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Artemis
Artemis
(/ˈɑːrtɪmɪs/; Greek: Ἄρτεμις Artemis, Attic Greek: [ár.te.mis]) was one of the most widely venerated of the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
deities. Her Roman equivalent is Diana.[2] Some scholars[3] believe that the name, and indeed the goddess herself, was originally pre-Greek.[4] Homer
Homer
refers to her as Artemis
Artemis
Agrotera, Potnia Theron: " Artemis
Artemis
of the wildland, Mistress of Animals".[5] The Arcadians believed she was the daughter of Demeter.[6] In the classical period of Greek mythology, Artemis
Artemis
was often described as the daughter of Zeus
Zeus
and Leto, and the twin sister of Apollo. She was the Hellenic goddess of the hunt, wild animals, wilderness, childbirth, virginity and protector of young girls, bringing and relieving disease in women; she often was depicted as a huntress carrying a bow and arrows.[7] The deer and the cypress were sacred to her. In later Hellenistic times, she even assumed the ancient role of Eileithyia
Eileithyia
in aiding childbirth.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Mythology

2.1 Birth 2.2 Childhood 2.3 Intimacy 2.4 Actaeon 2.5 Adonis 2.6 Orion 2.7 The Aloadae 2.8 Callisto 2.9 Iphigenia
Iphigenia
and the Taurian Artemis 2.10 Niobe 2.11 Chione 2.12 Atalanta, Oeneus
Oeneus
and the Meleagrids 2.13 Aura 2.14 Polyphonte 2.15 Trojan War

3 Worship

3.1 Epithets 3.2 Festivals 3.3 Modern

4 Art

4.1 Attributes

4.1.1 Fauna 4.1.2 Flora

5 As the Lady of Ephesus 6 Astronomy 7 In modern taxonomy 8 See also 9 References and sources 10 External links

Etymology The name Artemis
Artemis
(noun, feminine) is of unknown or uncertain etymology,[8][9] although various ones have been proposed.[10][11] For example, according to J. T. Jablonski,[11] the name is also Phrygian and could be "compared with the royal appellation Artemas
Artemas
of Xenophon. According to Charles Anthon the primitive root of the name is probably of Persian origin from *arta, *art, *arte, all meaning "great, excellent, holy," thus Artemis
Artemis
"becomes identical with the great mother of Nature, even as she was worshipped at Ephesus".[11] Anton Goebel "suggests the root στρατ or ῥατ, "to shake," and makes Artemis
Artemis
mean the thrower of the dart or the shooter".[10] The name could also be possibly related to Greek árktos "bear" (from PIE *h₂ŕ̥tḱos), supported by the bear cult that the goddess had in Attica
Attica
(Brauronia) and the Neolithic
Neolithic
remains at the Arkoudiotissa Cave, as well as the story about Callisto, which was originally about Artemis
Artemis
(Arcadian epithet kallisto);[12] this cult was a survival of very old totemic and shamanistic rituals and formed part of a larger bear cult found further afield in other Indo-European cultures (e.g., Gaulish Artio). It is believed that a precursor of Artemis
Artemis
was worshipped in Minoan Crete as the goddess of mountains and hunting, Britomartis. While connection with Anatolian names has been suggested,[13][14] the earliest attested forms of the name Artemis
Artemis
are the Mycenaean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
𐀀𐀳𐀖𐀵, a-te-mi-to /Artemitos/ and 𐀀𐀴𐀖𐀳, a-ti-mi-te /Artimitei/, written in Linear B
Linear B
at Pylos.[15] R. S. P. Beekes suggested that the e/i interchange points to a Pre-Greek origin.[16] Artemis
Artemis
was venerated in Lydia
Lydia
as Artimus.[17] Georgios Babiniotis, while accepting that the etymology is unknown, also states that the name is already attested in Mycenean Greek and is possibly of Pre-Greek origin.[9] Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
writers, by way of folk etymology, and some modern scholars, have linked Artemis
Artemis
(Doric Artamis) to ἄρταμος, artamos, i.e. "butcher"[18][19] or, like Plato
Plato
did in Cratylus, to ἀρτεμής, artemḗs, i.e. "safe", "unharmed", "uninjured", "pure", "the stainless maiden".[10][11][20] Mythology

Leto
Leto
bore Apollo
Apollo
and Artemis, delighting in arrows, Both of lovely shape like none of the heavenly gods, As she joined in love to the Aegis-bearing ruler.

— Hesiod, Theogony, lines 918–920 (written in the 7th century BC)

Birth

Apollo
Apollo
(left) and Artemis
Artemis
(right). Brygos
Brygos
(potter, signed), Briseis Painter, Tondo of an Attic red-figure cup, ca. 470 BC, Louvre.

Artemis
Artemis
(on the left, with a deer) and Apollo
Apollo
(on the right, holding a lyre) from Myrina, dating to approximately 25 BC

Roman marble Bust of Artemis
Artemis
after Kephisodotos (Musei Capitolini), Rome.

Various conflicting accounts are given in Classical Greek mythology regarding the birth of Artemis
Artemis
and Apollo, her twin brother. However, in terms of parentage, all accounts agree that she was the daughter of Zeus
Zeus
and Leto
Leto
and that she was the twin sister of Apollo. An account by Callimachus
Callimachus
has it that Hera
Hera
forbade Leto
Leto
to give birth on either terra firma (the mainland) or on an island. Hera
Hera
was angry with her husband Zeus
Zeus
because he had impregnated Leto
Leto
but the island of Delos
Delos
disobeyed Hera
Hera
and Leto
Leto
gave birth there. According to the Homeric Hymn to Artemis
Artemis
the island where Leto
Leto
gave birth was Ortygia.[21] In ancient Cretan history Leto
Leto
was worshipped at Phaistos
Phaistos
and, in Cretan mythology, Leto
Leto
gave birth to Apollo
Apollo
and Artemis
Artemis
on the islands known today as Paximadia. A scholium of Servius
Servius
on Aeneid
Aeneid
iii. 72 accounts for the island's archaic name Ortygia[22] by asserting that Zeus
Zeus
transformed Leto
Leto
into a quail (ortux) in order to prevent Hera
Hera
from finding out about his infidelity, and Kenneth McLeish suggested further that in quail form Leto
Leto
would have given birth with as few birth-pains as a mother quail suffers when it lays an egg.[23] The myths also differ as to whether Artemis
Artemis
was born first, or Apollo. Most stories depict Artemis
Artemis
as born first, becoming her mother's midwife upon the birth of her brother Apollo. Childhood The childhood of Artemis
Artemis
is not fully related in any surviving myth. The Iliad
Iliad
reduced the figure of the dread goddess to that of a girl, who, having been thrashed by Hera, climbs weeping into the lap of Zeus.[24] A poem by Callimachus
Callimachus
to the goddess "who amuses herself on mountains with archery" imagines some charming vignettes. Artemis, while sitting on the knee of her father, Zeus, asked him to grant her several wishes:

to always remain a virgin to have many names to set her apart from her brother Phoebus
Phoebus
(Apollo) to have a bow and arrow made by the Cyclops to be the Phaesporia or Light Bringer to have a knee-length tunic so that she could hunt to have sixty "daughters of Okeanos", all nine years of age, to be her choir to have twenty Amnisides Nymphs as handmaidens to watch her dogs and bow while she rested to rule all the mountains any city to have the ability to help women in the pains of childbirth.[25]

