HOME
ListMoto - Armenian Genocide


--- Advertisement ---



European colonization of the Americas

Dzungar genocide, 1750s Manifest Destiny

Indian Removal, 1830s California Genocide, 1848–1873

Circassian genocide, 1860s Selk'nam genocide, 1890s–1900s Herero and Namaqua genocide, 1904–1907 Greek genocide, 1914–1923 Assyrian genocide, 1914–1925 Armenian Genocide, 1915–1923 Libyan Genocide, 1923–1932

Soviet genocide

Ethnic cleansing
Ethnic cleansing
in the Soviet Union

Soviet famine of 1932–33

Holodomor, 1931–1933 Kazakhstan, 1930–1933

Mass Deportations during World War II

Kalmyks, 1943 Chechens
Chechens
and Ingush, 1944 Crimean Tatars, 1944

Nazi Holocaust and genocide (1941–1945)

Final Solution Porajmos Nazi crimes against ethnic Poles Nazi crimes against Soviet POWs Serbian genocide

Cold War

1971 Bangladesh genocide
1971 Bangladesh genocide
(1971) Burundian genocides (1972 & 1993) East Timorese genocide
East Timorese genocide
(1974–1999) Cambodian genocide
Cambodian genocide
(1975–1979) Guatemalan genocide
Guatemalan genocide
(1981–1983) Kurdish genocide (1986–1989) Isaaq genocide
Isaaq genocide
(1988–1989)

Contemporary genocide

Rwandan genocide
Rwandan genocide
(1994) Bosnian genocide
Bosnian genocide
(1992–1995)

Srebrenica massacre
Srebrenica massacre
(1995)

Darfur genocide
Darfur genocide
(2003–) Genocides by ISIS (2014–)

Yazidi genocide Shia genocide Christian genocide

Central African genocide

Related topics

Genocides in history Khmer Rouge Killing Fields Hutu Power Holodomor
Holodomor
genocide question Extermination camp Effects of genocide on youth List by death toll Mass killings under Communist regimes Anti-communist mass killings Mass killings compilation

Category

v t e

The Armenian Genocide
Genocide
(Armenian: Հայոց ցեղասպանություն,[note 3] Hayots tseghaspanutyun), also known as the Armenian Holocaust,[9] was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians,[note 2] mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and its successor state, the Republic of Turkey.[10][11] The starting date is conventionally held to be 24 April 1915, the day that Ottoman authorities rounded up, arrested, and deported from Constantinople (now Istanbul) to the region of Ankara
Ankara
235 to 270 Armenian intellectuals and community leaders, the majority of whom were eventually murdered. The genocide was carried out during and after World War I
World War I
and implemented in two phases—the wholesale killing of the able-bodied male population through massacre and subjection of army conscripts to forced labour, followed by the deportation of women, children, the elderly, and the infirm on death marches leading to the Syrian Desert. Driven forward by military escorts, the deportees were deprived of food and water and subjected to periodic robbery, rape, and massacre.[12] Other ethnic groups were similarly targeted for extermination in the Assyrian genocide and the Greek genocide, and their treatment is considered by some historians to be part of the same genocidal policy.[1][2] Most Armenian diaspora
Armenian diaspora
communities around the world came into being as a direct result of the genocide.[13] Raphael Lemkin
Raphael Lemkin
was moved specifically by the annihilation of the Armenians
Armenians
to define systematic and premeditated exterminations within legal parameters and coin the word genocide in 1943.[14] The Armenian Genocide
Genocide
is acknowledged to have been one of the first modern genocides,[15][16][17] because scholars point to the organized manner in which the killings were carried out. It is the second most-studied case of genocide after the Holocaust.[18] Turkey
Turkey
denies the word genocide is an accurate term for these crimes. In recent years, Turkey
Turkey
has been faced with repeated calls to recognize them as genocide.[19] As of 2018[update], 29 countries have officially recognized the mass killings as genocide, as have most genocide scholars and historians.[20][21]

Contents

1 Background

1.1 Armenians
Armenians
under Ottoman rule 1.2 Reform, 1840s–1880s 1.3 Armenian national liberation movement 1.4 Hamidian massacres, 1894–1896

2 Prelude to the Genocide

2.1 The Young Turk Revolution
Young Turk Revolution
of 1908 2.2 The Adana massacre
Adana massacre
of 1909 2.3 Conflict in the Balkans
Balkans
and Russia

3 World War I

3.1 Labour battalions 3.2 Van, April 1915 3.3 Arrest and deportation of Armenian notables, April 1915 3.4 Deportations

3.4.1 Death marches 3.4.2 Concentration camps

3.5 The " Special
Special
Organization" 3.6 Massacres

3.6.1 Mass burnings 3.6.2 Drowning 3.6.3 Use of poison and drug overdoses

3.7 Confiscation of property 3.8 Trials

3.8.1 Turkish courts-martial 3.8.2 Detainees in Malta 3.8.3 Trial of Soghomon Tehlirian

3.9 International aid to victims

4 Armenian population, deaths, survivors, 1914 to 1923 5 Eyewitness accounts and reports

5.1 The U.S. Mission in the Ottoman Empire

5.1.1 Ambassador Morgenthau's Story

5.2 Allied forces in the Middle East

5.2.1 Arnold Toynbee: The Treatment of Armenians

5.3 Austrian and German joint mission

5.3.1 Armin T. Wegner

5.4 Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Turkey 5.5 Russian military 5.6 Scandinavian missionaries and diplomats 5.7 Persia

6 Studies on the Genocide

6.1 Terminology

7 Recognition of the Genocide

7.1 Republic of Turkey
Republic of Turkey
and the Genocide

7.1.1 Controversies

7.2 The Republic of Armenia
Armenia
and the Genocide

8 Cultural loss 9 Reparations to the victims

9.1 Reparations on the grounds of international law 9.2 Sèvres Treaty 9.3 Lawsuits

10 Commemoration

10.1 Memorials 10.2 Portrayal in the media

11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 Further reading

14.1 Historical overviews 14.2 Specific issues and comparative studies 14.3 Survivors' testimonies and memory 14.4 Former Armenian communities 14.5 World responses and foreign testimony 14.6 Memory and historiography 14.7 Documentaries

15 External links

Background Main articles: Armenians
Armenians
in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Ottoman Armenian population Armenians
Armenians
under Ottoman rule The western portion of historical Armenia, known as Western Armenia, had come under Ottoman jurisdiction by the Peace of Amasya
Peace of Amasya
(1555) and was permanently divided from Eastern Armenia
Armenia
by the Treaty of Zuhab (1639).[22] Thereafter, the region was alternatively referred to as "Turkish" or "Ottoman" Armenia.[23] The vast majority of Armenians were grouped together into a semi-autonomous community, the Armenian millet, which was led by one of the spiritual heads of the Armenian Apostolic Church, the Armenian Patriarch of Constantinople. Armenians were mainly concentrated in the eastern provinces of the Ottoman Empire, although large communities were also found in the western provinces, as well as in the capital, Constantinople. The Armenian community was made up of three religious denominations: Armenian Catholic, Armenian Protestant, and Armenian Apostolic, the Church of the vast majority of Armenians. Under the millet system, the Armenian community was allowed to rule itself under its own system of governance with fairly little interference from the Ottoman government. Most Armenians—approximately 70%—lived in poor and dangerous conditions in the rural countryside, with the exception of the wealthy, Constantinople-based Amira class, a social elite whose members included the Duzians (Directors of the Imperial Mint), the Balyans (Chief Imperial Architects) and the Dadians (Superintendent of the Gunpowder Mills and manager of industrial factories).[24][25] Ottoman census figures clash with the statistics collected by the Armenian Patriarchate, but according to the latter, there were almost three million Armenians
Armenians
living in the empire in 1878 (400,000 in Constantinople and the Balkans, 600,000 in Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and Cilicia, 670,000 in Lesser Armenia
Lesser Armenia
and the area near Kayseri, and 1,300,000 in Western Armenia).[26] In the eastern provinces, the Armenians
Armenians
were subject to the whims of their Turkish and Kurdish neighbors, who would regularly overtax them, subject them to brigandage and kidnapping, force them to convert to Islam, and otherwise exploit them without interference from central or local authorities.[25] In the Ottoman Empire, in accordance with the dhimmi system implemented in Muslim countries, they, like all other Christians and also Jews, were accorded certain freedoms. The dhimmi system in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
was largely based upon the Pact of Umar. The client status established the rights of the non-Muslims to property, livelihood and freedom of worship, but they were in essence treated as second-class citizens in the empire and referred to in Turkish as gavours, a pejorative word meaning "infidel" or "unbeliever". The clause of the Pact of Umar which prohibited non-Muslims from building new places of worship was historically imposed on some communities of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and ignored in other cases, at the discretion of local authorities. Although there were no laws mandating religious ghettos, this led to non-Muslim communities being clustered around existing houses of worship.[27][28] In addition to other legal limitations, Christians were not considered equals to Muslims and several prohibitions were placed on them. Testimony against Muslims by Christians and Jews was inadmissible in courts of law wherein a Muslim could be punished; this meant that their testimony could only be considered in commercial cases. They were forbidden to carry weapons or ride atop horses and camels. Their houses could not overlook those of Muslims; and their religious practices were severely circumscribed, e.g., the ringing of church bells was strictly forbidden.[27][29] Reform, 1840s–1880s Main article: Armenian Question

German ethnographic map of Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and Caucasus
Caucasus
in 1914. Armenians are labeled in blue.

In the mid-19th century, the three major European powers, Great Britain, France
France
and Russia, began to question the Ottoman Empire's treatment of its Christian minorities and pressure it to grant equal rights to all its subjects. From 1839 to the declaration of a constitution in 1876, the Ottoman government instituted the Tanzimat, a series of reforms designed to improve the status of minorities. Nevertheless, most of the reforms were never implemented because the empire's Muslim population rejected the principle of equality for Christians. By the late 1870s, the Greeks, along with several other Christian nations in the Balkans, frustrated with their conditions, had, often with the help of the Entente powers, broken free of Ottoman rule. The Armenians
Armenians
remained, by and large, passive during these years, earning them the title of millet-i sadika or the "loyal millet".[30]:192[31] In the mid-1860s and early 1870s this passivity gave way to new currents of thinking in Armenian society. Led by intellectuals educated at European universities or American missionary schools in Turkey, Armenians
Armenians
began to question their second-class status and press for better treatment from their government. In one such instance, after amassing the signatures of peasants from Western Armenia, the Armenian Communal Council petitioned the Ottoman government to redress their principal grievances: "the looting and murder in Armenian towns by [Muslim] Kurds
Kurds
and Circassians, improprieties during tax collection, criminal behavior by government officials and the refusal to accept Christians as witnesses in trial". The Ottoman government considered these grievances and promised to punish those responsible, but no meaningful steps to do so were ever taken.[29]:36 Following the violent suppression of Christians during the Great Eastern Crisis, particularly in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria and Serbia, the United Kingdom and France
France
invoked the 1856 Treaty of Paris by claiming that it gave them the right to intervene and protect the Ottoman Empire's Christian minorities.[29]:35ff Under growing pressure, the government of Sultan Abdul Hamid II
Abdul Hamid II
declared itself a constitutional monarchy with a parliament (which was almost immediately prorogued) and entered into negotiations with the powers. At the same time, the Armenian patriarch of Constantinople, Nerses II, forwarded Armenian complaints of widespread "forced land seizure ... forced conversion of women and children, arson, protection extortion, rape, and murder" to the Powers.[29]:37 The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 ended with Russia's decisive victory and its army in occupation of large parts of eastern Turkey, but not before entire Armenian districts had been devastated by massacres carried out with the connivance of Ottoman authorities. In the wake of these events, Patriarch Nerses and his emissaries made repeated approaches to Russian leaders to urge the inclusion of a clause granting local self-government to the Armenians
Armenians
in the forthcoming Treaty of San Stefano, which was signed on 3 March 1878. The Russians were receptive and drew up the clause, but the Ottomans flatly rejected it during negotiations. In its place, the two sides agreed on a clause making the Sublime Porte's implementation of reforms in the Armenian provinces a condition of Russia's withdrawal, thus designating Russia the guarantor of the reforms.[32] The clause entered the treaty as Article 16 and marked the first appearance of what came to be known in European diplomacy as the Armenian Question. On receiving a copy of the treaty, Britain promptly objected to it and particularly Article 16, which it saw as ceding too much influence to Russia. It immediately pushed for a congress of the great powers to be convened to discuss and revise the treaty, leading to the Congress of Berlin in June–July 1878. [note 4] Patriarch Nerses sent a delegation led by his distinguished predecessor, Archbishop Khrimian Hayrik, to speak for the Armenians, but it was not admitted into the sessions on the grounds that it did not represent a country. Confined to the periphery, the delegation did its best to contact the representatives of the powers and argue the case for Armenian administrative autonomy within the Ottoman Empire, but to little effect. Following an understanding reached with Ottoman representatives, Britain drew up an emasculated version of Article 16 to replace the original, a clause that retained the call for reforms, but omitted any reference to the Russian occupation, thereby dispensing with the principal guarantee of their implementation. Despite an ambiguous reference to Great Power supervision, the clause failed to offset the removal of the Russian guarantee with any tangible equivalent, thus leaving the timing and fate of the reforms to the discretion of the Sublime Porte.[29]:38–39 The clause was readily adopted as Article 61 of the Treaty of Berlin on the last day of the Congress, 13 July 1878, to the deep disappointment of the Armenian delegation. Armenian national liberation movement Main article: Armenian national liberation movement Prospects for reforms faded rapidly following the signing of the Berlin treaty, as security conditions in the Armenian provinces went from bad to worse and abuses proliferated. Upset with this turn of events, a number of disillusioned Armenian intellectuals living in Europe and Russia decided to form political parties and societies dedicated to the betterment of their compatriots in the Ottoman Empire. In the last quarter of the 19th century, this movement came to be dominated by three parties: the Armenakan, whose influence was limited to Van, the Social Democrat Hunchakian Party, and the Armenian Revolutionary Federation (Dashnaktsutiun). Ideological differences aside, all the parties had the common goal of achieving better social conditions for the Armenians
Armenians
of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
through self-defense[34] and advocating increased European pressure on the Ottoman government to implement the promised reforms. Hamidian massacres, 1894–1896 Main article: Hamidian massacres

Corpses of massacred Armenians
Armenians
in Erzurum
Erzurum
in 1895.[35]

Soon after the Treaty of Berlin was signed, Sultan Abdul Hamid II (1876-1909) attempted to forestall the implementation of its reform provisions by asserting that Armenians
Armenians
did not make up a majority in the provinces and that their reports of abuses were largely exaggerated or false. In 1890, Abdul Hamid created a paramilitary outfit known as the Hamidiye, which was mostly made up of Kurdish irregulars tasked to "deal with the Armenians
Armenians
as they wished".[28]:40 As Ottoman officials intentionally provoked rebellions (often as a result of over-taxation) in Armenian populated towns, such as in Sasun in 1894 and Zeitun in 1895–1896, those regiments were increasingly used to deal with the Armenians
Armenians
by way of oppression and massacre. In some instances, Armenians
Armenians
successfully fought off the regiments and in 1895 brought the excesses to the attention of the Great Powers, who subsequently condemned the Porte.[29]:40–42 In May 1895, the Powers forced Abdul Hamid to sign a new reform package designed to curtail the powers of the Hamidiye, but, like the Berlin Treaty, it was never implemented. On 1 October 1895, 2,000 Armenians
Armenians
assembled in Constantinople to petition for the implementation of the reforms, but Ottoman police units violently broke the rally up.[28]:57–58 Soon, massacres of Armenians
Armenians
broke out in Constantinople and then engulfed the rest of the Armenian-populated provinces of Bitlis, Diyarbekir, Erzurum, Harput, Sivas, Trabzon, and Van. Estimates differ on how many Armenians
Armenians
were killed, but European documentation of the pogroms, which became known as the Hamidian massacres, placed the figures at between 100,000 and 300,000.[36] Although Hamid was never directly implicated, it is believed that the massacres had his tacit approval.[29]:42 Frustrated with European indifference to the massacres, a group of members of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation seized the European-managed Ottoman Bank
Ottoman Bank
on 26 August 1896. This incident brought further sympathy for Armenians in Europe and was lauded by the European and American press, which vilified Hamid and painted him as the "great assassin", "bloody Sultan", and "Abdul the Damned".[28]:35, 115 The Great Powers vowed to take action and enforce new reforms, which never came to fruition due to conflicting political and economic interests. Prelude to the Genocide Main article: Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire The Young Turk Revolution
Young Turk Revolution
of 1908 Main article: Young Turk
Young Turk
Revolution

Armenians
Armenians
of Constantinople celebrating the establishment of the CUP government.

On 24 July 1908, Armenians' hopes for equality in the Ottoman Empire brightened when a coup d'état staged by officers in the Ottoman Third Army based in Salonika
Salonika
removed Abdul Hamid II
Abdul Hamid II
from power and restored the country to a constitutional monarchy. The officers were part of the Young Turk
Young Turk
movement that wanted to reform administration of the perceived decadent state of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and modernize it to European standards.[37] The movement was an anti-Hamidian coalition made up of two distinct groups, the liberal constitutionalists and the nationalists. The former were more democratic and accepting of Armenians, whereas the latter were less tolerant of Armenians
Armenians
and their frequent requests for European assistance.[28]:140–41 In 1902, during a congress of the Young Turks
Young Turks
held in Paris, the heads of the liberal wing, Sabahaddin and Ahmed Riza
Ahmed Riza
Bey, partially persuaded the nationalists to include in their objectives ensuring some rights for all the minorities of the empire. One of the numerous factions within the Young Turk
Young Turk
movement was a secret revolutionary organization called the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP). It drew its membership from disaffected army officers based in Salonika
Salonika
and was behind a wave of mutinies against the central government. In 1908, elements of the Third Army and the Second Army Corps declared their opposition to the Sultan and threatened to march on the capital to depose him. Hamid, shaken by the wave of resentment, stepped down from power as Armenians, Greeks, Assyrians, Arabs, Bulgarians
Bulgarians
and Turks alike rejoiced in his dethronement.[28]:143–44 The Adana massacre
Adana massacre
of 1909 Main article: Adana
Adana
massacre

The Armenian quarter after the massacres in Adana
Adana
in 1909.

