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Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
(Akkadian: Aššur-bāni-apli; Syriac: ܐܫܘܪ ܒܢܐ ܐܦܠܐ‎; 'Ashur is the creator of an heir'), also spelled Assurbanipal or Ashshurbanipal, was King of the Neo-Assyrian Empire from 668 BC to c. 627 BC, the son of Esarhaddon
Esarhaddon
and the last strong ruler of the empire, which is usually dated between 934 and 609 BC.[1] He is famed for amassing a significant collection of cuneiform documents for his royal palace at Nineveh.[2] This collection, known as the Library of Ashurbanipal, now in the British Museum, which also holds the famous Lion Hunt of Ashurbanipal
Lion Hunt of Ashurbanipal
set of Assyrian palace reliefs. In the Hebrew Bible he is called Asenappar (Hebrew: אָסְנַפַּר‬, Modern 'Asnapar, Tiberian 'Āsenapar - Ezra 4:10).[3] Roman historian Justinus identified him as Sardanapalus, although the fictional Sardanapalus
Sardanapalus
is depicted as the last king of Assyria
Assyria
and an ineffectual, effete and debauched character, whereas three further kings succeeded Ashurbanipal, who was in fact an educated, efficient, highly capable and ambitious warrior king.[4]

Contents

1 Early life 2 Royal succession 3 Military accomplishments 4 Library of Ashurbanipal 5 Art and culture 6 See also 7 References and footnotes 8 Sources 9 Further reading 10 External links

Early life[edit] Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
was born toward the end of a 1,500-year period of Assyrian ascendancy.[5] His father, Esarhaddon, the youngest son of Sennacherib, had become heir when the crown prince, Ashur-nadin-shumi, was deposed by rebels from his position as vassal for Babylon. Esarhaddon
Esarhaddon
was the son not of Sennacherib's queen, Tashmetum-sharrat, but of the "palace woman" Zakutu, "the pure" (cf. Modern Standard Arabic زكاة [zakāt], "that which purifies"), known by her native name, Naqi'a. There are some suggestions Zakutu may have been an Israelite
Israelite
or Aramean concubine, while others point to her family origins being in the northern Assyrian city of Harran.[6] The only queen known for Esarhaddon
Esarhaddon
was Ashur-hamat, who died in 672 BC. Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
grew up in the small palace called Bit Reduti (house of succession), built by his grandfather Sennacherib
Sennacherib
when he was crown prince in the northern quadrant of Nineveh.[5] In 694 BC, Sennacherib had completed the "Palace Without Rival" at the southwest corner of the acropolis, obliterating most of the older structures. The "House of Succession" had become the palace of Esarhaddon, the crown prince. In this house, Ashurbanipal's grandfather was assassinated by uncles identified only from the biblical account as Adrammelech, Abimlech and Sharezer. From this conspiracy, Esarhaddon
Esarhaddon
emerged as king in 681 BC. He proceeded to rebuild as his residence the Bit Masharti (weapons house, or arsenal). The "House of Succession" was left to his mother and the younger children, including Ashurbanipal.[citation needed] The names of five brothers and one sister are known.[5] Sin-iddin-apli, the intended crown prince, died prior to 672 BC. Not having been expected to become heir to the throne, Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
was trained in scholarly pursuits as well as the usual horsemanship, hunting, chariotry, soldiery, craftsmanship, and royal decorum. In a unique autobiographical statement, Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
specified his youthful scholarly pursuits as having included oil divination, mathematics, and reading and writing; he was able to read and write in Sumerian, Akkadian and Aramaic. Royal succession[edit]

Detail of a stone monument of Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
II as a basket-bearer. 668-655 BC. From the temple of Nabu at Borsippa, Iraq, currently housed in the British Museum

Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
succeeded his father Esarhaddon
Esarhaddon
(reigned 681–669 BC) as king of Assyria
Assyria
and ruler of the Assyrian Empire in 668 BC. Esarhaddon had prepared for the accession of his son by imposing a vassal treaty upon his Persian, Median
Median
and Parthian subjects, ensuring that they accepted Ashurbanipal's dominance in advance. He had also rebuilt Babylon
Babylon
and set up another of his sons Shamash-shum-ukin
Shamash-shum-ukin
to rule there, subject to his brother Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
in Nineveh. Military accomplishments[edit] Despite being a popular king among his subjects, he was also known for his cruelty to his enemies. Some pictures depict him putting a dog chain through the jaw of a defeated Arab king and then making him live in a dog kennel.[7] Many paintings of the period exhibit his brutality; however, Assyrian harshness was reserved solely for those who took up arms against the Assyrian king, and neither Ashurbanipal nor his predecessors conducted genocides, massacres or ethnic cleansings against civilian populations.[8][9] Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
inherited from Esarhaddon
Esarhaddon
not only the throne of the empire but also the ongoing war in Egypt
Egypt
with Kush/Nubia. Ashurbanipal ended Egyptian interference in the Near East, destroyed the Kushite Empire, drove the Kushites/Nubians from Egypt, and conquered Egypt
Egypt
and Libya. However the Nubians still had ambitions to regain control of Egypt
Egypt
and resurrect their empire. Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
sent an army against them in 667 BC that defeated the Nubian king Taharqa, near Memphis, while Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
stayed at his capital in Nineveh. At the same time some Egyptian vassals rebelled and were also defeated. All of the vanquished leaders save one were sent to Nineveh. Only Necho I, the native Egyptian Prince of Sais, convinced the Assyrians of his loyalty and was sent back to become the Assyrian puppet Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Egypt. After the death of Taharqa
Taharqa
in 664 BC his nephew and successor Tantamani
Tantamani
invaded Upper Egypt
Egypt
and took control of Thebes. In Memphis he defeated the native Egyptian princes and Necho may have died in the battle. Another army was sent by Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
and again it succeeded in defeating the Kushites/Nubians. Tantamani
Tantamani
was routed and driven back to his homeland in Nubia
Nubia
and was never again to threaten Assyria
Assyria
or Egypt. The Assyrians plundered Thebes and took much booty home with them. How Assyrian rule in Egypt ended is not certain, but at some point Necho's son Psammetichus I gained independence while wisely keeping his relations with Assyria friendly. An Assyrian royal inscription tells how the Lydian king Gyges received dreams from the Assyrian god Ashur. The dreams told him that when he submitted to Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
he would conquer his foes. After Gyges sent his ambassadors to accept Assyrian vassalage he defeated his Cimmerian enemies. But later when he supported the rebellion of the Egyptian rebels his country was overrun by the Cilicians.[10] Assyria
Assyria
was by then master of the largest empire the world had yet seen, stretching from the Caucasus in the north to North Africa
North Africa
and the Arabian peninsula
Arabian peninsula
in the south, and from Cyprus
Cyprus
and the east Mediterranean in the west, to central Iran
Iran
in the east. Ashurbanipal enjoyed the subjugation of a myriad of nations and peoples, including Babylon, Chaldea, Media, Persia, Egypt, Libya, Elam, Gutium, Parthia, Cissia, Phrygia, Mannea, Corduene, Aramea, Urartu, Lydia, Cilicia, Commagene, Caria, Cappadocia, Phoenicia, Canaan, the Suteans, Sinai, Israel, Judah, Samarra, Moab, Edom, Ammon, Nabatea, Arabia, the Neo-Hittites, Dilmun, Meluhha, Nubia, Scythia, Cimmeria, Armenia
Armenia
and Cyprus, with few problems during Ashurbanipal's reign. For the time being, the dual monarchy in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
went well, with Shamash-shum-ukin
Shamash-shum-ukin
accepting his position as the vassal of his brother peaceably.[11][not specific enough to verify] For his assignment of his brother, Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
sent a statue of the divinity Marduk
Marduk
with him as sign of good will.[12] Shamash-shuma-ukin's power was limited. He performed Babylonian rituals but the official building projects were still executed by his younger brother. During his first years Elam
Elam
