers overflowing their banks and engulfing nearby areas. Apart from houses and livestock being washed away by flood water, bridges, railway tracks and roads are also damaged by the calamity, which causes communication breakdown in many places. Fatalities are also caused by the natural disaster in many places of the State.[137][138] See also: 2016 Assam
Assam
floods Industry[edit] Handlooming and handicraft continue.[citation needed] Assam's proximity to some neighbouring countries such as Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan, benefits its trade. The major Border checkpoints through which border trade flows to Bangladesh
Bangladesh
from Assam
Assam
are :- Sutarkandi (Karimganj), Dhubri, Mankachar
Mankachar
(Dhubri) and Golokanj. To facilitate border trade with Bangladesh, Border Trade Centres have been developed at Sutarkandi and Mankachar. It has been proposed in the 11th five-year plan[clarification needed] to set up two more Border Trade Center, one at Ledo connecting China and other at Darrang connecting Bhutan. There are several Land Custom Stations (LCS) in the state bordering Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and Bhutan
Bhutan
to facilitate border trade.[139] The government of India
India
has identified some thrust areas for industrial development of Assam:

Petroleum
Petroleum
and natural gas based industries Industries based on locally available minerals Processing of plantation crops Food processing industries Agri-Horticulture products Agri-Horticulture products Herbal products Biotech products Pharmaceuticals Chemical and plastic based industries Export oriented industries Electronic and IT base industries including services sector Paper making industries Textiles and sericulture Engineering industries Cane and bamboo based industries Other handicrafts industry[140]

Although, the region in the eastern periphery of India
India
is landlocked and is linked to the mainland by the narrow Siliguri Corridor
Siliguri Corridor
(or the Chicken's Neck) improved transport infrastructure in all the three modes — rail, road and air — and developing urban infrastructure in the cities and towns of Assam
Assam
are giving a boost to the entire industrial scene. The Lokpriya Gopinath Bordoloi
Gopinath Bordoloi
International Airport at Guwahati, although is yet to be fully functional with international flights, was the 12th busiest airport of India
India
in 2012.[141] The cities of Guwahati[142][143] in the West and Dibrugarh[144][145] in the East with good rail,[146][147] road and air connectivity are the two important nerve centres of Assam, to be selected by Asian Development Bank for providing $200 million for improvement of urban infrastructure.[148][149] Assam
Assam
is a producer of crude oil and it accounts for about 15% of India's crude output,[150] exploited by the Assam
Assam
Oil Company Ltd.,[151] and natural gas in India
India
and is the second place in the world (after Titusville in the United States) where petroleum was discovered. Asia’s first successful mechanically drilled oil well was drilled in Makum
Makum
way back in 1867. Most of the oilfields are located in the Eastern Assam
Assam
region. Assam
Assam
has four oil refineries in Digboi
Digboi
(Asia's first and world's second refinery), Guwahati, Bongaigaon
Bongaigaon
and Numaligarh
Numaligarh
and with a total capacity of 7 million metric tonnes (7.7 million short tons) per annum. Asia's first refinery was set up at Digboi
Digboi
and discoverer of Digboi
Digboi
oilfield was the Assam
Assam
Railways & Trading Company Limited (AR&T Co. Ltd.), a registered company of London in 1881.[152] One of the biggest public sector oil company of the country Oil India
India
Ltd. has its plant and headquarters at Duliajan. There are several other industries, including a chemical fertiliser plant at Namrup, petrochemical industries at Namrup
Namrup
and Bongaigaon, Paper mills at Jagiroad, Hindustan Paper Corporation Ltd. Township Area Panchgram and Jogighopa, sugar mills at Barua
Barua
Bamun Gaon, Chargola, Kampur, Cement plant at Bokajan and Badarpur, cosmetics plant of Hindustan Unilever
Hindustan Unilever
(HUL) at Doom Dooma, etc. Moreover, there are other industries such as jute mill, textile and yarn mills, Assam silk, and silk mills. Many of these industries are facing loss and closure due to lack of infrastructure and improper management practices.[153] Tourism[edit] Main article: Tourism in Assam See also: Tourism in North East India Wildlife, cultural, and historical destinations have attracted visitors.

Rang Ghar

An Indian rhinoceros
Indian rhinoceros
in Kaziranga
Kaziranga
National Park

Statue of Ahom warriors near Sivasagar
Sivasagar
town, Assam

Shiva Dol

Vishnudol joysagar

Kamakhya Temple, Nilachal Hills, Guwahati

Karengghar of the Ahom Kings, Joysagar

Panbari Mosque, Dhubri

Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of Assam See also: Assamese cinema Assamese culture is traditionally a hybrid one developed due to assimilation of ethno-cultural groups of Austric, Tibeto-Burman
Tibeto-Burman
and Tai origin in the past. Therefore, both local elements or the local elements in Sanskritised forms are distinctly found.[154] The major milestones in evolution of Assamese culture are:

Dakhinpat Satra of Majuli

Presenting Gayan Bayan in Majuli, the Neo-Vaishnavite Cultural heritage of Assam

Assimilation in the Kamarupa
Kamarupa
Kingdom for almost 700 years (under the Varmans for 300 years, Salastambhas and Palas for each 200 years).[15] Establishment of the Chutiya dynasty in the 12th century in eastern Assam
Assam
and assimilation for next 400 years.[15] Establishment of the Ahom dynasty in the 13th century AD and assimilation for next 600 years.[15] Assimilation in the Koch Kingdom
Koch Kingdom
(15th–16th century AD) of western Assam
Assam
and Kachari Kingdom
Kachari Kingdom
(12th–18th century AD) of central and southern Assam.[15] Vaishnava Movement led by Srimanta Shankardeva
Srimanta Shankardeva
(Sonkordeu) and its contribution and cultural changes. Vaishanava Movement, the 15th century religio-cultural movement under the leadership of great Srimanta Sankardeva
Srimanta Sankardeva
(Sonkordeu) and his disciples have provided another dimension to Assamese culture. A renewed Hinduisation in local forms took place, which was initially greatly supported by the Koch and later by the Ahom Kingdoms. The resultant social institutions such as namghar and sattra (the Vaishnav Monasteries) have become part of Assamese way life. The movement contributed greatly towards language, literature and performing and fine arts.[citation needed]