A countercoup took place in early 1909, ultimately resulting in the 31 March Incident on 13 April 1909. Some reactionary Ottoman military elements, joined by Islamic theological students, aimed to return control of the country to the Sultan and the rule of Islamic law. Riots and fighting broke out between the reactionary forces and CUP forces, until the CUP was able to put down the uprising and court-martial the opposition leaders. While the movement initially targeted the Young Turk
Young Turk
government, it spilled over into pogroms against Armenians
Armenians
who were perceived as having supported the restoration of the constitution.[29]:68–69 About 4000 Turkish civilians and soldiers participated in the rampage.[38] Estimates of the number of Armenians
Armenians
killed in the course of the Adana massacre
Adana massacre
range between 15,000 and 30,000 people.[29]:69[39] Conflict in the Balkans
Balkans
and Russia In 1912, the First Balkan War
First Balkan War
broke out and ended with the defeat of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
as well as the loss of 85% of its European territory. Many in the empire saw their defeat as "Allah's divine punishment for a society that did not know how to pull itself together".[29]:84 The Turkish nationalist
Turkish nationalist
movement in the country gradually came to view Anatolia
Anatolia
as their last refuge. The Armenian population formed a significant minority in this region. An important consequence of the Balkan Wars
Balkan Wars
was also the mass expulsion of Muslims (known as muhacirs) from the Balkans. Beginning in the mid-19th century, hundreds of thousands of Muslims, including Turks, Circassians, and Chechens, were forcibly expelled and others voluntarily migrated from the Caucasus
Caucasus
and the Balkans
Balkans
(Rumelia) as a result of the Russo-Turkish wars, the Circassian genocide
Circassian genocide
and the conflicts in the Balkans. Muslim society in the empire was incensed by this flood of refugees. A journal published in Constantinople expressed the mood of the times: "Let this be a warning ... O Muslims, don't get comfortable! Do not let your blood cool before taking revenge".[29]:86 As many as 850,000 of these refugees were settled in areas where the Armenians
Armenians
resided. The muhacirs resented the status of their relatively well-off neighbors and, as historian Taner Akçam
Taner Akçam
and others have noted, some of them came to play a pivotal role in the killings of the Armenians
Armenians
and the confiscation of their properties during the genocide.[29]:86–87 World War I See also: Middle Eastern theatre of World War I On 2 November 1914, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
opened the Middle Eastern theater of World War I
World War I
by entering hostilities on the side of the Central Powers
Central Powers
and against the Allies. The battles of the Caucasus Campaign, the Persian Campaign
Persian Campaign
and the Gallipoli Campaign
Gallipoli Campaign
affected several populous Armenian centers. Before entering the war, the Ottoman government had sent representatives to the Armenian congress at Erzurum
Erzurum
to persuade Ottoman Armenians
Armenians
to facilitate its conquest of Transcaucasia
Transcaucasia
by inciting an insurrection of Russian Armenians
Armenians
against the Russian army in the event a Caucasus
Caucasus
front was opened.[29]:136[40] On 24 December 1914, Minister of War Enver Pasha
Enver Pasha
implemented a plan to encircle and destroy the Russian Caucasus
Caucasus
Army at Sarikamish
Sarikamish
in order to regain territories lost to Russia after the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78. Enver Pasha's forces were routed in the battle, and almost completely destroyed. Returning to Constantinople, Enver Pasha publicly blamed his defeat on Armenians
Armenians
in the region having actively sided with the Russians.[28]:200 In November 1914 Shaykh ul-Islam proclaimed Jihad
Jihad
- Holy War against the Christians: this was later used as a factor to provoke radical masses in the implementation of the Armenian Genocide.[41] Labour battalions Further information: Ottoman labour battalions On 25 February 1915, the Ottoman General Staff released the War Minister Enver Pasha's Directive 8682 on "Increased security and precautions" to all military units calling for the removal of all ethnic Armenians
Armenians
serving in the Ottoman forces from their posts and for their demobilization. They were assigned to the unarmed Labour battalions (Turkish: amele taburları). The directive accused the Armenian Patriarchate of releasing State secrets to the Russians. Enver Pasha
Enver Pasha
explained this decision as "out of fear that they would collaborate with the Russians".[42] Traditionally, the Ottoman Army only drafted non-Muslim males between the ages of 20 and 45 into the regular army. The younger (15–20) and older (45–60) non-Muslim soldiers had always been used as logistical support through the labour battalions. Before February, some of the Armenian recruits were utilized as labourers (hamals), though they would ultimately be executed.[43] Transferring Armenian conscripts from active combat to passive, unarmed logistic sections was an important precursor to the subsequent genocide. As reported in The Memoirs of Naim Bey, the execution of the Armenians
Armenians
in these battalions was part of a premeditated strategy of the CUP. Many of these Armenian recruits were executed by local Turkish gangs.[28]:178 Van, April 1915 Further information: Siege of Van

Armed Armenian civilians and self-defense units during the Siege of Van in April–May 1915

On 19 April 1915, Jevdet Bey demanded that the city of Van immediately furnish him 4,000 soldiers under the pretext of conscription. However, it was clear to the Armenian population that his goal was to massacre the able-bodied men of Van so that there would be no defenders. Jevdet Bey had already used his official writ in nearby villages, ostensibly to search for arms, but in fact to initiate wholesale massacres.[28]:202 The Armenians
Armenians
offered five hundred soldiers and exemption money for the rest in order to buy time, but Jevdet Bey accused the Armenians
Armenians
of "rebellion" and asserted his determination to "crush" it at any cost. "If the rebels fire a single shot", he declared, "I shall kill every Christian man, woman, and" (pointing to his knee) "every child, up to here".[44]:205 The next day, 20 April 1915, the siege of Van began when an Armenian woman was harassed, and the two Armenian men who came to her aid were killed by Ottoman soldiers. The Armenian defenders protected the 30,000 residents and 15,000 refugees living in an area of roughly one square kilometer of the Armenian Quarter
Armenian Quarter
and suburb of Aigestan with 1,500 ablebodied riflemen who were supplied with 300 rifles and 1,000 pistols and antique weapons. The conflict lasted until General Yudenich
General Yudenich
of Russia came to their rescue.[45] Reports of the conflict reached then United States Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
Henry Morgenthau, Sr.
Henry Morgenthau, Sr.
from Aleppo
Aleppo
and Van, prompting him to raise the issue in person with Talaat and Enver. As he quoted to them the testimonies of his consulate officials, they justified the deportations as necessary to the conduct of the war, suggesting that complicity of the Armenians
Armenians
of Van with the Russian forces that had taken the city justified the persecution of all ethnic Armenians.[44]:300 Arrest and deportation of Armenian notables, April 1915 Further information: Deportation
Deportation
of Armenian intellectuals on 24 April 1915

Some Armenian intellectuals arrested on 24 April 1915, and following weeks, then deported and killed.

By 1914, Ottoman authorities had already begun a propaganda drive to present Armenians
Armenians
living in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
as a threat to the empire's security. An Ottoman naval officer in the War Office described the planning:

In order to justify this enormous crime the requisite propaganda material was thoroughly prepared in Istanbul. [It included such statements as] 'the Armenians
Armenians
are in league with the enemy. They will launch an uprising in Istanbul, kill off the Ittihadist leaders and will succeed in opening up the straits [of the Dardanelles]'.[30]:220

Interior Minister Talaat Pasha, who ordered the arrests.

On the night of 23–24 April 1915, known as Red Sunday
Red Sunday
(Armenian: Կարմիր Կիրակի Garmir Giragi), the Ottoman government rounded up and imprisoned an estimated 250 Armenian intellectuals and community leaders of the Ottoman capital, Constantinople, and later those in other centers, who were moved to two holding centers near Ankara.[28]:211–12 This date coincided with Allied troop landings at Gallipoli after unsuccessful Allied naval attempts to break through the Dardanelles
Dardanelles
to Constantinople in February and March 1915. Following the passage of Tehcir Law
Tehcir Law
on 29 May 1915, the Armenian leaders, except for the few who were able to return to Constantinople, were gradually deported and assassinated.[46][47][48][49][50] The date 24 April is commemorated as Genocide
Genocide
Remembrance Day by Armenians around the world.

Deportations Further information: Tehcir Law See also: Armenian casualties of deportations

Map of massacre locations and deportation and extermination centers

In May 1915, Mehmet Talaat Pasha
Talaat Pasha
requested that the cabinet and Grand Vizier Said Halim Pasha
Said Halim Pasha
legalize a measure for the deportation of Armenians
Armenians
to other places due to what Talaat Pasha
Talaat Pasha
called "the Armenian riots and massacres, which had arisen in a number of places in the country". However, Talaat Pasha
Talaat Pasha
was referring specifically to events in Van and extending the implementation to the regions in which alleged "riots and massacres" would affect the security of the war zone of the Caucasus
Caucasus
Campaign. Later, the scope of the deportation was widened in order to include the Armenians
Armenians
in the other provinces.[51]

The remains of Armenians
Armenians
massacred at Erzinjan.[44]:364

On 29 May 1915, the CUP Central Committee passed the Temporary Law of Deportation
Deportation
("Tehcir Law"), giving the Ottoman government and military authorization to deport anyone it "sensed" as a threat to national security.[28]:186–88

Headline of The New York Times, 15 December 1915[52]

With the implementation of Tehcir Law, the confiscation of Armenian property and the slaughter of Armenians
Armenians
that ensued upon its enactment outraged much of the Western world. While the Ottoman Empire's wartime allies offered little protest, a wealth of German and Austrian historical documents has since come to attest to the witnesses' horror at the killings and mass starvation of Armenians.[53]:329–31[54]:212–13 In the United States, The New York Times reported almost daily on the mass murder of the Armenian people, describing the process as "systematic", "authorized" and "organized by the government". Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
would later characterize this as "the greatest crime of the war".[55] Historian Hans-Lukas Kieser states that, from the statements of Talaat Pasha[56] it is clear that the officials were aware that the deportation order was genocidal.[57] Another historian Taner Akçam states that the telegrams show that the overall coordination of the genocide was taken over by Talaat Pasha.[58] In 2017, Akçam was able to access one of the original telegrams, archived in Jerusalem, which inquired about Armenian liquidation and elimination.[59] Death marches

An Armenian woman kneeling beside a dead child in a field "within sight of help and safety at Aleppo"[60]

The Armenians
Armenians
were marched out to the Syrian town of Deir ez-Zor
Deir ez-Zor
and the surrounding desert. The Ottoman government deliberately withheld the facilities and supplies that would have been necessary to sustain the life of hundreds of thousands of Armenian deportees during and after their forced march to the Syrian desert.[61][62][63] By August 1915, The New York Times
The New York Times
repeated an unattributed report that "the roads and the Euphrates
Euphrates
are strewn with corpses of exiles, and those who survive are doomed to certain death. It is a plan to exterminate the whole Armenian people".[64] Talaat Pasha
Talaat Pasha
and Djemal Pasha
Djemal Pasha
were completely aware that by abandoning the Armenian deportees in the desert they were condemning them to certain death.[65] A dispatch from a "high diplomatic source in Turkey, not American, reporting the testimony of trustworthy witnesses" about the plight of Armenian deportees in northern Arabia and the Lower Euphrates
Euphrates
valley was extensively quoted by The New York Times
The New York Times
in August 1916:

The witnesses have seen thousands of deported Armenians
Armenians
under tents in the open, in caravans on the march, descending the river in boats and in all phases of their miserable life. Only in a few places does the Government issue any rations, and those are quite insufficient. The people, therefore, themselves are forced to satisfy their hunger with food begged in that scanty land or found in the parched fields. Naturally, the death rate from starvation and sickness is very high and is increased by the brutal treatment of the authorities, whose bearing toward the exiles as they are being driven back and forth over the desert is not unlike that of slave drivers. With few exceptions no shelter of any kind is provided and the people coming from a cold climate are left under the scorching desert sun without food and water. Temporary relief can only be obtained by the few able to pay officials.[61]

Similarly, Major General Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein noted that "The Turkish policy of causing starvation is an all too obvious proof, if proof was still needed as to who is responsible for the massacre, for the Turkish resolve to destroy the Armenians".[30]:350 German engineers and labourers involved in building the railway also witnessed Armenians
Armenians
being crammed into cattle cars and shipped along the railroad line. Franz Gunther, a representative for Deutsche Bank which was funding the construction of the Baghdad Railway, forwarded photographs to his directors and expressed his frustration at having to remain silent amid such "bestial cruelty".[28]:326 Major General Otto von Lossow, acting military attaché and head of the German Military Plenipotentiary in the Ottoman Empire, spoke to Ottoman intentions in a conference held in Batum
Batum
in 1918:

The Turks have embarked upon the "total extermination of the Armenians in Transcaucasia ... The aim of Turkish policy is, as I have reiterated, the taking of possession of Armenian districts and the extermination of the Armenians. Talaat's government wants to destroy all Armenians, not just in Turkey, but also outside Turkey. On the basis of all the reports and news coming to me here in Tiflis
Tiflis
there hardly can be any doubt that the Turks systematically are aiming at the extermination of the few hundred thousand Armenians
Armenians
whom they left alive until now.[30]:349

Rape was an integral part of the genocide;[66] military commanders told their men to "do to [the women] whatever you wish", resulting in widespread sexual abuse. Deportees were displayed naked in Damascus and sold as sex slaves in some areas, including Mosul
Mosul
according to the report of the German consul there, constituting an important source of income for accompanying soldiers.[67] Dr. Walter Rössler, the German consul in Aleppo
Aleppo
during the genocide, heard from an "objective" Armenian that around a quarter of young women, whose appearance was "more or less pleasing", were regularly raped by the gendarmes, and that "even more beautiful ones" were violated by 10–15 men. This resulted in girls and women being left behind dying.[68] Concentration camps A network of 25 concentration camps was set up by the Ottoman government to dispose of the Armenians
Armenians
who had survived the deportations to their ultimate point.[69] This network, situated in the region of Turkey's present-day borders with Iraq and Syria, was directed by Şükrü Kaya, one of Talaat Pasha's right-hand men. Some of the camps were only temporary transit points. Others, such as Radjo, Katma, and Azaz, were briefly used as mass graves and then vacated by autumn 1915. Camps such as Lale, Tefridje, Dipsi, Del-El, and Ra's al-'Ayn were built specifically for those whose life expectancy was just a few days.[70] According to genocide scholar Hilmar Kaiser, the Ottoman authorities refused to provide food and water to the victims, increasing the mortality rate. According to The Oxford Handbook of Genocide
Genocide
Studies, "Muslims were eager to obtain Armenian women. Authorities registered such marriages but did not record the deaths of the former Armenian husbands."[71] Bernau, an American citizen of German descent, traveled to the areas where Armenians
Armenians
were incarcerated and wrote a report that was deemed factual by Rössler, the German Consul at Aleppo. He reports mass graves containing over 60,000 people in Meskene
Meskene
and large numbers of mounds of corpses, as the Armenians
Armenians
died due to hunger and disease. He reported seeing 450 orphans, who received at most 150 grams of bread per day, in a tent of 5–6 square meters. Dysentery
Dysentery
swept through the camp and days passed between the instances of distribution of bread to some. In "Abu Herrera", near Meskene, he described how the guards let 240 Armenians
Armenians
starve, and wrote that they searched "horse droppings" for grains.[72] The " Special
Special
Organization" Main article: Special
Special
Organization (Ottoman Empire) The Committee of Union and Progress
Committee of Union and Progress
founded the " Special
Special
Organization" (Turkish: Teşkilât-ı Mahsusa) that participated in the destruction of the Ottoman Armenian community.[73] This organization adopted its name in 1913 and functioned like a special forces outfit, and it has been compared by some scholars to the Nazi Einsatzgruppen.[28]:182, 185 Later in 1914, the Ottoman government influenced the direction the Special
Special
Organization was to take by releasing criminals from central prisons to be the central elements of this newly formed Special Organization.[74] According to the Mazhar commissions attached to the tribunal as soon as November 1914, 124 criminals were released from Bünyan
Bünyan
prison.[75] Little by little from the end of 1914 to the beginning of 1915, hundreds, then thousands of prisoners were freed to form the members of this organization. Later, they were charged with escorting the convoys of Armenian deportees.[76] Vehib Pasha, commander of the Ottoman Third Army, called those members of the Special
Special
Organization the "butchers of the human species".[77] Massacres Mass burnings

Morgenthau's caption: "Those who fell by the wayside. Scenes like this were common all over the Armenian provinces in the spring and summer months of 1915. Death in its several forms—massacre, starvation, exhaustion—destroyed the larger part of the refugees. The Turkish policy was that of extermination under the guise of deportation".[44]:402

Eitan Belkind was a Nili
Nili
member who infiltrated the Ottoman army as an official. He was assigned to the headquarters of Kemal Pasha. He witnessed the burning of 5,000 Armenians.[78]:181, 183 Lt. Hasan Maruf of the Ottoman army describes how a population of a village were taken all together and then burned.[79] The Commander of the Third Army Vehib's 12-page affidavit, which was dated 5 December 1918, was presented in the Trabzon
Trabzon
trial series (29 March 1919) included in the Key Indictment,[80] reporting such a mass burning of the population of an entire village near Muş: "The shortest method for disposing of the women and children concentrated in the various camps was to burn them".[81] Further, it was reported that "Turkish prisoners who had apparently witnessed some of these scenes were horrified and maddened at remembering the sight. They told the Russians that the stench of the burning human flesh permeated the air for many days after".[82] Genocide
Genocide
scholar Vahakn Dadrian
Vahakn Dadrian
wrote that 80,000 Armenians
Armenians
in 90 villages across the Muş
Muş
plain were burned in "stables and haylofts".[83] Drowning Trabzon
Trabzon
was the main city in Trabzon
Trabzon
province; Oscar S. Heizer, the American consul at Trabzon, reported: "This plan did not suit Nail Bey ... Many of the children were loaded into boats and taken out to sea and thrown overboard".[84] Hafiz Mehmet, a Turkish deputy serving Trabzon, testified during a 21 December 1918 parliamentary session of the Chamber of Deputies that "the district's governor loaded the Armenians
Armenians
into barges and had them thrown overboard."[85] The Italian consul of Trabzon
Trabzon
in 1915, Giacomo Gorrini, writes: "I saw thousands of innocent women and children placed on boats which were capsized in the Black Sea".[86][87] Dadrian places the number of Armenians
Armenians
killed in the Trabzon
Trabzon
province by drowning at 50,000.[83] The Trabzon
Trabzon
trials reported Armenians
Armenians
having been drowned in the Black Sea;[88] according to a testimony, women and children were loaded on boats in "Değirmendere" to be drowned in the sea.[89] Hoffman Philip, the American chargé d'affaires at Constantinople, wrote: "Boat loads sent from Zor down the river arrived at Ana, one thirty miles away, with three fifths of passengers missing".[30]:246–7 According to Robert Fisk, 900 Armenian women were drowned in Bitlis, while in Erzincan, the corpses in the Euphrates
Euphrates
resulted in a change of course of the river for a few hundred meters.[53] Dadrian also wrote that "countless" Armenians
Armenians
were drowned in the Euphrates
Euphrates
and its tributaries.[83] Use of poison and drug overdoses Ottoman physicians contributed to the planning and execution of the genocide. The physicians Behaeddin Shakir and Nazım Bey were leading figures in the leadership committee of the Committee of Union and Progress and both held leadership roles in the Special
Special
Organization. Other physicians used their medical expertise to facilitate the killings, including designing methods for poisoning victims and using Armenians
Armenians
as subjects for lethal human experimentation.[90] Dadrian argued that the systemic medical murder in the Armenian genocide was a precursor to Nazi human experimentation
Nazi human experimentation
during the Holocaust. Specific medical methods used to kill victims included:

Morphine
Morphine
overdose: During the Trabzon
Trabzon
trial series of the Martial court, from the sittings between 26 March and 17 May 1919, the Trabzons Health Services Inspector Dr. Ziya Fuad wrote in a report that Dr. Saib caused the death of children with the injection of morphine. The information was allegedly provided by two physicians (Drs. Ragib and Vehib), both Dr. Saib's colleagues at Trabzons Red Crescent hospital, where those atrocities were said to have been committed.[91] Toxic gas: Dr. Ziya Fuad and Dr. Adnan, public health services director of Trabzon, submitted affidavits reporting cases in which two school buildings were used to organize children and send them to the mezzanine to kill them with toxic gas equipment.[90] Typhoid inoculation: The Ottoman surgeon, Dr. Haydar Cemal wrote "on the order of the Chief Sanitation Office of the Third Army in January 1916, when the spread of typhus was an acute problem, innocent Armenians
Armenians
slated for deportation at Erzincan were inoculated with the blood of typhoid fever patients without rendering that blood 'inactive'".[90] Jeremy Hugh Baron writes: "Individual doctors were directly involved in the massacres, having poisoned infants, killed children and issued false certificates of death from natural causes. Nazim's brother-in-law Dr. Tevfik Rushdu, Inspector-General of Health Services, organized the disposal of Armenian corpses with thousands of kilos of lime over six months; he became foreign secretary from 1925 to 1938".[92]

Confiscation of property See also: Confiscated Armenian property in Turkey The Tehcir Law
Tehcir Law
brought some measures regarding the property of the deportees, and on 13 September 1915, the Ottoman parliament passed the "Temporary Law of Expropriation and Confiscation," stating that all property, including land, livestock, and homes belonging to Armenians, was to be confiscated by the authorities.[30]:224 Ottoman parliamentary representative Ahmed Riza
Ahmed Riza
protested this legislation:

It is unlawful to designate the Armenian assets as "abandoned goods" for the Armenians, the proprietors, did not abandon their properties voluntarily; they were forcibly, compulsorily removed from their domiciles and exiled. Now the government through its efforts is selling their goods ... If we are a constitutional regime functioning in accordance with constitutional law we can't do this. This is atrocious. Grab my arm, eject me from my village, then sell my goods and properties, such a thing can never be permissible. Neither the conscience of the Ottomans nor the law can allow it.[93]

A 1918 photo of an Armenian church in Trabzon, which was used as an auction site and distribution center of confiscated Armenian goods and belongings after the Armenian Genocide.[94]

During the Paris Peace Conference, the Armenian delegation presented an assessment of $3.7 billion (about $52 billion today) worth of material losses owned solely by the Armenian church.[95] The Armenian community then presented an additional demand for the restitution of property and assets seized by the Ottoman government. The joint declaration, which was submitted to the Supreme Council by the Armenian delegation and prepared by the religious leaders of the Armenian community, claimed that the Ottoman government had destroyed 2,000 churches and 200 monasteries and had provided the legal system for giving these properties to other parties. The declaration also provided a financial assessment of the total losses of personal property and assets of both Turkish and Russian Armenia
Russian Armenia
with 14,598,510,000 and 4,532,472,000 francs respectively; totaling to an estimated $339 billion today.[96][97] Furthermore, the Armenian community asked for the restitution of church owned property and reimbursement of its generated income. The Ottoman government never responded to this declaration and so restitution did not occur.[98] By the early 1930s, all properties belonging to Armenians
Armenians
who were subject to deportation had been confiscated.[99] Since then, no restitution of property confiscated during the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
has taken place.[100] Historians argue that the mass confiscation of Armenian properties was an important factor in forming the economic basis of the Turkish Republic while endowing Turkey's economy with capital. The mass confiscation of properties provided the opportunity for ordinary lower class Turks (i.e. peasantry, soldiers, and laborers) to rise to the ranks of the middle class.[101] Contemporary Turkish historian Uğur Ümit Üngör asserts that "the elimination of the Armenian population left the state an infrastructure of Armenian property, which was used for the progress of Turkish (settler) communities. In other words: the construction of an étatist Turkish "national economy" was unthinkable without the destruction and expropriation of Armenians."[102] Trials Turkish courts-martial Main article: Turkish Courts-Martial of 1919–20 On the night of 2–3 November 1918 and with the aid of Ahmed Izzet Pasha, the Three Pashas
Three Pashas
(which include Mehmed Talaat Pasha
Talaat Pasha
and Ismail Enver, the main perpetrators of the Genocide) fled the Ottoman Empire. In 1919, after the Mudros Armistice, Sultan Mehmed VI
Mehmed VI
was ordered to organise courts-martial by the Allied administration in charge of Constantinople to try members of the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) (Turkish: "Ittihat ve Terakki") for taking the Ottoman Empire into World War I. By January 1919, a report to Sultan Mehmed VI accused over 130 suspects, most of whom were high officials.[103]

The front page of the Ottoman newspaper İkdam on 4 November 1918 after the Three Pashas
Three Pashas
fled the country after being indicted for war crimes against the Armenians
Armenians
and Greeks. It reads: "Their response to eliminate the Armenian problem was to attempt the elimination of the Armenians
Armenians
themselves."[104]

Sultan Mehmet VI
Mehmet VI
and Grand Vizier
Grand Vizier
Damat Ferid Pasha, as representatives of government of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
during the Second Constitutional Era, were summoned to the Paris Peace Conference by US Secretary of State Robert Lansing. On 11 July 1919, Damat Ferid Pasha officially confessed to massacres against the Armenians
Armenians
in the Ottoman Empire and was a key figure and initiator of the war crime trials held directly after World War I
World War I
to condemn to death the chief perpetrators of the Genocide.[105] The military court found that it was the will of the CUP to eliminate the Armenians
Armenians
physically, via its Special Organization. The 1919 pronouncement reads as follows:[106]

The Court Martial taking into consideration the above-named crimes declares, unanimously, the culpability as principal factors of these crimes the fugitives Talaat Pasha, former Grand Vizir, Enver Efendi, former War Minister, struck off the register of the Imperial Army, Cemal Efendi, former Navy Minister, struck off too from the Imperial Army, and Dr. Nazim Efendi, former Minister of Education, members of the General Council of the Union & Progress, representing the moral person of that party; ... the Court Martial pronounces, in accordance with said stipulations of the Law the death penalty against Talaat, Enver, Cemal, and Dr. Nazim.