was still in peace as it was under his father. Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
sent food supplies to the Elamites during a famine. Around 664 BC the situation changed and Urtaku, the Elamite king, attacked Assyria's colony of Babylonia
Babylonia
by surprise. Assyria
Assyria
delayed in sending aid to Babylon. This could have been caused for two reasons: either the soothing messages of Elamite ambassadors or Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
might simply not have been present at that time. However the Assyrians eventually attacked and the Elamites retreated before the Assyrian troops, and in the same year Urtaku died. He was succeeded by Teumman (Tempti-Khumma-In-Shushinak), who was not his legitimate heir, so many Elamite princes had to flee to Ashurbanipal's court, including Urtaku's oldest son Humban-nikash. In 658/657 BC the two empires clashed again, when the province of Gambulu in 664 rebelled against the Assyrians and Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
decided to punish them. On the other hand, Teumman saw his authority threatened by the Elamite princes at the Assyrian court and demanded their extradition. The Assyrian forces invaded Elam
Elam
and fought a battle at the Ulaya river.[13] Elam
Elam
was defeated in the battle in which, according to Assyrian reliefs, Teumman committed suicide.[14] Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
installed Humban-nikash as king of Madaktu and another prince, Tammaritu, as king of the city Hidalu. Elam
Elam
was considered a vassal of Assyria
Assyria
and tribute was imposed on it. With the Elamite problem solved the Assyrians could finally punish Gambulu and seized its capital. Then the victorious army marched home taking with them the head of Teumman. In Nineveh, when the Elamite ambassadors saw the head, one tore out his beard and the other committed suicide. As further humiliation the head of the Elamite king was put on display at the port of Nineveh. The death and head of Teumman was depicted multiple times in the reliefs of Ashurbanipal's palace.[15] Friction grew between the two brother kings and in 652 BC Babylon rebelled. This time Babylon
Babylon
was not alone – it had allied itself with a host of peoples resentful of Assyrian rule, including Sutean, Chaldean and Aramean
Aramean
tribes dwelling in its southern regions, the kings of "Gutium", Amurru, and Meluhha, the Persians, the Arabs and Nabateans
Nabateans
dwelling in the Arabian Peninsula, and even Elam. According to a later Aramaic tale on Papyrus 63, Shamash-shum-ukin formally declared war on Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
in a letter where he claims that his brother is only the governor of Nineveh
Nineveh
and his subject.[16] Again the Assyrians delayed an answer, this time due to unfavourable omens. It is not certain how the rebellion affected the Assyrian heartlands but there was some unrest in the cities.[17] When Babylon
Babylon
finally was attacked, the Assyrians were victorious. Civil war prevented by further military aid, and in 648 BC Borsippa
Borsippa
and Babylon
Babylon
were besieged. Without aid the situation was hopeless. After two years Shamash-shum-ukin
Shamash-shum-ukin
met his end in his burning palace just before the city surrendered. This time Babylon
Babylon
was not destroyed, as under Sennacherib, but a massacre of the rebels took place, according to the king's inscriptions, with the Assyrians exacting savage revenge upon the Babylonians, Arameans, Chaldeans and Persians, together with an invasion of Arabia
Arabia
and the brutal subjugation of the Arab tribes to the south of Mesopotamia. Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
allowed Babylon
Babylon
to keep its semi autonomous position, but it became more formalized than before. The next king Kandalanu (an Assyrian governor) left no official inscription, probably as his function was only ritual.[18] During the final two decades of Ashurbanipal's rule, Assyria
Assyria
was peaceful and its dominance went unchallenged, but the country apparently faced an underlying decline due to over-expansion, the lack of funds from its devastated colonies, and insufficient troops to govern its vast empire. Documentation from the last years of Ashurbanipal's reign is scarce. The last attestations of Ashurbanipal's reign are of his year 38 (631 BC), but according to the Greek historian Castor, he reigned for 42 years until 627 BC.[citation needed][19] After Ashurbanipal's death c. 627 BC he was succeeded by Ashur-etil-ilani (626–623 BC). However, Assyria
Assyria
soon descended into a series of internal civil wars that would ultimately lead to its downfall. Library of Ashurbanipal[edit] Main article: Library of Ashurbanipal

