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Anatolia
Anatolia
(Modern Greek: Ανατολία, Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ, modern pronunciation Anatolí;[needs IPA] Turkish: Anadolu "east" or "(sun)rise"), also known as Asia
Asia
Minor (in Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία, Mīkrá AsíaTurkish: Küçük Asya, , modern pronunciation Mikrá Asía – "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the north, the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the south, and the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
to the west. The Sea of Marmara
Sea of Marmara
forms a connection between the Black and Aegean Seas through the Bosphorus
Bosphorus
and Dardanelles
Dardanelles
straits and separates Anatolia
Anatolia
from Thrace
Thrace
on the European mainland. Traditionally, Anatolia
Anatolia
is considered to extend in the east to a line between the Gulf of Alexandretta
Gulf of Alexandretta
and the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the Armenian Highlands ( Armenia
Armenia
Major). This region is now named and largely situated in the Eastern Anatolia Region
Eastern Anatolia Region
of the far north east of Turkey
Turkey
and converges with the Lesser Caucasus
Lesser Caucasus
– an area that was incorporated in the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
region of Transcaucasia
Transcaucasia
in the 19th century.[5][6] Thus, traditionally Anatolia
Anatolia
is the territory that comprises approximately the western two-thirds of the Asian part of Turkey. Anatolia
Anatolia
is often considered to be synonymous with Asian Turkey, which comprises almost the entire country;[7] its eastern and southeastern borders are widely taken to be the Turkish borders with neighboring Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Iraq, and Syria, in clockwise direction. The ancient inhabitants of Anatolia
Anatolia
spoke the now-extinct Anatolian languages, which were largely replaced by the Greek language
Greek language
starting from classical antiquity and during the Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine periods. Major Anatolian languages
Anatolian languages
included Hittite, Luwian, and Lydian among other more poorly attested relatives. The Turkification
Turkification
of Anatolia
Anatolia
began under the Seljuk Empire
Seljuk Empire
in the late 11th century and continued under the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
between the early 14th and early 20th centuries. However, various non-Turkic languages continue to be spoken by minorities in Anatolia
Anatolia
today, including Kurdish, Neo-Aramaic, Armenian, Arabic, Laz, Georgian, and Greek. Other ancient peoples in the region included Galatians, Hurrians, Assyrians, Hattians, Cimmerians, as well as Ionian, Dorian, and Aeolian Greeks.

Contents

1 Definition 2 Onomastics and etymology 3 History

3.1 Prehistory 3.2 Ancient Near East (Bronze and Iron Ages)

3.2.1 Hattians
Hattians
and Hurrians 3.2.2 Assyrian Empire (21st–18th centuries BC) 3.2.3 Hittite Kingdom and Empire (17th–12th centuries BC) 3.2.4 Neo-Hittite kingdoms (c. 1180–700 BC) 3.2.5 Neo-Assyrian Empire
Neo-Assyrian Empire
(10th–7th centuries BC) 3.2.6 Cimmerian
Cimmerian
and Scythian invasions (8th–7th centuries BC) 3.2.7 Greek West

3.3 Classical antiquity 3.4 Early Christian period 3.5 Islamic rule 3.6 Ottoman Empire 3.7 Modern times

4 Geography

4.1 Geology 4.2 Climate 4.3 Ecoregions

5 Demographics 6 Cuisine 7 See also 8 References 9 Bibliography 10 Further reading 11 External links

Definition[edit] Further information: Geographical name changes in Turkey

The location of Turkey
Turkey
(within the rectangle) in reference to the European continent. Anatolia
Anatolia
roughly corresponds to the Asian part of Turkey, except the eastern parts historically known as the Armenian Highlands

1907 map of Asia
Asia
Minor, showing the local ancient kingdoms. The map includes the East Aegean Islands
Aegean Islands
and the island of Cyprus
Cyprus
to Anatolia's continental shelf.