The modern culture was influenced by events in the British and the Post-British Era. The language was standardised by the American Baptist
Baptist
Missionaries such as Nathan Brown, Dr. Miles Bronson and local pundits such as Hemchandra Barua
Hemchandra Barua
with the form available in the Sibsagar
Sibsagar
(Sivasagar) District (the ex-nerve centre of the Ahom Kingdom).[citation needed] Increasing efforts of standardisation in the 20th century alienated the localised forms present in different areas and with the less-assimilated ethno-cultural groups (many source-cultures). However, Assamese culture in its hybrid form and nature is one of the richest, still developing and in true sense is a 'cultural system' with sub-systems. It is interesting that many source-cultures of Assamese cultural-system are still surviving either as sub-systems or as sister entities, e.g. the ; Bodo or Karbi or Mishing. It is important to keep the broader system closer to its roots and at the same time to focus on development of the sub-systems. Some of the common and unique cultural traits in the region are peoples' respect towards areca-nut and betel leaves, symbolic (gamosa, arnai, etc.), traditional silk garments (e.g. mekhela chador, traditional dress of Assamese women) and towards forefathers and elderly. Moreover, great hospitality and bamboo culture are common. Symbols[edit] See also: List of Assam state symbols
List of Assam state symbols
and Jaapi

A decorative Assamese Jaapi
Jaapi
laid over a Gamosa

Symbolism is an ancient cultural practice in Assam
Assam
and is still a very important part of Assamese way of life. Various elements are being used to represent beliefs, feelings, pride, identity, etc. Tamulpan, Xorai
Xorai
and Gamosa
Gamosa
are three important symbolic elements in Assamese culture. Tamulpan (the areca nut and betel leaves) or guapan (gua from kwa) are considered along with the Gamosa
Gamosa
(a typical woven cotton or silk cloth with embroidery) as the offers of devotion, respect and friendship. The Tamulpan-tradition is an ancient one and is being followed since time-immemorial with roots in the aboriginal Austro-Asiatic culture. Xorai
Xorai
is a traditionally manufactured bell-metal article of great respect and is used as a container-medium while performing respectful offers. Moreover, symbolically many ethno-cultural groups use specific clothes to portray respect and pride. There were many other symbolic elements and designs, but are now only found in literature, art, sculpture, architecture, etc. or in use today for only religious purposes. The typical designs of assamese-lion, dragon, flying-lion(Hindi-udta sher), etc. were used for symbolising various purposes and occasions. The archaeological sites such as the Madan Kamdev
Madan Kamdev
(c. 9th–10th centuries AD) exhibits mass-scale use of lions, dragon-lions and many other figures of demons to show case power and prosperity. The Vaishnava monasteries and many other architectural sites of late medieval period display the use of lions and dragons for symbolic effects. Festivals and traditions[edit] Main article: List of festivals in Assam See also: Domahi, Bohag Bihu, Magh Bihu, and Bwisagu

A Bihu
Bihu
dancer blowing a pepa (horn)

Tribal – Mising girls dancing during Ali Ai Ligang
Ali Ai Ligang
(Spring Festival)

There are diversified important traditional festivals in Assam. Bihu is the most important and common and celebrated all over Assam. It is the Assamese new year celebrated in April of the Gregorian calendar. Durga Puja
Durga Puja
is another festival celebrated with great enthusiasm. Muslims celebrate two Eids ( Eid ul-Fitr
Eid ul-Fitr
and Eid al-Adha) with much eagerness all over Assam. Bihu
Bihu
is a series of three prominent festivals. Primarily a non-religious festival celebrated to mark the seasons and the significant points of a cultivator's life over a yearly cycle. Three Bihus, rongali or bohag, celebrated with the coming of spring and the beginning of the sowing season; kongali or kati, the barren bihu when the fields are lush but the barns are empty; and the bhogali or magh, the thanksgiving when the crops have been harvested and the barns are full. Bihu
Bihu
songs and Bihu dance
Bihu dance
are associated to rongali bihu. The day before the each bihu is known as 'uruka'. The first day of 'rongali bihu' is called 'Goru bihu' (the bihu of the cows), when the cows are taken to the nearby rivers or ponds to be bathed with special care. In recent times the form and nature of celebration has changed with the growth of urban centres. Bwisagu is one of the popular seasonal festivals of the Bodos. Bwisagu start of the new year or age. Baisagu is a Boro word which originated from the word "Baisa" which means year or age, ang "Agu" that means starting or start. Bushu Dima or simply Bushu is a major harvest festival of the Dimasa people. This festival is celebrated during the end of January. Officially 27 January has been declared as the day of Bushu Dima festival. The Dimasa people
Dimasa people
celebrate their festival by playing musical instruments- khram (a type of drum), muri ( a kind of huge long flute). The people dances to the different tunes called "murithai" and each dance has got its name, the prominent being the "Baidima" There are three types of Bushu celebrated among the Dimasas Jidap, Surem and Hangsou. Moreover, there are other important traditional festivals being celebrated every year on different occasions at different places. Many of these are celebrated by different ethno-cultural groups (sub and sister cultures). Some of these are:

Me-Dam-Me-Phi Ali-Aye-Ligang Rongker Kherai Garja Bisu DEORI

Awnkham Gwrlwi Janai Chojun/Swarak Deusi Bhailo ( Traditional Nepalese songs that are sung during the festival of light " Dipavali and also called "Tihar" ) Sokk-erroi Hacha-kekan Hapsa Hatarnai