The king, detail from the Lion Hunt of Ashurbanipal

Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
was proud of his scribal education. He asserts this in the statement: “I Assurbanipal within [the palace], took care of the wisdom of Nebo, the whole of the inscribed tablets, of all the clay tablets, the whole of their mysteries and difficulties, I solved.”[20] He was one of the few kings who could read the cuneiform script in Akkadian and Sumerian, and claimed that he even read texts from before the great flood. He was also able to solve mathematical problems. During his reign, he collected cuneiform texts from all over Mesopotamia, especially Babylonia, in his royal library at Nineveh, the Assyrian capital.[21] He commissioned copies of literary works from libraries around the kingdom in order to obtain "the hidden treasures of the scribe's knowledge."[22][23] The results were stored in what became known as the Library of Ashurbanipal. Nineveh
Nineveh
was destroyed in 612 BC but many of the library's clay tablets survived the devastation. Ashurbanipal’s palace was excavated in December 1853 and the surviving contents of the library re-discovered.[24] Over 30,000 clay tablets and fragments were uncovered in the library,[25] providing archaeologists with a wealth of Mesopotamian literary, religious and administrative work. The library included hymns and prayers, medical, mathematical, ritual, divinatory and astrological texts, alongside all sorts of administrative documents, letters and contracts. Other genres found during excavations included standard lists used by scribes and scholars, word lists, bilingual vocabularies, lists of signs and synonyms, lists of medical diagnoses, astronomic/astrological texts. The scribal texts proved to be very helpful in deciphering cuneiform.[21]

External video

Assyrian Art: Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
Hunting
Hunting
Lions, Smarthistory

Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
is considered by some library scholars as an archetypal academic librarian, in that his library set the course for how the libraries of today operate.[26] While the library at Ninevah was utilized by a select elite and Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
himself, the basic purposes of the library and the services provided are similar to those currently seen in modern academic libraries. Art and culture[edit] The British Museum
British Museum
in London has the Lion Hunt of Ashurbanipal, a set of Assyrian palace reliefs
Assyrian palace reliefs
from the North Palace of Ashurbanipal, also excavated at Nineveh, depicting the king hunting and killing Mesopotamian lions.[27] In Assyria, the lion hunt was seen as a royal sport; the depictions were seen as a symbol of the king’s ability to guard the nation.[28] The “Garden Party” relief shows the king and his queen having a banquet celebrating the Assyrian triumph over Tuemman in the campaign against Elam. The fine carvings serve as testimony to Ashurbanipal’s high regard for art, but also communicate an important message meant to be passed down for posterity.[29] The sculptor Fred Parhad (1947–) created a larger-than-life statue of Ashurbanipal, which was placed on a street near the San Francisco City Hall main square in 1988.[30][31] The sculpture shows Asurbanipal wearing a short tunic and holds a lion cub in his proper right arm. The figure stands on a concrete base, with bronze plaque and rosettes. The statue stands across from City Hall next to the Asian Art Museum and faces the San Francisco Library. Robert E. Howard
Robert E. Howard
wrote a short story entitled "The Fire of Asshurbanipal" (sic), first published in the December 1936 issue of Weird Tales
Weird Tales
magazine, about an "accursed jewel belonging to a king of long ago, whom the Grecians called Sardanapalus
Sardanapalus
and the Semitic peoples Asshurbanipal".[32] Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
was used as the ruler of the Assyrians in the second expansion pack (Brave New World) for the game Civilization V.[33] See also[edit]

Ancient Near East portal

Kings of Assyria

References and footnotes[edit]