The Anatolian peninsula, also called Asia
Asia
Minor, is bounded by the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the north, the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the south, the Aegean Sea to the west, and the Sea of Marmara
Sea of Marmara
to the northwest, which separates Anatolia
Anatolia
from Thrace
Thrace
in Europe. Traditionally, Anatolia
Anatolia
is considered to extend in the east to an indefinite line running from the Gulf of Alexandretta
Gulf of Alexandretta
to the Black Sea, coterminous with the Anatolian Plateau. This traditional geographical definition is used, for example, in the latest edition of Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary,[1] as well as the archeological community.[2] Under this definition, Anatolia
Anatolia
is bounded to the east by the Armenian Highlands, and the Euphrates
Euphrates
before that river bends to the southeast to enter Mesopotamia.[2] To the southeast, it is bounded by the ranges that separate it from the Orontes valley in Syria
Syria
(region) and the Mesopotamian plain.[2] Following the Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
and establishment of the Republic of Turkey, the Armenian Highlands
Armenian Highlands
(or Western Armenia) were renamed "Eastern Anatolia" (literally The Eastern East) by the Turkish government,[8][9] being effectively co-terminous with Asian Turkey. Turkey's First Geography Congress in 1941 created two regions to the east of the Gulf of Iskenderun- Black Sea
Black Sea
line named the Eastern Anatolia
Anatolia
Region and the Southeastern Anatolia
Anatolia
Region,[10] the former largely corresponding to the western part of the Armenian Highland, the latter to the northern part of the Mesopotamian plain. This wider definition of Anatolia
Anatolia
has gained widespread currency outside of Turkey
Turkey
and has, for instance, been adopted by Encyclopædia Britannica[11] and other encyclopedic and general reference publications.[12] Vazken Davidian terms the expanded use of "Anatolia" to apply to territory formerly referred to as Armenia
Armenia
as "an historical imposition", and notes that a growing body of literature is uncomfortable with referring to the Ottoman East as "Eastern Anatolia".[13] Onomastics and etymology[edit] The oldest known reference to Anatolia
Anatolia
– as “Land of the Hatti” – appears on Mesopotamian cuneiform tablets from the period of the Akkadian Empire
Akkadian Empire
(2350–2150 BC).[citation needed] The first recorded name the Greeks
Greeks
used for the Anatolian peninsula, Ἀσία (Asía),[14] presumably echoed the name of the Assuwa league in western Anatolia.[citation needed] As the name "Asia" broadened its scope to apply to other areas east of the Mediterranean, Greeks
Greeks
in Late Antiquity
Late Antiquity
came to use the name Μικρὰ Ἀσία (Mikrá Asía) or Asia
Asia
Minor, meaning "Lesser Asia" to refer to present-day Anatolia. The English-language name Anatolia
Anatolia
itself derives from the Greek ἀνατολή (anatolḗ) meaning “the East” or more literally “sunrise” (comparable to the Latin-derived terms “levant” and “orient”).[15][16] The precise reference of this term has varied over time, perhaps originally referring to the Aeolian, Ionian and Dorian colonies on the west coast of Asia
Asia
Minor. In the Byzantine Empire, the Anatolic Theme
Anatolic Theme
(Aνατολικόν θέμα) was a theme covering the western and central parts of Turkey's present-day Central Anatolia
Anatolia
Region.[17][18] The modern Turkish form of Anatolia, Anadolu, derives from the Greek name Aνατολή (Anatolḗ). The Russian male name Anatoly
Anatoly
and the French Anatole share the same linguistic origin. In English the name of Turkey
Turkey
for ancient Anatolia
Anatolia
first appeared c. 1369. It derives from the Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
Turchia (meaning “Land of the Turks”, Turkish Türkiye), a name originally used by Europeans to designate those parts of Anatolia
Anatolia
controlled by the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum
Sultanate of Rum
after the Battle of Manzikert
Battle of Manzikert
(1071).[citation needed] History[edit] Main article: History of Anatolia Prehistory[edit] Main article: Prehistory of Anatolia

Mural of aurochs, a deer, and humans in Çatalhöyük, which is the largest and best-preserved Neolithic
Neolithic
site found to date. It was registered as a UNESCO World Heritage Site
UNESCO World Heritage Site
in 2012.[19]

Human habitation in Anatolia
Anatolia
dates back to the Paleolithic.[20] Neolithic
Neolithic
Anatolia
Anatolia
has been proposed as the homeland of the Indo-European language family, although linguists tend to favour a later origin in the steppes north of the Black Sea. However, it is clear that the Anatolian languages, the oldest attested branch of Indo-European, have been spoken in Anatolia
Anatolia
since at least the 19th century BC.[citation needed] Ancient Near East (Bronze and Iron Ages)[edit] Hattians
Hattians
and Hurrians[edit] The earliest historical records of Anatolia
Anatolia
stem from the southeast of the region and are from the Mesopotamian-based Akkadian Empire
Akkadian Empire
during the reign of Sargon of Akkad
Sargon of Akkad
in the 24th century BC. Scholars generally believe the earliest indigenous populations of Anatolia
Anatolia
were the Hattians
Hattians
and Hurrians. The Hattians
Hattians
spoke a language of unclear affiliation, and the Hurrian language
Hurrian language
belongs to a small family called Hurro-Urartian, all these languages now being extinct; relationships with indigenous languages of the Caucasus
Caucasus
have been proposed[21] but are not generally accepted. The region was famous for exporting raw materials, and areas of Hattian- and Hurrian-populated southeast Anatolia
Anatolia
were colonised by the Akkadians.[22] Assyrian Empire (21st–18th centuries BC)[edit] After the fall of the Akkadian Empire
Akkadian Empire
in the mid-21st century BC, the Assyrians, who were the northern branch of the Akkadian people, colonised parts of the region between the 21st and mid-18th centuries BC and claimed its resources, notably silver. One of the numerous cuneiform records dated circa 20th century BC, found in Anatolia
Anatolia
at the Assyrian colony of Kanesh, uses an advanced system of trading computations and credit lines.[22] Hittite Kingdom and Empire (17th–12th centuries BC)[edit] Main article: History of the Hittites

The Lion Gate at Hattusa, capital of the Hittite Empire. The city's history dates to before 2000 BC.