Porag Bathow Wangala Bohuwa dance

Other few yearly celebrations are Doul Utsav of Barpeta, Brahmaputra Beach Festival, Guwahati, Kaziranga
Kaziranga
Elephant Festival, Kaziranga
Kaziranga
and Dehing Patkai Festival, Lekhapani, Karbi Youth Festival of Diphu
Diphu
and International Jatinga
Jatinga
Festival, Jatinga
Jatinga
can not be forgotten. Few yearly Mela's like Jonbeel Mela, began in the 15th century by the Ahom Kings, Ambubachi Mela, Guwahati
Guwahati
etc. Lachit Divas’ is celebrated to promote the ideals of Lachit Borphukan – the legendary general of Assam’s history. Sarbananda Sonowal, the chief minister of Assam
Assam
took part in the Lachit Divas celebration at the statue of Lachit Borphukan
Lachit Borphukan
at Brahmaputra riverfront on 24th November 2017. He said, the first countrywide celebration of ‘Lachit Divas’ would take place in New Delhi followed by state capitals such as Hyderabad, Bangalore and Kolkata in a phased manner. Music, dance, and drama[edit] See also: Music of Assam
Music of Assam
and Folk dances of Assam

Tribal – Bodo dance Bagurumba

Jhumur
Jhumur
dance

Nagara

Bhupen Hazarika

Performing arts include: Ankia Naat (Onkeeya Naat), a traditional Vaishnav dance-drama (Bhaona) popular since the 15th century AD.[citation needed] It makes use of large masks of gods, goddesses, demons and animals and in between the plays a Sutradhar (Xutrodhar) continues to narrate the story.[citation needed] Besides Bihu dance
Bihu dance
and Huchory performed during the Bohag Bihu, dance forms of tribal minorities such as; Kushan nritra of Rajbongshi's, Bagurumba
Bagurumba
and Bordoicikhla dance of Bodos, Mishing Bihu, Banjar Kekan performed during Chomangkan by Karbis, Jhumur
Jhumur
of Tea tribes
Tea tribes
are some of the major folk dances.[citation needed] Sattriya
Sattriya
(Sotriya) dance related to Vaishnav tradition is a classical form of dance. Moreover, there are several other age-old dance-forms such as Barpeta’s Bhortal Nritya, Deodhoni Nritya, Ojapali, Beula Dance, Ka Shad Inglong Kardom, Nimso Kerung, etc. The tradition of modern moving theatres is typical of Assam
Assam
with immense popularity of many large theatre groups such as Kohinoor, Sankardev, Abahan, Bhagyadevi, Hengul, Brindabon, Itihas etc.[citation needed]

Actors of Abinaswar Gosthi performs the play"Surjya Mandirot Surjyasta" directed by Dipok Borah

The indigenous folk music has influenced the growth of a modern idiom, that finds expression in the music of artists like Jyoti Prasad Agarwala, Bishnuprasad Rabha, Parvati Prasad Baruwa, Bhupen Hazarika, Pratima Barua
Barua
Pandey, Anima Choudhury, Luit Konwar Rudra Baruah, Jayanta Hazarika, Khagen Mahanta, Deepali Borthakur, Ganashilpi Dilip Sarma, Sudakshina Sarma among many others. Among the new generation, Zubeen Garg, Jitul Sonowal, Angaraag Mahanta
Angaraag Mahanta
and Joi Barua.[citation needed] There is an award given in the honour of Bishnuprasad Rabha for achievements in the cultural/music world of Assam
Assam
by the State Government.[citation needed] Cuisine[edit] Main article: Assamese cuisine

Assamese Thali

An ethnic preparation of Ghost chilly chicken curry of Assam

Assamese-Bengali dish: Vegetables, Mashed potato, Bhaji, Cooked rice and Dal.

Typically, an Assamese meal consists of many things such as bhat (rice) with dal (lentils), masoor jool (fish curry), with mangxô (meat curry) or xaak and bhaji (herbs and vegetables).[citation needed] Rice
Rice
is one of the main dishes of Assam, and a variety of different rices are grown and eaten in different ways: roasted, grounded, boiled or just soaked.[citation needed] Fish
Fish
curries made of free range wild fish as well as Bôralí, rôu, illish, or sitôl are the most popular. Fowl such as ducks and pigeon are used in dishes while pork(by tribals), chicken and mutton dishes are mainly popular among the younger generation.[citation needed] Another favourite combination is luchi (fried flatbread), a curry which can be vegetarian or non-vegetarian, and asar (pickle).[citation needed] The two main characteristics of a traditional meal in Assam
Assam
are khar (an Alkali, named after its main ingredient) and the sour dish tenga. Khorika is the smoked or fired meat eaten with the meal. The various meats more commonly taken include mutton, fowl, duck/goose, fish, pigeon, beef and pork(among Muslim, Christian and tribal communities respectively) ; these being often involved with religious ceremonies. Other kinds of meat include grasshoppers, locusts, silkworms, snails, eels, wild fowl and other birds, deer meat and so on.[citation needed] Khorisa (fermented bamboo shoots) are used at times to flavour curries while they can also be preserved and made into pickles. Koldil (banana flower) and squash can be cooked into sabji's.[citation needed] Many tribal households still continue to brew their traditional drinks; variously known as Laupani, Xaaj, Paniyo, Jou, Joumai, Hor, Apang, and so on. During the time of the traditional festivities, guests are offered these drinks. Declining then is considered socially offensive.[citation needed] The food is often served in bell metal dishes and platters like Knahi, Maihang and so on.[citation needed] Literature[edit] Main article: Assamese literature

Lal Bahadur Chettri

Most literary works are written in Assamese although other local language such as Boro and Dimasa are also represented.[citation needed] In the 19th and 20th century, Assamese and other literature was modernised by authors including Lakshminath Bezbaroa, Birinchi Kumar Barua, Hem Barua, Dr. Mamoni Raisom Goswami, Bhabendra Nath Saikia, Birendra Kumar Bhattacharya, Hiren Bhattacharyya, Homen Borgohain, Bhabananda Deka, Rebati Mohan Dutta Choudhury, Mahim Bora, Lal Bahadur Chettri, Syed Abdul Malik, Surendranath Medhi, Hiren Gohain etc. Fine arts[edit] Main article: Fine Arts of Assam

Citra Bhagavata illustration

A page of manuscript painting from Assam; The medieval painters used locally manufactured painting materials such as the colours of hangool and haital and papers manufactured from aloewood bark