Artemis
Artemis
believed that she had been chosen by the Fates to be a midwife, particularly since she had assisted her mother in the delivery of her twin brother, Apollo.[26] All of her companions remained virgins, and Artemis
Artemis
closely guarded her own chastity. Her symbols included the golden bow and arrow, the hunting dog, the stag, and the moon. Callimachus
Callimachus
tells[27] how Artemis
Artemis
spent her girlhood seeking out the things that she would need to be a huntress, how she obtained her bow and arrows from the isle of Lipara, where Hephaestus and the Cyclops
Cyclops
worked. Oceanus' daughters were filled with fear, but the young Artemis bravely approached and asked for bow and arrows. Callimachus
Callimachus
then tells how Artemis
Artemis
visited Pan, the god of the forest, who gave her seven bitches and six dogs. She then captured six golden-horned deer to pull her chariot. Artemis
Artemis
practiced with her bow first by shooting at trees and then at wild beasts.[27] Intimacy As a virgin, Artemis
Artemis
had interested many gods and men, but only her hunting companion, Orion, won her heart. Orion was accidentally killed either by Artemis
Artemis
or by Gaia. Alpheus, a river god, was in love with Artemis, but he realizes that he can do nothing to win her heart. So he decides to capture her. Artemis, who is with her companions at Letrenoi, goes to Alpheus, but, suspicious of his motives, she covers her face with mud so that the river god does not recognize her. In another story, Alphaeus tries to rape Artemis' attendant Arethusa. Artemis
Artemis
pities Arethusa and saves her by transforming Arethusa into a spring in Artemis' temple, Artemis Alphaea in Letrini, where the goddess and her attendant drink. Bouphagos, the son of the Titan Iapetus, sees Artemis
Artemis
and thinks about raping her. Reading his sinful thoughts, Artemis
Artemis
strikes him at Mount Pholoe. Siproites is a boy, who, either because he accidentally sees Artemis bathing or because he attempts to rape her, is turned into a girl by the goddess. Actaeon Multiple versions of the Actaeon
Actaeon
myth survive, though many are fragmentary. The details vary but at the core, they involve a great hunter, Actaeon
Actaeon
who Artemis
Artemis
turns into a stag for a transgression and who is then killed by hunting dogs.[28][29] Usually, the dogs are his own, who no longer recognize their master. Sometimes they are Artemis' hounds. According to the standard modern text on the work, Lamar Ronald Lacey's The Myth of Aktaion: Literary and Iconographic Studies, the most likely original version of the myth is that Actaeon
Actaeon
was the hunting companion of the goddess who, seeing her naked in her sacred spring, attempts to force himself on her. For this hubris, he is turned into a stag and devoured by his own hounds. However, in some surviving versions, Actaeon
Actaeon
is a stranger who happens upon her. According to the Latin version of the story told by the Roman Ovid[30] having accidentally seen Artemis
Artemis
(Diana) on Mount Cithaeron
Mount Cithaeron
while she was bathing, he was changed by her into a stag, and pursued and killed by his fifty hounds.[31] Different tellings also diverge in the hunter's transgression, which is sometimes merely seeing the virgin goddess naked, sometimes boasting he is a better hunter than she,[32] or even merely being a rival of Zeus
Zeus
for the affections of Semele. Adonis

The Death of Adonis, by Giuseppe Mazzuoli, 1709 – Hermitage Museum.

In some versions of the story of Adonis, who was a late addition to Greek mythology
Greek mythology
during the Hellenistic period, Artemis
Artemis
sent a wild boar to kill Adonis
Adonis
as punishment for his hubristic boast that he was a better hunter than her. In other versions, Artemis
Artemis
killed Adonis
Adonis
for revenge. In later myths, Adonis
Adonis
had been related as a favorite of Aphrodite, and Aphrodite
Aphrodite
was responsible for the death of Hippolytus, who had been a favorite of Artemis. Therefore, Artemis
Artemis
killed Adonis
Adonis
to avenge Hippolytus’s death. In yet another version, Adonis
Adonis
was not killed by Artemis, but by Ares, as punishment for being with Aphrodite. Orion Orion was Artemis' hunting companion. In some versions, he is killed by Artemis, while in others he is killed by a scorpion sent by Gaia. In some versions, Orion tries to seduce Opis,[33] one of Artemis' followers, and she kills him. In a version by Aratus,[34] Orion takes hold of Artemis' robe and she kills him in self-defense. In yet another version, Apollo
Apollo
sends the scorpion. According to Hyginus[35] Artemis
Artemis
once loved Orion (in spite of the late source, this version appears to be a rare remnant of her as the pre-Olympian goddess, who took consorts, as Eos
Eos
did), but was tricked into killing him by her brother Apollo, who was "protective" of his sister's maidenhood. The Aloadae The twin sons of Poseidon
Poseidon
and Iphidemia, Otos and Ephialtes, grew enormously at a young age. They were aggressive, great hunters, and could not be killed unless they killed each other. The growth of the Aloadae
Aloadae
never stopped, and they boasted that as soon as they could reach heaven, they would kidnap Artemis
Artemis
and Hera
Hera
and take them as wives. The gods were afraid of them, except for Artemis
Artemis
who captured a fine deer (or in another version of the story, she changed herself into a doe) and jumped out between them. The Aloadae
Aloadae
threw their spears and so mistakenly killed each other. Callisto

Diana and Callisto
Diana and Callisto
by Titian

Callisto was the daughter of Lycaon, King of Arcadia
Arcadia
and also was one of Artemis's hunting attendants. As a companion of Artemis, she took a vow of chastity. Zeus
Zeus
appeared to her disguised as Artemis, or in some stories Apollo
Apollo
gained her confidence and took advantage of her or, according to Ovid, raped her. As a result of this encounter, she conceived a son, Arcas. Enraged, Hera
Hera
or Artemis
Artemis
(some accounts say both) changed her into a bear. Arcas almost killed the bear, but Zeus
Zeus
stopped him just in time. Out of pity, Zeus
Zeus
placed Callisto the bear into the heavens, thus the origin of Callisto the Bear
Bear
as a constellation. Some stories say that he placed both Arcas and Callisto into the heavens as bears, forming the Ursa Minor
Ursa Minor
and Ursa Major
Ursa Major
constellations. Iphigenia
Iphigenia
and the Taurian Artemis Artemis
Artemis
punished Agamemnon
Agamemnon
after he killed a sacred stag in a sacred grove and boasted that he was a better hunter than the goddess. When the Greek fleet was preparing at Aulis to depart for Troy
Troy
to begin the Trojan War, Artemis
Artemis
becalmed the winds. The seer Calchas
Calchas
advised Agamemnon
Agamemnon
that the only way to appease Artemis
Artemis
was to sacrifice his daughter Iphigenia. Artemis
Artemis
then snatched Iphigenia
Iphigenia
from the altar and substituted a deer. Various myths have been told about what happened after Artemis
Artemis
took her. Either she was brought to Tauros and led the priests there or became Artemis' immortal companion.[36] Niobe A Queen of Thebes and wife of Amphion, Niobe
Niobe
boasted of her superiority to Leto
Leto
because while she had fourteen children (Niobids), seven boys and seven girls, Leto
Leto
had only one of each. When Artemis and Apollo
Apollo
heard this impiety, Apollo
Apollo
killed her sons as they practiced athletics, and Artemis
Artemis
shot her daughters, who died instantly without a sound. Apollo
Apollo
and Artemis
Artemis
used poisoned arrows to kill them, though according to some versions two of the Niobids
Niobids
were spared, one boy and one girl. Amphion, at the sight of his dead sons, killed himself. A devastated Niobe
Niobe
and her remaining children were turned to stone by Artemis
Artemis
as they wept. The gods themselves entombed them. Chione Chione was a princess of Pokis. She was beloved by two gods, Hermes and Apollo, and boasted that she was prettier than Artemis
Artemis
because she made two gods fall in love with her at once. Artemis
Artemis
was furious and killed Chione with her arrow or struck her dumb by shooting off her tongue. However, some versions of this myth say Apollo
Apollo
and Hermes protected her from Artemis' wrath. Atalanta, Oeneus
Oeneus
and the Meleagrids