Unlike the Akkadians and their descendants, the Assyrians, whose Anatolian possessions were peripheral to their core lands in Mesopotamia, the Hittites
Hittites
were centred at Hattusa
Hattusa
(modern Boğazkale) in north-central Anatolia
Anatolia
by the 17th century BC. They were speakers of an Indo-European language, the Hittite language, or nesili (the language of Nesa) in Hittite. Attested for the first time in the Assyrian tablets of Nesa around 2000BC, they conquered Hattusa
Hattusa
in the 18th century BC, imposing themselves over Hattian- and Hurrian-speaking populations. According to the widely accepted Kurgan theory on the Proto-Indo-European homeland, however, the Hittites (along with the other Indo-European ancient Anatolians) were themselves relatively recent immigrants to Anatolia
Anatolia
from the north. The Hittites
Hittites
adopted the cuneiform script, invented in Mesopotamia. During the Late Bronze Age circa 1650 BC, they created a kingdom, the Hittite New Kingdom, which became an empire in the 14th century BC after the conquest of Kizzuwatna
Kizzuwatna
in the south-east and the defeat of the Assuwa league in western Anatolia. The empire reached its height in the 13th century BC, controlling much of Asia
Asia
Minor, northwestern Syria
Syria
and northwest upper Mesopotamia. They failed to reach the Anatolian coasts of the Black Sea, however, as a non-Indo-European people, the semi-nomadic pastoralist and tribal Kaskians, had established themselves there, displacing earlier Palaic-speaking Indo-Europeans.[23] Much of the history of the Hittite Empire concerned war with the rival empires of Egypt, Assyria
Assyria
and the Mitanni.[24] The Egyptians
Egyptians
eventually withdrew from the region after failing to gain the upper hand over the Hittites
Hittites
and becoming wary of the power of Assyria, which had destroyed the Mitanni
Mitanni
Empire.[24] The Assyrians and Hittites
Hittites
were then left to battle over control of eastern and southern Anatolia
Anatolia
and colonial territories in Syria. The Assyrians had better success than the Egyptians, annexing much Hittite (and Hurrian) territory in these regions.[25] Neo-Hittite kingdoms (c. 1180–700 BC)[edit] After 1180 BC, during the Late Bronze Age collapse, the Hittite empire disintegrated into several independent Syro-Hittite
Syro-Hittite
states, subsequent to losing much territory to the Middle Assyrian Empire
Middle Assyrian Empire
and being finally overrun by the Phrygians, another Indo-European people who are believed to have migrated from the Balkans. The Phrygian expansion into southeast Anatolia
Anatolia
was eventually halted by the Assyrians, who controlled that region.[25]

Arameans

Arameans
Arameans
encroached over the borders of south central Anatolia
Anatolia
in the century or so after the fall of the Hittite empire, and some of the Syro-Hittite states
Syro-Hittite states
in this region became an amalgam of Hittites
Hittites
and Arameans. These became known as Syro-Hittite
Syro-Hittite
states.

Luwians

Lycian rock cut tombs of Kaunos
Kaunos
(Dalyan)

In central and western Anatolia, another Indo-European people, the Luwians, came to the fore, circa 2000 BC. Their language was closely related to Hittite.[26] The general consensus amongst scholars is that Luwian was spoken—to a greater or lesser degree—across a large area of western Anatolia, including (possibly) Wilusa (Troy), the Seha River Land (to be identified with the Hermos and/or Kaikos valley), and the kingdom of Mira-Kuwaliya with its core territory of the Maeander valley.[27] From the 9th century BC, Luwian regions coalesced into a number of states such as Lydia, Caria
Caria
and Lycia, all of which had Hellenic influence. Neo-Assyrian Empire
Neo-Assyrian Empire
(10th–7th centuries BC)[edit] From the 10th to late 7th centuries BC, much of Anatolia
Anatolia
(particularly the east, central, and southeastern regions) fell to the Neo-Assyrian Empire, including all of the Syro-Hittite
Syro-Hittite
states, Tabal, Kingdom of Commagene, the Cimmerians
Cimmerians
and Scythians
Scythians
and swathes of Cappadocia. The Neo-Assyrian empire collapsed due to a bitter series of civil wars followed by a combined attack by Medes, Persians, Scythians
Scythians
and their own Babylonian relations. The last Assyrian city to fall was Harran
Harran
in southeast Anatolia. This city was the birthplace of the last king of Babylon, the Assyrian Nabonidus
Nabonidus
and his son and regent Belshazzar. Much of the region then fell to the short-lived Iran-based Median Empire, with the Babylonians and Scythians
Scythians
briefly appropriating some territory. Cimmerian
Cimmerian
and Scythian invasions (8th–7th centuries BC)[edit] From the late 8th century BC, a new wave of Indo-European-speaking raiders entered northern and northeast Anatolia: the Cimmerians
Cimmerians
and Scythians. The Cimmerians
Cimmerians
overran Phrygia
Phrygia
and the Scythians
Scythians
threatened to do the same to Urartu and Lydia, before both were finally checked by the Assyrians. Greek West[edit] The north-western coast of Anatolia
Anatolia
was inhabited by Greeks
Greeks
of the Achaean/Mycenaean culture from the 20th century BC, related to the Greeks
Greeks
of south eastern Europe
Europe
and the Aegean.[28] Beginning with the Bronze Age collapse
Bronze Age collapse
at the end of the 2nd millennium BC, the west coast of Anatolia
Anatolia
was settled by Ionian Greeks, usurping the area of the related but earlier Mycenaean Greeks. Over several centuries, numerous Ancient Greek city-states were established on the coasts of Anatolia. Greeks
Greeks
started Western philosophy on the western coast of Anatolia
Anatolia
(Pre-Socratic philosophy).[28] Classical antiquity[edit]