After the pronouncement, the Three Pashas
Three Pashas
were sentenced to death in absentia at the trials in Constantinople. The courts-martial officially disbanded the CUP and confiscated its assets and the assets of those found guilty. The courts-martial were dismissed in August 1920 for their lack of transparency, according to then High Commissioner and Admiral Sir John de Robeck,[107] and some of the accused were transported to Malta for further interrogation, only to be released afterwards in an exchange of POWs. Two of the three Pashas were later assassinated by Armenian vigilantes during Operation Nemesis. Detainees in Malta Main articles: Prosecution of Ottoman war criminals and Malta exiles Ottoman military members and high-ranking politicians convicted by the Turkish courts-martial were transferred from Constantinople prisons to the Crown Colony of Malta
Crown Colony of Malta
on board of the SS Princess Ena and the HMS Benbow by the British forces, starting in 1919. Admiral Sir Somerset Gough-Calthorpe was in charge of the operation, together with Lord Curzon; they did so owing to the lack of transparency of the Turkish courts-martial. They were held there for three years, while searches were made of archives in Constantinople, London, Paris and Washington to find a way to put them in trial.[108] However, the war criminals were eventually released without trial and returned to Constantinople in 1921, in exchange for twenty-two British prisoners of war held by the government in Ankara, including a relative of Lord Curzon. The government in Ankara
Ankara
was opposed to political power of the government in Constantinople. They are often mentioned as the Malta exiles in some sources.[109] Meanwhile, the Peace Conference in Paris established the "Commission on Responsibilities and Sanctions" in January 1919, which was commissioned by United States Secretary of State Robert Lansing. Based on the commission's work, several articles were added to the Treaty of Sèvres. The Treaty of Sèvres
Treaty of Sèvres
had planned a trial in August 1920 to determine those responsible for the "barbarous and illegitimate methods of warfare ... [including] offenses against the laws and customs of war and the principles of humanity".[18] Article 230 of the Treaty of Sèvres
Treaty of Sèvres
required the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
hand over to the Allied Powers the persons responsible for the massacres committed during the war on 1 August 1914.[110] According to European Court of Human Rights
European Court of Human Rights
judge Giovanni Bonello
Giovanni Bonello
the suspension of prosecution attempts and the release and repatriation of the detainees was, amongst others, a result of the lack of an appropriate legal framework with supranational jurisdiction. Following World War I
World War I
no international norms for regulating war crimes existed, due to a legal vacuum in international law; therefore (contrary to Turkish sources) no trials were ever held in Malta.[109][111] Trial of Soghomon Tehlirian See also: Operation Nemesis On 15 March 1921, former Grand Vizier
Grand Vizier
Talaat Pasha
Talaat Pasha
was assassinated in the Charlottenburg
Charlottenburg
District of Berlin, Germany, in broad daylight and in the presence of many witnesses. Talaat's death was part of "Operation Nemesis", the Armenian Revolutionary Federation's codename for their covert operation in the 1920s to kill the planners of the Armenian Genocide. The subsequent trial and acquittal of the assassin, Soghomon Tehlirian, had an important influence on Raphael Lemkin, a lawyer of Polish– Jewish
Jewish
descent who campaigned in the League of Nations
League of Nations
to ban what he called "barbarity" and "vandalism". The term "genocide", created in 1943, was coined by Lemkin who was directly influenced by the massacres of Armenians
Armenians
during World War I.[112][113]:210 International aid to victims

Fundraising poster for the American Committee for Relief in the Near East

See also: American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief The American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief
American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief
(ACASR, also known as " Near East
Near East
Relief"), established in 1915 just after the deportations began, was a charitable organization established to relieve the suffering of the peoples of the Near East.[114] The organization was championed by American ambassador Henry Morgenthau, Sr. Morgenthau's dispatches on the mass slaughter of Armenians galvanized much support for the organization.[115] In its first year, the ACRNE cared for 132,000 Armenian orphans from Tiflis, Yerevan, Constantinople, Sivas, Beirut, Damascus, and Jerusalem. A relief organization for refugees in the Middle East helped donate over $102 million (budget $117,000,000) [1930 value of dollar] to Armenians
Armenians
both during and after the war.[116]:336 Between 1915 and 1930, ACRNE distributed humanitarian relief to locations across a wide geographical range, eventually spending over ten times its original estimate and helping around 2,000,000 refugees.[117] Armenian population, deaths, survivors, 1914 to 1923 Main articles: Ottoman Armenian population, Ottoman Armenian casualties, and Armenian Genocide
Genocide
survivors While there is no consensus as to how many Armenians
Armenians
lost their lives during the Armenian Genocide, there is general agreement among western historians that over 800,000  Armenians
Armenians
died between 1914 and 1918. Estimates vary between 800,000[118] and 1,500,000 (per the governments of France,[119] Canada,[120] and other states). Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
references the research of Arnold J. Toynbee, an intelligence officer of the British Foreign Office, who estimated that 600,000  Armenians
Armenians
"died or were massacred during deportation" in a report compiled on 24 May 1916.[82] This figure, however, accounts for solely the first year of the Genocide
Genocide
and does not take into account those who died or were killed after May 1916.[121] According to documents that once belonged to Talaat Pasha, more than 970,000 Ottoman Armenians
Armenians
disappeared from official population records from 1915 through 1916. In 1983, Talaat's widow, Hayriye Talaat Bafralı, gave the documents and records to Turkish journalist Murat Bardakçı, who published them in a book titled The Remaining Documents of Talat Pasha (also known as "Talat Pasha's Black Book"). According to the documents, the number of Armenians
Armenians
living in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
before 1915 stood at 1,256,000. It was presumed, however, in a footnote by Talaat Pasha
Talaat Pasha
himself, that the Armenian population was undercounted by thirty percent. Furthermore, the population of Protestant Armenians
Armenians
was not taken into account. Therefore, according to the historian Ara Sarafian, the population of Armenians
Armenians
should have been approximately 1,700,000 prior to the start of the war.[122] However, that number had plunged to 284,157 two years later in 1917.[123]

Uncovering the bones of Armenians
Armenians
in Deir ez-Zor.[124]

While Ottoman censuses claimed an Armenian population of 1.2 million, Fa'iz El-Ghusein
Fa'iz El-Ghusein
(the Kaimakam
Kaimakam
of Kharpout) wrote that there were about 1.9 million Armenians
Armenians
in the Ottoman Empire,[125] and some modern scholars estimate over 2 million.[126] German official Max Erwin von Scheubner-Richter wrote that fewer than 100,000 Armenians survived the genocide, the rest having been exterminated (German: ausgerottet).[127]:329–30 During the 1920 Turkish–Armenian War
Turkish–Armenian War
[128]:327 60,000 to 98,000 Armenian civilians were estimated to have been killed by the Turkish army.[129] Some estimates put the total number of Armenians
Armenians
massacred in the hundreds of thousands.[29]:327[128][page needed] Dadrian characterized the massacres in the Caucasus
Caucasus
as a "miniature genocide".[30]:360 Eyewitness accounts and reports Main article: Witnesses and testimonies of the Armenian Genocide

Workers of the American Committee for Relief in the Near East
American Committee for Relief in the Near East
in Sivas.

Hundreds of eyewitnesses, including diplomats from the neutral United States and the Ottoman Empire's own allies, Germany and Austria-Hungary, recorded and documented numerous acts of state-sponsored massacres. Many foreign officials offered to intervene on behalf of the Armenians, including Pope Benedict XV, only to be turned away by Ottoman government officials who claimed they were retaliating against a pro-Russian insurrection.[16]:177 On 24 May 1915, the Triple Entente
Triple Entente
warned the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
that "In view of these new crimes of Turkey
Turkey
against humanity and civilization, the Allied Governments announce publicly to the Sublime Porte
Sublime Porte
that they will hold personally responsible for these crimes all members of the Ottoman Government, as well as those of their agents who are implicated in such massacres".[130] The U.S. Mission in the Ottoman Empire

Telegram sent by Ambassador Henry Morgenthau, Sr.
Henry Morgenthau, Sr.
to the State Department on 16 July 1915 describing the killings of Armenians
Armenians
as "a campaign of race extermination".

The United States had consulates throughout the Ottoman Empire, including locations in Edirne, Elâzığ, Samsun, İzmir, Trebizond, Van, Constantinople, and Aleppo. It was officially a neutral party and never declared war on the Ottoman Empire. In addition to the consulates, there were numerous American Protestant missionary compounds established in Armenian-populated regions, including Van and Kharput. The atrocities were reported regularly in newspapers and literary journals around the world.[28]:282–5 On his return home in 1924 after thirty years as a U.S. Consul in the Near East, and most of the preceding decade as Consul General at Smyrna, George Horton
George Horton
wrote his own "account of the Systematic Extermination of Christian Populations by Mohammedans and of the Culpability of Certain Great Powers; with a True Story of the Burning of Smyrna" (1926 subtitle, The Blight of Asia).[131] Horton's account quoted numerous contemporary communications and eyewitness reports including one of the massacre of Phocea in 1914, by a Frenchman, and two of the Armenian massacres of 1914/15, by an American citizen and a German missionary.[131]:28–29, 34–37. It also quoted U.S. businessman Walter M. Geddes regarding his time in Damascus: "several Turks[,] whom I interviewed, told me that the motive of this exile was to exterminate the race."[132] Many Americans spoke out against the genocide, including former president Theodore Roosevelt, rabbi Stephen Wise, Alice Stone Blackwell, and William Jennings Bryan, the U.S. Secretary of State
U.S. Secretary of State
to June 1915. In the U.S. and the United Kingdom, children were regularly reminded to clean their plates while eating and to "remember the starving Armenians".[133] Ambassador Morgenthau's Story See also: Ambassador Morgenthau's Story

Audio recording of Chapter 24, "The Murder of a Nation", from Ambassador Morgenthau's Story.

As the orders for deportations and massacres were enacted, many consular officials reported what they were witnessing to Ambassador Henry Morgenthau, Sr., who described the massacres as a "campaign of race extermination" in a telegram sent to the United States Department of State on 16 July 1915. In memoirs that he completed during 1918, Morgenthau wrote,

When the Turkish authorities gave the orders for these deportations, they were merely giving the death warrant to a whole race; they understood this well, and, in their conversations with me, they made no particular attempt to conceal the fact ...[44]:213

The memoirs and reports vividly described the methods used by Ottoman forces and documented numerous instances of atrocities committed against the Christian minority.[134] Allied forces in the Middle East On the Middle Eastern front, the British military was engaged fighting the Ottoman forces in southern Syria
Syria
and Mesopotamia. British diplomat Gertrude Bell
Gertrude Bell
filed the following report after hearing the account from a captured Ottoman soldier:

The battalion left Aleppo
Aleppo
on 3 February and reached Ras al-Ain in twelve hours ... some 12,000 Armenians
Armenians
were concentrated under the guardianship of some hundred Kurds ... These Kurds
Kurds
were called gendarmes, but in reality mere butchers; bands of them were publicly ordered to take parties of Armenians, of both sexes, to various destinations, but had secret instructions to destroy the males, children and old women ... One of these gendarmes confessed to killing 100 Armenian men himself ... the empty desert cisterns and caves were also filled with corpses ...[53]:327

Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
described the massacres as an "administrative holocaust" and noted that "the clearance of the race from Asia Minor was about as complete as such an act, on a scale so great, could well be. ... There is no reasonable doubt that this crime was planned and executed for political reasons. The opportunity presented itself for clearing Turkish soil of a Christian race opposed to all Turkish ambitions, cherishing national ambitions that could only be satisfied at the expense of Turkey, and planted geographically between Turkish and Caucasian Moslems".[53]:329 Arnold Toynbee: The Treatment of Armenians See also: The Treatment of Armenians
Armenians
in the Ottoman Empire Historian Arnold J. Toynbee
Arnold J. Toynbee
published the collection of documents The Treatment of Armenians
Armenians
in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in 1916. Together with British politician and historian Viscount James Bryce, he compiled statements from survivors and eyewitnesses from other countries including Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Switzerland, who similarly attested to the systematic massacre of innocent Armenians
Armenians
by Ottoman government forces.[135] Bryce had submitted the work to scholars for verification before its publication. University of Oxford
University of Oxford
Regius Professor Gilbert Murray stated, "... the evidence of these letters and reports will bear any scrutiny and overpower any skepticism. Their genuineness is established beyond question".[30]:228 Other professors, including Herbert Fisher of Sheffield University
Sheffield University
and former American Bar Association president Moorfield Storey, came to the same conclusion.[30]:228–29 Austrian and German joint mission As allies during the war, the Imperial German mission in the Ottoman Empire included both military and civilian components. Germany had brokered a deal with the Sublime Porte
Sublime Porte
to commission the building of a railroad called the Baghdad Railway
Baghdad Railway
that would stretch from Berlin to the Middle East. At the beginning of 1915, Germany's diplomatic mission was led by Ambassador Hans Freiherr von Wangenheim
Hans Freiherr von Wangenheim
who, upon his death in 1915, was succeeded by Count Paul Wolff Metternich. Like Morgenthau, von Wangenheim began receiving many disturbing messages from consular officials around the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
that detailed the massacres of Armenians. From the province of Adana, Consul Eugene Buge reported that the CUP chief had sworn to massacre any Armenians
Armenians
who had survived the deportation marches.[28]:186 In June 1915, von Wangenheim sent a cable to Berlin reporting that Talaat had admitted that the deportations were not "being carried out because of 'military considerations alone'". One month later, he came to the conclusion that there "no longer was doubt that the Porte was trying to exterminate the Armenian race in the Turkish Empire".[54]:213 When Wolff-Metternich succeeded von Wangenheim, he continued to dispatch similar cables: "The Committee [CUP] demands the extirpation of the last remnants of the Armenians
Armenians
and the government must yield ... A Committee representative is assigned to each of the provincial administrations ... Turkification
Turkification
means license to expel, to kill or destroy everything that is not Turkish".[136][137]:161

Report from a German missionary on the massacre of Armenians
Armenians
from Erzerum, 31 July 1915

Another notable figure in the German military camp was Max Erwin von Scheubner-Richter, who documented various massacres of Armenians. He sent fifteen reports regarding "deportations and mass killings" to the German chancellery. His final report noted that fewer than 100,000 Armenians
Armenians
were left alive in the Ottoman Empire: the rest having been exterminated (German: ausgerottet).[53]:329–30 Scheubner-Richter also detailed the methods of the Ottoman government, noting its use of the Special
Special
Organization and other bureaucratized instruments of genocide, as well as how the Ottomans would provoke and exaggerate Armenian self-defense in order to create the illusion of a rebellion. This was to give justification for the deportation of Armenians, which is still argued by genocide deniers to this day.[138] Richter stated the deportations were intentionally meant to cover up the slaughter of Armenians:

I have conducted a series of conversations with competent and influential Turkish personages, and these are my impressions: A large segment of the Ittihadist [Young Turk] party maintains the viewpoint that the Turkish empire should be based only on the principle of Islam and Pan-Turkism. Its non-Muslim and non-Turkish inhabitants should either be forcibly islamized, or otherwise they ought to be destroyed. These gentlemen believe that the time is propitious for the realization of this plan. The first item on this agenda concerns the liquidation of the Armenians. Ittihad will dangle before the Allies a specter of an alleged revolution prepared by the Armenian Dashnak party. Moreover, local incidents of social unrest and acts of Armenian self-defense will deliberately be provoked and inflated and will be used as pretexts to effect the deportations. Once en route, however, the convoys will be attacked and exterminated by Kurdish and Turkish brigands, and in part by gendarmes, who will be instigated for that purpose by Ittihad.[139]

According to Bat Ye'or, an Israeli historian, the Germans also witnessed Armenians
Armenians
being burned to death. She writes: "The Germans, allies of the Turks in the First World War ... saw how civil populations were shut up in churches and burned, or gathered en masse in camps, tortured to death, and reduced to ashes".[140] German officers stationed in eastern Turkey
Turkey
disputed the government's assertion that Armenian revolts had broken out, suggesting that the areas were "quiet until the deportations began".[54]:212 Other Germans openly supported the Ottoman policy against the Armenians. As Hans Humann, the German naval attaché in Constantinople said to US Ambassador Henry Morgenthau:

I have lived in Turkey
Turkey
the larger part of my life ... and I know the Armenians. I also know that both Armenians
Armenians
and Turks cannot live together in this country. One of these races has got to go. And I don't blame the Turks for what they are doing to the Armenians. I think that they are entirely justified. The weaker nation must succumb. The Armenians
Armenians
desire to dismember Turkey; they are against the Turks and the Germans in this war, and they therefore have no right to exist here.[44]:257

In a genocide conference held in 2001, professor Wolfgang Wipperman of the Free University of Berlin
Free University of Berlin
introduced documents evidencing that the German High Command was aware of the mass killings at the time, but chose not to interfere or speak out.[53]:331 In his reports to Berlin in 1917, General Hans von Seeckt
Hans von Seeckt
supported the reforming efforts of the Young Turks, writing that "the inner weakness of Turkey
Turkey
in their entirety, call for the history and custom of the new Turkish empire to be written".[141] Seeckt added that "Only a few moments of the destruction are still mentioned. The upper levels of society had become unwarlike, the main reason being the increasing mixing with foreign elements of a long standing unculture".[141] Seeckt blamed all of the problems of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
on the Jews and the Armenians, whom he portrayed as a fifth column working for the Allies.[141] In July 1918, Seeckt sent a message to Berlin stating that "It is an impossible state of affairs to be allied with the Turks and to stand up for the Armenians. In my view any consideration, Christian, sentimental, and political should be eclipsed by a hard, but clear necessity for war".[141] One photograph shows two unidentified German army officers, in company of three Turkish soldiers and a Kurdish man, standing amidst human remains. The discovery of this photograph prompted English journalist Robert Fisk
Robert Fisk
to draw a direct line from the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
to the Holocaust. Fisk, while acknowledging the role playing by most German diplomats and parliamentaries in the condemnation of the Ottoman Turks, noted that some of the German witnesses to the Armenian holocaust would later go on to play a role in the Nazi regime. For example, Konstantin Freiherr von Neurath, who was attached to the Turkish 4th Army in 1915 with instructions to monitor "operations" against the Armenians, later became Adolf Hitler's foreign minister and "Protector of Bohemia and Moravia" during Reinhard Heydrich's terror in Czechoslovakia.[142] Armin T. Wegner See also: Armin T. Wegner

Armin T. Wegner

German aspiring writer Armin T. Wegner
Armin T. Wegner
enrolled as a medic during the winter of 1914–15. He defied censorship by taking hundreds of photographs[143] of Armenians
Armenians
being deported and subsequently starving in northern Syrian camps[53]:326 and in the deserts of Deir-er-Zor. Wegner was part of a German detachment under field marshal von der Goltz stationed near the Baghdad Railway
Baghdad Railway
in Mesopotamia. He later stated: "I venture to claim the right of setting before you these pictures of misery and terror which passed before my eyes during nearly two years, and which will never be obliterated from my mind.".[144] He was eventually arrested by the Germans and recalled to Germany. Wegner protested against the atrocities in an open letter submitted to U.S. President Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
at the peace conference of 1919. The letter made a case for the creation of an independent Armenian state. Also in 1919, he published The Road of No Return ("Der Weg ohne Heimkehr"), a collection of letters he had written during what he deemed the "martyrdom" (German: "Martyrium") of the Armenians.[145] Destination Nowhere: The Witness is a documentary film produced by J. Michael Hagopian that depicts Wegner's personal account of the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
through Wegner's own photographs. Prior to the release of the documentary, Wegner was honored at the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
Museum in Yerevan
Yerevan
for championing the plight of Armenians throughout his life.[146] Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Turkey

Aleppo
Aleppo
Governor Mehmet Celal Bey

Although many documents related to systematic massacres were destroyed during and after the genocide,[63][147] Turkish historian Taner Akçam states that the "Turkish sources we already possess provide sufficient information to prove that what befell the Armenians
Armenians
in 1915 was a Genocide."[148] Historian Ara Sarafian
Ara Sarafian
similarly notes that "the available Ottoman materials, especially when used alongside alternative sources (such as United States records or Armenian survivor accounts), support the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
thesis."[149] Alongside official documentation, many Turkish public figures during the time have acknowledged the systematic nature of the massacres. Historian Ahmet Refik (Altınay) wrote in 1919: "The Unionists (Committee of Union and Progress) wanted to remove the problem of Vilâyât-ı Sitte
Vilâyât-ı Sitte
by annihilating Armenians."[150] Turkish novelist Halide Edip, who was openly critical of the decisions made by the Ottoman government towards the Armenians, wrote in Vakit on 21 October 1918: "We slaughtered the innocent Armenian population...We tried to extinguish the Armenians
Armenians
through methods that belong to the medieval times".[151] Abdülmecid II, the last Caliph of Islam
Islam
of the Ottoman Dynasty, said of the policy: "I refer to those awful massacres. They are the greatest stain that has ever disgraced our nation and race. They were entirely the work of Talat and Enver."[152] Senator Ahmet Rıza stated: "Let's face it, we Turks savagely killed off the Armenians."[153] Grand Vizier
Grand Vizier
Damad Ferid Pasha, speaking about the Armenians
Armenians
in The New York Times
The New York Times
(26 June 1919), said: "The whole civilised world was shocked by the recital of the crimes alleged to have been committed by the Turks. It is far from my thought to cast a veil over these misdeeds, which are such as to make the conscience of mankind shudder with horror for ever; still less will I endeavour to minimise the degree of guilt of the actors in the great drama. The aim which I have set myself is that of showing to the world with proofs in my hand, who are the truly responsible authors of these terrible crimes."[154] Interior Minister Ali Kemal Bey wrote in Alemdar on 18 July 1919: "Don't let us try to throw the blame on the Armenians; we must not flatter ourselves that the world is filled with idiots. We have plundered the possessions of the men whom we deported and massacred; we have sanctioned theft in our Chamber and our Senate."[147][152] Reşid Akif Paşa, Vali of Sivas
Sivas
and head of the Council of State, is especially known for providing important testimony during the Ottoman Parliament session of 21 November 1918.[29] His speech outlined the process of how the official order of deportation contained vague terminology only to be clarified by special orders of "massacres" sent directly from the Committee of Union and Progress headquarters and oftentimes the residence of Talat Pasha himself:[30]

During my few days of service in this government I've learned of a few secrets and have come across something interesting. The deportation order was issued through official channels by the minister of the interior and sent to the provinces. Following this order the [CUP] Central Committee circulated its own ominous order to all parties to allow the gangs to carry out their wretched task. Thus the gangs were in the field, ready for their atrocious slaughter.