Artemis
Artemis
pouring a libation, c. 460-450 BC.

Artemis
Artemis
saved the infant Atalanta
Atalanta
from dying of exposure after her father abandoned her. She sent a female bear to suckle the baby, who was then raised by hunters. In some stories, Artemis
Artemis
later sent a bear to hurt Atalanta
Atalanta
because others claimed Atlanta was a superior hunter. Among other adventures, Atalanta
Atalanta
participated in the hunt for the Calydonian Boar, which Artemis
Artemis
had sent to destroy Calydon
Calydon
because King Oeneus
Oeneus
had forgotten her at the harvest sacrifices. In the hunt, Atalanta
Atalanta
drew the first blood and was awarded the prize of the skin. She hung it in a sacred grove at Tegea
Tegea
as a dedication to Artemis. Meleager
Meleager
was a hero of Aetolia. King Oeneus
Oeneus
had him gather heroes from all over Greece to hunt the Calydonian Boar. After the death of Meleager, Artemis
Artemis
turned his grieving sisters, the Meleagrids into guineafowl that Artemis
Artemis
loved very much. Aura In Nonnus
Nonnus
Dionysiaca,[37] Aura was the daughter of Lelantos and Periboia. She was a virgin huntress, just like Artemis
Artemis
and proud of her maidenhood. One day, she claimed that the body of Artemis
Artemis
was too womanly and she doubted her virginity. Artemis
Artemis
asked Nemesis for help to avenge her dignity and caused the rape of Aura by Dionysus. Aura became a mad and dangerous killer. When she bore twin sons, she ate one of them while the other one, Iacchus, was saved by Artemis. Iacchus later became an attendant of Demeter
Demeter
and the leader of Eleusinian Mysteries. Polyphonte Polyphonte was a young woman who fled home preferring the idea of a virginal life with Artemis
Artemis
to the conventional life of marriage and children favoured by Aphrodite. As a punishment Aphrodite
Aphrodite
cursed her, causing her to have children by a bear. The resulting offspring, Agrius and Oreius, were wild cannibals who incurred the hatred of Zeus. Ultimately the entire family were transformed into birds and more specifically ill portents for mankind.[38] Trojan War Artemis
Artemis
may have been represented as a supporter of Troy
Troy
because her brother Apollo
Apollo
was the patron god of the city and she herself was widely worshipped in western Anatolia
Anatolia
in historical times. In the Iliad[39] she came to blows with Hera, when the divine allies of the Greeks and Trojans engaged each other in conflict. Hera
Hera
struck Artemis on the ears with her own quiver, causing the arrows to fall out. As Artemis
Artemis
fled crying to Zeus, Leto
Leto
gathered up the bow and arrows. Artemis
Artemis
played quite a large part in this war. Like her mother and brother, who was widely worshipped at Troy, Artemis
Artemis
took the side of the Trojans. At the Greek's journey to Troy, Artemis
Artemis
becalmed the sea and stopped the journey until an oracle came and said they could win the goddess' heart by sacrificing Iphigenia, Agamemnon's daughter. Agamemnon
Agamemnon
once promised the goddess he would sacrifice the dearest thing to him, which was Iphigenia, but broke that promise. Other sources[which?] said he boasted about his hunting ability and provoked the goddess' anger. Artemis
Artemis
saved Iphigenia
Iphigenia
because of her bravery. In some versions of the myth,[which?] Artemis
Artemis
made Iphigenia
Iphigenia
her attendant or turned her into Hecate, goddess of night, witchcraft, and the underworld. Aeneas
Aeneas
was helped by Artemis, Leto, and Apollo. Apollo
Apollo
found him wounded by Diomedes
Diomedes
and lifted him to heaven. There, the three of them secretly healed him in a great chamber. Worship

Roman Temple of Artemis
Temple of Artemis
in Jerash, Jordan, built during the reign of Antoninus Pius.

Main article: Brauronia Artemis, the goddess of forests and hills, was worshipped throughout ancient Greece.[40] Her best known cults were on the island of Delos (her birthplace), in Attica
Attica
at Brauron
Brauron
and Mounikhia (near Piraeus), and in Sparta. She was often depicted in paintings and statues in a forest setting, carrying a bow and arrows and accompanied by a deer. The ancient Spartans used to sacrifice to her as one of their patron goddesses before starting a new military campaign. Athenian festivals
Athenian festivals
in honor of Artemis
Artemis
included Elaphebolia, Mounikhia, Kharisteria, and Brauronia. The festival of Artemis
Artemis
Orthia was observed in Sparta. Pre-pubescent and adolescent Athenian girls were sent to the sanctuary of Artemis
Artemis
at Brauron
Brauron
to serve the Goddess for one year. During this time, the girls were known as arktoi, or little she-bears. A myth explaining this servitude states that a bear had formed the habit of regularly visiting the town of Brauron, and the people there fed it, so that, over time, the bear became tame. A girl teased the bear, and, in some versions of the myth, it killed her, while, in other versions, it clawed out her eyes. Either way, the girl's brothers killed the bear, and Artemis
Artemis
was enraged. She demanded that young girls "act the bear" at her sanctuary in atonement for the bear's death.[41] Virginal Artemis
Artemis
was worshipped as a fertility/childbirth goddess in some places, assimilating Ilithyia, since, according to some myths, she assisted her mother in the delivery of her twin. During the Classical period in Athens, she was identified with Hecate. Artemis also assimilated Caryatis (Carya). Epithets

Color reconstruction of a first-century AD statue of Artemis
Artemis
found in Pompeii, reconstructed using analysis of trace pigments - imitation of Greek statues of the sixth century BC (part of Gods in Color)