Ancient regions of Anatolia
Anatolia
(500 BC)

Asia
Asia
Minor in the Greco-Roman period. The classical regions and their main settlements

Asia
Asia
Minor in the early 2nd century AD. The Roman provinces under Trajan.

The temple of Athena
Athena
(funded by Alexander the Great) in the ancient Greek city of Priene

In classical antiquity, Anatolia
Anatolia
was described by Herodotus
Herodotus
and later historians as divided into regions named after tribes such as Lydia, Lycia, Caria, Mysia, Bithynia, Phrygia, Galatia, Lycaonia, Pisidia, Paphlagonia, Cilicia, and Cappadocia. By that time, the populations were a mixture of the ancient Anatolian or "Syro-Hittite" substrate and post-Bronze-Age-collapse "Thraco-Phrygian" and more recent Greco-Macedonian incursions.

The Dying Galatian was a famous statue commissioned some time between 230–220 BC by King Attalos I of Pergamon
Pergamon
to honor his victory over the Celtic Galatians in Anatolia.

Anatolia
Anatolia
is known as the birthplace of minted coinage (as opposed to unminted coinage, which first appears in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
at a much earlier date) as a medium of exchange, some time in the 7th century BC in Lydia. The use of minted coins continued to flourish during the Greek and Roman eras.[29][30] During the 6th century BC, all of Anatolia
Anatolia
was conquered by the Persian Achaemenid Empire, the Persians having usurped the Medes
Medes
as the dominant dynasty in Iran. In 499 BC, the Ionian city-states on the west coast of Anatolia
Anatolia
rebelled against Persian rule. The Ionian Revolt, as it became known, though quelled, initiated the Greco-Persian Wars, which ended in a Greek victory in 449 BC, and the Ionian cities regained their independence, alongside the withdrawal of the Persian forces from their European territories. In 334 BC, the Macedonian Greek king Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
conquered the peninsula from the Achaemenid Persian Empire.[31] Alexander's conquest opened up the interior of Asia
Asia
Minor to Greek settlement and influence.

Sanctuary of Commagene
Commagene
Kings on Mount Nemrut
Mount Nemrut
(1st century BC)

Following the death of Alexander and the breakup of his empire, Anatolia
Anatolia
was ruled by a series of Hellenistic kingdoms, such as the Attalids of Pergamum and the Seleucids, the latter controlling most of Anatolia. A period of peaceful Hellenization
Hellenization
followed, such that the local Anatolian languages
Anatolian languages
had been supplanted by Greek by the 1st century BC. In 133 BC the last Attalid king bequeathed his kingdom to the Roman Republic, and western and central Anatolia
Anatolia
came under Roman control, but Hellenistic culture
Hellenistic culture
remained predominant. Further annexations by Rome, in particular of the Kingdom of Pontus
Kingdom of Pontus
by Pompey, brought all of Anatolia
Anatolia
under Roman control, except for the eastern frontier with the Parthian Empire, which remained unstable for centuries, causing a series of wars, culminating in the Roman-Parthian Wars. Early Christian period[edit] After the division of the Roman Empire, Anatolia
Anatolia
became part of the East Roman, or Byzantine Empire. Anatolia
Anatolia
was one of the first places where Christianity spread, so that by the 4th century AD, western and central Anatolia
Anatolia
were overwhelmingly Christian and Greek-speaking. For the next 600 years, while Imperial possessions in Europe
Europe
were subjected to barbarian invasions, Anatolia
Anatolia
would be the center of the Hellenic world. Byzantine control was challenged by Arab raids starting in the eighth century (see Arab–Byzantine wars), but in the ninth and tenth century a resurgent Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
regained its lost territories, including even long lost territory such as Armenia
Armenia
and Syria
Syria
(ancient Aram). Islamic rule[edit]

Byzantine Anatolia
Byzantine Anatolia
and the Byzantine-Arab frontier zone in the mid-9th century

Beyliks and other states around Anatolia, c. 1300.