Mehmed Şerif Pasha
Şerif Pasha
was a former member of the Young Turk
Young Turk
government who denounced the annihilation (The New York Times, 10 October 1915).[155]

Some politicians tried to prevent the deportations and subsequent massacres. One such politician, Mehmet Celal Bey, was known for saving thousands of lives and is often called the Turkish Oscar Schindler.[156] During his time as governor of Aleppo, Celal Bey did not believe that the deportations were meant to "annihilate" the Armenians: "I admit, I did not believe that these orders, these actions revolved around the annihilation of the Armenians. I never imagined that any government could take upon itself to annihilate its own citizens in this manner, in effect destroying its human capital, which must be seen as the country's greatest treasure. I presumed that the actions being carried out were measures deriving from a desire to temporarily remove the Armenians
Armenians
from the theater of war and taken as the result of wartime exigencies."[157] However, he later admitted that he was mistaken and that the goal was "to attempt to annihilate" the Armenians.[157] When defying the orders of deportation, Celal Bey was removed from his post as governor of Aleppo
Aleppo
and transferred to Konya.[29] Nevertheless, as the deportations continued, he repeatedly demanded that the central authorities provide shelter for the deportees.[158] In addition to these demands, he sent the Sublime Porte many telegrams and letters of protest stating that the "measures taken against the Armenians
Armenians
were, from every point of view, contrary to the higher interests of the fatherland."[158] His demands, however, were ignored.[158] Celal Bey said: "Blood flowed instead of water in the river, and thousands of innocent children, blameless elderly, helpless women and strong youths were flowing towards death in this blood flow."[159] Hasan Mazhar
Hasan Mazhar
Bey, who was appointed Vali of Ankara on 18 June 1914, is also known for having refused to proceed with the order of deportations.[160] Due to his refusal to deport the Armenians, Mazhar Bey was removed from his post as governor in August 1915 and replaced with Atif Bey, a prominent member of the Special Organization.[161] He recalled: "Then one day Atif Bey came to me and orally conveyed the interior minister's orders that the Armenians
Armenians
were to be murdered during the deportation. 'No, Atif Bey,' I said, 'I am a governor, not a bandit, I cannot do this, I will leave this post and you can come and do it.'"[29] After leaving his post, Mazhar went on to report that "in the kaza [district], the plunder of Armenian property, by both officials and the population, assumed incredible proportions."[162] He also became the key figure in the establishment of the Mazhar Commission, an investigative committee which immediately took up the task of gathering evidence and testimonies, with a special effort to obtain inquiries on civil servants implicated in massacres committed against Armenians.[163] Süleyman Nazif, the Vali of Baghdad, who but later resigned in protest of the Ottoman government's policy towards the Armenians, wrote in a 28 November 1918 issue of the Hadisat newspaper: "Under the guise of deportations, mass murder was perpetrated. Given the fact that the crime is all too evident, the perpetrators should have been hanged already."[137] During the Republican period, several Turkish politicians expressed their discontent with the deportations and subsequent massacres. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the first President and founder of the Republic of Turkey, consistently used the term "shameful act" (Turkish: fazahat) when referring to the massacres.[147][164][165] In 1 August 1926 issue of the Los Angeles Examiner, Atatürk also said that the Young Turk
Young Turk
Party was responsible for "... millions of our Christian subjects who were ruthlessly driven en masse from their homes and massacred".[166] At a secret session of the National Assembly, held on 17 October 1920, Hasan Fehmi (Ataç), deputy of Gümüşhane, said: "As you know, the issue of relocation was an event that made the world to yell blue and made all of us to be considered murderers. We knew, before we did it, that the Christian world would not tolerate it and they would direct their anger and hatred toward us. Why did we impute the title of murderer to our race? Why did we enter into such decisive and difficult struggle? That was done just to secure the future of our country, which we know to be more precious and sacred than our lives."[167] Russian military The Russian Empire's response to the bombardment of its Black Sea naval ports was primarily a land campaign through the Caucasus. Early victories against the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
from the winter of 1914 to the spring of 1915 saw significant gains of territory, including relieving the Armenian bastion resisting in the city of Van in May 1915. The Russians also reported encountering the bodies of unarmed civilian Armenians
Armenians
as they advanced.[168] In March 1916, the scenes they saw in the city of Erzurum
Erzurum
led the Russians to retaliate against the Ottoman III Army whom they held responsible for the massacres, destroying it in its entirety.[169] Scandinavian missionaries and diplomats Although a neutral state throughout the war, Sweden had permanent representatives in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
who closely followed and continuously reported on major developments there. Its embassy in Constantinople was led by Ambassador Cossva Anckarsvärd, with M. Ahlgren as envoy and Captain Einar af Wirsén
Einar af Wirsén
as military attaché. On 7 July 1915, Ambassador Anckarsvärd dispatched a two-page report concerning the Armenian massacres to Stockholm. The report began as follows:

The persecutions of the Armenians
Armenians
have reached hair-raising proportions and all points to the fact that the Young Turks
Young Turks
want to seize the opportunity, since due to different reasons there are no effective external pressure to be feared, to once and for all put an end to the Armenian question. The means for this are quite simple and consist of the extermination (utrotandet) of the Armenian nation.[170]:39

On 9 August 1915, Anckarsvärd dispatched yet another report, confirming his suspicions regarding the plans of the Turkish government, "It is obvious that the Turks are taking the opportunity to, now during the war, annihilate [utplåna] the Armenian nation so that when the peace comes no Armenian question longer exists".[170]:41 Reflecting upon the situation in Turkey
Turkey
during the final stages of the war, Envoy Alhgren presented an analysis of the prevailing situation in Turkey
Turkey
and the hard times which had befallen the population. In explaining the increased living costs he identified a number of reasons: "obstacles for domestic trade, the almost total paralysing of the foreign trade and finally the strong decreasing of labour power, caused partly by the mobilisation, but partly also by the extermination of the Armenian race [utrotandet af den armeniska rasen]".[170]:52 Wirsén, when writing his memoirs from his mission to the Balkans
Balkans
and Turkey, Minnen från fred och krig ("Memories from Peace and War"), dedicated an entire chapter to the Armenian Genocide, entitled Mordet på en nation ("The Murder of a Nation"). Commenting on the interpretation that the deportations resulted from the purported collaboration of the Armenians
Armenians
with the Russians, Wirsen states that the deportations were nothing but a cover for their extermination: "Officially, these had the goal to move the entire Armenian population to the steppe regions of Northern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and Syria, but in reality they aimed to exterminate [utrota] the Armenians, whereby the pure Turkish element in Asia Minor
Asia Minor
would achieve a dominating position".[170]:28 He concluded: "The annihilation of the Armenian nation in Asia Minor
Asia Minor
must revolt all human feelings ... The way the Armenian problem was solved was hair-raising. I can still see in front of me Talaat's cynical expression, when he emphasized that the Armenian question was solved".[170]:29 Norwegian missionary nurse Bodil Biørn was based in the town of Mezereh (now Elazig) and later in Mush, where she worked for widows and orphaned children in cooperation with other missionaries. She witnessed the massacres in Mush and saw most of the children in her care murdered, along with Armenian priests, teachers, and assistants. She escaped after nine days on horseback, but stayed on in the region for another two years under increasingly difficult working conditions. After a period at home she again went to Armenia
Armenia
and, until she retired in 1935, worked for Armenian refugees in Syria
Syria
and Lebanon. Bodil Biørn was also an able photographer. Many of her photos are now in the National Archives of Norway. In combination with her comments, written in her photo albums or on the back of the prints themselves, these photos bear strong witness of the atrocities that she saw.[171] Danish missionary Maria Jacobsen
Maria Jacobsen
wrote her experiences in a diary entitled Diaries of a Danish Missionary: Harpoot, 1907–1919, which according to genocide scholar Ara Sarafian, is a "documentation of the utmost significance" for research of the Armenian Genocide.[172] Jacobsen would later be known for having saved thousands of Armenians through various relief efforts in the aftermath of the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
.[172][173] She wrote: "It is quite obvious that the purpose of their departure is the extermination of the Armenian people."[173][174] Another Danish missionary, Aage Meyer Benedictsen, wrote in regards to the massacres that it was a "shattering crime, probably the largest in the history of the world: The attempt, planned and executed in cold blood, to murder a whole people, the Armenian, during the World War."[175] Johannes Østrup, a Danish philologist and professor at the University of Copenhagen, met with several Young Turk politicians and leaders prior to the start of World War I. In his memoirs, Østrup recounts his meeting with Talat Pasha in the autumn of 1910 in which he writes that Talat talked openly about his plans to "exterminate" the Armenians.[176][177] Persia Due to the period of weak central government and Tehran's inability to protect its territorial integrity, no resistance was offered by the mostly Islamic Persian troops when, after the withdrawal of Russian troops from the extreme northwest of Persia, Islamic Turks invaded the town of Salmas
Salmas
in northwestern Persia and tortured and massacred the Christian Armenian inhabitants.[178] Mohammad-Ali Jamalzadeh, a prominent Persian writer in the 20th century, studied in Europe where he joined a group of Iranian nationalists in Berlin who were to eventually start a newspaper (Rastakhiz) in Baghdad in 1915. After remaining in Baghdad, Jamalzadeh went to Constantinople where he witnessed the deportations of Armenians
Armenians
and encountered many corpses during his journey.[179] He wrote of his experiences and eyewitness accounts decades later in two books entitled "Qatl-e Amm-e Armanian" (Persian: قتل عام ارمنیان‎, literally; Armenian massacres) and "Qatl o ḡārat-e Arāmaneh dar Torkiya" (On the massacres of Armenians
Armenians
in Ottoman Turkey) which were published in 1972 and 1963 respectively.[179] Studies on the Genocide The Armenian Genocide
Genocide
is widely corroborated by international genocide scholars. The International Association of Genocide
Genocide
Scholars (IAGS), consisting of the world's foremost experts on genocide,[180] unanimously passed a formal resolution affirming the factuality of the Armenian Genocide. According to IAGS, "Every book on comparative genocide studies in the English language contains a segment on the Armenian Genocide. Leading texts in the international law of genocide such as William Schabas's Genocide
Genocide
in International Law cite the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
as precursor to the Holocaust and as a precedent for the law on crimes against humanity. Polish jurist Raphael Lemkin, when he coined the term genocide in 1943, cited the Turkish extermination of the Armenians
Armenians
and the Nazi extermination of the Jews as defining examples of what he meant by genocide.[181][182][183][184][185] The killings of Armenians
Armenians
is genocide as defined by the 1948 United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. 126 leading scholars of the holocaust including Elie Wiesel, and Yehuda Bauer
Yehuda Bauer
placed a statement in The New York Times
The New York Times
in June 2000 declaring the "incontestable fact of the Armenian genocide" and urging western democracies to acknowledge it. "The Institute on the Holocaust and Genocide
Genocide
(Jerusalem), and the Institute for the Study of Genocide (NYC), have affirmed the historical fact of the Armenian Genocide".[186] Historian Stefan Ihrig observes that the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
was part of the prehistory of the Holocaust and that, merely ten years before Hitler's rise to power, the German debate on genocide, begun in 1919, concluded with justifications of genocide and calls for the expulsion of Jews.[187] A segment of speech given by Hitler to Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
commanders at his Obersalzberg records him asking rhetorically "Who, after all, speaks to-day of the annihilation of the Armenians?"[188] Historian Margaret L. Anderson surmises, "we have no reason to doubt the remark is genuine, both attack and defense obscure an obvious reality" that the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
has achieved "iconic status ... as the apex of horrors imaginable in 1939", and that Hitler used it to persuade the German military that committing genocide excited a great deal of "talk", but no serious consequences for a nation that perpetrates genocide.[189] Terminology Further information: Genocide

Play media

Lemkin: the origin of the word "genocide", (CBS News)

The Armenian Genocide
Genocide
happened before the coining of the term genocide. English-language words and phrases used by contemporary accounts to characterise the event include "massacres", "atrocities", "annihilation", "holocaust", "the murder of a nation", "race extermination" and "a crime against humanity".[190] Raphael Lemkin coined "genocide" in 1943, with the fate of the Armenians
Armenians
in mind; he later explained that: "it happened so many times ... It happened to the Armenians, then after the Armenians
Armenians
Hitler took action."[191] The survivors of the genocide used a number of Armenian terms to name the event. Mouradian writes that Yeghern (Crime/Catastrophe), or variants like Medz Yeghern (Great Crime) and Abrilian Yeghern (the April Crime) were the terms most commonly used.[192] The name Aghed, usually translated as "Catastrophe", was, according to Beledian, the term most often used in Armenian literature
Armenian literature
to name the event.[193] After the coining of the term genocide, the portmanteau word Armenocide was also used as a name for the Armenian Genocide.[194] Works that seek to deny the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
often attach qualifying words against the term genocide, such as "so-called", "alleged" or "disputed," or characterise it as a "controversy", or dismiss it as "Armenian allegations", "Armenian claims"[195] or "Armenian lies", or employ euphemisms to avoid the word genocide, such as calling it a "tragedy for both sides", or "the events of 1915".[196] American President Barack Obama's use of the term Medz Yeghern when referring to the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
has been described "as a means of avoiding the word genocide".[197] Several international organizations have conducted studies of the atrocities, each in turn determining that the term "genocide" aptly describes "the Ottoman massacre of Armenians
Armenians
in 1915–16".[198] Among the organizations affirming this conclusion are the International Center for Transitional Justice,[198] the International Association of Genocide
Genocide
Scholars,[199] and the United Nations' Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities.[200] In 2005, the International Association of Genocide
Genocide
Scholars affirmed that scholarly evidence revealed the " Young Turk
Young Turk
government of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
began a systematic genocide of its Armenian citizens – an unarmed Christian minority population.[201] More than a million Armenians
Armenians
were exterminated through direct killing, starvation, torture, and forced death marches". The IAGS also condemned Turkish attempts to deny the factual and moral reality of the Armenian Genocide. In 2007, the Elie Wiesel
Elie Wiesel
Foundation for Humanity produced a letter[202] signed by 53 Nobel Laureates re-affirming the Genocide
Genocide
Scholars' conclusion that the 1915 killings of Armenians
Armenians
constituted genocide.[203]

Audio recording of Section 3 of Martyred Armenia, by Fa'iz El-Ghusein

Bat Ye'or
Bat Ye'or
has suggested that "the genocide of the Armenians
Armenians
was a jihad".[204] Ye'or holds jihad and what she calls "dhimmitude" to be among the "principles and values" that led to the Armenian Genocide.[205] This perspective is challenged by Fà'iz el-Ghusein, a Bedouin
Bedouin
Arab
Arab
witness of the Armenian persecution, whose 1918 treatise aimed "to refute beforehand inventions and slanders against the Faith of Islam
Islam
and against Moslems generally ... [W]hat the Armenians have suffered is to be attributed to the Committee of Union and Progress ... [I]t has been due to their nationalist fanaticism and their jealousy of the Armenians, and to these alone; the Faith of Islam
Islam
is guiltless of their deeds".[206]:49 Arnold Toynbee writes that "the Young Turks
Young Turks
made Pan- Islamism
Islamism
and Turkish Nationalism
Turkish Nationalism
work together for their ends, but the development of their policy shows the Islamic element receding and the Nationalist gaining ground".[207] Toynbee and various other sources report that many Armenians
Armenians
were spared death by marrying into Turkish families or converting to Islam. Concerned that Westerners would come to regard the "extermination of the Armenians" as "a black stain on the history of Islam, which the ages will not efface", El-Ghusein also observes that many Armenian converts were put to death.[206]:39 In one instance, when an Islamic leader appealed to spare Armenian converts to Islam, El-Ghusein quotes a government official as responding that "politics have no religion", before sending the converts to their deaths.[206]:49 Recognition of the Genocide Main article: Armenian Genocide
Genocide
recognition

Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly Resolution, 24 April 1998 "Today we commemorate the anniversary of what has been called the first genocide of the 20th century, and we salute the memory of the Armenian victims of this crime against humanity".[15]

States which have recognized the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
as of 2017[update].

Armenian Genocide
Genocide
monument in Larnaca, Cyprus. Cyprus was among the first countries to recognise the genocide.