^ These are the dates according to the Assyrian King list, Assyrian kinglist ^ " Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
- king of Assyria". Encyclopedia Britannica.  ^ See other versions at Ezra 4:10 ^ Marcus Junianus Justinus. "Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus". His successors too, following his example, gave answers to their people through their ministers. The Assyrians, who were afterwards called Syrians, held their empire thirteen hundred years. The last king that reigned over them was Sardanapalus, a man more effeminate than a woman.  ^ a b c Northen Magill, Frank; Christina J. Moose; Alison Aves; Taylor and Francis (1998). Dictionary of World Biography: The ancient world. pp. 141–142.  ^ 1.^ Jump up to: a b c d e f Melville, Sarah C. (1999). The role of Naqia/Zakutu in Sargonid politics. Helsinki: Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project. ISBN 9514590406. ^ Luckenbill, D.D. Ancient Records of Assyria
Assyria
and Babylonia
Babylonia
II. p. 314.  ^ "It must be noted, however, that these atrocities were usually reserved for those local princes and their nobles who had revolted and that in contrast with the Israelites, for instance, who exterminated the Amalekites for purely ethno-cultural reasons, the Assyrians never indulged in systematic genocides." (Georges Roux, Ancient Iraq, Third Edition, p. 291) ^ They have been maligned. Certainly they could be rough and tough to maintain order, but they were defenders of civilization, not barbarian destroyers." (H.W.F. Saggs, The Might That Was Assyria, p. 2) ^ Roaf, M. Cultural atlas of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and the ancient near east 2004. pp. 190–191.  ^ Georges Roux – Ancient Iraq ^ Frame, G. Babylonia
Babylonia
689-627. p. 104.  ^ This is the name according to Assyrian sources; the river is today identified with either the Karkheh or Karun. ^ Banipal, Cem (1986). The War of Banipalian. Çankaya: Bilkentftp Press. pp. 31–52.  ^ Frame, G. Babylonia
Babylonia
689–627 BC. pp. 118–124.  ^ Steiner and Ninms, RB 92 1985 ^ Frame, G. Babylonia
Babylonia
689–627 BC. pp. 131–141.  ^ Oates, J. (2003). Babylon. p. 123.  ^ Most important examples are the Harran
Harran
inscription and the Uruk king list.[citation needed] ^ Cylinder A, Column I, Lines 31–33, in Smith, George. History of Assurbanipal, Translated from the Cuneiform
Cuneiform
Inscriptions. London: Harrison and Sons, 1871: pg.6 ^ a b Roaf, M. (2004). Cultural Atlas of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and the Ancient Near East. p. 191.  ^ Murray, Stuart (2009). The Library: An Illustrated History. Chicago: ALA Editions.  ^ Coogan, Michael (2009). A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament. New York City: Oxford University Press. p. 292.  ^ Murray, Stuart (2009). The Library: An Illustrated History. New York, NY: Skyhorse Publishing. pp. 3–10. ISBN 9780838909911.  ^ https://www.britishmuseum.org/research/research_projects/ashurbanipal_library_phase_1.aspx "Assurbanipal Library Phase 1", British Museum
British Museum
One ^ Briscoe, Peter; Bodtke-Roberts, Alice; Douglas, Nancy; Heinold, Michele; Koller, Nancy; Peirce, Roberta (1986). "Ashurbanipal' s Enduring Archetype: Thoughts on the Library's Role in the Future". College & Research Libraries: 121.  ^ Ashrafian, H. (2011). "An extinct Mesopotamian lion
Mesopotamian lion
subspecies". Veterinary Heritage. 34 (2): 47–49.  ^ ""Assyria: Lion Hunt (Room 10a)." British Museum". Retrieved 23 November 2014.  ^ ""'Garden Party' relief from the North Palace of Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
(Room S),". British Museum". Retrieved 23 November 2014.  ^ "Smithsonian Art Inventories Catalog – Ashurbanipal, (sculpture)". Retrieved 23 November 2014.  ^ " Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
Statue at the Main San Francisco Library in San Francisco". Retrieved 23 November 2014.  ^ Price, R. M. (ed.): Nameless Cults: The Cthulhu Mythos Fiction of Robert E. Howard, Chaosium (2001), pp. 99–118. ^ "Civ V's Brave New World expansion lets you conquer the world with trade or culture wars". Venture Beat. 12/04/2013. Retrieved 10/01/2018.  Check date values in: access-date=, date= (help)

Sources[edit]

Barnett, R. D. (1976). Sculptures from the North Palace of Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
at Nineveh
Nineveh
(668–627). London: British Museum.  Grayson, A. K. (1980). "The Chronology of the Reign of Ashurbanipal". Zeitschrift für Assyriologie. 70 (2): 227–245. doi:10.1515/zava.1980.70.2.227.  Luckenbill, Daniel David (1926). Ancient Records of Assyria
Assyria
and Babylonia: From Sargon to the End. 2. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.  Murray, S. (2009). The Library: An Illustrated History. New York, NY:: Skyhorse Pub.  Oates, J. (1965). "Assyrian Chronology, 631-612 B.C". Iraq. 27 (2): 135–159. doi:10.2307/4199788.  Olmstead, A. T. (1923). History of Assyria. New York: Scribner.  Russell, John Malcolm (1991). Sennacherib's Palace without Rival at Nineveh. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 

Further reading[edit]

Ito, Sanae (2015). Royal Image and Political Thinking in the Letters of Assurbanipal. Ph.D. thesis. Helsinki: University of Helsinki. ISBN 978-951-51-0972-9.  [1]

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ashurbanipal.