In the 10 years following the Battle of Manzikert
Battle of Manzikert
in 1071, the Seljuk Turks from Central Asia
Asia
migrated over large areas of Anatolia, with particular concentrations around the northwestern rim.[32] The Turkish language and the Islamic religion were gradually introduced as a result of the Seljuk conquest, and this period marks the start of Anatolia's slow transition from predominantly Christian and Greek-speaking, to predominantly Muslim and Turkish-speaking (although ethnic groups such as Armenians, Greeks, and Assyrians remained numerous and retained Christianity and their native languages). In the following century, the Byzantines managed to reassert their control in western and northern Anatolia. Control of Anatolia
Anatolia
was then split between the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
and the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm, with the Byzantine holdings gradually being reduced.[33] In 1255, the Mongols
Mongols
swept through eastern and central Anatolia, and would remain until 1335. The Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
garrison was stationed near Ankara.[33][34] After the decline of the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
from 1335–1353, the Mongol
Mongol
Empire's legacy in the region was the Uyghur Eretna Dynasty that was overthrown by Kadi Burhan al-Din
Kadi Burhan al-Din
in 1381.[35] By the end of the 14th century, most of Anatolia
Anatolia
was controlled by various Anatolian beyliks. Smyrna fell in 1330, and the last Byzantine stronghold in Anatolia, Philadelphia, fell in 1390. The Turkmen Beyliks were under the control of the Mongols, at least nominally, through declining Seljuk sultans.[36][37] The Beyliks did not mint coins in the names of their own leaders while they remained under the suzerainty of the Mongol
Mongol
Ilkhanids.[38] The Osmanli
Osmanli
ruler Osman I
Osman I
was the first Turkish ruler who minted coins in his own name in 1320s, for it bears the legend "Minted by Osman son of Ertugul".[39] Since the minting of coins was a prerogative accorded in Islamic practice only to a sovereign, it can be considered that the Osmanli, or Ottoman Turks, became formally independent from the Mongol
Mongol
Khans.[40] Ottoman Empire[edit] Among the Turkish leaders, the Ottomans emerged as great power under Osman I
Osman I
and his son Orhan I.[citation needed] The Anatolian beyliks were successively absorbed into the rising Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
during the 15th century.[citation needed] It is not well understood how the Osmanlı, or Ottoman Turks, came to dominate their neighbours, as the history of medieval Anatolia
Anatolia
is still little known.[41] The Ottomans completed the conquest of the peninsula in 1517 with the taking of Halicarnassus
Halicarnassus
(modern Bodrum) from the Knights of Saint John.[citation needed] Modern times[edit]

Ethnographic map of Anatolia
Anatolia
from 1911.

With the acceleration of the decline of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in the early 19th century, and as a result of the expansionist policies of Czarist Russia
Czarist Russia
in the Caucasus, many Muslim nations and groups in that region, mainly Circassians, Tatars, Azeris, Lezgis, Chechens
Chechens
and several Turkic groups left their homelands and settled in Anatolia. As the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
further shrank in the Balkan
Balkan
regions and then fragmented during the Balkan
Balkan
Wars, much of the non-Christian populations of its former possessions, mainly Balkan
Balkan
Muslims (Bosnian Muslims, Albanians, Turks, Muslim Bulgarians and Greek Muslims
Greek Muslims
such as the Vallahades
Vallahades
from Greek Macedonia), were resettled in various parts of Anatolia, mostly in formerly Christian villages throughout Anatolia. A continuous reverse migration occurred since the early 19th century, when Greeks
Greeks
from Anatolia, Constantinople
Constantinople
and Pontus area migrated toward the newly independent Kingdom of Greece, and also towards the United States, southern part of the Russian Empire, Latin America
Latin America
and rest of Europe. Following the Russo-Persian Treaty of Turkmenchay (1828) and the incorporation of the Eastern Armenia
Armenia
into the Russian Empire, another migration involved the large Armenian population of Anatolia, which recorded significant migration rates from Western Armenia
Armenia
(Eastern Anatolia) toward the Russian Empire, especially toward its newly established Armenian provinces. Anatolia
Anatolia
remained multi-ethnic until the early 20th century (see the rise of nationalism under the Ottoman Empire). During World War I, the Armenian Genocide, the Greek genocide
Greek genocide
(especially in Pontus), and the Assyrian genocide
Assyrian genocide
almost entirely removed the ancient indigenous communities of Armenian, Greek, and Assyrian populations in Anatolia and surrounding regions. Following the Greco-Turkish War of 1919–1922, most remaining ethnic Anatolian Greeks
Greeks
were forced out during the 1923 population exchange between Greece
Greece
and Turkey. Many more have left Turkey
Turkey
since, leaving fewer than 5,000 Greeks
Greeks
in Anatolia
Anatolia
today. Since the foundation of the Republic of Turkey
Turkey
in 1923, Anatolia
Anatolia
has been within Turkey, its inhabitants being mainly Turks and Kurds
Kurds
(see demographics of Turkey
Turkey
and history of Turkey). Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Turkey Geology[edit] Main article: Geology of Turkey Anatolia's terrain is structurally complex. A central massif composed of uplifted blocks and downfolded troughs, covered by recent deposits and giving the appearance of a plateau with rough terrain, is wedged between two folded mountain ranges that converge in the east. True lowland is confined to a few narrow coastal strips along the Aegean, Mediterranean, and Black Sea
Black Sea
coasts. Flat or gently sloping land is rare and largely confined to the deltas of the Kızıl River, the coastal plains of Çukurova
Çukurova
and the valley floors of the Gediz River and the Büyük Menderes River
Büyük Menderes River
as well as some interior high plains in Anatolia, mainly around Lake Tuz
Lake Tuz
(Salt Lake) and the Konya
Konya
Basin ( Konya
Konya
Ovasi). Climate[edit] Main article: Climate of Turkey