As Aeginaea, she was worshipped in Sparta; the name means either huntress of chamois, or the wielder of the javelin (αἰγανέα).[42][43] Also in Sparta, Artemis
Artemis
Lygodesma was worshipped. This epithet means "willow-bound" from the Gr. lygos (λυγός, willow) and desmos (δεσμός, bond). The willow tree appears in several ancient Greek myths and rituals.[44] She was worshipped at Naupactus
Naupactus
as Aetole; in her temple in that town there was a statue of white marble representing her throwing a javelin.[45] This "Aetolian Artemis" would not have been introduced at Naupactus, anciently a place of Ozolian Locris, until it was awarded to the Aetolians by Philip II of Macedon. Strabo
Strabo
records another precinct of "Aetolian Artemos" at the head of the Adriatic.[46] As Agoraea she was the protector of the agora. As Agrotera, she was especially associated as the patron goddess of hunters. In Athens
Athens
Artemis
Artemis
was often associated with the local Aeginian goddess, Aphaea. As Potnia Theron, she was the patron of wild animals; Homer
Homer
used this title. As Kourotrophos, she was the nurse of youths. As Locheia, she was the goddess of childbirth and midwives. She was sometimes known as Cynthia, from her birthplace on Mount Cynthus
Cynthus
on Delos, or Amarynthia from a festival in her honor originally held at Amarynthus in Euboea. She was sometimes identified by the name Phoebe, the feminine form of her brother Apollo's solar epithet Phoebus. Alphaea, Alpheaea, or Alpheiusa (Gr. Ἀλφαῖα, Ἀλφεαία, or Ἀλφειοῦσα) was an epithet that Artemis
Artemis
derived from the river god Alpheius, who was said to have been in love with her.[47] It was under this name that she was worshipped at Letrini in Elis,[48][49] and in Ortygia.[50] Artemis Alphaea
Artemis Alphaea
was associated with the wearing of masks, largely because of the legend that while fleeing the advances of Alpheius, she and her nymphs escaped him by covering their faces.[51] As Artemis
Artemis
Anaitis, the 'Persian Artemis' was identified with Anahita. As Apanchomene, she was worshipped as a hanged goddess. Festivals

Sanctuary of Artemis
Artemis
at Brauron.

Artemis
Artemis
was born on the sixth day, which made it sacred for her.

Festival of Artemis
Artemis
in Brauron, where girls, aged between five and ten, dressed in saffron robes and played at being bears, or "act the bear" to appease the goddess after she sent the plague when her bear was killed. Festival of Amarysia is a celebration to worship Artemis
Artemis
Amarysia in Attica. In 2007, a team of Swiss and Greek archaeologists found the ruin of Artemis
Artemis
Amarysia Temple, at Euboea, Greece.[52] Festival of Artemis
Artemis
Saronia, a festival to celebrate Artemis
Artemis
in Trozeinos, a town in Argolis. A king named Saron built a sanctuary for the goddess after the goddess saved his life when he went hunting and was swept away by a wave. He held a festival in her honor.[53] On the 16th day of Metageitnio (second month on the Athenian calendar), people sacrificed to Artemis
Artemis
and Hecate
Hecate
at Deme
Deme
in Erchia.[54] Kharisteria Festival on 6th day of Boidromion (third month) celebrates the victory of the Battle of Marathon, also known as the Athenian "Thanksgiving".[55] Day six of Elaphobolia (ninth month) festival of Artemis
Artemis
the Deer Huntress where she was offered cakes shaped like stags, made from dough, honey and sesame seeds.[56] Day 6 or 16 of Mounikhion (tenth month) is a celebration of her as the goddess of nature and animals. A goat was sacrificed to her.[57] Day 6 of Thargelion (eleventh month), is the Goddess's birthday, while the seventh was Apollo's.[58] A festival for Artemis
Artemis
Diktynna
Diktynna
(of the net) was held in Hypsous. Laphria, a festival for Artemis
Artemis
in Patrai. The procession starts by setting logs of wood around the altar, each of them 16 cubits long. On the altar, within the circle, the driest wood is placed. Just before the festival, a smooth ascent to the altar is built by piling earth upon the altar steps. The festival begins with a splendid procession in honor of Artemis, and the maiden officiating as priestess rides last in the procession upon a chariot yoked to four deer, Artemis' traditional mode of transport (see below). However, the sacrifice is not offered until the next day. In Orchomenus, a sanctuary was built for Artemis
Artemis
Hymnia where her festival was celebrated every year.

Modern

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Art

Fourth century Praxitelean bronze head of a goddess wearing a lunate crown, found at Issa (Vis, Croatia).

The oldest representations of Artemis
Artemis
in Greek Archaic art portray her as Potnia Theron
Potnia Theron
("Queen of the Beasts"): a winged goddess holding a stag and leopard in her hands, or sometimes a leopard and a lion. This winged Artemis
Artemis
lingered in ex-votos as Artemis
Artemis
Orthia, with a sanctuary close by Sparta. In Greek classical art she is usually portrayed as a maiden huntress, young, tall and slim, clothed in a girl's short skirt,[59] with hunting boots, a quiver, a bow[60] and arrows. Often, she is shown in the shooting pose, and is accompanied by a hunting dog or stag. When portrayed as a moon goddess, Artemis
Artemis
wore a long robe and sometimes a veil covered her head. Her darker side is revealed in some vase paintings, where she is shown as the death-bringing goddess whose arrows fell young maidens and women, such as the daughters of Niobe. Artemis
Artemis
was sometimes represented in Classical art with the crown of the crescent moon, such as also found on Luna and others. On June 7, 2007, a Roman era bronze sculpture of Artemis
Artemis
and the Stag was sold at Sotheby's
Sotheby's
auction house in New York state by the Albright-Knox Art Gallery
Albright-Knox Art Gallery
for $25.5 million. Attributes

Bow and arrow

The site of the Temple of Artemis
Temple of Artemis
at Ephesus.

Didrachm from Ephesus, Ionia, representing the goddess Artemis

Silver tetradrachm of the Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
king Artemidoros
Artemidoros
(whose name means "gift of Artemis"), c. 85 BC, featuring Artemis
Artemis
with a drawn bow and a quiver on her back on the reverse of the coin

According to the Homeric Hymn to Artemis, she had golden bow and arrows, as her epithet was Khryselakatos ("of the Golden Shaft") and Iokheira ("showered by arrows"). The arrows of Artemis
Artemis
could also bring sudden death and disease to girls and women. Artemis
Artemis
got her bow and arrow for the first time from The Kyklopes, as the one she asked from her father. The bow of Artemis
Artemis
also became the witness of Callisto's oath of her virginity. In later cult, the bow became the symbol of waxing moon.[61]

Chariots

Artemis' chariot was made of gold and was pulled by four golden horned deer (Elaphoi Khrysokeroi). The bridles of her chariot were also made of gold.[62]

Spears, nets, and lyre

Although quite seldom, Artemis
Artemis
is sometimes portrayed with a hunting spear. Her cult in Aetolia, the Artemis
Artemis
Aetolian, showed her with a hunting spear. The description about Artemis' spear can be found in Ovid's Metamorphosis,[where?] while Artemis
Artemis
with a fishing spear connected with her cult as a patron goddess of fishing.[63] As a goddess of maiden dances and songs, Artemis
Artemis
is often portrayed with a lyre.[64] Fauna

Deer

Deer
Deer
were the only animals held sacred to Artemis
Artemis
herself. On seeing a deer larger than a bull with horns shining, she fell in love with these creatures and held them sacred. Deer
Deer
were also the first animals she captured. She caught five golden horned deer called Elaphoi Khrysokeroi and harnessed them to her chariot.[62] The third labour of Heracles, commanded by Eurystheus, consisted of catching the Cerynitian Hind
Cerynitian Hind
alive. Heracles
Heracles
begged Artemis
Artemis
for forgiveness and promised to return it alive. Artemis
Artemis
forgave him but targeted Eurystheus
Eurystheus
for her wrath.[65]