The archaic Mauryan Stupas
Stupas
discovered in and around Goalpara
Goalpara
district are the earliest examples (c. 300 BC to c. 100 AD) of ancient art and architectural works. The remains discovered in Daparvatiya (Doporboteeya) archaeological site with a beautiful doorframe in Tezpur
Tezpur
are identified as the best examples of art works in ancient Assam
Assam
with influence of Sarnath
Sarnath
School of Art of the late Gupta period.[citation needed] Painting is an ancient tradition of Assam. Xuanzang
Xuanzang
(7th century AD) mentions that among the Kamarupa
Kamarupa
king Bhaskaravarma's gifts to Harshavardhana
Harshavardhana
there were paintings and painted objects, some of which were on Assamese silk. Many of the manuscripts such as Hastividyarnava
Hastividyarnava
(A Treatise on Elephants), the Chitra Bhagawata and in the Gita Govinda from the Middle Ages bear excellent examples of traditional paintings.[citation needed] Traditional crafts[edit] Main articles: Traditional crafts of Assam
Traditional crafts of Assam
and Bell and brass metal crafts of Assam See also: Assam
Assam
silk

Bell metal
Bell metal
made sorai and sophura are important parts of culture

Assam
Assam
Knahor Knahi

Assam
Assam
has a rich tradition of crafts;, Cane and bamboo craft, bell metal and brass craft, silk and cotton weaving, toy and mask making, pottery and terracotta work, wood craft, jewellery making, and musical instruments making have remained as major traditions.[155] Cane and bamboo craft provide the most commonly used utilities in daily life, ranging from household utilities, weaving accessories, fishing accessories, furniture, musical instruments, construction materials, etc. Utilities and symbolic articles such as Sorai and Bota made from bell metal and brass are found in every Assamese household.[156][157] Hajo
Hajo
and Sarthebari
Sarthebari
(Sorthebaary) are the most important centres of traditional bell-metal and brass crafts. Assam
Assam
is the home of several types of silks, the most prestigious are: Muga – the natural golden silk, Pat – a creamy-bright-silver coloured silk and Eri – a variety used for manufacturing warm clothes for winter. Apart from Sualkuchi
Sualkuchi
(Xualkuchi), the centre for the traditional silk industry, in almost every parts of the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
Valley, rural households produce silk and silk garments with excellent embroidery designs. Moreover, various ethno-cultural groups in Assam
Assam
make different types of cotton garments with unique embroidery designs and wonderful colour combinations. Moreover, Assam
Assam
possesses unique crafts of toy and mask making mostly concentrated in the Vaishnav Monasteries, pottery and terracotta work in Western Assam
Western Assam
districts and wood craft, iron craft, jewellery, etc. in many places across the region. Media[edit] Print media include Assamese dailies Amar Asom, Asomiya Khobor, Asomiya Pratidin, Dainik Agradoot, Dainik Janambhumi, Dainik Asam, Gana Adhikar, Janasadharan and Niyomiya Barta. Asom Bani, Sadin and Bhal Khabar are Assamese weekly newspapers. English dailies of Assam include The Assam
Assam
Tribune, The Sentinel, The Telegraph, The Times of India
India
and Eastern Chronicle. Thekar, in the Karbi language
Karbi language
has the largest circulation of any daily from Karbi Anglong
Karbi Anglong
district. Bodosa has the highest circulation of any Bodo daily from BTC. Dainik Jugasankha is a Bengali daily with editions from Dibrugarh, Guwahati, Silchar
Silchar
and Kolkata. Dainik Samayik Prasanga, Dainik Prantojyoti, Dainik Janakantha and Nababarta Prasanga are other prominent Bengali dailies published in the Barak Valley
Barak Valley
towns of Karimganj
Karimganj
and Silchar. Hindi
Hindi
dailies include Purvanchal Prahari, Pratah Khabar and Dainik Purvoday. Broadcasting stations of All India
India
Radio have been established in five big cities: Dibrugarh, Guwahati, Kokrajhar, Silchar
Silchar
and Tezpur. Local news and music are the main priority for that station. Assam
Assam
has three public service broadcasting service radio stationsat Dibrugarh, Guwahati
Guwahati
and Silchar. Guwahati
Guwahati
is the headquarters of a number of electronic medias like Assam
Assam
Talks, DY 365, News Live, News 18 Assam/North-East, Prag News and Pratidin Time. See also[edit]

Outline of Assam – comprehensive topic guide listing articles about Assam. List of districts of Assam

Notes[edit]