Temperatures of Anatolia

Ankara
Ankara
(central Anatolia)

Antalya
Antalya
(southern Anatolia)

Van (eastern Anatolia)

Anatolia
Anatolia
has a varied range of climates. The central plateau is characterized by a continental climate, with hot summers and cold snowy winters. The south and west coasts enjoy a typical Mediterranean climate, with mild rainy winters, and warm dry summers.[42] The Black Sea and Marmara coasts have a temperate oceanic climate, with cool foggy summers and much rainfall throughout the year. Ecoregions[edit] There is a diverse number of plant and animal communities. The mountains and coastal plain of northern Anatolia
Anatolia
experiences humid and mild climate. There are temperate broadleaf, mixed and coniferous forests. The central and eastern plateau, with its drier continental climate, has deciduous forests and forest steppes. Western and southern Anatolia, which have a Mediterranean climate, contain Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub
Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub
ecoregions.

Euxine-Colchic deciduous forests: These temperate broadleaf and mixed forests extend across northern Anatolia, lying between the mountains of northern Anatolia
Anatolia
and the Black Sea. They include the enclaves of temperate rainforest lying along the southeastern coast of the Black Sea in eastern Turkey
Turkey
and Georgia.[43] Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests: These forests occupy the mountains of northern Anatolia, running east and west between the coastal Euxine-Colchic forests and the drier, continental climate forests of central and eastern Anatolia.[44] Central Anatolian deciduous forests: These forests of deciduous oaks and evergreen pines cover the plateau of central Anatolia.[45] Central Anatolian steppe: These dry grasslands cover the drier valleys and surround the saline lakes of central Anatolia, and include halophytic (salt tolerant) plant communities.[46] Eastern Anatolian deciduous forests: This ecoregion occupies the plateau of eastern Anatolia. The drier and more continental climate is beneficial for steppe-forests dominated by deciduous oaks, with areas of shrubland, montane forest, and valley forest.[47] Anatolian conifer and deciduous mixed forests: These forests occupy the western, Mediterranean-climate portion of the Anatolian plateau. Pine forests and mixed pine and oak woodlands and shrublands are predominant.[48] Aegean and Western Turkey
Turkey
sclerophyllous and mixed forests: These Mediterranean-climate forests occupy the coastal lowlands and valleys of western Anatolia
Anatolia
bordering the Aegean Sea. The ecoregion has forests of Turkish pine
Turkish pine
(Pinus brutia), oak forests and woodlands, and maquis shrubland of Turkish pine
Turkish pine
and evergreen sclerophyllous trees and shrubs, including Olive
Olive
(Olea europaea), Strawberry Tree (Arbutus unedo), Arbutus andrachne, Kermes Oak (Quercus coccifera), and Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis).[49] Southern Anatolian montane conifer and deciduous forests: These mountain forests occupy the Mediterranean-climate Taurus Mountains
Taurus Mountains
of southern Anatolia. Conifer forests are predominant, chiefly Anatolian black pine (Pinus nigra), Cedar of Lebanon (Cedrus libani), Taurus fir (Abies cilicica), and juniper ( Juniperus foetidissima
Juniperus foetidissima
and J. excelsa). Broadleaf trees include oaks, hornbeam, and maples.[50] Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests: This ecoregion occupies the coastal strip of southern Anatolia
Anatolia
between the Taurus Mountains
Taurus Mountains
and the Mediterranean Sea. Plant communities include broadleaf sclerophyllous maquis shrublands, forests of Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis) and Turkish Pine (Pinus brutia), and dry oak (Quercus spp.) woodlands and steppes.[51]

Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Turkey Almost 80% of the people currently residing in Anatolia
Anatolia
are Turks. Kurds
Kurds
constitute a major community in southeastern Anatolia,[52] and are the largest ethnic minority. Abkhazians, Albanians, Arabs, Arameans, Armenians, Assyrians, Azerbaijanis, Bosnian Muslims, Circassians, Gagauz, Georgians, Serbs, Greeks, Hemshin, Jews, Laz, Levantines, Pomaks, Zazas and a number of other ethnic groups also live in Anatolia
Anatolia
in smaller numbers.[citation needed] Cuisine[edit] Bamia
Bamia
is a traditional Anatolian-era stew dish prepared using lamb, okra and tomatoes as primary ingredients.[53] See also[edit]

Aeolis Alacahöyük Anatolian hypothesis Anatolian languages Anatolianism Anatolian leopard Anatolian Plate Anatolian Shepherd Anatolian beyliks Ancient kingdoms of Anatolia Antigonid dynasty Attalid dynasty Bithynia Byzantine Empire Cappadocia Caria Çatalhöyük Cilicia

Doris ( Asia
Asia
Minor) Empire of Nicaea Empire of Trebizond Ephesus Galatia Gordium Halicarnassus Hattusa History of Anatolia Hittites Ionia Lycaonia Lycia Lydia Midas Miletus Myra Mysia Ottoman Empire Pamphylia Paphlagonia

Pentarchy Pergamon Phrygia Pisidia Pontic Greeks Pontus Rumi Saint Anatolia Saint John Saint Nicholas Saint Paul Sardis Seleucid Empire Great Seljuq Empire Seven churches of Asia Seven Sleepers Sultanate of Rum Tarsus Troad Troy Turkey Turkic migration

References[edit]