Ashurbanipal The Library of King Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
Web Page Assurbanipal Coronation Hymn History Of Assurbanipal, Translated from the Cuneiform
Cuneiform
Inscriptions by George Smith Historical Prism Inscriptions of Ashurbanipal
Ashurbanipal
I: Editions E, B1–5, D, and K – Oriental Institute

Preceded by Esarhaddon King of Assyria 668–c. 627 BC Succeeded by Ashur-etil-ilani

v t e

Assyrian kings

Early Bronze Age

"Kings who lived in tents" (ca. 2500 – 2000 BC)

Tudiya Adamu Yangi Suhlamu Harharu Mandaru Imsu Harsu Didanu Hana Zuabu Nuabu Abazu Belu Azarah Ushpia Apiashal

"Kings who were forefathers" (ca. 2000 BC)

Apiashal Hale Samani Hayani Ilu-Mer Yakmesi Yakmeni Yazkur-el Ila-kabkabu Aminu

"Kings whose eponyms are destroyed" (ca. 2000 – 1900 BC)

Sulili Kikkia Akiya Puzur-Ashur I Shallim-ahhe Ilushuma

Middle Bronze Age

Old Assyrian period (ca. 1906 – 1380 BC)

Erishum I Ikunum Sargon I Puzur-Ashur II Naram-Suen Erishum II Shamshi-Adad I Ishme-Dagan I Mut-Ashkur Rimush Asinum (Seven usurpers: Ashur-dugul Ashur-apla-idi Nasir-Sin Sin-namir Ipqi-Ishtar Adad-salulu Adasi) Bel-bani Libaya Sharma-Adad I Iptar-Sin Bazaya Lullaya Shu-Ninua Sharma-Adad II Erishum III Shamshi-Adad II Ishme-Dagan II Shamshi-Adad III Ashur-nirari I Puzur-Ashur III Enlil-nasir I Nur-ili Ashur-shaduni Ashur-rabi I Ashur-nadin-ahhe I Enlil-nasir II Ashur-nirari II Ashur-bel-nisheshu Ashur-rim-nisheshu Ashur-nadin-ahhe II

Late Bronze Age

Middle Assyrian period (ca. 1353 – 1180 BC)

Eriba-Adad I Ashur-uballit I Enlil-nirari Arik-den-ili Adad-nirari I Shalmaneser I Tukulti-Ninurta I Ashur-nadin-apli Ashur-nirari III Enlil-kudurri-usur Ninurta-apal-Ekur

Iron Age

Middle Assyrian period (ca. 1179 – 912 BC)

Ashur-Dan I Ninurta-tukulti-Ashur Mutakkil-nusku Ashur-resh-ishi I Tiglath-Pileser I Asharid-apal-Ekur Ashur-bel-kala Eriba-Adad II Shamshi-Adad IV Ashur-nasir-pal I Shalmaneser II Ashur-nirari IV Ashur-rabi II Ashur-resh-ishi II Tiglath-Pileser II Ashur-Dan II

Neo-Assyrian Empire (ca. 912 – 609 BC)

Adad-nirari II Tukulti-Ninurta II Ashur-nasir-pal II Shalmaneser III Shamshi-Adad V Shammu-ramat (regent) Adad-nirari III Shalmaneser IV Ashur-Dan III Ashur-nirari V Tiglath-Pileser III Shalmaneser V Sargon II Sennacherib Esarhaddon Ashurbanipal Ashur-etil-ilani Sin-shumu-lishir Sin-shar-ishkun Ashur-uballit II

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 74643718 LCCN: n50032567 ISNI: 0000 0000 8394 7339 GND: 118504746

^ Lyons, Martyn (2011). Books: A Living History. Los Angeles: J. Paul Gerry Museum. pp. 16–17.  access-date= req

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