^ a b "Jagdish Mukhi: Few facts about Assam's new Governor". The New Indian Express. 30 September 2017.  ^ " Assam
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Budget 2018-19" (PDF). Assam
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Finance Dept. Retrieved 15 March 2018.  ^ " Assam
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Population Sex Ratio in Assam
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Literacy
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Assam
( Delhi
Delhi
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Sultanate: A Political and Military History, P. 141, into the region of Assam
Assam
the Muslims called Kamrup or Kamrud ^ "The word 'Assamese' is an English one based on the anglicised form 'Assam' from the native word "Asam", which in its turn is connected with the Shans who invaded the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
Valley in the 13th century." Kakati, Banikanta, Aspects of Early Assamese Literature ( Gauhati University Press, 1953) p1; " Assam
Assam
is the English form of 'Asama' (i.e. peerless) which is apparently a Sanskritised form of the tribal name Ahom", D C Sircar, Pragjyotisha- Kamarupa
Kamarupa
in The Comprehensive History of Assam
History of Assam
Vol I (Guwahati, 1991) p59 cf1; Satyendra Nath Sharma, Assamese Literature (Wiesbaden : Harrassowitz, 1976) p1; "The term 'Assam' is, relatively speaking, of recent origin and traces back to the tradition of the Ahoms who entered the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
valley in the thirteenth century", Nayanjot Lahir, Pre-Ahom Assam
Assam
( Delhi
Delhi
1991, based on PhD Thesis) p14; "These references show that the term 'Axom or Asom' was earlier used to mean the Shan community...Subsequently the term came to be used to mean also the territory they ruled", M Taher, Geography of Assam
Geography of Assam
(Delhi, 2001) pp2-3 ^ "...but most probably Asama meaning peerless or unequalled is a latter day Sanskritisation of some earlier form like Āchām, Banikanta Kakati, Early Aspects of Assamese Literature (Gauhati, 1953) p2 ^ Satyendra Nath Sharma, Assamese Literature (Wiesbaden : Harrassowitz, 1976) p1 ^ "In Tai the root cham means "to be undefeated". With the privative Assamese affix ā the whole formation Āchām would mean undefeated.", Banikanta Kakati, Aspects of Early Assamese Literature (Gauhati University Press, 1953) p2 ^ "The Ahom domain of Upper Assam
Upper Assam
came to be known to the Dimasa and other Bodo people
Bodo people
as Ha-Sam (the land of the Shams or Shans) in their language.", Amalendu Guha, The Ahom Political System: An Enquiry into the State Formation Process in Medieval Assam
Assam
(1228–1714) in Social Scientist Vol. 11, No. 12, (1983) p24 ^ a b c d e f Barpujari, H. K. (ed.) (1990), The Comprehensive History of Assam, 1st edition, Guwahati, India: Assam
Assam
Publication Board CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ India
India
History Association. Session (2001), Proceedings of North East India
India
History Association North East he came under the 'bad' influence of Banasura, ruler of Sonitapura (identified with Tezpur
Tezpur
now under Sonitpur district
Sonitpur district
in central Assam), and ended up sidelining Kamakhya in favour of Siva. Thereafter Naraka
Naraka
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Kamarupa
consisted of the Western districts of the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
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Davaka
(Nowgong) and Kamarupa
Kamarupa
as separate and submissive friendly kingdoms. ^ The eastern border of Kamarupa
Kamarupa
is given by the temple of the goddess Tamreshvari (Pūrvāte Kāmarūpasya devī Dikkaravasini in Kalika Purana) near present-day Sadiya. "...the temple of the goddess Tameshwari (Dikkaravasini) is now located at modern Sadiya
Sadiya
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Movement In Assam". Mittal Publications. Retrieved 5 August 2016 – via Google Books.  ^ Saikia, Dr Jugal (8 April 2016). "Economics Of Informal Milk Producing Units In Assam". Notion Press. Retrieved 5 August 2016 – via Google Books.  ^ "History – GMC Portal". Retrieved 5 August 2016.  ^ "Municipal Board". Retrieved 5 August 2016.  ^ "Municipal Board-About Us". Retrieved 5 August 2016.  ^ " Dhubri
Dhubri
Municipal Board".  ^ " Nagaon
Nagaon
– History".  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 June 2016. Retrieved 24 May 2016.  ^ " Jorhat
Jorhat
Municipal Board(JBM), Jorhat, Assam". Archived from the original on 27 March 2016. Retrieved 5 August 2016.  ^ "AGP lists civic poll candidates". Retrieved 5 August 2016.  ^ " Silchar
Silchar
Municipal Board ( Silchar
Silchar
Municipality) Assam
Assam
– Silchar Karimganj
Karimganj
Hailakandi". Retrieved 5 August 2016.  ^ "Don Bosco University – Azara – Guwahati
Guwahati
– Welcome to Don Bosco University". Dbuniversity.ac.in. Retrieved 2012-09-22.  ^ " Assam
Assam
Down Town
Town
University". adtu.in. Retrieved 2012-09-22.  ^ " Assam
Assam
Women's University". Assam
Assam
Women's University. Retrieved 7 August 2015.  ^ " Bodoland University
Bodoland University
website". bodolanduniversity.org.in. Retrieved 2012-09-22.  ^ " Dibrugarh
Dibrugarh
University". Dibrugarh
Dibrugarh
University. Retrieved 7 August 2015.  ^ "Gauhati University". Gauhati University. Retrieved 7 August 2015.  ^ " Kaziranga
Kaziranga
University". kazirangauniversity.in. Retrieved 2012-09-22.  ^ " Tezpur
Tezpur
University". Tezpur
Tezpur
University. Retrieved 7 August 2015.  ^ "Girijananda Chowdhury Institute of Management & Technology". Retrieved 5 August 2016.  ^ http://www.nits.ac.in/ ^ "National Research Centre on Pig, (ICAR) in Guwahati". Retrieved 16 October 2014.  ^ Indian Tea Association. "Tea Scenario". Archived from the original on 1 March 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2015.  ^ U.S. Energy Information Administration. " India
India
– Analysis". Retrieved 19 April 2015.  ^ a b c Government of Assam. "Economic Survey of Assam
Assam
2005–2006 in NEDFi, Assam
Assam
Profile, NER Databank". Archived from the original on 31 December 2008. Retrieved 6 June 2007.  ^ Government of Assam. "2, Income, Employment and Poverty". Economic Survey of Assam
Assam
2001–2002 in Assam
Assam
Human Development Report, 2003. p. 25. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 February 2007. Retrieved 6 June 2007.  ^ National Commission for Women 2004 ^ a b UNDP
UNDP
2004, pp. 22–23 ^ UNDP
UNDP
2004, p. 22 ^ a b Government of Assam
Government of Assam
(2006). "Economic Survey of Assam 2004–2005 in NEDFi, Assam
Assam
Profile, NER Databank". Retrieved 6 June 2007.  ^ a b c UNDP
UNDP
2004, pp. 24–25 ^ "Poor infrastructure, stringent policies bottleneck for Assam's growth". The Economic Times. 9 July 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2015.  ^ "Panel for study of unemployment problem in Assam". Zee News. 26 October 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2015.  ^ "The Assam
Assam
Tribune". The Assam
Assam
Tribune. 17 October 2013. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2015.  ^ "The Assam
Assam
Tribune". The Assam
Assam
Tribune. 21 January 2014. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2015.  ^ "Centre taking steps to check illegal immigration into Assam". The Economic Times. 5 August 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2015.  ^ "Soon blueprint to deport illegal Bangladeshis in Assam". Hindustan Times. 10 December 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2015.  ^ " Illegal immigration
Illegal immigration
from Bangladesh
Bangladesh
a national problem". India Today. 4 June 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2015.  ^ "Leave in 15 days, BJP
BJP
MPs tell illegal immigrants in Assam". Firstpost. 2 June 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2015.  ^ Government of Assam. "Economic Survey of Assam
Assam
2001–2002 in Assam Human Development Report, 2003". p. 32. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 February 2007. Retrieved 6 June 2007.  ^ a b UNDP
UNDP
2004, p. 33 ^ FAO Statistics Division, 2007, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. "Faostat". Archived from the original (– Scholar search) on 11 February 2007. Retrieved 5 June 2006.  ^ Assam
Assam
Small Farmers’ Agri-business Consortium. " Fish
Fish
Species of Assam" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 May 2006. Retrieved 5 June 2006.  ^ UNDP
UNDP
2004, p. 37 ^ " Assam
Assam
Flood Toll Rises to 13". NDTV. 23 August 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2015.  ^ "Flood situation in Assam
Assam
worsens". Hindustan Times. 23 August 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2015.  ^ "Indian state: Assam". Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India. Retrieved 1 August 2013.  ^ "Indian state: Assam, Thrust Areas". Ministry of External Affairs, Govt. of India.  ^ List of busiest airports in India
India
by passenger traffic ^ "GMC". Guwahati
Guwahati
Municipal Corporation. Archived from the original on 4 November 2013.  ^ "Guwahati". IndiaUnveiled.  ^ " Dibrugarh
Dibrugarh
Municipality". Dibrugarh
Dibrugarh
Municipal Board. Archived from the original on 1 September 2014.  ^ "Dibrugarh". IndiaUnveiled.  ^ "New Delhi
Delhi
Dibrugarh
Dibrugarh
Trains". Indiarailinfo.  ^ "Trains from Dibrugarh". Indiarailinfo.  ^ "ADB $200 Million Loan to Upgrade Services in Key Cities of India's Assam
Assam
State". Asian Development Bank.  ^ "$81-million ADB loan for State urban infrastructure". The Assam Tribune. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2013.  ^ Government of Assam
Government of Assam
(18 February 2007). "Available Resources in Assam". Government of Assam. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 18 July 2010.  ^ "Assamco". assamco.com. Retrieved 2012-09-22.  ^ " Government of Assam
Government of Assam
Department of Industries and Commerce". Investinassam.com. Archived from the original on 16 March 2012. Retrieved 2012-09-22.  ^ " Assam
Assam
Economy – Economy of Assam, Business & Economy of Assam India". iloveindia.com. Archived from the original on 10 July 2010. Retrieved 18 July 2010.  ^ Kakati, Banikanta (1962), Assamese, Its Formation and Development, 2nd edition, Guwahati, India: Lawyer's Book Stall  ^ Assam
Assam
Tourism 2002, Government of Assam. "Arts and Crafts
Crafts
of Assam in About Assam". Archived from the original on 7 April 2007. Retrieved 3 June 2007.  ^ Ranjan, M.P.; Iyer, Nilam; Pandya, Ghanshyam, Bamboo
Bamboo
and Cane Crafts of Northeast India, National Institute of Design  ^ Nath, T.K., Bamboo
Bamboo
Cane and Assam, Guwahati, India: Industrial Development Bank of India, Small Industries Development Bank of India 