^ a b Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary. 2001. p. 46. ISBN 0 87779 546 0. Retrieved 18 May 2001.  ^ a b c d Stephen Mitchell, Anatolia: Land, Men, and Gods in Asia Minor. The Celts
Celts
in Anatolia
Anatolia
and the impact of Roman rule. Clarendon Press, Aug 24, 1995 - 266 pages. ISBN 978-0198150299 [1] ^ Sansal, Burak. "History of Anatolia".  ^ (TÜİK), Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu. "Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu, Adrese Dayalı Nüfus Kayıt Sistemi Sonuçları, 2015". www.tuik.gov.tr.  ^ Adalian, Rouben Paul (2010). Historical dictionary of Armenia
Armenia
(2nd ed.). Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. pp. 336–8. ISBN 0810874504.  ^ Grierson, Otto Mørkholm ; edited by Philip; Westermark, Ulla (1991). Early Hellenistic coinage : from the accession of Alexander to the Peace of Apamea (336–188 B.C.) (Repr. ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 175. ISBN 0521395046.  ^ Hooglund, Eric (2004). "Anatolia". Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. Macmillan/Gale – via Encyclopedia.com. Anatolia
Anatolia
comprises more than 95 percent of Turkey's total land area.  ^ Sahakyan, Lusine (2010). Turkification
Turkification
of the Toponyms in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and the Republic of Turkey. Montreal: Arod Books. ISBN 978-0969987970.  ^ Hovannisian, Richard (2007). The Armenian genocide cultural and ethical legacies. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers. p. 3. ISBN 1412835925.  ^ Ali Yiğit, "Geçmişten Günümüze Türkiye'yi Bölgelere Ayıran Çalışmalar ve Yapılması Gerekenler", Ankara
Ankara
Üniversitesi Türkiye Coğrafyası Araştırma ve Uygulama Merkezi, IV. Ulural Coğrafya Sempozyumu, "Avrupa Birliği Sürecindeki Türkiye'de Bölgesel Farklılıklar", pp. 34–35. ^ "Anatolia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 18 May 2012.  ^ " Anatolia
Anatolia
entries from Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East
Middle East
and North Africa, The Columbia Encyclopedia, and A Dictionary of World History". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 19 May 2012.  ^ Vazken Khatchig Davidian, "Imagining Ottoman Armenia: Realism and Allegory in Garabed Nichanian's Provincial Wedding in Moush and Late Ottoman Art Criticism", p7 & footnote 34, in Études arméniennes contemporaines volume 6, 2015. ^ Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, Ἀσία, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus ^ Henry George Liddell; Robert Scott. "A Greek-English Lexicon".  ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary".  ^ "On the First Thema, called Anatolikón. This theme is called Anatolikón or Theme of the Anatolics, not because it is above and in the direction of the east where the sun rises, but because it lies to the East of Byzantium and Europe." Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus, De Thematibus, ed. A. Pertusi. Vatican: Vatican Library, 1952, pp. 59–61. ^ John Haldon, Byzantium, a History, 2002. Page 32 ^ " Çatalhöyük
Çatalhöyük
added to UNESCO World Heritage List". Global Heritage Fund. 3 July 2012. Archived from the original on January 17, 2013. Retrieved 9 February 2013.  ^ Stiner, Mary C.; Kuhn, Steven L.; Güleç, Erksin (2013). "Early Upper Paleolithic
Paleolithic
shell beads at Üçağızlı Cave I (Turkey): Technology and the socioeconomic context of ornament life-histories". Journal of Human Evolution. 64 (5): 380–398. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2013.01.008. ISSN 0047-2484. PMID 23481346.  ^ Bryce 2005:12 ^ a b Freeman, Charles (1999). Egypt, Greece
Greece
and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-872194-3.  ^ Carruba, O. Das Palaische. Texte, Grammatik, Lexikon. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1970. StBoT 10 ^ a b Georges Roux - Ancient Iraq ^ a b Georges Roux, Ancient Iraq. Penguin Books, 1966. ^ Melchert 2003 ^ Watkins 1994; id. 1995:144–51; Starke 1997; Melchert 2003; for the geography Hawkins 1998 ^ a b Carl Roebuck, The World of Ancient Times ^ Howgego, C. J. (1995). Ancient History from Coins. ISBN 0-415-08992-1.  ^ Asia
Asia
Minor Coins - an index of Greek and Roman coins from Asia
Asia
Minor (ancient Anatolia) ^ Roisman, Joseph; Worthington, Ian (2010). A Companion to Ancient Macedonia. John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 1-4051-7936-8.  ^ Angold, Michael (1997). The Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
1025–1204. p. 117. ISBN 0-582-29468-1.  ^ a b H. M. Balyuzi Muḥammad and the course of Islám, p. 342 ^ John Freely Storm on Horseback: The Seljuk Warriors of Turkey, p. 83 ^ Clifford Edmund Bosworth-The new Islamic dynasties: a chronological and genealogical manual, p. 234 ^ Mehmet Fuat Köprülü, Gary Leiser-The origins of the Ottoman Empire, p. 33 ^ Peter Partner God of battles: holy wars of Christianity and Islam, p. 122 ^ Osman's Dream: The History of the Ottoman Empire, p. 13 ^ Artuk - Osmanli
Osmanli
Beyliginin Kurucusu, 27f ^ Pamuk - A Monetary History, pp. 30–31 ^ Finkel, Caroline (2007). Osman's Dream: The History of the Ottoman Empire. Basic Books. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-465-00850-6. Retrieved 6 June 2013.  ^ Prothero, W.G. (1920). Anatolia. London: H.M. Stationery Office.  ^ "Euxine-Colchic deciduous forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved May 25, 2008.  ^ "Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved May 25, 2008.  ^ "Central Anatolian deciduous forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved May 25, 2008.  ^ "Central Anatolian steppe". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved May 25, 2008.  ^ "Eastern Anatolian deciduous forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved May 25, 2008.  ^ "Anatolian conifer and deciduous mixed forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved May 25, 2008.  ^ "Aegean and Western Turkey
Turkey
sclerophyllous and mixed forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved May 25, 2008.  ^ "Southern Anatolian montane conifer and deciduous forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved May 25, 2008.  ^ " Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved May 25, 2008.  ^ "A Kurdish Majority In Turkey
Turkey
Within One Generation?". May 6, 2012.  ^ Webb, L.S.; Roten, L.G. (2009). The Multicultural Cookbook for Students. EBL-Schweitzer. ABC-CLIO. pp. 286–287. ISBN 978-0-313-37559-0. 

Bibliography[edit]

Steadman, Sharon R.; McMahon, Gregory (2011). McMahon, Gregory; Steadman, Sharon, eds. The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia:(10,000–323 BCE). Oxford University Press Inc. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195376142.001.0001. ISBN 9780195376142 

Library resources about Anatolia

Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

Further reading[edit]

Akat, Uücel, Neşe Özgünel, and Aynur Durukan. 1991. Anatolia: A World Heritage. Ankara: Kültür Bakanliǧi. Brewster, Harry. 1993. Classical Anatolia: The Glory of Hellenism. London: I.B. Tauris. Donbaz, Veysel, and Şemsi Güner. 1995. The Royal Roads of Anatolia. Istanbul: Dünya. Dusinberre, Elspeth R. M. 2013. Empire, Authority, and Autonomy In Achaemenid Anatolia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Gates, Charles, Jacques Morin, and Thomas Zimmermann. 2009. Sacred Landscapes In Anatolia
Anatolia
and Neighboring Regions. Oxford: Archaeopress. Mikasa, Takahito, ed. 1999. Essays On Ancient Anatolia. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. Takaoğlu, Turan. 2004. Ethnoarchaeological Investigations In Rural Anatolia. İstanbul: Ege Yayınları. Taracha, Piotr. 2009. Religions of Second Millennium Anatolia. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. Taymaz, Tuncay, Y. Yilmaz, and Yildirim Dilek. 2007. The Geodynamics of the Aegean and Anatolia. London: Geological Society.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Anatolia.

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Peninsulas in Anatolia

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Capes of Tur

.