Hunting
Hunting
dog

Artemis
Artemis
got her hunting dogs from Pan in the forest of Arcadia. Pan gave Artemis
Artemis
two black-and-white dogs, three reddish ones, and one spotted one – these dogs were able to hunt even lions. Pan also gave Artemis
Artemis
seven bitches of the finest Arcadian race. However, Artemis only ever brought seven dogs hunting with her at any one time.[66]

Bear

The sacrifice of a bear for Artemis
Artemis
started with the Brauron
Brauron
cult. Every year a girl between five and ten years of age was sent to Artemis' temple at Brauron. The Byzantine writer Suidos relayed the legend in Arktos e Brauroniois. A bear was tamed by Artemis
Artemis
and introduced to the people of Athens. They touched it and played with it until one day a group of girls poked the bear until it attacked them. A brother of one of the girls killed the bear, so Artemis
Artemis
sent a plague in revenge. The Athenians consulted an oracle to understand how to end the plague. The oracle suggested that, in payment for the bear's blood, no Athenian virgin should be allowed to marry until she had served Artemis
Artemis
in her temple ('played the bear for the goddess').[67]

Boar

The boar is one of the favorite animals of the hunters, and also hard to tame. In honor of Artemis' skill, they sacrificed it to her. Oineus and Adonis
Adonis
were both killed by Artemis' boar.[68]

Guinea fowl

Artemis
Artemis
felt pity for the Meleagrids as they mourned for their lost brother, Meleagor, so she transformed them into Guinea Fowl to be her favorite animals.[citation needed]

Buzzard hawk

Hawks were the favored birds of many of the gods, Artemis included.[citation needed] Flora Palm and Cypress
Cypress
were issued[clarification needed] to be her birthplace. Other plants sacred to Artemis
Artemis
are Amaranth
Amaranth
and Asphodel.[69] As the Lady of Ephesus Main article: Temple of Artemis

The Artemis
Artemis
of Ephesus, 1st century AD ( Ephesus
Ephesus
Archaeological Museum)

At Ephesus
Ephesus
in Ionia, Turkey, her temple became one of the Seven Wonders of the World. It was probably the best known center of her worship except for Delos. There the Lady whom the Ionians associated with Artemis
Artemis
through interpretatio graeca was worshipped primarily as a mother goddess, akin to the Phrygian goddess Cybele, in an ancient sanctuary where her cult image depicted the "Lady of Ephesus" adorned with multiple pendulous, breast-like protuberances on her torso, variously interpreted as multiple accessory breasts, as eggs, grapes, acorns,[70] or even bull testes.[71][72] Excavation at the site of the Artemision in 1987–88 identified a multitude of tear-shaped amber beads that had adorned the ancient wooden cult image or xoanon.[73] In Acts of the Apostles, Ephesian metalsmiths who felt threatened by Saint Paul's preaching of Christianity, jealously rioted in her defense, shouting “Great is Artemis
Artemis
of the Ephesians!”[74] Of the 121 columns of her temple, only one composite, made up of fragments, still stands as a marker of the temple's location.. Astronomy 105 Artemis, the Artemis
Artemis
(crater), the Artemis Chasma
Artemis Chasma
and the Artemis Corona have all been named after the goddess. Artemis
Artemis
is the acronym for "Architectures de bolometres pour des Telescopes a grand champ de vue dans le domaine sub-Millimetrique au Sol", a large bolometer camera in the submillimeter range that was installed in 2010 at the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment
Atacama Pathfinder Experiment
(APEX), located in the Atacama Desert in northern Chile.[75] In modern taxonomy The taxonomic genus Artemia, which entirely comprises the family Artemiidae, derives from Artemis. Artemia
Artemia
are aquatic crustaceans known as brine shrimp, the best known species of which, Artemia salina, or Sea Monkeys, was first described by Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
in his Systema Naturae
Systema Naturae
in 1758. Artemia
Artemia
live in salt lakes, and although they are almost never found in an open sea, they do appear along the Aegean coast near Ephesus, where the Temple of Artemis
Temple of Artemis
once stood. See also