References[edit]

Directorate of Information and Public Relations, Government of Assam, Assam
Assam
at a Glance, archived from the original on 6 October 2007, retrieved 25 May 2007  National Commission for Women (2004), Situational Analysis of Women in Assam
Assam
(PDF), archived from the original (PDF) on 15 June 2007, retrieved 5 July 2006.  National Mission on Bamboo
Bamboo
Applications, Assam, State Profile, archived from the original on 29 September 2007, retrieved 25 May 2007  Revenue Department, Government of Assam, Revenue Administration – Districts and Subdivisions, retrieved 25 May 2007  Singh, K. S (ed) (2003) People of India: Assam
Assam
Vol XV Parts I and II, Anthropological Survey of India, Seagull Books, Calcutta

Sircar, D C (1990), "Pragjyotisha-Kamarupa", in Barpujari, H K, The Comprehensive History of Assam, I, Guwahati: Publication Board, Assam, pp. 59–78 

UNDP
UNDP
(2004), Chapter 2, Income, Employment and Poverty in Assam
Assam
Human Development Report, 2003, Government of Assam, archived from the original on 20 February 2007  Wandrey, C. J. (2004), "Sylhet-Kopili/Barail-Tipam Composite Total Petroleum
Petroleum
System, Assam
Assam
Geologic Province, India" (PDF), US Geological Survey Bulletin, 2208-D 

Further reading[edit]

Online Books and material

A statistical account of Assam
Assam
(1879) by WW Hunter Assam
Assam
Attitude to Federalism (1984)by Girin Phukon A Glimpse of Assam
Assam
(1884) by Susan Ward A history of Assam
Assam
(1906) by Edward Gait Physical and political geography of the province of Assam
Assam
(1896) by Assam
Assam
Secretariat Printing Office Outline Grammar of the Kachári (Bārā) Language as Spoken in District Darrang, Assam(1884) by Sidney Endle An outline grammar of the Deori Chutiya language spoken in upper Assam(1895) by William Barclay Brown Travels and adventures in the province of Assam, during a residence of fourteen years (1855) by John Butler