As a response to continuing denial by the Turkish state, many activists from Armenian Diaspora
Armenian Diaspora
communities have pushed for formal recognition of the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
from various governments around the world. On 4 March 2010, a U.S. congressional panel narrowly voted that the incident was indeed genocide; within minutes the Turkish government issued a statement critical of "this resolution which accuses the Turkish nation of a crime it has not committed". The Armenian Assembly of America (AAA) and the Armenian National Committee of America (ANCA) have as their main lobbying agenda to press Congress and the President for an increase of economic aid for Armenia
Armenia
and the reduction of economic and military assistance for Turkey. The efforts also include reaffirmation of a genocide by Ottoman Turkey
Turkey
in 1915.[208] Twenty-nine countries and forty-eight U.S. states have adopted resolutions acknowledging the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
as a bona fide historical event.[209] As of 2017[update], Israel, the United Kingdom and United States do not recognize what happened a century ago as a genocide.[210] Despite his previous public recognition and support of genocide bills, as well as election campaign promises to formally recognize the Armenian Genocide,[211] Barack Obama
Barack Obama
throughout his two terms as U.S. President, abstained from using the term "genocide".[212] In his 24 April 2016 commemoration statements Obama referred to the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
by its Armenian synonym, Medz Yeghern (spelled "Meds Yeghern" in the statements).[213] Despite a large number of direct descendants of the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
living in Jerusalem, specifically in the Armenian Quarter, Israel
Israel
still refuses to recognize the genocide.[214] Pope Francis
Pope Francis
described it as the "First genocide of the XX century", causing a diplomatic row with Turkey. The bishop of Rome defended his pronouncement by saying it was his duty to honour the memory of the innocent men, women and children who were "senselessly" murdered by Ottoman Turks 100 years before he became Pontiff. He also called on all heads of state and international organizations to recognize "the truth of what transpired and oppose such crimes without ceding to ambiguity or compromise."[215] In a resolution, the European Parliament commended the statement pronounced by the Pope and encouraged Turkey
Turkey
to recognise the genocide and so pave the way for a "genuine reconciliation between the Turkish and Armenian peoples".[216] Republic of Turkey
Republic of Turkey
and the Genocide See also: Armenian Genocide
Genocide
denial According to Kemal Çiçek, the head of the Armenian Research Group at the Turkish Historical Society, in Turkey
Turkey
there is no official thesis on the Armenian issue.[217] The Republic of Turkey's formal stance is that the deaths of Armenians
Armenians
during the "relocation" or "deportation" cannot aptly be deemed "genocide", a position that has been supported with a plethora of diverging justifications: that the killings were not deliberate or systematically orchestrated; that the killings were justified because Armenians
Armenians
posed a Russian-sympathizing threat[218] as a cultural group; that the Armenians
Armenians
merely starved to death, or any of various characterizations referring to marauding "Armenian gangs".[219] Some suggestions seek to invalidate the genocide on semantic or anachronistic grounds (the word genocide was not coined until 1943). Turkish World War I
World War I
casualty figures are often cited to mitigate the effect of the number of Armenian dead.[220] Volkan Vural, retired ambassador of Turkey
Turkey
to Germany and Spain, says that the Turkish state should apologize for what happened to the Armenians
Armenians
during the deportations of 1915 and what happened to the Greeks
Greeks
during the Istanbul
Istanbul
Pogrom.[221][222] He also states, "I think that, the Armenian issue can be solved by politicians and not by historians. I don't believe that historical facts about this issue is not revealed. The historical facts are already known. The most important point here is that how these facts will be interpreted and will affect the future".[221] Turkish governmental sources have asserted that the historically demonstrated "tolerance of the Turkish people" itself renders the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
an impossibility.[223] A Der Spiegel
Der Spiegel
article addressed this modern Turkish conception of history thus:

"Would you admit to the crimes of your grandfathers, if these crimes didn't really happen?" asked ambassador Öymen. But the problem lies precisely in this question, says Hrant Dink, publisher and editor-in-chief of the Istanbul-based Armenian weekly Agos. Turkey's bureaucratic elite have never really shed themselves of the Ottoman tradition—in the perpetrators, they see their fathers, whose honor they seek to defend. This tradition instills a sense of identity in Turkish nationalists—both from the left and the right, and it is passed on from generation to generation through the school system. This tradition also requires an antipole against which it could define itself. Since the times of the Ottoman Empire, religious minorities have been pushed into this role.[224]

In 2005, Turkey
Turkey
started an "initiative to resolve Armenian allegations regarding 1915" by using archives in Turkey, Armenia
Armenia
and other countries.[225] Armenian president Robert Kocharian
Robert Kocharian
rejected this offer by saying, "It is the responsibility of governments to develop bilateral relations and we do not have the right to delegate that responsibility to historians. That is why we have proposed and propose again that, without pre-conditions, we establish normal relations between our two countries".[226] Additionally, Turkish foreign minister of the time, Abdullah Gül, invited the United States and other countries to contribute to such a commission by appointing scholars to "investigate this tragedy and open ways for Turks and Armenians
Armenians
to come together".[227] In 2007, Turkish Prime Minister
Turkish Prime Minister
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
issued a circular that calls the government institutions to use the phrase "Events of 1915" (in Turkish, 1915 Olayları) instead of the phrase "so-called Armenian genocide" (in Turkish, sözde Ermeni Soykırımı).[228] Controversies Efforts by the Turkish government and its agents to quash mention of the genocide have resulted in numerous scholarly, diplomatic, political and legal controversies. In 1973, Turkey
Turkey
recalled its ambassador to France
France
to protest the Genocide
Genocide
monument erected in Marseille
Marseille
"to the memory of the 1,500,000 Armenian victims of the genocide ordered by the Turkish rulers in 1915".[229] In 1973, the Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, a former UN body, mandated special rapporteur Nicodème Ruhashyankiko to produce a report on the issue of genocide. Early drafts of Ruhashyankiko's report referred to the World War I era Ottoman massacre of Armenians
Armenians
as genocide, but that reference disappeared from his final report (1978) under pressure from Turkey.[230] The Israeli Foreign Ministry attempted to prevent any mention of the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
at an international conference on genocide held in Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
in 1982. Several reports suggested that Turkey
Turkey
had warned that Turkish Jews
Turkish Jews
might face "reprisals" if the conference permitted Armenian participation.[231] This charge was "categorically denied" by Turkey;[232] the Israeli Foreign Ministry supported Turkey's protestation that there had been no threats against Jews, suggesting that its intervention in the genocide conference was based on considerations "vital to the Jewish
Jewish
nation".[233] In the same year, the Institute of Turkish Studies in Washington, D.C. (ITS) was established by a $3 million grant from the Turkish government. Israel
Israel
Charny identifies the ITS and some of its foremost deniers of the Armenian Genocide, such as Stanford Shaw, Heath W. Lowry, and Justin McCarthy, as the Turkish government's principal agency in the United States for promoting research on Turkey
Turkey
and the Ottoman Empire, but also denial of the Armenian Genocide.[234] A 1989 United States Senate proposal to recognize the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
stoked the ire of Turkey. The proposal occurred in the context of the publication of "The Slaughterhouse Province", the eyewitness report by Leslie Davis, American diplomat and consul in Kharpert from 1914-1917, who reported that "thousands and thousands of Armenians, mostly innocent and helpless women and children, were butchered" in the last days of the Ottoman Empire. Turkey
Turkey
responded by blocking United States Navy
United States Navy
visits to Turkey
Turkey
and suspending some United States military training facilities on Turkish territory. The American scholar who assembled the United States archive documents for publication, Susan K. Blair, went into hiding after a series of anonymous threats.[235] In 2007, a similar resolution passed the House Foreign Affairs committee by a 27-21 vote, but Turkish lobbying prevented it from reaching the House floor.[236] In 1990, psychologist Robert Jay Lifton
Robert Jay Lifton
received a letter from the Turkish Ambassador to the United States, Nuzhet Kandemir, questioning his inclusion of references to the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
in one of his books. The ambassador inadvertently included a draft of the letter, written by scholar Heath W. Lowry, advising the ambassador on how to prevent mention of the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
in scholarly works.[237] In 1996, Lowry was named to a chair at Princeton University
Princeton University
that had been financed by the Turkish government, sparking a debate on ethics in scholarship.[238] In 1993, Ragıp Zarakolu, a Turkish human rights activist, published the Turkish translation of Yves Ternon's Armenians, History of a Genocide. The book was the first to be published in Turkey
Turkey
that openly acknowledged the events of 1915 as genocide. Soon after its publication, Zarakolu received threats and in 1994 his publishing house was the target of a bomb attack.[239]

Turkish-Armenian journalist Hrant Dink
Hrant Dink
advocated Turkish–Armenian reconciliation and human and minority rights in Turkey
Turkey
and was critical of Turkey's denial of the Armenian Genocide.[240][241] He was prosecuted three times for denigrating Turkishness while receiving numerous death threats from Turkish nationalists. He was ultimately assassinated in 2007.[240][242][243][244]

Prosecutors acting on their own initiative have used Article 301 of the Turkish Penal Code prohibiting "insulting Turkishness" to silence a number of prominent Turkish intellectuals who spoke of atrocities suffered by Armenians
Armenians
in the last days of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(most of these cases have been dismissed).[245] During a February 2005 interview with Das Magazin, novelist Orhan Pamuk
Orhan Pamuk
made statements implicating Turkey
Turkey
in massacres against Armenians
Armenians
and persecution of the Kurds, declaring: "Thirty thousand Kurds
Kurds
and a million Armenians were killed in these lands and nobody but me dares to talk about it". Subjected to a hate campaign, he left Turkey, before returning in 2005 to defend his right to freedom of speech: "What happened to the Ottoman Armenians
Armenians
in 1915 was a major thing that was hidden from the Turkish nation; it was a taboo. But we have to be able to talk about the past".[246] Lawyers of two Turkish ultranationalist professional associations led by Kemal Kerinçsiz then brought criminal charges against Pamuk.[247] However, on 23 January 2006 the charges of "insulting Turkishness" were dropped (for reasons not necessarily tied to the case), a move welcomed by the EU.[248] These prosecutions have often been accompanied by hate campaigns and threats, as was the case for Hrant Dink, who was prosecuted three times for "insulting Turkishness", and murdered in 2007.[249] Later, photographs of the assassin being honored as a hero while in police custody, posing in front of the Turkish flag
Turkish flag
with grinning policemen,[250] gave the academic community still more cause for pause with regard to engaging the Armenian issue.[243] Kerinçsiz, the leading lawyer behind the prosecutions, has been accused of plotting to overthrow the government as a member of the alleged Ergenekon network.[251] After a meeting with then UK Prime Minister Gordon Brown in 2010, Turkey's prime minister announced that the Turkish government might order the expulsion of all illegal Armenian immigrants from Turkey. The statement came after recent US House Committee and Swedish Parliament resolutions over the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
affirmation. He repeated the statement in a BBC interview immediately afterwards, declaring that there were 100,000 illegal Armenian citizens living in Turkey
Turkey
and that: "If necessary, I may have to tell these 100,000 to go back to their country because they are not my citizens. I don't have to keep them in my country."[252][253] Armenian Prime Minister Tigran Sargsyan responded to Erdoğan's statement by saying that this kind of threat reminded Armenians
Armenians
of the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
and that it did not contribute to improve relations between the two countries.[254] The exact number of illegal Armenians
Armenians
in Turkey
Turkey
is estimated to be only 12,000–13,000, contrary to the figure used by Erdoğan.[255] The Republic of Armenia
Armenia
and the Genocide See also: Nagorno-Karabakh War
Nagorno-Karabakh War
and Sumgait pogrom

The Armenian Genocide
Genocide
Remembrance Day is a national holiday in Armenia.

Armenia
Armenia
has been involved in a protracted ethnic-territorial conflict with Azerbaijan, a Turkic state, since Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
became independent from the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1991. The conflict has featured several pogroms, massacres, and waves of ethnic cleansing, by both sides. Some foreign policy observers and historians have suggested that Armenia and the Armenian diaspora
Armenian diaspora
have sought to portray the modern conflict as a continuation of the Armenian Genocide, in order to influence modern policy-making in the region.[113][256]:232–3 According to Thomas Ambrosio, the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
furnishes "a reserve of public sympathy and moral legitimacy that translates into significant political influence ... to elicit congressional support for anti- Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
policies".[256] The rhetoric leading up to the onset of the conflict, which unfolded in the context of several pogroms against Armenians, was dominated by references to the Armenian Genocide, including fears that it would be, or was in the course of being, repeated.[257] During the conflict, the Azeri and Armenian governments regularly accused each other of genocidal intent, although these claims have been treated skeptically by outside observers.[113]:232–33 The worldwide recognition of the Genocide
Genocide
is a core aspect of Armenia's foreign policy.[258] Cultural loss

Varagavank
Varagavank
monastery in Van (1913), burned and destroyed by the Turkish army in May 1915.[259]

See also: Armenian cultural heritage in Turkey The premeditated destruction of objects of Armenian cultural, religious, historical and communal heritage was yet another key purpose of both the genocide itself and the post-genocidal campaign of denial. Armenian churches and monasteries were destroyed or changed into mosques, Armenian cemeteries flattened, and, in several cities (e.g., Van), Armenian quarters were demolished.[260] Aside from the deaths, Armenians
Armenians
lost their wealth and property without compensation.[261] Businesses and farms were lost, and all schools, churches, hospitals, orphanages, monasteries, and graveyards became Turkish state property.[261] In January 1916, the Ottoman Minister of Commerce and Agriculture issued a decree ordering all financial institutions operating within the empire's borders to turn over Armenian assets to the government.[262] It is recorded that as much as six million Turkish gold pounds were seized along with real property, cash, bank deposits, and jewelry. The assets were then funneled to European banks, including Deutsche and Dresdner banks.[262] After the end of World War I, Genocide
Genocide
survivors tried to return and reclaim their former homes and assets, but were driven out by the Ankara
Ankara
Government.[261] In 1914, the Armenian Patriarch in Constantinople presented a list of the Armenian holy sites under his supervision. The list contained 2,549 religious places of which 200 were monasteries while 1,600 were churches. In 1974 UNESCO stated that after 1923, out of 913 Armenian historical monuments left in Eastern Turkey, 464 have vanished completely, 252 are in ruins, and 197 are in need of repair (in stable conditions).[263] Reparations to the victims Main article: Armenian Genocide
Genocide
reparations Reparations on the grounds of international law According to the President of IAGS, Henry Theriault, while current members of Turkish society cannot be blamed morally for the destruction of Armenians, present-day Republic of Turkey, as successor state to the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and as beneficiary of the wealth and land expropriations brought forth through the genocide, is responsible for reparations.[264] In 2007, The Armenian Genocide
Genocide
Reparations Study Group (AGRSG) was formed with Theriault as chair, along with several other genocide scholars. In March 2015, the group released a final report entitled Resolution with Justice — Reparations for the Armenian Genocide.[265] The report described the legal, historical, political, and ethical aspects of Armenian Genocide
Genocide
reparations and proposed a comprehensive reparations package for the victims.[266][267] The historian Alfred de Zayas has stated that, because of the continuing character of the crime of genocide in factual and legal terms, the remedy of restitution has not been foreclosed. Thus the survivors of the genocide against the Armenians, both individually and collectively, have standing to advance a claim for restitution. Whenever possible complete restitution or restoration to the previous condition should be granted. Where it is not possible, relevant compensation may be substituted as a remedy. De Zayas also states that genocides are considered delicta juris gentium crimes in addition to them being a crime against humanity. Therefore, statutes of limitation do not apply, and the Turkish state is still criminally liable for the genocide and is legally obligated to provide reparations for the victims.[268] Another historian, Vahagn Avedian, has argued that, although the UN Genocide
Genocide
Convention was not in force until 1951, the treaties in force at the time of the genocide pertaining to the protection of civilian population, such as the Martens Clause
Martens Clause
of Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, mean that the actions of the Turkish governments (the Ottoman, the insurgent nationalist movement as well as the succeeding republic), should be viewed from the perspective of Internationally Wrongful Acts. Avedian wrote that:

the Republic not only failed to stop doing the wrongful acts of its predecessor, but it also continued the very internationally wrongful acts committed by the Young Turk
Young Turk
government. Thus, the insurgent National Movement, which later became the Republic, made itself responsible for not only its own wrongful acts, but also those of its predecessor, including the act of genocide committed in 1915–1916.[95]

Sèvres Treaty Although there are different opinions on the legitimacy of the Treaty of Sèvres and its relativity to reparation claims, there are specialists who argue that some of its elements retain the force of law.[269][need quotation to verify] In particular, the fixing of the proper borders of an Armenian state was undertaken pursuant to the treaty and determined by a binding arbitral award, regardless of whether the treaty was ultimately ratified. The committee process determining the arbitral award was agreed to by the parties and, according to international law, the resulting determination has legal force regardless of the ultimate fate of the treaty.[264] Lawsuits In July 2004, after the California State Legislature
California State Legislature
passed the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
Insurance Act, descendants of Armenian Genocide victims settled a case for about 2,400 life insurance policies from New York Life
New York Life
written on Armenians
Armenians
living in the Ottoman Empire.[270] Around 1918, the Turkish government attempted to recover payments for the people it had killed, with the argument that there were no identifiable heirs to the policy holders. The settlement provided $20 million, of which $11 million was for heirs of the Genocide victims.[270] Commemoration

The Armenian Genocide
Genocide
Memorial on the hill of Tsitsernakaberd (Yerevan)

Memorials See also: List of Armenian Genocide
Genocide
memorials and List of visitors to Tsitsernakaberd Over 135 memorials, spread across 25 countries, commemorate the Armenian Genocide.[271] In 1965, the 50th anniversary of the genocide, a 24-hour mass protest was initiated in Yerevan
Yerevan
demanding recognition of the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
by Soviet authorities. A memorial was completed two years later, at Tsitsernakaberd
Tsitsernakaberd
above the Hrazdan
Hrazdan
gorge in Yerevan. The memorial contains a 44 metres (144 ft) stele which symbolizes the national rebirth of Armenians. Twelve slabs are positioned in a circle, representing 12 lost provinces in present-day Turkey. At the center of the circle there is an eternal flame. Each 24 April, hundreds of thousands of people walk to the monument, which is the official memorial of the genocide, and lay flowers around the eternal flame.[272] The Armenian Genocide
Genocide
Museum-Institute, situated in Tsitsernakaberd, presents a rich collection of books and archival materials (photographs, documents, demographic tables, documentaries) about the history of the Armenian Genocide; it is also a research institute and a library. The museum holds a permanent, online and temporary exhibitions, which give a detailed and documented description of that period and of the atrocities.[273] Visits to the museum are a part of the protocol of the Republic of Armenia. Many foreign dignitaries have already visited the Museum, including Pope John Paul II, Pope Francis, President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin, Presidents of France
France
Jacques Chirac, Francois Hollande and other well-known public and political figures. The museum is open to the public for guided tours in Armenian, Russian, English, French, and German.[274] Portrayal in the media Main article: Armenian Genocide
Genocide
in culture

Play media

"Ravished Armenia" (also called "Auction of Souls")

The first artwork known to have been influenced by the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
was a medal struck in St. Petersburg while the massacres and deportations of 1915 were at their height. It was issued as a token of Russian sympathy for Armenian suffering. Since then, dozens of similar medals have been commissioned in various countries.[275] Numerous eyewitness accounts of the atrocities were published, notably those of Swedish missionary Alma Johansson
Alma Johansson
and U.S. Ambassador Henry Morgenthau, Sr. German medic Armin Wegner
Armin Wegner
wrote several books about the atrocities he witnessed while stationed in the Ottoman Empire. Years later, having returned to Germany, Wegner was imprisoned for opposing Nazism,[276] and his books were burnt by the Nazis.[277] Probably the best known literary work on the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
is Franz Werfel's 1933 The Forty Days of Musa Dagh. This book was a bestseller that became particularly popular among the youth in the Jewish
Jewish
ghettos during the Nazi era.[78]:302–4 Kurt Vonnegut's 1988 novel Bluebeard features the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
as an underlying theme.[278] Other novels incorporating the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
include Louis de Berniéres' Birds without Wings, Edgar Hilsenrath's German-language The Story of the Last Thought, and Polish Stefan Żeromski's 1925 The Spring to Come. A story in Edward Saint-Ivan's 2006 anthology "The Black Knight's God" includes a fictional survivor of the Armenian Genocide. The first feature film about the Armenian Genocide, a Hollywood production titled Ravished Armenia, was released in 1919. It was produced by the American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief
American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief
and based on the account of survivor Aurora Mardiganian, who played herself. It resonated with acclaimed director Atom Egoyan, influencing his 2002 Ararat. Several movies are based on the Armenian Genocide including the 2014 drama film The Cut,[279] 1915 The Movie,[280] and The Promise.[281] There are also references to the Genocide
Genocide
in Elia Kazan's America, America and Henri Verneuil's Mayrig. At the Berlin International Film Festival of 2007 Italian directors Paolo and Vittorio Taviani presented another film about the atrocities, based on Antonia Arslan's book, La Masseria Delle Allodole
La Masseria Delle Allodole
(The Farm of the Larks).[282] The paintings of Armenian-American Arshile Gorky, a seminal figure of Abstract Expressionism, are considered to have been influenced by the suffering and loss of the period.[283] In 1915, at age 10, Gorky fled his native Van and escaped to Russian- Armenia
Armenia
with his mother and three sisters, only to have his mother die of starvation in Yerevan
Yerevan
in 1919. His two The Artist and His Mother paintings are based on a photograph with his mother taken in Van.[284]

Arshile Gorky's The Artist and His Mother (ca. 1926–36)

Several musicians have dedicated songs to the Armenian Genocide. In 1975, famous French-Armenian singer Charles Aznavour
Charles Aznavour
recorded the song "Ils sont tombés" ("They Fell"), dedicated to the memory of Armenian Genocide
Genocide
victims.[285] The American band System of a Down, composed of four descendants of Armenian Genocide
Genocide
survivors, has promoted awareness of the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
through its lyrics, including P.L.U.C.K. and in concerts.[286] On 23 April 2015, the band performed a free concert in the Republic Square, Yerevan
Yerevan
to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the genocide.[287] In late 2003, Diamanda Galás released the album Defixiones, Will and Testament: Orders from the Dead, an 80-minute memorial tribute to the Armenian, Assyrian and Greek victims of the genocide in Turkey. "The performance is an angry meditation on genocide and the politically cooperative denial of it, in particular the Turkish and American denial of the Armenian, Assyrian, and Anatolian Greek genocides from 1914 to 1923".[288] In 2008, Armenian-American composer Andrey Kasparov
Andrey Kasparov
premiered Tsitsernakabert, an original work for modern dance and six musicians: alto flute, bass/ contrabass flute, violin, two percussionists, and mezzo-soprano.[289] The work opens with eight dancers posed in a circle—inclined toward the circle's centre—in a tableau reminiscent of the eponymous memorial.[290]

See also

100th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide Aghet – Ein Völkermord, German documentary film on the Armenian Genocide Anti-Oriental Orthodox sentiment Armenia– Israel
Israel
relations Armenian Orphan Rug Armenia– Turkey
Turkey
relations Assyrian Genocide Dersim rebellion Effects of genocide on youth Great Famine of Mount Lebanon Greek Genocide Historiography of the fall of the Ottoman Empire Press coverage during the Armenian Genocide Racism in Turkey Rape during the Armenian Genocide Witnesses and testimonies of the Armenian Genocide

Notes

^ The Armenian Genocide
Genocide
is generally associated with 1915, the year that most of the atrocities took place. The span varies from source to source: 1915–1916, 1915–1917, 1915–1918, 1915–1923, 1894–1915, 1894–1923[citation needed] ^ a b 1.5 million is the most published number,[3] however, estimates vary from 800,000 to 1,800,000[4][5][6][7] ^ Հայոց ցեղասպանութիւն in classical Armenian orthography ^ The great powers at the Congress of Berlin
Congress of Berlin
were Russia, Great Britain, France, Austria-Hungary, Italy and Germany[33]

References

^ a b Schaller, Dominik J; Zimmerer, Jürgen (2008). "Late Ottoman genocides: the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Young Turkish population and extermination policies – introduction". Journal of Genocide
Genocide
Research. 10 (1): 7–14. doi:10.1080/14623520801950820.  ^ a b Jones, Adam (2010). Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction. Taylor & Francis. pp. 171–72. ISBN 978-0-203-84696-4. A resolution was placed before the IAGS membership to recognize the Greek and Assyrian/Chaldean components of the Ottoman genocide against Christians, alongside the Armenian strand of the genocide (which the IAGS has already formally acknowledged). The result, passed emphatically in December 2007 despite not inconsiderable opposition, was a resolution which I co-drafted, reading as follows: ...  ^ For example:

Derderian, K. (1 March 2005). "Common Fate, Different Experience: Gender-Specific Aspects of the Armenian Genocide, 1915-1917". Holocaust and Genocide
Genocide
Studies. 19 (1): 1–25. doi:10.1093/hgs/dci001. ISSN 8756-6583. the figure of 1.5 million people is generally accepted as a reasonable estimate  " Tsitsernakaberd
Tsitsernakaberd
Memorial Complex". Armenian Genocide Museum-Institute. Retrieved 17 June 2016.  Kifner, John (7 December 2007). "Armenian Genocide
Genocide
of 1915: An Overview". The New York Times. 