Greek mythology
Greek mythology
portal Hellenismos portal

Artemisia Cybele Diana (mythology) Janus Artemas Bendis

References and sources

References

^ "Artemis". Encyclopædia Britannica.com. Retrieved 17 April 2017.  ^ Larousse Desk Reference Encyclopedia, The Book People, Haydock, 1995, p. 215. ^ David Sacks; Oswyn Murray (1 January 2009). Encyclopedia of the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
World. Infobase Publishing. pp. 56–. ISBN 978-1-4381-1020-2. Retrieved 15 March 2015.  ^ Rose, H. J. A Handbook of Greek Mythology, Dutton 1959, p. 112; Guthrie, W. C. K. The Greeks and Their Gods, Beacon 1955, p. 99. ^ Homer, Iliad
Iliad
xxi 470 f. ^ "Artemis". Retrieved 2012-04-26.  ^ “Her proper sphere is the earth, and specifically the uncultivated parts, forests and hills, where wild beasts are plentiful" Hammond and Scullard (editors), The Oxford Classical Dictionary. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970) 126. ^ "Artemis". Online Etymology Dictionary.  ^ a b Babiniotis, Georgios (2005). "Άρτεμις". Λεξικό της Νέας Ελληνικής Γλώσσας. Athens: Κέντρο Λεξικολογίας. p. 286.  ^ a b c Lang, Andrew (1887). Myth, Ritual, and Religion. London: Longmans, Green and Co. pp. 209–210.  ^ a b c d Anthon, Charles (1855). "Artemis". A Classical dictionary. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 210.  ^ Michaël Ripinsky-Naxon, The Nature of Shamanism: Substance and Function of a Religious Metaphor (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1993), 32. ^ Campanile, Ann. Scuola Pisa 28:305; Restelli, Aevum 37:307, 312. ^ Edwin L. Brown, "In Search of Anatolian Apollo", Charis: Essays in Honor of Sara A. Immerwahr, Hesperia Supplements 33 (2004:243–257). p. 251: Artemis, as Apollo's inseparable twin, is discussed in pp. 251ff. ^ John Chadwick and Lydia
Lydia
Baumbach, "The Mycenaean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
Vocabulary" Glotta, 41.3/4 (1963:157-271). p. 176f, s.v. Ἂρτεμις, a-te-mi-to- (genitive); C. Souvinous, "A-TE-MI-TO and A-TI-MI-TE", Kadmos 9 1970:42–47; T. Christidis, "Further remarks on A-TE-MI-TO and A-TI-MI-TE", Kadmos 11:125–28. ^ R. S. P. Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Brill, 2009, p. 142. ^ Indogermanica et Caucasica: Festschrift fur Karl Horst Schmidt zum 65. Geburtstag (Studies in Indo-European language and culture), W. de Gruyter, 1994, Etyma Graeca, pp. 213–214, on Google books; Houwink ten Cate, The Luwian Population Groups of Lycia and Cilicia Aspera during the Hellenistic Period (Leiden) 1961:166, noted in this context by Brown 2004:252. ^ ἄρταμος. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus
Perseus
Project. ^ Ἄρτεμις. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus
Perseus
Project. ^ ἀρτεμής. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus
Perseus
Project. ^ Hammond. Oxford Classical Dictionary. 597-598. ^ Or as a separate island birthplace of Artemis— "Rejoice, blessed Leto, for you bare glorious children, the lord Apollon and Artemis
Artemis
who delights in arrows; her in Ortygia, and him in rocky Delos," says the Homeric Hymn; the etymology Ortygia, "Isle of Quail", is not supported by modern scholars. ^ McLeish, Kenneth. Children of the Gods pp 33f; Leto's birth-pangs, however, are graphically depicted by ancient sources. ^ Iliad
Iliad
XXI 505-13 ^ " Callimachus
Callimachus
– Hymn III to Artemis
Artemis
1-27".  ^ On-line English translation. ^ a b Callimachus
Callimachus
– Hymn III to Artemis
Artemis
46 ^ Heath, "The Failure of Orpheus", Transactions of the American Philological Association 124 (1994:163-196) p. 196. ^ Walter Burkert, Homo Necans (1972), translated by Peter Bing (University of California Press) 1983, p 111. ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses
Metamorphoses
iii.131; see also pseudo-Apollodorus' Bibliotheke iii. 4 ^ Chisholm 1911. ^ Lacy, "Aktaion and a Lost 'Bath of Artemis'" The Journal of Hellenic Studies 110 (1990:26-42) ^ "Another name for Artemis
Artemis
herself", Karl Kerenyi
Karl Kerenyi
observes, The Gods of the Greeks (1951:204). ^ Aratus, 638 ^ Hyginus, Poeticon astronomicon, ii.34, quoting the Greek poet Istrus. ^ Aaron J. Atsma. "FAVOUR OF ARTEMIS : Greek mythology". Theoi.com. Retrieved 2011-01-28.  ^ Aura does not appear elsewhere in surviving literature and appears to have been offered no cult. ^ Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses, 21 ^ Homer, Iliad
Iliad
21.470 ff). ^ “. . . a goddess universally worshipped in historical Greece, but in all likelihood pre-Hellenic.” Hammond, Oxford Classical Dictionary, 126. ^ Golden, M., Children and Childhood in Classical Athens
Athens
(Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990), p. 84. ^ Pausanias, iii. 14. § 2. ^ Schmitz, Leonhard (1867). "Aeginaea". In Smith, William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. 1. Boston. p. 26.  ^ Bremmer Jan N. (2008) Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible and the Ancient Near East, Brill, Netherlands, p. 187. ^ Pausanias, x. 38. § 6. ^ "Among the Heneti certain honours have been decreed to Diomedes; and, indeed, a white horse is still sacrificed to him, and two precincts are still to be seen — one of them sacred to the Argive Hera
Hera
and the other to the Aetolian Artemis. (Strabo, v.1.9 on-line text). ^ Schmitz, Leonhard (1867). "Alphaea". In William Smith. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. 1. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. p. 133.  ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece vi. 22. § 5 ^ Strabo, Geographica
Geographica
viii. p. 343 ^ Scholiast on Pindar's Pythian Odes ii. 12, Nemean Odes i. 3 ^ Dickins, G.; Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies (1929). "Terracotta Masks". The Sanctuary of Artemis
Artemis
Orthia: Supplementary Papers. London, England: Macmillan Publishers. p. 172. Retrieved 2009-03-19.  ^ mharrsch (2007-11-04). "Passionate about History: Search continues for temple of Artemis
Artemis
Amarysia". Passionateabouthistory.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2011-01-28.  ^ "SARON, Greek Mythology
Mythology
Index". Mythindex.com. Retrieved 2011-01-28.  ^ "Ancient Athenian Festival Calendar". Winterscapes.com. 2007-07-24. Retrieved 2011-01-28.  ^ "Ancient Athenian Festival Calendar". Winterscapes.com. 2007-07-24. Retrieved 2011-01-28.  ^ "Ancient Athenian Festival Calendar". Winterscapes.com. 2007-07-24. Retrieved 2011-01-28.  ^ "Ancient Athenian Festival Calendar". Winterscapes.com. 2007-07-24. Retrieved 2011-01-28.  ^ "Ancient Athenian Festival Calendar". Winterscapes.com. 2007-07-24. Retrieved 2011-01-28.  ^ Homer
Homer
portrayed Artemis
Artemis
as girlish in the Iliad. ^ Greek poets could not decide whether her bow was silver or gold: "Over the shadowy hills and windy peaks she draws her golden bow." ( Homeric Hymn to Artemis), and it is a golden bow as well in Ovid, Metamorphoses
Metamorphoses
1.693, where her nymph's is of horn. "And how often goddess, didst thou make trial of thy silver bow?", asks Callimachus for whom it is a Cydonian bow that the Cyclopes make for her (Callimachus, Hymn 3 to Artemis). ^ "Bow".  ^ a b "Chariot".  ^ "Spears".  ^ "Dance".  ^ "Kerynitian".  ^ "Pack".  ^ "Cult".  ^ "Animals".  ^ "Plants".  ^ "Ancient Art and Artemis: Toward Explaining the Polymastic Nature of the Figurine" by Andrew E. Hill Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society 21 1992. ^ "Diana of Ephesus: Keeping Abreast with Iconography" (see footnote 1), Alberti's Window, blog by Monica Bowen, February 5th, 2011 ^ "In Search of Diana of Ephesus", New York Times, August 21, 1994. ^ ""Potnia Aswia: Anatolian Contributions to Greek Religion" by Sarah P. Morris". Archived from the original on 2014-01-06.  ^ Acts 19:28. ^ "APEX – Artemis". Apex-telescope.org. 2010-01-11. Retrieved 2013-03-25. 

Sources

Walter Burkert, 1985. Greek Religion (Cambridge: Harvard University Press)  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Actaeon". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 157.  Robert Graves
Robert Graves
(1955) 1960. The Greek Myths (Penguin) Karl Kerenyi, 1951. The Gods of the Greeks Seppo Telenius (2005) 2006. Athena- Artemis
Artemis
(Helsinki: Kirja kerrallaan)

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Artemis.