Language and literature

Bara, Mahendra (1981), The Evolution of the Assamese Script, Jorhat, Assam: Asam Sahitya Sabha  Barpujari, H. K. (1983), Amerikan Michanerisakal aru Unabimsa Satikar Asam, Jorhat, Assam: Asam Sahitya Sabha  Barua, Birinchi Kumar (1965), History of Assamese Literature, Guwahati: East-West Centre Press  Barua, Hem (1965), Assamese Literature, New Delhi: National Book Trust  Brown, William Barclay (1895), An Outline Grammar of the Deori Chutiya Language Spoken in Upper Assam
Upper Assam
with an Introduction, Illustrative Sentences, and Short Vocabulary, Shillong: The Assam
Assam
Secretariat Printing Office  Deka, Bhabananda (1961), Industrialisation of Assam, Guwahati: Gopal Das  Dhekial Phukan, Anandaram 1829–1859 (1977), Anandaram Dhekiyal Phukanar Racana Samgrah, Guwahati: Lawyer's Book Stall  Endle, Sidney (1884), Outline of the Kachari (Baro) Language as Spoken in District Darrang, Assam, Shillong: Assam
Assam
Secretariat Press  Gogoi, Lila (1972), Sahitya-Samskriti-Buranji, Dibrugarh: New Book Stall  Gogoi, Lila (1986), The Buranjis, Historical Literature of Assam, New Delhi: Omsons Publications  Goswami, Praphulladatta (1954), Folk-Literature of Assam, Guwahati: Department of Historical and Antiquarian Studies in Assam  Gurdon, Philip Richard Thornhagh (1896), Some Assamese Proverbs, Shillong: The Assam
Assam
Secretariat Printing Office, ISBN 1-104-30633-6  Kakati, Banikanta (1959), Aspects of Early Assamese Literature, Guwahati: Gauhati University  Kay, S. P. (1904), An English-Mikir Vocabulary, Shillong: The Assam Secretariat Printing Office  Medhi, Kaliram (1988), Assamese Grammar and Origin of the Assamese Language, Guwahati: Assam
Assam
Publication Board  Miles, Bronson (1867), A Dictionary in Assamese and English, Sibsagar, Assam: American Baptist
Baptist
Mission Press  Morey, Stephen (2005), The Tai languages
Tai languages
of Assam : a grammar and texts, Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, ISBN 0-85883-549-5 

History

Antrobus, H. (1957), A History of the Assam
Assam
Company, Edinburgh: Private Printing by T. and A. Constable  Barabaruwa, Hiteswara 1876–1939 (1981), Ahomar Din, Guwahati: Assam Publication Board  Barooah, Nirode K. (1970), David Scott In North-East India, 1802–1831, New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers  Barua, Harakanta 1813–1900 (1962), Asama Buranji, Guwahati: Department of Historical and Antiquarian Studies, Assam  Barpujari, H. K. (1963), Assam
Assam
in the Days of the Company, 1826–1858, Guwahati: Lawyer's Book Stall  Barpujari, H. K. (1977), Political History of Assam. Department for the Preparation of Political History of Assam, Guwahati: Government of Assam  Barua, Kanak Lal, An Early History of Kamarupa, From the Earliest Time to the Sixteenth Century, Guwahati: Lawyers Book Stall  Barua, Kanak Lal, Studies in the Early History of Assam, Jorhat, Assam: Asam Sahitya Sabha  Baruah, Swarna Lata (1993), Last days of Ahom monarchy : a history of Assam
Assam
from 1769–1826, New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers  Bhuyan, Suryya Kumar (1949), Anglo-Assamese Relations, 1771–1826, Guwahati: Department of Historical and Antiquarian Studies in Assam  Bhuyan, Suryya Kumar (1947), Annals of the Delhi
Delhi
Badshahate, Guwahati: Department of Historical and Antiquarian Studies, Government of Assam  Bhuyan, Suryya Kumar (1957), Atan Buragohain and His Times, Guwahati: Lawyer's Book Stall  Bhuyan, Suryya Kumar (1962), Deodhai Asam Buranji, Guwahati: Department of Historical and Antiquarian Studies  Bhuyan, Suryya Kumar (1928), Early British Relations with Assam, Shillong: Assam
Assam
Secretariat Press  Bhuyan, Suryya Kumar (1947), Lachit Barphukan and His Times, Guwahati: Department of Historical and Antiquarian Studies, Government of Assam  Bhuyan, Suryya Kumar (1964), Satasari Asama Buranji, Guwahati: Gauhati University  Bhuyan, Suryya Kumar (1975), Swargadew Rajeswarasimha, Guwahati: Assam Publication Board  Buchanan, Francis Hamilton 1762–1829 (1963), An Account of Assam, Guwahati: Department of Historical and Antiquarian Studies  Duara Barbarua, Srinath (1933), Tungkhungia Buranji, Bombay: H. Milford, Oxford University Press  Gait, Edward Albert 1863–1950 (1926), A History of Assam, Calcutta: Thacker, Spink & Co.  Gogoi, Padmeswar (1968), The Tai and the Tai Kingdoms, Guwahati: Gauhati University  Guha, Amalendu (1983), The Ahom Political System, Calcutta: Centre for Studies in Social Sciences  Hunter, William Wilson 1840–1900 (1879), A Statistical Account of Assam, London: Trubner & Co. 

Tradition and Culture

Barkath, Sukumar (1976), Hastibidyarnnara Sarasamgraha (English & Assamese), 18th Century, Guwahati: Assam
Assam
Publication Board  Barua, Birinchi Kumar (1969), A Cultural History of Assam, Guwahati: Lawyer's Book Stall  Barua, Birinchi Kumar (1960), Sankardeva, Guwahati: Assam
Assam
Academy for Cultural Relations  Gandhiya, Jayakanta (1988), Huncari, Mukali Bihu, aru Bihunac, Dibrugarh  Goswami, Praphulladatta (1960), Ballads and Tales of Assam, Guwahati: Gauhati University  Goswami, Praphulladatta (1988), Bohag Bihu
Bihu
of Assam
Assam
and Bihu
Bihu
Songs, Guwahati: Assam
Assam
Publication Board  Mahanta, Pona (1985), Western Influence on Modern Assamese Drama, Delhi: Mittal Publications  Medhi, Kaliram (1978), Studies in the Vaisnava Literature and Culture of Assam, Jorhat, Assam: Asam Sahitya Sabha 

External links[edit]

Find more aboutAssamat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

Government

Official Site of the Government of Assam Official Tourism Site of Assam, India

General information

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Encyclopædia Britannica entry Assam
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at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Geographic data related to Assam
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Places adjacent to Assam