^ Göçek, Fatma Müge (2015). Denial of violence : Ottoman past, Turkish present and collective violence against the Armenians, 1789–2009. Oxford University Press. p. 1. ISBN 0-19-933420-X.  ^ Auron, Yair (2000). The banality of indifference: Zionism & the Armenian genocide. Transaction. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-7658-0881-3.  ^ Forsythe, David P. (11 August 2009). Encyclopedia of human rights (Google Books). Oxford University Press. p. 98. ISBN 978-0-19-533402-9.  ^ Chalk, Frank Robert; Jonassohn, Kurt (10 September 1990). The history and sociology of genocide: analyses and case studies. Institut montréalais des études sur le génocide. Yale University Press. pp. 270–. ISBN 978-0-300-04446-1.  ^ Hovannisian, Richard G. (1998). "Modern Turkish Identity and the Armenian Genocide: From Prejudice to Racist Nationalism". Remembrance and Denial: The Case of the Armenian Genocide. Wayne State University Press. pp. 23–50. ISBN 081432777X.  ^ Fisk, Robert (14 October 2006). "Let me denounce genocide from the dock". The Independent. Archived from the original on 24 January 2014. Retrieved 31 August 2016.  ^ "8 facts about the Armenian genocide 100 years ago". CNN.com. Retrieved 13 December 2015.  ^ "100 Years Ago, 1.5 Million Armenians
Armenians
Were Systematically Killed. Today, It's Still Not A 'Genocide'". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 13 December 2015.  ^ Kieser, Hans-Lukas; Schaller, Dominik J. (2002), Der Völkermord an den Armeniern und die Shoah [The Armenian genocide and the Shoah] (in German), Chronos, p. 114, ISBN 3-0340-0561-X  Walker, Christopher J. (1980), Armenia: The Survival of A Nation, London: Croom Helm, pp. 200–03  Bryce, Viscount James; Toynbee, Arnold (2000), Sarafian, Ara, ed., The Treatment of Armenians
Armenians
in the Ottoman Empire, 1915–1916: Documents Presented to Viscount Grey of Falloden (uncensored ed.), Princeton, NJ: Gomidas, pp. 635–649, ISBN 0-9535191-5-5  ^ "The Many Armenian Diasporas, Then and Now". GeoCurrents. Retrieved 13 December 2015.  ^ Totally Unofficial: The Autobiography of Raphael Lemkin. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. 2013. pp. 19–20. ISBN 9780300186963.  The Armenian Genocide
Genocide
(1915–16): Overview, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum ^ a b "Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly Resolution". Armenian National Institute. Retrieved 17 June 2016.  ^ a b Ferguson, Niall (2006). The War of the World: Twentieth-Century Conflict and the Descent of the West. New York: Penguin Press. p. 177. ISBN 1-59420-100-5.  ^ "A Letter from The International Association of Genocide
Genocide
Scholars" (PDF). Genocide
Genocide
Watch. 13 June 2005.  ^ a b Rummel, RJ (1 April 1998), " The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Comparative and Historical Perspective", The Journal of Social Issues, 3 (2)  ^ "For Turkey, denying an Armenian genocide is a question of identity". america.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 13 December 2015.  ^ Renwick Monroe, Kristen (2012). Ethics in an Age of Terror and Genocide: Identity and Moral Choice. Princeton University
Princeton University
Press. p. 13. ISBN 0-691-15143-1. Retrieved 17 June 2016.  Loytomaki, Stiina (2014). Law and the Politics of Memory: Confronting the Past. Routledge. p. 31. ISBN 978-1-136-00736-1. To date, more than 20 countries in the world have officially recognized the events as genocide and most historians and genocide scholars accept this view.  ^ Frey, Rebecca Joyce (2009). Genocide
Genocide
and International Justice. Infobase Publishing. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-8160-7310-8. Retrieved 15 April 2016.  ^ Herzig, Edmund; Kurkchiyan, Marina (2004). The Armenians: Past and Present in the Making of National Identity. Routledge. p. 47. ISBN 978-1-135-79837-6.  Khachaturian, Lisa (2011). Cultivating Nationhood in Imperial Russia: The Periodical Press and the Formation of a Modern Armenian Identity. Transaction Publishers. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-4128-1372-3.  ^ Adalian, Rouben Paul (2010). Historical Dictionary of Armenia
Armenia
(2nd ed.). Scarecrow Press. p. 337. ISBN 978-0-8108-7450-3.  ^ Barsoumian, Hagop (1982), "The Dual Role of the Armenian Amira Class within the Ottoman Government and the Armenian Millet (1750–1850)", in Braude, Benjamin; Lewis, Bernard, Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire: The Functioning of a Plural Society, I, New York: Holmes & Meier  ^ a b Barsoumian, Hagop (1997), "The Eastern Question and the Tanzimat Era", in Hovannisian, Richard G, The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, II: Foreign Dominion to Statehood: The Fifteenth Century to the Twentieth Century, New York: St. Martin's, pp. 175–201, ISBN 0-312-10168-6  ^ (in Armenian) Hambaryan, Azat S. (1981). "Հայաստանի սոցիալ-տնտեսական և քաղաքական դրությունը 1870–1900 թթ." [Armenia's social-economic and political situation, 1870–1900] in Հայ Ժողովրդի Պատմություն [History of the Armenian People], ed. Tsatur Aghayan et al. Yerevan: Armenian Academy of Sciences, vol. 6, p. 22. ^ a b Gábor Ágoston; Bruce Alan Masters (21 May 2010). Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. Infobase Publishing. p. 185. ISBN 978-1-4381-1025-7.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Balakian, Peter (2003). The Burning Tigris: The Armenian Genocide
Genocide
and America's Response. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-019840-0.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Akçam, Taner (2006). A Shameful Act: The Armenian Genocide
Genocide
and the Question of Turkish Responsibility. New York: Metropolitan Books. ISBN 0-8050-7932-7.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j Dadrian, Vahakn N (1995). The History of the Armenian Genocide: Ethnic Conflict from the Balkans
Balkans
to Anatolia
Anatolia
to the Caucasus. Oxford: Berghahn Books. ISBN 1-57181-666-6.  ^ Suny, Ronald Grigor (1993). Looking toward Ararat Armenia
Armenia
in modern history. Bloomington: Indiana university press. p. 101. ISBN 0253207738.  ^ "Article 16", Treaty of San Stefano, As the evacuation of the Russian troops of the territory they occupy in Armenia ... might give rise to conflicts and complications detrimental to the maintenance of good relations between the two countries, the Sublime Porte engaged to carry into effect, without further delay, the improvements and reforms demanded by local requirements in the provinces inhabited by Armenians
Armenians
and to guarantee their security from Kurds
Kurds
and Circassians.  ^ Elik, Suleyman (2013). Iran- Turkey
Turkey
Relations, 1979-2011: Conceptualising the Dynamics of Politics, Religion and Security in Middle-Power States. Routledge. p. 12. ISBN 9781136630880.  ^ Nalbandian, Louise (1963), The Armenian Revolutionary Movement: The Development of Armenian Political Parties through the Nineteenth Century, Berkeley: University of California Press, ISBN 0520009142  Libaridian, Gerard (2011). "What was Revolutionary about Armenian Revolutionary Parties in the Ottoman Empire?". In Suny, Ronald; et al. A Question of Genocide: Armenians
Armenians
and Turks at the End of the Ottoman Empire. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 82–112. ISBN 9780195393743.  ^ "The Graphic". 7 December 1895. p. 35. Retrieved 5 February 2018 – via The British Newspaper Archive.  ^ "Armenian Genocide". history.com. History.  The German Foreign Ministry operative, Ernst Jackh, estimated that 200,000 Armenians
Armenians
were killed and a further 50,000 expelled from the provinces during the Hamidian unrest. French diplomats placed the figures at 250,000 killed. The German pastor Johannes Lepsius
Johannes Lepsius
was more meticulous in his calculations, counting the deaths of 88,000  Armenians
Armenians
and the destruction of 2,500 villages, 645 churches and monasteries, and the plundering of hundreds of churches, of which 328 were converted into mosques. ^ " Young Turk
Young Turk
Revolution". matrix.msu.edu. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 13 December 2015.  ^ "Details of Slaughter Received". New York Times. 5 May 1909. Retrieved 17 February 2018.  Cited in Shirinian, George N. (13 February 2017). Genocide
Genocide
in the Ottoman Empire: Armenians, Assyrians, and Greeks, 1913-1923. Berghahn Books. p. 121. ISBN 9781785334337.  ^ "30,000 Killed in massacres; Conservative estimate of victims of Turkish fanaticism in Adana
Adana
Vilayet". The New York Times. 25 April 1909.  ^ Walker, Christopher J. " World War I
World War I
and the Armenian Genocide". The Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times. II. p. 244.  ^ "La Turchia in guerra " in "Pro Familia", Milanօ, 17 Geniano, 1915 pp. 38-42 "Berliner Morgenpost", " Der Heilige Krieg der Muselmanen", 14 November 1914 Ludke T., Jihad
Jihad
made in Germany, Ottoman and German Propaganda and Intelligence Operations in the First Word War, Transaction Publishers, 2005, pp. 12-13 Vahakn Dadrian, The History of the Armenian Genocide. Ethnic Conflict from the Balkans
Balkans
to Anatolia
Anatolia
to eh Caucasus, Berghahn Books, Oxford, 1995, pp. 3-6 ^ Suny, Ronald Grigor (2015). "They Can Live in the Desert but Nowhere Else": A History of the Armenian Genocide. Princeton University
Princeton University
Press. p. 244. ISBN 1400865581.  ^ Toynbee, Arnold Joseph; Bryce, James Bryce (1915). Armenian atrocities, the murder of a nation. University of California Libraries. London, New York [etc.] : Hodder & Stoughton. pp. 81–82.  ^ a b c d e f Morgenthau, Henry (2010) [First published 1918]. Ambassador Morgenthau's Story: A Personal Account of the Armenian Genocide. Cosimo, Inc. ISBN 978-1-61640-396-6. Retrieved 15 April 2016.  ^ Hinterhoff, Eugene. Persia: The Stepping Stone To India. Marshall Cavendish Illustrated Encyclopedia of World War I. iv. pp. 153–57.  ^ Ugur Ungor; Mehmet Polatel (9 June 2011). Confiscation and Destruction: The Young Turk
Young Turk
Seizure of Armenian Property. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 65. ISBN 978-1-4411-1020-6. ...were rounded up and deported to the interior where most were murdered.  ^ Heather Rae (15 August 2002). State Identities and the Homogenisation of Peoples. Cambridge University Press. p. 160. ISBN 978-0-521-79708-5. on the night of 23–24 April 1915 with the arrest of hundreds of intellectuals and leaders of the Armenian community in [...] They were deported to Anatolia
Anatolia
where they were put to death.  ^ Steven L. Jacobs (2009). Confronting Genocide: Judaism, Christianity, Islam. Lexington Books. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-7391-3589-1. On 24 April 1915 the Ministry of the Interior ordered the arrest of Armenian parliamentary deputies, former ministers, and some intellectuals. Thousands were arrested, including 2,345 in the capital, most of whom were subsequently executed ...  ^ Alan Whitehorn (26 May 2015). The Armenian Genocide: The Essential Reference Guide. ABC-CLIO. p. 139. ISBN 978-1-61069-688-3. That particular date was chosen because on April 24, 1915, the Ottoman Young Turk
Young Turk
government began deporting hundreds of Armenian leaders and intellectuals from Constantinople (Istanbul); most were later murdered en masse.  ^ Emmanuel Sampath Nelson (2005). The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Multiethnic American Literature: A - C. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 205. ISBN 978-0-313-33060-5. On the night of April 24, 1915, the brightest representatives of the Armenian intellectual elite of Constantinople, including writers, musicians, politicians, and scientists were arrested and brutally massacred.  ^ Motta, Giuseppe (2014). Less Than Nations: Volume 1 and 2 : Central-Eastern European minorities after WWI. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 11–2. ISBN 1443858595.  ^ "MILLION ARMENIANS KILLED OR IN EXILE; American Committee on Relief Says Victims of Turks Are Steadily Increasing. POLICY OF EXTERMINATION More Atrocities Detailed in Support of Charge That Turkey
Turkey
Is Acting Deliberately". The New York Times. 15 December 1915. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 31 January 2018.  ^ a b c d e f g Fisk, Robert (2005). The Great War for Civilisation: The Conquest of the Middle East. New York: Alfred A Knopf. ISBN 1-84115-007-X.  ^ a b c Fromkin, David (1989). A Peace to End All Peace: The Fall of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and the Creation of the Modern Middle East. New York: Avon Books. ISBN 0-8050-6884-8.  ^ Theodore Roosevelt, Letters and Speeches, New York: Library of America, 2004, p. 736. See Rosen, Ruth. "The hidden holocaust". San Francisco Chronicle. 15 December 2003. ^ Kabacali, Alpay (1994). Talat Paşa'nın hatıraları [Talaat Pasha's memoirs] (in Turksih). İletişim Yayınları. ISBN 9789754700459. CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link) ^ "Ermeni Meselesi" (PDF) (in Turkish). Hist.net. 11 March 2001. p. 12.  ^ Akçam, Taner (2004). From empire to republic: Turkish nationalism and the Armenian genocide. Zed Books. p. 174. ISBN 978-1-84277-527-1.  ^ Arango, Tim (22 April 2017). "'Sherlock Holmes of Armenian Genocide' Uncovers Lost Evidence". The New York Times. United States. Retrieved 24 April 2017.  "Recently Discovered Telegram Reveals Evidence For Armenian Genocide". All things Considered. United States: National Public Radio. 24 April 2017. Retrieved 24 April 2017.  Mandell, Ariane (23 April 2017). "Lost Evidence of Armenian Genocide Discovered in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Archive". The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Post. Israel. Retrieved 24 April 2017.  ^ US Library of Congress, George Grantham Bain Collection Photo ID LC-USZ62-48100 " Syria
Syria
- Aleppo
Aleppo
- Armenian woman kneeling beside dead child in field "within sight of help and safety at Aleppo" ^ a b "Exiled Armenians
Armenians
starve in the desert; Turks drive them like slaves, American committee hears ;- Treatment raises death rate". The New York Times. 8 August 1916. Archived from the original on 2 February 2012.  ^ Danieli, Yael (1998). International Handbook of Multigenerational Legacies of Trauma. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 23. ISBN 9780306457388. [Victims] were often held without food for days so they would be too weak to escape  ^ a b Bartrop, Paul R.; Jacobs, Steven Leonard. Modern Genocide: The Definitive Resource and Document Collection. ABC-CLIO. p. 64. ISBN 1-61069-364-7.  ^ Horvitz, Leslie Alan; Catherwood, Christopher (2014). Encyclopedia of War Crimes and Genocide. Infobase Publishing. p. 26. ISBN 9781438110295.  Primary source: " Armenians
Armenians
are sent to perish in desert; Turks accused of plan to exterminate whole population; people of Karahissar massacred". The New York Times. 18 August 1915.  ^ "Génocide arménien: le scénario". l'Histoire (in French). 1 April 2009.  ^ Von Joeden-Forgey, Elisa (2010). "Gender and Genocide". In Donald Bloxham, A. Dirk Moses. The Oxford Handbook of Genocide
Genocide
Studies. Oxford University Press. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-19-923211-6.  ^ Akçam, Taner (2012). The Young Turks' Crime against Humanity: The Armenian Genocide
Genocide
and Ethnic Cleansing in the Ottoman Empire. Princeton University
Princeton University
Press. pp. 312–15. ISBN 978-0-691-15333-9.  ^ Gust, Wolfgang (2013). The Armenian Genocide: Evidence from the German Foreign Office Archives, 1915–1916. Berghahn Books. pp. 26–27. ISBN 978-1-78238-143-3.  ^ "L'extermination des déportés Arméniens ottomans dans les camps de concentration de Syrie-Mésopotamie (1915–1916)". imprescriptible.fr (in French). Retrieved 17 June 2016.  ^ Kotek, Joël; Rigoulot, Pierre (2000). Le siècle des camps (in French). JC Lattès. ISBN 2-7096-4155-0.  ^ Kaiser, Hilmar (2010). "18. Genocide
Genocide
at the Twilight of the Ottoman Empire". In Donald Bloxham. The Oxford Handbook of Genocide
Genocide
Studies. A. Dirk Moses. OUP Oxford. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-19-161361-6. Retrieved 15 April 2016.  ^ Gust, Wolfgang (2013). The Armenian Genocide: Evidence from the German Foreign Office Archives, 1915–191. Berghahn Books. pp. 653–54. ISBN 978-1-78238-143-3.  ^ "Fact sheet: The Plan for the Armenian Genocide". Knights of Vartan Armenian Research Center, The University of Michigan-Dearborn. Archived from the original on 21 August 2014.  ^ Dadrian, Vahakn (November 1991). "The Documentation of the World War I Armenian Massacres in the Proceedings of the Turkish Military Tribunal". International Journal of Middle East Studies. 23 (4): 549–76 (560). doi:10.1017/S0020743800023412. JSTOR 163884.  ^ Kevorkian, Raymond (2011). The Armenian Genocide: A Complete History. I.B.Tauris. p. 432. ISBN 0857730207.  ^ Rummel, Rudolf J. Genocide
Genocide
never again (book 5) (PDF). Llumina Press. ISBN 1-59526-075-7. Retrieved 17 June 2016.  ^ Guenter Lewy (Fall 2005). "Revisiting the Armenian Genocide". Middle East Quarterly.  ^ a b Auron, Yair (2000). "The Banality of Indifference: Zionism and the Armenian Genocide". New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers.  ^ British Foreign Office
British Foreign Office
371/2781/264888, Appendices B., p. 6. ^ Takvimi Vekayi, No. 3540, 5 May 1919. ^ McClure, Samuel S. Obstacles to Peace. Boston, New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1917, pp. 400–01. ^ a b Viscount Bryce (1916). "The Treatment of Armenians
Armenians
in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
1915–16: Documents presented to Viscount Grey of Falloden, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs". New York and London: GP Putnam's Sons, for His Majesty's Stationery Office.  "Death toll of the Armenian Massacres". Encyclopædia Britannica.  ^ a b c Charny, Israel
Israel
W.; Tutu, Desmond; Wiesenthal, Simon (2000). Encyclopedia of genocide (Repr ed.). Oxford: ABC-Clio. p. 95. ISBN 0-87436-928-2.  ^ Kiernan, Ben (2007). Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide
Genocide
and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur. Yale University Press. pp. 411–2. ISBN 0300100981.  ^ Winter, Jay (2004). America and the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
of 1915. Cambridge University Press. p. 81. ISBN 978-1-139-45018-8.  ^ "Turks Slay 14,000 In One Massacre". Toronto Globe. 26 August 1915. p. 1.  ^ 1945-, Shirinian, Lorne, (1999). Quest for closure : the Armenian genocide and the search for justice in Canada. Kingston, Ont.: Blue Heron Press. p. 63. ISBN 0920266169. OCLC 45618448.  ^ Takvimi Vekdyi, No. 3616, 6 August 1919, p. 2. ^ Akçam 2012, p. 312. ^ a b c Vahakn N. Dadrian, The Role of Turkish Physicians in the World War I Genocide
Genocide
of Ottoman Armenians
Armenians
. The Holocaust
The Holocaust
and Genocide Studies 1, no. 2 (1986), pp. 169–92. (via HeinOnline) ^ Dadrian, Vahakn N. "The Turkish Military Tribunal's Prosecution of the Authors of the Armenian Genocide: Four Major Court-Martial Series". Holocaust and Genocide
Genocide
Studies, 11(1), 1997, pp. 28–59. Genocide
Genocide
Study Project, HF Guggenheim Foundation, in The Holocaust
The Holocaust
and Genocide
Genocide
Studies, Volume 11, Number 1, Spring 1997. ^ Baron, Jeremy Hugh. "Genocidal Doctors". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. November 1999, 92, pp. 590–93. ^ Bayur, Yusuf Hikmet, Türk İnkılabı Tarihi. Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi, 1983, vol. 3, pt. 3, as cited in Dadrian, History of the Armenian Genocide, pp. 223–24. ^ Üngör & Polatel 2011, p. 74. ^ a b Avedian, Vahagn (August 2012). "State Identity, Continuity, and Responsibility: The Ottoman Empire, the Republic of Turkey
Republic of Turkey
and the Armenian Genocide" (PDF). European Journal of International Law. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. 23 (3): 797–820. doi:10.1093/ejil/chs056. ISSN 0938-5428.  ^ Baghdjian, Kevork K. (2010). A.B. Gureghian, ed. The Confiscation of Armenian properties by the Turkish Government Said to be Abandoned. Printing House of the Armenian Catholicosate of Cilicia. p. 275. ISBN 978-9953-0-1702-0.  ^ Turabian, Hagop (1962). L'Arménie et le peuple arménien (PDF) (in French). Paris, France: Katcherian. pp. 265–7.  ^ Marashlian, Levon (1999). Richard G. Hovannisian, ed. Finishing the Armenian Genocide: Cleansing Turkey
Turkey
of Armenian survivors. Wayne State University Press. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-8143-2777-7.  ^ Winter, Jay, ed. (2003). America and the Armenian genocide of 1915. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-511-16382-1.  ^ Üngör & Polatel 2011, p. 59. ^ Üngör & Polatel 2011, p. 80. ^ Ungor, U. U. (2008). Seeing like a nation-state: Young Turk
Young Turk
social engineering in Eastern Turkey, 1913–50. Journal of Genocide Research, 10(1), 15–39. ^ Akçam, Taner (1996). Armenien und der Völkermord: Die Istanbuler Prozesse und die Türkische Nationalbewegung (in German). Hamburg: Hamburger Edition. p. 185.  ^ Bedrosyan, Raffi (7 January 2016). "The Implications of Turkey's Renewed War on the Kurds". Armenian Weekly.  ^ Gunnar Heinsohn: Lexikon der Völkermorde. Reinbek 1998. Rowohlt Verlag. p. 80 (German) Recognizing the 81st Anniversary of the Armenian Genocide. United States Government Printing Office. Retrieved 21 January 2013 Armenian Genocide
Genocide
Survivors Remember. Queens Gazette. Retrieved 21 January 2013 ^ Libaridian, Gerald J. (2007). Modern Armenia
Armenia
people, nation, state. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers. pp. 134–35. ISBN 1-4128-1351-4.  ^ Public Record Office, Foreign Office, 371/4174/136069 in Dadrian 1995, p. 342 ^ Grothusen, Klaus Detlev (1985). Türkei. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. p. 35. ISBN 3525362048.  ^ a b Bonello 2008. ^ Yarwood, Lisa (2011). "Armenian Massacre 1915". State accountability under international law : holding states accountable for a breach of "jus cogens" norms. Abingdon: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-81335-2.  ^ Turkey's EU Minister, Judge Giovanni Bonello
Giovanni Bonello
And the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
- 'Claim about Malta Trials is nonsense'. The Malta Independent. 19 April 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2013 ^ Lemkin, Raphael (April 1946). "Genocide". American Scholar. 15 (2): 227–30. Retrieved 20 April 2015.  ^ a b c Bloxham, Donald (2005). "The Great Game of Genocide: Imperialism, Nationalism, and the Destruction of the Ottoman Armenians". Oxford: Oxford University Press.  ^ Robert Marrus, Michael (2002). The Unwanted: European Refugees from the First World War Through the Cold War. Temple University Press. pp. 83–84. ISBN 1-4399-0551-7.  ^ Morgenthau, Henry (2003). Balakian, Peter, ed. Ambassador Morgenthau's story. Detroit, Mich.: Wayne State Univ. Press. p. xxxi. ISBN 0814329799.  ^ Oren, Michael B (2007). Power, Faith and Fantasy: America in the Middle East 1776 to the Present. New York: WW Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-33030-3.  Goldberg, Andrew. The Armenian Genocide. Two Cats Productions, 2006 ^ Suzanne E. Moranian. "The Armenian Genocide
Genocide
and American Missionary Relief Efforts", in America and the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
of 1915. Jay Winter (ed.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. ^ John G. Heidenrich (2001). How to prevent genocide: a guide for policymakers, scholars, and the concerned citizen. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-275-96987-5.  ^ "French in Armenia
Armenia
'genocide' row". BBC News. 12 October 2006. Archived from the original on 7 April 2008.  ^ Woods, Allan (6 May 2006). " Turkey
Turkey
protests Harper's marking of genocide". Ottawa Citizen. Archived from the original on 13 March 2008.  ^ Melson, Robert (1996). Revolution and genocide: on the origins of the Armenian genocide and the Holocaust (1st pbk. ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 147. ISBN 0-226-51991-0.  ^ Sarafian, Ara (13 March 2009). "Talaat Pasha's Black Book
Book
documents his campaign of race extermination, 1915–17" (PDF). Armenian Cause Foundation. The Armenian Reporter.  ^ Tavernise, Sabrina "Nearly a Million Genocide
Genocide
Victims, Covered in a Cloak of Amnesia". The New York Times, 8 March 2009. ^ "94th Anniversary of the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
at the desert of Der Zor". Armenian Orthodox Church (official website). 17 April 2009.  ^ El-Ghusein, Fà'iz (1917). Martyred Armenia. p. 7.  ^ Levene, Mark (2013). The crisis of genocide. the European rimlands, 1912-1938 (First ed.). OUP Oxford. pp. 125–6. ISBN 0191505544.  Whitehorn, Alan (2015). The Armenian Genocide: The Essential Reference Guide. ABC-CLIO. p. 78. ISBN 1610696883.  ^ Fisk, Robert (2005), The Great War for Civilisation: The Conquest of the Middle East, New York: Alfred A Knopf, ISBN 1-84115-007-X. ^ a b Christopher J. Walker (1980). Armenia, the Survival of a Nation. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-04944-7. 