Theoi Project, Artemis, information on Artemis
Artemis
from original Greek and Roman sources, images from classical art. A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (1890) (eds. G. E. Marindin, William Smith, LLD, William Wayte) Fischer-Hansen T., Poulsen B. (eds.) From Artemis
Artemis
to Diana: the goddess of man and beast. Collegium Hyperboreum and Museum Tusculanum Press, Copenhagen, 2009 Warburg Institute Iconographic Database: ca 1,150 images of Artemis

v t e

Ancient Greek religion
Ancient Greek religion
and mythology

Classical religious forms

Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
religion Gnosticism Paleo-Balkan mythology Proto-Indo-European religion Hellenistic religion Alchemy Orphism Pythagoreanism Mycenaean deities

Mystery religions and sacred mysteries

Dionysian Mysteries Eleusinian Mysteries Imbrian Mysteries Mithraism Samotracian Mysteries

Main beliefs

Apotheosis Euhemerism Greek Heroic Age Monism Mythology Nympholepsy Paganism Paradoxography Polytheism Theism

Texts/ Epic poems/ Ode

Aretalogy Argonautica Bibliotheca Cyranides Derveni papyrus Ehoiai Greek Magical Papyri Homeric Hymns Iliad Odyssey Papyrus Graecus Holmiensis Telegony The golden verses of Pythagoras Theogony Works and Days Epic Cycle Theban Cycle

Rites and practices

Amphictyonic League Amphidromia Animal sacrifice Apotheosis Baptes Curse tablet Daduchos Delphinion Funeral and burial practices Hymns Hero cult Heroon Hierophany Hierophant Hierophylakes Hieros gamos Hypsistarians Iatromantis Interpretatio graeca Libations Mystagogue Nekyia Necromancy Necromanteion Nymphaeum Panegyris Pharmakos Prayers Orgia Sacrifices Temenos Temples Votive offerings

Sacred places

Athenian sacred ships Cave of Zeus Cretea Delphi Delos Dodona Eleusis Hiera Orgas Olympia Olympus Psychro Cave Sacred Way

Mythical beings

Dragons in Greek mythology Greek mythological creatures Greek mythological figures List of minor Greek mythological figures

Deities

Primordial deities

Aether Aion Ananke Chaos Chronos Erebus Eros Gaia Hemera Nyx Phanes Pontus Thalassa Tartarus Uranus

Titans

First generation

Coeus Crius Cronus Hyperion Iapetus Mnemosyne Oceanus Phoebe Rhea Tethys Theia Themis

Second generation

Asteria Astraeus Atlas Eos Epimetheus Helios Leto Menoetius Metis Pallas Perses Prometheus Selene

Third generation

Hecate Hesperus Phosphorus

Twelve Olympians

Aphrodite Apollo Ares Artemis Athena Demeter Dionysus Hephaestus Hera Hermes Hestia Poseidon Zeus

Aquatic deities

Amphitrite Alpheus Ceto Glaucus The Naiads The Nereids Nereus The Oceanids Phorcys Poseidon The Potamoi Potamides Proteus Scamander Thaumas Thetis Triton

Love deities

Erotes

Anteros Eros Hedylogos Hermaphroditus Himeros Hymen/Hymenaeus Pothos

Aphrodite Aphroditus Philotes Peitho

War deities

Adrestia Alala Alke Amphillogiai Androktasiai Ares Athena Bia Deimos Enyalius Enyo Eris Gynaecothoenas Homados Hysminai Ioke Keres Kratos Kydoimos Ma Makhai Nike Palioxis Pallas Perses Phobos Phonoi Polemos Proioxis

Chthonic
Chthonic
deities

Psychopomps

Hermanubis Hermes Thanatos

Achlys Angelos Hades
Hades
/ Pluto Hecate Hypnos Keres Lampad Macaria Melinoe Persephone

Health deities

Aceso Aegle Artemis Apollo Asclepius Chiron Eileithyia Epione Hebe Hygieia Iaso Paean Panacea Telesphorus

Sleep deities

Empusa Epiales Hypnos Morpheus Pasithea Phantasos Phobetor Oneiroi

Messenger deities

Angelia Arke Hermes Iris

Trickster deities

Apate Dolos Hermes Momus

Magic deities

Circe Hecate Hermes
Hermes
Trismegistus Triple deity

Other major deities

Azone The Erinyes Harmonia The Muses Nemesis Pan Unknown God Zelus

Heroes/Heroines

Abderus Achilles Actaeon Aeneas Argonauts Ajax the Great Ajax the Lesser Akademos Amphiaraus Amphitryon Antilochus Atalanta Autolycus Bellerophon Bouzyges Cadmus Chrysippus Cyamites Daedalus Diomedes Dioscuri
Dioscuri
(Castor and Pollux) Echetlus Eleusis Erechtheus Eunostus Ganymede Hector Heracles Icarus Iolaus Jason Meleager Odysseus Oedipus Orpheus Pandion Peleus Pelops Penthesilea Perseus Theseus Triptolemus

Mythical tribes

Amazons Anthropophage Atlantians Bebryces Curetes Dactyls Gargareans Halizones Korybantes Lapiths Lotus-eaters Myrmidons Pygmies Telchines

Oracles/Seers

Aesacus Aleuas Amphiaraus Amphilochus Ampyx Anius Asbolus Bakis Branchus Calchas Carnus Carya Cassandra Delphic Sibyl Elatus Ennomus Halitherses Helenus Iamus Idmon Manto Melampus Mopsus Munichus Phineus Polyeidos Polypheides Pythia Sibyl Telemus Theiodamas Theoclymenus Tiresias

Magic

Apotropaic magic Greek Magical Papyri Philia

Mythical realms

Aethiopia Atlantis Hyperborea Libya Nysa Panchaia Scythia Themiscyra

Underworld

Entrances to the underworld

Rivers

Acheron Cocytus Eridanos Lethe Phlegethon Styx

Lakes/ Swamps

Acherusia Avernus Lake Lerna
Lerna
Lake

Caves

Cave at Cape Matapan Cave Charonium Cave at Lake Avernus Cave at Heraclea Pontica

Ploutonion

Pluto's Gate

Places

Elysium Erebus Fields of Asphodel Fields of Punishment Isles of the Blessed Tartarus

Judges of the underworld

Aeacus Minos Rhadamanthus

Guards

Cerberus

Ferryman

Charon Charon's obol

Symbols-Objects

Bident Cap of invisibility

Animals-Daemons/Spirits

Ascalaphus Ceuthonymus Eurynomos Hade's cattle

Mythological wars

Amazonomachy Attic War Centauromachy Gigantomachy Cranes-Pygmies war Theomachy Titanomachy Trojan War

Mythological and religious objects

Adamant Aegis Ambrosia Apple of Discord Ara Baetylus Caduceus Cornucopia Dragon's teeth Diipetes Galatea Golden apple Golden Fleece Gorgoneion Greek terracotta figurines Harpe Ichor Lotus tree Minoan sealstone Moly Necklace of Harmonia Omphalos Orichalcum Palladium Panacea Pandora's box Petasos
Petasos
(Winged helmet) Philosopher's stone Ring of Gyges Rod of Asclepius Sacrificial tripod Sceptre Shield of Achilles Shirt of Nessus Sword of Damocles Talaria Thunderbolt Thymiaterion Thyrsus Trident Trojan Horse Winnowing Oar Wheel of Fortune Wheel of fire Xoanon

Symbols

Arkalochori Axe Labrys Ouroboros Owl of Athena

Mythological powers

Anthropomorphism Divination Eternal youth Evocation Fortune-telling Immortality Language of the birds Nympholepsy Magic Ornithomancy Shamanism Shapeshifting Weather modification

Storage containers/ Cups

Amphora Calathus Chalice Ciborium Cotyla Hydria Hydriske Kalpis Kylix Kantharos Lebes Lekythos Loutrophoros Oenochoe Pelike Pithos Skyphos Stamnos

Musical Instruments

Aulos Barbiton Chelys Cithara Cochilia Crotalum
Crotalum
(Castanets) Epigonion Kollops Lyre Pan flute Pandura Phorminx Psaltery Salpinx Sistrum Tambourine Trigonon Tympanum Water organ