Sarpang District,  Bhutan Samdrup Jongkhar District,  Bhutan Arunachal Pradesh

West Bengal Rangpur Division,  Bangladesh

Assam

Nagaland

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and Tripura Sylhet Division,  Bangladesh Mizoram Manipur

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Assam
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topics

Capital: Dispur

Topics

Etymology Assam
Assam
Valley Biodiversity Cuisine Culture Economy Education

List of educational institutions in Assam

Physical Geography Politics Tourism Assam
Assam
Tea Assam
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Assam
Rifles Assam
Assam
Regiment

History

Kamarupa Chutiya Kingdom Kamata Kingdom Ahom Kingdom Kachari Kingdom Colonial Assam Assam Province
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(1912 – 1947) Legislature of Assam
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(Since 1937) Assam
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Administration

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Convention

Districts and divisions

North Assam

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Lower Assam

Baksa Barpeta Bongaigaon Chirang Dhubri Kokrajhar Kamrup Kamrup Metro Goalpara Nalbari South Salmara-Mankachar

Central Assam

Dima Hasao Hojai Karbi Anglong Karbi Anglong
Karbi Anglong
(West) Morigaon Nagaon

Upper Assam

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Barak Valley

Cachar Hailakandi Karimganj

Geography

Upper- Assam
Assam
(East Assam) Lower- Assam
Assam
(West Assam) Barak Valley
Barak Valley
(South Assam) The Brahmaputra Majuli Mora Dhansiri River Dhansiri Dihing Diphlu Halflong (The Hill station of Assam)

Culture

Assamese Assamese Script Assamese Jalpan Traditional crafts of Assam Bihu Folk dances of Assam

Bagurumba Bihu
Bihu
Dance

Ekasarana Dharma Borgeet Sattra Sattriya
Sattriya
Dance Saraai Gamosa Textiles and dresses of Assam
Textiles and dresses of Assam
(Muga and Eri)

Arts, literature, music and cinema

Assamese literature Assamese poetry List of Assamese Poets List of Assamese writers Pen Names List of Assamese Periodicals The Arunodoi ( Orunodoi - 1846) The Hemkosh The Assam
Assam
Tribune Assam
Assam
Rhetorical Congress Buranji Kirtan Ghosa Dasham Namghosa Kotha Ramayana Jonaki Music of Assam Goalpariya Lokageet Tokari Geet Dihanaam Hiranaam Dhol Gogona Pepa Cinema of Assam Joymati, first Assamese motion picture Guwahati
Guwahati
Theatre Festival

People

History Assamese people

Ahom Assamese Brahmins Kalitas Koch Chutiya

List of people from Assam

Notable surnames

Barua
Barua
(and its variations) Borah Bharali Borbarua Borgohain Borpatrogohain Borphukan Burhagohain Chakraborty Choudhury (and its variations) Das Deka Dutta Gayen Gogoi Gohain Goswami Hazarika Kalita Saikia Sarma Chutia Sutradhar

Urban areas

Barpeta Bongaigaon Dhubri Dibrugarh Diphu Goalpara Golaghat Guwahati Jorhat Karimganj Nagaon North Lakhimpur Sivasagar Silchar Tezpur Tinsukia

Fairs and Festivals Hindu Temples History

v t e

History of Assam

Timeline of Assam
Assam
History

Protohistoric Assam

Danava dynasty Pragjyotisha
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Kingdom Naraka
Naraka
dynasty Sonitpura Kingdom

Ancient Assam

Davaka Kamarupa

Medieval Assam

Ahom kingdom Sutiya Kingdom Kachari Kingdom Kamata Kingdom Baro-Bhuyan

Colonial Assam

Colonial Assam

Contemporary Assam

Assam
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separatist movements Assam
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Movement 2012 Assam
Assam
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Assam
violence

Category

v t e

States and union territories of India

States

Arunachal Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Odisha Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Telangana Tripura Uttar Pradesh Uttarakhand West Bengal

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Capitals in India Proposed states and territories Historical Regions British Provinces

v t e

Fairs and Festivals in Assam

Festivals

Ali Ai Ligang Bathow Bihu Bwisagu Garja Hacha-kekan Hapsa Hatarnai Kherai Me-Dam-Me-Phi Magh Bihu Porag Rongker Sokk-erroi

Fairs

Ambubachi Mela Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
Beach Festival Dehing Patkai Festival Jonbeel Mela Kaziranga
Kaziranga
Elephant Festival Majuli
Majuli
Festival Rongali Utsav Tea Festival

v t e

Northeast India

States

Arunachal Pradesh Assam Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Sikkim Tripura

Cities

Agartala Aizawl Dispur Dimapur Gangtok Guwahati Imphal Itanagar Kohima Shillong Silchar

Protected Areas

Kaziranga
Kaziranga
National Park Namdapha National Park Orang National Park Manas National Park Dibru-Saikhowa National Park Nameri National Park Balphakram National Park Nokrek National Park Mouling National Park Keibul Lamjao National Park Sirohi National Park Murlen National Park Ntangki National Park Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary Sipahijola Wildlife Sanctuary Gorumara National Park Singalila National Park Neora Valley National Park Jaldapara National Park

Mountains

Kangchenjunga Naga Hills Patkai Hills Khasi Hills Lushai Hills Assam
Assam
Himalaya Garo Hills Jongsong Peak Gimmigela Chuli Kabru Kirat Chuli Mount Pandim Paohanli Peak Pauhunri Siniolchu

Lakes

Khecheopalri Lake Gurudongmar Lake Lake Tsongmo Loktak Lake Chandubi Lake Dipor Bil Son Beel Rudrasagar Lake Bijoy sagar

Monasteries

Pemayangtse Monastery Tawang Monastery Zang Dhok Palri Phodang Rumtek Monastery Enchey Monastery Tashiding Monastery Dubdi Monastery Ralang Monastery

Others

Seven Sister States Tourism in North East India Tourism in Assam Tourism in Mizoram

Portal:India

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 144235172 LCCN: n79090160 ISNI: 0000 0000 9745 4965 GND: 4003249-8 SUDOC: 035083018 BNF:

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