Akçam, Taner (2007). A Shameful Act: The Armenian Genocide
Genocide
and the Question of Turkish Responsibility. 

^ These are according to the figures provided by Alexander Miasnikian, the President of the Council of People's Commissars of Soviet Armenia, in a telegram he sent to the Soviet Foreign Minister Georgy Chicherin in 1921. Miasnikyan's figures were broken down as follows: of the approximately 60,000 Armenians
Armenians
who were killed by the Turkish armies, 30,000 were men, 15,000 women, 5,000 children, and 10,000 young girls. Of the 38,000 who were wounded, 20,000 were men, 10,000 women, 5,000 young girls, and 3,000 children. Instances of mass rape, murder and violence were also reported against the Armenian populace of Kars and Alexandropol: See Vahakn Dadrian. (2003). The History of the Armenian Genocide: Ethnic Conflict from the Balkans
Balkans
to Anatolia
Anatolia
to the Caucasus. New York: Berghahn Books, pp. 360–61. ISBN 1-57181-666-6. ^ Original memo: "The Ambassador in France
France
(Sharp) to the Secretary of State". history.state.gov.  Cited by:

Schabas, William A. (2000). Genocide
Genocide
in international law : the crimes of crimes (1 ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. pp. 15–16. ISBN 0521787904.  Crimes Against Humanity, 23 British Yearbook of International Law (1946) p. 181