Games

Panhellenic Games

Olympic Games Pythian Games Nemean Games Isthmian Games

Agon Panathenaic Games Rhieia

Festivals/Feasts

Actia Adonia Agrionia Amphidromia Anthesteria Apellai Apaturia Aphrodisia Arrhephoria Ascolia Bendidia Boedromia Brauronia Buphonia Chalceia Diasia Delphinia Dionysia Ecdysia Elaphebolia Gamelia Haloa Heracleia Hermaea Hieromenia Iolaia Kronia Lenaia Lykaia Metageitnia Munichia Oschophoria Pamboeotia Pandia Plynteria Pyanopsia Skira Synoikia Soteria Tauropolia Thargelia Theseia Thesmophoria

Vessels

Argo Phaeacian ships

Modern offshoot religions

Discordianism Gaianism Hellenismos Decline of Greco-Roman polytheism

Modern popular culture

Greek mythology
Greek mythology
in popular culture

v t e

Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
deities by affiliation

Primordial deities

Achlys Aether Aion/Chronos Ananke Chaos Erebus Eros/Phanes Gaia Hemera Nyx The Ourea Pontus/Thalassa Tartarus Uranus Fates

Atropos Clotho Lachesis

Titan deities

Titanes (male)

Coeus Crius Cronus Hyperion Iapetus Oceanus Ophion

Titanides (female)

Dione Eurybia Mnemosyne Phoebe Rhea Tethys Theia Themis

Hyperionides

Eos Helios Selene

Koionides

Asteria Leto

Krionides

Astraeus Pallas Perses

Iapetionides

Atlas Epimetheus Menoetius Prometheus

Mousai (Muses)

Aoide Arche Melete Mneme

Olympian deities

Dodekatheon

Aphrodite Apollo Ares Artemis Athena Demeter Dionysus Hephaestus Hera Hermes Hestia Poseidon Zeus

Theoi Olympioi

Asclepius Deimos Ganymede Eileithyia Enyo Eris Iris Harmonia Hebe Heracles Paean Pan Phobos

Mousai (Muses)

Daughters of Zeus

Calliope Clio Euterpe Erato Melpomene Polyhymnia Terpsichore Thalia Urania

Daughters of Apollo

Apollonis Borysthenis Cephisso

Muses
Muses
of the Lyre

Hypate Mese Nete

Muses
Muses
at Sicyon

Polymatheia

Charites
Charites
(Graces)

Aglaea Antheia Euphrosyne Hegemone Pasithea Thalia

Horae
Horae
(Hours)

Dike Eirene Eunomia

Styktides

Bia Kratos Nike Zelos

Aquatic deities

Theoi Halioi

Amphitrite Benthesikyme Brizo Calypso Ceto Glaucus The Ichthyocentaurs Kymopoleia Leucothea Melicertes Nereus Nerites The Nesoi Oceanus Phorcys Pontus/Thalassa Poseidon Proteus Rhodos Tethys Thaumas Thetis Triton

Oceanids

Acaste Admete Adrasteia Amalthea Asia Callirrhoe Ceto Clytie Dione Dodone Doris Electra Eurynome Idyia Melia Metis Nemesis Perse Pleione Plouto Styx Telesto Zeuxo

Nereides

Amphitrite Arethusa Dynamene Galatea Galene Psamathe Thetis

Potamoi

Achelous Almo Alpheus Anapos Asopus Asterion Axius Caanthus Cebren Cephissus Clitumnus Enipeus Kladeos Meander Nilus Numicus Phyllis Peneus Rivers of the Underworld

Cocytus Eridanos Lethe Phlegethon Styx

Sangarius Scamander Simoeis Strymon

Naiads

Aegina Achiroe Aganippe The Anigrides Argyra Bistonis Bolbe Caliadne Cassotis Castalia Cleocharia Creusa Daphne Drosera Harpina The Ionides Ismenis Larunda Lilaea Liriope Melite Metope Minthe Moria Nana Nicaea Orseis Pallas Pirene Salmacis Stilbe The Thriae

Corycia Kleodora Melaina

Tiasa

Chthonic deities

Theoi Chthonioi

Angelos Demeter Gaia Hades Hecate The Lampads Macaria Melinoë Persephone Zagreus

Erinyes
Erinyes
(Furies)

Alecto Megaera Tisiphone

Earthborn

Cyclopes Gigantes Hecatonchires Kouretes Meliae Telchines Typhon

Apotheothenai

Trophonius Triptolemus Orpheus Aeacus Minos Rhadamanthus

Personifications

Children of Nyx

Achlys Apate Dolos Eleos Elpis Epiphron Eris Geras Hesperides Hybris Hypnos Ker The Keres The Moirai

Aisa Clotho Lachesis

Momus Moros Oizys The Oneiroi

Epiales Morpheus Phantasos Phobetor

Nemesis Philotes Sophrosyne Thanatos

Children of Eris

Algos Amphillogiai Ate The Androktasiai Dysnomia Horkos Hysminai Lethe Limos Machai Phonoi Ponos Neikea Pseudea Logoi

Children of other gods

Aergia Aidos Alala Aletheia Angelia Arete Bia Caerus The Younger Charites

Eucleia Eupheme Euthenia Philophrosyne

Corus Deimos The Erotes

Anteros Eros Hedylogos Hermaphroditus Hymen

Eupraxia Hedone Homonoia Iacchus Kratos The Litae Homonoia Nike Peitho Phobos Tyche Zelos

Others

Adephagia Alala Alke Amechania Anaideia Alastor Apheleia Aporia The Arae Dikaiosyne Dyssebeia Ekecheiria Eulabeia Eusebeia Gelos Heimarmene Homados Horme Ioke Kakia Kalokagathia Koalemos Kydoimos Lyssa The Maniae Methe Nomos Palioxis Peitharchia Penia Penthus Pepromene Pheme Philotes Phrike Phthonus Pistis Poine Polemos Poros Praxidike Proioxis Prophasis Roma Soter Soteria Techne Thrasos

Other deities

Sky deities

The Anemoi The Astra Planeti

Stilbon Eosphorus Hesperus Pyroeis Phaethon Phaenon

Aura Chione The Hesperides The Hyades Nephele The Pleiades

Alcyone Sterope Celaeno Electra Maia Merope Taygete

Agricultural deities

Aphaea Ariadne Carmanor Demeter Despoina Eunostus Philomelus Plutus

Health deities

Asclepius Aceso Epione Iaso Hygieia Panacea Telesphorus

Rustic deities

Aetna The Alseids The Auloniads Amphictyonis The Anthousai Aristaeus Attis Britomartis The Cabeiri Comus The Dryades

Erato Eurydice The Hamadryades

Chrysopeleia

The Epimeliades Hecaterus Leuce Ma The Maenades The Meliae The Napaeae The Nymphai Hyperboreioi The Oreads

Adrasteia Echo Helike Iynx Nomia Oenone Pitys

The Pegasides Priapus Rhapso Silenus Telete

Others

Acratopotes Adrasteia Agdistis Alexiares and Anicetus Aphroditus Astraea Circe Eiresione Enyalius Harpocrates Ichnaea Palaestra

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 94964164 LCCN: no2014110

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