^ a b Horton, George (2008) [1926]. The Blight of Asia, An Account of the Systematic Extermination of Christian Populations by Mohammedans and of the Culpability of Certain Great Powers; with the True Story of the Burning of Smyrna. London: Gomidas Institute (Sterndale Classics). ISBN 978-1-903656-79-2.  Foreword by James W. Gerard
James W. Gerard
(1926) with a new introduction by James L. Marketos (2003 or 2008). ^ Winter, Jay, ed. (2003). America and the Armenian genocide of 1915. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 183. ISBN 978-0-511-16382-1.  ^ D., Peterson, Merrill (2004). "Starving Armenians" : America and the Armenian Genocide, 1915-1930 and after. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press. ISBN 9780813922676. OCLC 52901294.  ^ James L. Barton, Turkish Atrocities: Statements of American Missionaries on the Destruction of Christian Communities in Ottoman Turkey, 1915–1917. Gomidas Institute, 1998, ISBN 1-884630-04-9. ^ The Treatment of Armenians
Armenians
in the Ottoman Empire, 1915–1916: Documents Presented to Viscount Grey of Falloden by Viscount James Bryce and Arnold Toynbee, Uncensored Edition. Ara Sarafian
Ara Sarafian
(ed.) Princeton, New Jersey: Gomidas Institute, 2000. ISBN 0-9535191-5-5. ^ Auswärtiges Amt, West German Foreign Office Archives, K170, no. 4674, folio 63, in Balakian, The Burning Tigris, p. 186. ^ a b Dadrian, Vahakn N.; Akçam, Taner (2011). Judgment at Istanbul the Armenian genocide trials (English ed.). New York: Berghahn Books. p. 28. ISBN 0-85745-286-X.  ^ Ambrosio, Thomas (2002). Ethnic identity groups and U.S. foreign policy. Westport (Conn.): Praeger. pp. 155–6. ISBN 0275975320.  ^ Charney, Israel
Israel
(1994). The Widening Circle of Genocide. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 107. ISBN 1-4128-3965-3.  ^ Ye'or, Bat (1985). The Dhimmi: Jews and Christians Under Islam. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 95. ISBN 1-61147-079-X.  ^ a b c d Dabag, Mihran (2007). "The Decisive Generation: Self-authorization and delegations in deciding a genocide". In Kinloch, Graham C. Genocide : Approaches, Case Studies, And Responses. New York: Algora Pub. pp. 113–135. ISBN 0875863817. OCLC 437191890.  ^ Robert Fisk
Robert Fisk
(21 October 2012). "Photograph links Germans to 1915 Armenia
Armenia
genocide". London: The Independent.  ^ Armin T. Wegner
Armin T. Wegner
e gli Armeni in Anatolia, 1915: Immagini e testimonianze = Armin T. Wegner
Armin T. Wegner
and the Armenians
Armenians
in Anatolia, 1915 : images and testimonies, Milan, Guerini, 1996. See also Wegner. "Photo collection". Armenian Genocide.  ^ Nazer, James (1968). The first genocide of the 20th century: the story of the Armenian massacres in text and pictures. T & T Publishing, inc. p. 123.  ^ "Wegner Biographie" (in German). DE.  ^ Der Mugrdechian, Barlow (May 2000). ""Destination Nowhere" Premieres in Fresno". Hye Sharzhoom. Archived from the original on 20 September 2003.  ^ a b c Dadrian, Vahakn N. (1991). Documentation of the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
in Turkish Sources. Institute on the Holocaust and Genocide.  ^ Akçam, Taner (2004). From empire to republic: Turkish nationalism and the Armenian genocide. Zed Books. p. 158. ISBN 978-1-84277-527-1.  ^ Karakachian, Vahakn (2 April 2015). "Interview With Ara Sarafian, Director of the Gomidas Institute". Horizon Weekly.  ^ Ahmet Refik (transcribed by Hamide Koyukan), Kafkas Yolunda İki Komite İki Kıtal, Ankara, Kebikeç Yayınları, 1994, ISBN 975-7981-00-1, p. 27. ^ Insel, Ahmet (February 2009). "'This Conduct Was a Crime Against Humanity': An Evaluation of the Initiative to Apologize to the Armenians". Birikim. Retrieved 10 June 2017.  "Eye Witnesses Tell The Story". Greek America. Cosmos Communications Group. 4 (1–7): 36. 1998.  ^ a b Najmuddin; Najmuddin, Dilshad; Shahzad (2006). Armenia: A Resume with Notes on Seth's Armenians
Armenians
in India. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 1-4669-5461-2.  ^ Fisk, Robert (2008). The age of the warrior selected essays. New York: Nation Books. p. 57. ISBN 0-7867-3180-X.  Rettman, Andrew (22 December 2011). "Franco-Turkish relations hit new low on genocide bill". EUobserver.  Jerjian, George (2003). The truth will set us free: Armenians
Armenians
and Turks reconciled. GJ Communication. p. 46.  ^ "Allies Reject Turkey's Plea". The New York Times. 26 June 1919.  ^ "Turkish Statesman Denounces Atrocities: Cherif Pasha Says Young Turks Long Planned to Exterminate the Armenians" (PDF). The New York Times. 10 October 1915. Retrieved 15 April 2016. II-19:3,4 [dead link] ^ "Türk Schindler'i: Vali Celal Bey". NTVMSNBC (in Turkish). 4 August 2010.  ^ a b Akçam 2012, p. 425. ^ a b c Derogy, Jacques (1990). Resistance and Revenge: The Armenian Assassination of the Turkish Leaders Responsible for the 1915 Massacres and Deportations. Transaction Publishers. p. 32. ISBN 1-4128-3316-7.  ^ "Halep Valisi Celal'in Anılar", Vakit, 12 December 1918, Turkish text: Nehirde su yerine kan akıyor ve binlerce masum çocuk, kabahatsız ihtiyar, aciz kadınlar, kuvvetli gençler bu kan cereyanı içinde ademe doğru akıp gidiyorlardı. ^ Bedrosyan, Raffi (29 July 2013). "The Real Turkish Heroes of 1915". The Armenian Weekly.  ^ Hull, Isabel V. (2013). Absolute Destruction: Military Culture and the Practices of War in Imperial Germany. Cornell University Press. p. 273. ISBN 0-8014-6708-X.  ^ Kévorkian, Raymond H. (2010). The Armenian genocide : a complete history (Reprinted. ed.). London: I. B. Tauris. p. 417. ISBN 1-84885-561-3.  ^ Kieser, Hans-Lukas (2006). Turkey
Turkey
Beyond Nationalism Towards Post-Nationalist Identities. London: I.B. Tauris & Co. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-85771-757-3.  ^ Akçam, Taner (2004). From empire to republic : Turkish nationalism and the Armenian genocide (2. impr. ed.). New York: Zed Books. p. 200. ISBN 1-84277-526-X.  ^ Babikian, Aris (3 June 1998). "Wall of silence built around Armenian genocide". The Ottawa Citizen. p. A14.  Babikian, Aris (16 January 2001). "Clear evidence of Turkish responsibility for Armenian genocide". The Daily Telegraph. London (UK). p. 27.  ^ "Kemal Promises More Hangings of Political Antagonists in Turkey". Los Angeles Examiner. 1 August 1926. Archived from the original on 11 April 2015.  ^ Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi Gizli Celse Zabıtları, Vol. I, Ankara, Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları, 1985, p. 177, Turkish text: Tehcir meselesi, biliyorsunuz ki dünyayı velveleye veren ve hepimizi katil telâkki ettiren bir vaka idi. Bu yapılmazdan evvel âlem-i nasraniyetin bunu hazmetmeyeceği ve bunun için bütün gayz ve kinini bize tevcih edeceklerini biliyorduk. Neden katillik ünvanını nefsimize izafe ettik? Neden o kadar azim, müşkül bir dava içine girdik? Sırf canımızdan daha aziz ve daha mukaddes bildiğimiz vatanımızın istikbalini taht-ı emniyete almak için yapılmış şeylerdir. ^ Special
Special
Cable to The New York Times
The New York Times
(23 February 1915). "Massacre By Turks in Caucasus
Caucasus
Towns; Armenians
Armenians
Led Out into the Streets and Shot or Drowned – Old Friends Not Spared". Select.nytimes.com.  ^ New York Times
New York Times
Dispatch. Russians Slaughter Turkish IIIrd Army: Give No Quarter to Men Held Responsible for the Massacre of Armenians. The New York Times, 6 March 1916. ^ a b c d e Avedian, Vahagn (21 May 2008). "The Armenian Genocide 1915: From a Neutral Small State's Perspective: Sweden" (PDF). Uppsala University. Retrieved 17 June 2016.  ^ "Armenia". Norwegian State Archive. Retrieved 17 June 2016.  ^ a b "Danish Photo Exhibit Documents Armenian Life In Ottoman Harpoot and Mezreh; Diaries of Maria Jacobsen
Maria Jacobsen
to Be Issued". Armenian Reporter. 34 (2): 22. 13 October 2001. ISSN 1074-1453.  ^ a b Naguib, edited by Nefissa; Okkenhaug, Inger Marie (2008). Interpreting welfare and relief in the Middle East ([Online-Ausg.]. ed.). Leiden: Brill. ISBN 90-04-16436-7. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Sarafian (2001). Jacobsen, Maria, ed. Diaries of a Danish missionary : Harpoot, 1907–1919. introd. by Ara. Transl. by Kirsten Vind. Princeton, NJ [u.a.]: Gomidas Inst. ISBN 1-903656-07-9.  ^ Bjørnlund, Matthias (2008). "Karen Jeppe, Aage Meyer Benedictsen, and the Ottoman Armenians: National survival in imperial and colonial settings". Haigazian Armenological Review. 28: 9–43.  ^ Bjørnlund, Matthias (Fall 2006). "'When the Cannons Talk, the Diplomats Must be Silent' – A Danish diplomat in Constantinople during the Armenian genocide". Genocide
Genocide
Studies and Prevention. 1 (2): 197–223. doi:10.3138/1567-7412-6rq6-441q.  ^ Østrup, Johannes (1938). Erindringer (in Danish). H. Hirsch-sprungs forlag. p. 118.  ^ "The Jihad
Jihad
Rampant in Persia by Rev. Robert M. Labree-reporting from Tabriz, Persia". Cilicia.com. July 1915. Retrieved 17 June 2016.  ^ a b "Jamalzadeh, Mohammad-Ali". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 17 June 2016.  ^ "International Association of Genocide
Genocide
Scholars Officially Recognizes Ottoman Genocides Against the Armenians, Assyrians, and Hellenics". 11 March 2008.  ^ Yair Auron. The Banality of Denial: Israel
Israel
and the Armenian Genocide. Transaction Publishers, 2004. p. 9: "...when Raphael Lemkin coined the word genocide in 1944 he cited the 1915 annihilation of Armenians
Armenians
as a seminal example of genocide" ^ William Schabas. Genocide
Genocide
in international law: the crimes of crimes. Cambridge University Press, 2000. p. 25: "Lemkin's interest in the subject dates to his days as a student at Lvov University, when he intently followed attempts to prosecute the perpetration of the massacres of the Armenians" ^ Dirk Moses, A. (2004). Genocide
Genocide
and Settler Society: Frontier Violence and Stolen Indigenous Children in Australian History. Berghahn Books. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-57181-410-4. Retrieved 15 April 2016. Indignant that the perpetrators of the Armenian genocide had largely escaped prosecution, Lemkin, who was a young state prosecutor in Poland, began lobbying in the early 1930s for international law to criminalize the destruction of such groups.  ^ "Coining a Word and Championing a Cause: The Story of Raphael Lemkin". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
(USHMM), Holocaust Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 15 June 2010. Lemkin's memoirs detail early exposure to the history of Ottoman attacks against Armenians
Armenians
(which most scholars believe constitute genocide), antisemitic pogroms, and other histories of group-targeted violence as key to forming his beliefs about the need for legal protection of groups.  ^ " Genocide
Genocide
Background". Jewish
Jewish
World Watch. The Armenian genocide (1915–1923) was the first of the 20th century to capture world-wide attention; in fact, Raphael Lemkin
Raphael Lemkin
coined his term "genocide" in reference to the mass murder of ethnic Armenians
Armenians
by the Young Turk government of the Ottoman Empire.  ^ "An Open Letter Concerning Historians Who Deny the Armenian Genocide" (PDF). International Association of Genocide
Genocide
Scholars. 1 October 2006. Retrieved 17 June 2016.  ^ "The relationship between the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
and the Holocaust is apparent in two periods of history. The first is the debate that raged in Germany regarding the slaughter of Armenians
Armenians
by its ally the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in the early 1920s. The debate came down in favor of genocide, and by the time the Nazis came to power, violence against the Armenians
Armenians
had been understood and even outright justified, already for decades. The second period is when the Nazis were in power and looked to the post-ethnic cleansing Turkey
Turkey
as a role model."; Ihrig, Stefan; How the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
Shaped the Holocaust; 2016; http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2016/01/24/how-the-armenian-genocide-shaped-the-holocaust.html ^ " Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
- Statements on Record Relating to the Armenian Genocide". Armenian-genocide.org. 22 August 1939. Retrieved 14 April 2016.  ^ Suny, Ronald (2011). A question of genocide : Armenians
Armenians
and Turks at the end of the Ottoman Empire. Oxford New York: Oxford University Press. p. 199. ISBN 0-19-978104-4.  ^ The Armenian genocide : history, politics, ethics. Hovannisian, Richard G. New York: St. Martin's Press. 1992. p. xvi. ISBN 0312048475. OCLC 23768090.  ^ Stanley, Alessandra (17 April 2006). "A PBS Documentary Makes Its Case for the Armenian Genocide, With or Without a Debate". The New York Times.  ^ Khatchig Mouradian, Explaining the Unexplainable: The Terminology Employed by the Armenian Media when Referring to 1915, The Armenian Weekly, 23 September 2006. ^ Krikor Beledian, "L'expérience de la catastrophe dans la littérature arménienne", Revue d'histoire arménienne contemporaine, no. 1, 1995, p. 131. Martine Hovanessian, "Exil et catastrophe arménienne: le difficile travail de deuil," in William Berthomière and Christine Chivallon (eds.), Les diasporas dans le monde contemporain, Paris: Karthala-MSHA, 2006, p. 231. ^ Hovhannissian, Nikolay (2005). Le génocide arménien. Yerevan: "Zangak-97". p. 5. ISBN 9993023299.  ^ Erdoğan tells Germany to look at own 'genocide' history, Yeni Şafak, 6 June 2016. "...Armenian claims of "genocide" during the 1915 events", " Turkey
Turkey
denies the alleged Armenian "genocide", [1] ^ "History group head slams 'outlandish' German resolution". aa.com.tr. 7 June 2016. Retrieved 17 June 2016.  ^ Ayda Erbal, "Mea Culpas, Negotiations, Apologias: Revisiting the 'Apology' of Turkish Intellectuals," in Birgit Schwelling (ed.), Reconciliation, Civil Society, and the Politics of Memory: Transnational Initiatives in the 20th Century, Bielefeld: Transcript, 2012, p. 88: "Seemingly unaware that any term used to refer to a historical crime of this nature is necessarily always already 'politicized,' when used in this context, just as when President Obama used the same term as a means of avoiding the word "genocide", Medz Yeghern ceases to be a private term of communal mourning for Armenians, it becomes something else: a political instrument in the hands of others." ^ a b " Turkey
Turkey
Recalls Envoys Over Armenian Genocide". International Center for Transitional Justice. 8 May 2006. Archived from the original on 3 July 2008.  ^ Bartrop, Paul R.; Leonard Jacobs, Steven (2014). Modern Genocide: The Definitive Resource and Document Collection. p. 170. ISBN 1610693647.  ^ Dadrian, Vahakn (2004). Winter, Jay, ed. America and the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
of 1915. Cambridge University Press. pp. 52–53. ISBN 1139450182.  ^ International Association of Genocide
Genocide
Scholars (13 June 2005). "Letter to Prime Minister Erdogan". Genocide
Genocide
Watch. Archived from the original on 4 June 2007.  ^ "Nobel Laureates call for tolerance, contact and cooperation between Turks and Armenians" (PDF). Elie Wiesel
Elie Wiesel
Foundation. 9 April 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 July 2007.  ^ Danielyan, Emil (10 April 2007). "Nobel Laureates Call For Armenian-Turkish Reconciliation". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Archived from the original on 2 July 2007.  Phillips, David L. (9 April 2007). "Nobel Laureates Call For Turkish-Armenian Reconciliation" (PDF). The Elie Wiesel
Elie Wiesel
Foundation for Humanity. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 June 2007.  ^ Bostom, Andrew G. (26 August 2007). "Congress Must Recognize the Armenian Genocide". American Thinker. Archived from the original on 28 August 2007. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) ^ Ye'or, Bat. Islam
Islam
and Dhimmitude. Madison, New Jersey: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2002, p. 374. ^ a b c El-Ghusein, Fà'iz (1918). Martyred Armenia. ISBN 0-87899-003-8.  ^ Toynbee, Arnold Joseph. Turkey: a Past and a Future. 1917, pp. 22–23. ^ Cameron, Fraser (2003). US Foreign Policy After the Cold War: Global Hegemon or Reluctant Sheriff?. Routledge. p. 91. ISBN 1-134-49801-2.  ^ Cohan, Sara (October 2005). "A Brief History of the Armenian Genocide" (PDF). Social Education. 69 (6): 333–37. Retrieved 10 June 2017.  Kamiya, Gary (16 October 2007), "Genocide: An inconvenient truth", Salon (opinion)  Jaschik, Scott (10 October 2007), Genocide
Genocide
Deniers, [US: History News Network  Kifner, John (7 December 2007), "Armenian Genocide
Genocide
of 1915: An Overview", The New York Times  ^ "Britain sidesteps Armenian genocide recognition a century after killings". The Guardian. 23 April 2015.  ^ " Barack Obama
Barack Obama
on the Importance of US- Armenia
Armenia
Relations". barackobama.com. 19 January 2008. Archived from the original on 4 May 2010.  ^ " Barack Obama
Barack Obama
Campaign Promise No. 511". Archived from the original on 6 May 2010.  ^ "Statement by the President on Armenian Remembrance Day - Obama" (Press release). The White House, Office of the Press Secretary. 23 April 2015. Retrieved 14 April 2016.  ^ Ahren, Raphael (24 April 2015). "Why Israel
Israel
still refuses to recognize a century-old genocide". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 14 April 2016.  ^ " Pope Francis
Pope Francis
calls armenian slaughter first genocide of the 20th century". cbc.ca. Retrieved 17 June 2016.  ^ "Armenian genocide centenary: MEPs urge Turkey
Turkey
and Armenia
Armenia
to normalize relations". European Parliament. Retrieved 17 June 2016.  ^ Turkish Historical Society, In Turkey, there is no official thesis on the Armenian issue. If there were an official thesis, now everyone would know it (Ermeni meselesinde Türkiye'nin resmi bir tezi yok. Keşke resmi tez olsaydı, şu anda herkes o tezi bilirdi). (in Turkish) ^ Dinkell, Christoph (1991). "German Officers and the Armenian Genocide". Armenian Review. 44 (1): 92. ISSN 0004-2366.  ^ Tashan, Seyfi (April 2002). "Armenian question and the Western powers". Turkish Daily News.  ^ "Turkish Embassy.org". Republic of Turkey. Archived from the original on 29 March 2006.  ^ a b Düzel, Neşe (9 September 2008). "Devlet Ermenilerden özür dilemeli I-II". HyeTert (in Turkish).  ^ "Interview with Volkan Vural". YouTube. Retrieved 17 June 2016.  ^ "Armenian Issue". Turkish General Staff. Archived from the original on 19 March 2007.  ^ "Turkey's Memory Lapse: Armenian Genocide
Genocide
Plagues Ankara
Ankara
90 Years On". Spiegel Online. Archived from the original on 27 October 2006.  ^ "Turkey's Initiative to Resolve Armenian Allegations Regarding 1915" (Press release). Embassy of Turkish Republic at Washington, D.C. Archived from the original on 20 June 2012.  ^ "Minister Oskanian Comments on Turkish Foreign Minister Abdullah Gul's Recent Remarks". Armenian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 4 November 2006. Archived from the original on 13 February 2012.  ^ "Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Vaşington Büyükelçiliği". Turkish Embassy in Washington. 1 January 2007. Archived from the original on 20 June 2012.  ^ "'1915 yılı olayları'" ['Events of 1915']. Sabah (in Turkish). 27 July 2007. Archived from the original on 17 October 2012. Erdoğan, eylülde ABD Kongresi'nin gündemine gelmesi beklenen soykırım iddialarına ilişkin genelgesinde, kamu kurumlarının, '1915 yılı olayları', '1915 yılı olayları ile ilgili Ermeni iddiaları veya varsayımları' ifadelerini kullanmalarını istedi.  ^ Derogy, Jacques (1 July 1990). Resistance and revenge: the Armenian assassination of the Turkish leaders responsible for the 1915 massacres and deportations. Transaction Publishers. p. 196. ISBN 978-0-88738-338-0. Retrieved 5 June 2017.  ^ Thornberry, Patrick. International Law and the Rights of Minorities, p. 64, fn. 27 ^ " Genocide
Genocide
Parley with Armenians
Armenians
to Proceed", The New York Times, 4 June 1982. ^ Howe, Marvine. " Turkey
Turkey
Denies it Threatened Jews Over Parley on Genocide", New York Times, 5 June 1982. ^ " Armenians
Armenians
to Take Part In Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
Seminar", The New York Times, 16 June 1982. ^ Charny, Israel, Encyclopedia of Genocide, Vol. 1, Oxford, 2000, p. 178 ^ McKenna, Kate. "Account of Armenian Massacre Provokes Diplomatic Storm", The New York Times, 3 December 1989. ^ Hulse, Carl (26 October 2007). "U.S. and Turkey
Turkey
Thwart Armenian Genocide
Genocide
Bill". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 17 January 2018.  ^ Honan, William H. "Princeton Is Accused of Fronting For the Turkish Government", The New York Times, 22 May 1996. ^ Smith, Roger W.; Markusen, Eric; Lifton, Robert Jay (1995). "Professional Ethics and the Denial of Armenian Genocide". Holocaust and Genocide
Genocide
Studies. 9 (1): 1–22. doi:10.1093/hgs/9.1.1.  "Armenian Genocide
Genocide
Cannot Be Denied", The New York Times, 2 June 1996. ^ Akınhay, Osman. "Ragıp Zarakolu: Hümanist Ekol, Benim Suç Ortağımdır". Mesele Dergi (in Turkish).  ^ a b "Turkey: Outspoken Turkish-Armenian Journalist Murdered" (Press release). Human Rights Watch. 20 January 2007. Retrieved 24 January 2007.  ^ "Turkey: Murder of journalist deplored" (Press release). Amnesty International. 19 January 2007. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 24 January 2007.  ^ Mahoney, Robert (15 June 2006). "Bad blood in Turkey" (PDF). Dangerous Assignments Spring-Summer 2006. Committee to Protect Journalists. pp. 26–28. Retrieved 17 January 2007.  ^ a b "IPI Deplores Callous Murder of Journalist in Istanbul" (Press release). International Press Institute. 22 January 2007. Archived from the original on 3 March 2007. Retrieved 24 January 2007.  ^ "Turkish-Armenian editor murdered in Istanbul" (Press release). Committee to Protect Journalists. 19 January 2007. Retrieved 24 January 2007.  ^ Corley, Felix (14 February 2002). "Ayse Nur Zarakolu". The Independent. Retrieved 26 November 2016.  ^ Rainsford, Sarah (14 December 2005). "Author's trial set to test Turkey". BBC.  ^ Matossian, Nouritza (27 February 2005). "They say 'incident'. To me it's genocide". The Observer. London. Archived from the original on 29 August 2013 – via The Guardian.  ^ "Court drops Turkish writer's case". BBC.co.uk. 23 January 2006. Retrieved 5 June 2017.  ^ "IPI Deplores Callous Murder of Journalist in Istanbul". International Press Institute. 22 January 2007. Archived from the original on 26 September 2007.  ^ "Samast'a jandarma karakolunda kahraman muamelesi" [Samast given the hero's treatment at his police station]. Radikal (in Turkish). 2 February 2007. Archived from the original on 5 February 2007.  ^ " Turkey
Turkey
Ergenekon case: Ex-army chief Basbug gets life". BBC. 5 August 2013.  ^ " Turkey
Turkey
threatens to expel 100,000 Armenians". BBC News. 17 March 2010. ^ " Turkey
Turkey
threatens to expel 100,000 Armenians
Armenians
over genocide row". The Daily Telegraph. 17 March 2010. ^ "Erdogan Threatens To Deport Armenians
Armenians
From Turkey". Asbarez. 17 March 2010.  ^ Ozinian, Alin (5 December 2009). "Report: 12,000 Armenian citizens working illegally in Turkey". Today's Zaman. Archived from the original on 29 April 2014.  ^ a b Ambrosio, Thomas. Ethnic Identity Groups and U.S. Foreign Policy. 2002, p. 12. ^ Atabaki, Touraj and Mehendale, Sanjyot. Central Asia and the Caucasus: Transnationalism and Diaspora. 2005, pp. 85–86. Kaufman, Stuart J. Modern Hatreds: The Symbolic Politics of Ethnic War. New York: Cornell University Press, 2001, p. 55. ^ Safrastyan, Ruben (29 April 2005). " Genocide
Genocide
Factor in Armenia's Foreign Policy". Global Politician. Archived from the original on 26 March 2014.  ^ Kévorkian, Raymond H. (2011). The Armenian Genocide: A Complete History. London: I.B. Tauris. p. 326. ISBN 978-1-84885-561-8.  ^ Bevan, Robert. The Destruction of Memory: Architecture at War. Reaktion Books, 2007, pp. 52–60. ^ a b c Totten, Samuel; Parsons, William S.; Charny, Israel
Israel
W. (2004). Century of Genocide: Critical Essays and Eyewitness Accounts. Psychology Press. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-415-94430-4. Retrieved 24 April 2016.  ^ a b "Armenian Genocide
Genocide
Descendants File
File
Class Action against Deutsche Bank
Deutsche Bank
and Dresdner Bank
Dresdner Bank
Announces Kabateck Brown Kellner LLP". Business Wire. 6 May 2010.  ^ Cultural Genocide
Genocide
in The Armenian Genocide
Genocide
Museum-Institute. Bevan, Robert (2006). The destruction of memory architecture at war. London: Reaktion. pp. 52–59. ISBN 1-86189-638-7.  ^ a b Theriault, Henry (April 2010). "Theriault: The Global Reparations Movement and Meaningful Resolution of the Armenian Genocide". Armenian Weekly. Archived from the original on 10 May 2010. Retrieved 6 May 2010.  ^ "Complete Report of the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
Reparations Study Group". Armenian Genocide
Genocide
Reparations Study Group. 24 March 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2018.  ^ Hairenik (30 March 2015). "Armenian Genocide
Genocide
Reparations Study Group Publishes Final Report". The Armenian Weekly. Retrieved 15 February 2018.  ^ Seferian, Nareg (1 March 2015). "The shifting focus of the Armenian Cause". Turkish Review. Archived from the original on 27 March 2016. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ De Zayas, Alfred (December 2007). "The Genocide
Genocide
against the Armenians
Armenians
1915–1923 and the relevance of the 1948 Genocide Convention". Alfred de Zayas. Archived from the original on 4 May 2010.  ^ Toriguian, Shavarsh (1988). The Armenian question and international law (2nd ed.). La Verne, Calif., U.S.A.: ULV Press. pp. 45–48. ISBN 0-911707-13-1.  ^ a b Brophy, Alfred L. (2006). Reparations: Pro & Con. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 119–20. ISBN 0-19-530408-X.  ^ Memorials to the Armenian Genocide, Armenian National Institute. ^ Freedman, Jeri (2009). The Armenian genocide. New York: Rosen Pub. Group. p. 49. ISBN 1-4042-1825-4.  ^ "The Armenian Genocide
Genocide
Museum-Institute". genocide-museum.am. Retrieved 5 June 2017.  ^ Samuel., Totten, (2008). Dictionary of genocide. Bartrop, Paul R. (Paul Robert), 1955-, Jacobs, Steven L., 1947-. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. p. 21. ISBN 9780313346422. OCLC 213486443.  ^ Sarkisyan, Henry (1975). Works of the State History History Museum of Armenia. IV: Armenian Theme in Russian Medallic Art. Yerevan: Hayastan. p. 136.  ^ Wolfgang Gerlach & William Templer (11 April 1933). "Document: Armin T. Wegner's Letter to German Chancellor Adolf Hitler, Berlin, Easter Monday, April 11, 1933 – Gerlach and Templer 8 (3): 395 – Holocaust and Genocide
Genocide
Studies". Hgs.oxfordjournals.org. Retrieved 24 August 2014.  ^ "Autorenseite Wegners" (in German). DE: Aktion Patenschaften für verbrannte Bücher. Archived from the original on 21 May 2008.  ^ Ballard, J. G. (23 April 1988). "Scheming with a smile – Review of 'Bluebeard' by Kurt Vonnegut". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 June 2017.  ^ Fatih Akin's Film on 1915 to Premiere at Venice Film Festival, Armenian Weekly ^ '1915' a creative take on Armenian genocide, Los Angeles Times ^ "'Fate of the Furious' Stays on Top; 'Unforgettable,' 'The Promise' Bomb". Reuters. Retrieved 20 May 2017.  ^ Wolfgang Höbel & Alexander Smoltczyk. "Armenian Genocide
Genocide
at the Berlin Film Festival: "The Lark Farm" Wakens Turkish Ghosts". Spiegel Online. Retrieved 18 June 2016.  ^ Herrera, Hayden (2005). Arshile Gorky: His Life and Work. Macmillan. ISBN 1-4668-1708-9.  ^ Theriault, Kim. Rethinking Arshile Gorky. Penn State Press. ISBN 0271047089.  ^ Mari Terzian. "The status of Armenian communities living in the United States". Azad-Hye. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007.  ^ Abrahamian, Line (14 September 2006). "Talking With Turks and Armenians
Armenians
About the Genocide". Reader's Digest
Reader's Digest
Canada. Archived from the original on 5 October 2006.  ^ Tankian, Serj (25 April 2015). "System Of A Down Singer on Armenian Genocide: 'We're Still Here, We're Still Alive.'". Time. Retrieved 5 June 2017.  ^ Galás, Diamanda. "Defixiones: Orders from the Dead". The San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007.  ^ Old Dominion University (18 March 2008). "Old Dominion University Calendar Diehn CREO Concert: The Synergy of Dance, Art and Music". Ww2.odu.edu.  ^ Rutherford, Laine M. "Composer and troupe pay tribute to Armenia." Virginian-Pilot 15 March 2008: E5. Rutherford, Laine M. "Tsitsernakabert: Original piece makes a powerful statement." Virginian-Pilot 19 March 2008: E5.

Further reading

Historical overviews

Akçam, Taner. A Shameful Act: The Armenian Genocide
Genocide
and the Question of Turkish Responsibility. New York: Metropolitan Books, 2007. Akçam, Taner (2012). The Young Turks' Crime Against Humanity: The Armenian Genocide
Genocide
and Ethnic Cleansing in the Ottoman Empire. Princeton University
Princeton University
Press.  Balakian, Peter. The Burning Tigris: The Armenian Genocide
Genocide
and America's Response. New York: HarperCollins, 2003. ISBN 0-06-019840-0 Bloxham, Donald. The Great Game of Genocide: Imperialism, Nationalism, and the Destruction of the Ottoman Armenians. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-19-927356-1 Dadrian, Vahakn (1995). The History of the Armenian Genocide: Ethnic Conflict from the Balkans
Balkans
to Anatolia
Anatolia
to the Caucasus. Oxford: Berghahn Books. ISBN 978-1-57181-666-5.  Dadrian, Vahakn. Warrant for Genocide: Key Elements of Turko-Armenian Conflict. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers, 2003. ISBN 1-56000-389-8 De Waal, Thomas (2015). Great Catastrophe : Armenians
Armenians
and Turks in the Shadow of Genocide. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-935069-8.  Kévorkian, Raymond. The Armenian Genocide: A Complete History. London: I.B. Tauris, 2011. ISBN 978-0-85771-930-0 Suny, Ronald Grigor. "They Can Live in the Desert but Nowhere Else": A History of the Armenian Genocide. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2015. ISBN 978-0-691-14730-7 Üngör, Uğur Ümit; Polatel, Mehmet (2011). Confiscation and destruction: The Young Turk
Young Turk
Seizure of Armenian Property. New York: e Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-4411-3578-0. 

Specific issues and comparative studies

Bobelian, Michael. Children of Armenia: A Forgotten Genocide
Genocide
and the Century-Long Struggle for Justice. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2009. Bonello, Giovanni (2008). Histories of Malta - Confessions and Transgressions, Vol.9. Fondazzjoni Patrimonju Malti. ISBN 978-99932-7-224-3.  Dadrian, Vahakn. " Genocide
Genocide
as a Problem of National and International Law: The World War I
World War I
Armenian Case and its Contemporary Legal Ramifications", Yale Journal of International Law, Volume 14, Number 2, 1989. Dadrian, Vahakn. Key Elements in the Turkish Denial of the Armenian Genocide. Toronto: Zoryan Institute, 1999. Dadrian, Vahakn. "Patterns of Twentieth Century Genocides: the Armenian, Jewish, and Rwandan Cases". Journal of Genocide
Genocide
Research, 2004, 6 (4), pp. 487–522. Göçek, Fatma Müge. Denial of Violence: Ottoman Past, Turkish Present, and Collective Violence against the Armenians, 1789–2009. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014. Hovannisian, Richard (ed.) The Armenian Genocide: History, Politics, Ethics. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992. Hovannisian, Richard. Remembrance and Denial: The Case of the Armenian Genocide. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1998. Hovannisian, Richard. The Armenian Genocide: Cultural and Ethical Legacies. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers, 2007. Hovannisian, Richard G. and Simon Payalsian (eds). Armenian Cilicia. Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publishers, 2008. Mann, Michael. The Dark Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic Cleansing. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge, UP, 2004. Melson, Robert, Revolution and Genocide: On the Origins of the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
and the Holocaust. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996. Power, Samantha. "A Problem from Hell": America and the Age of Genocide. New York: Harper Perennial 2003. Sanasarian, Eliz (1989). "Gender Distinction in the Genocide
Genocide
Process: A Preliminary Study of the Armenian Case". Holocaust and Genocide Studies. 4 (4): 449–461. doi:10.1093/hgs/4.4.449. PMID 20684116.  Üngör, Uğur Ümit (2011), The Making of Modern Turkey: Nation and State in Eastern Anatolia, 1913–1950, Oxford: Oxford University Press . Michelle Tusan, "Crimes against Humanity": Human Rights, the British Empire, and the Origins of the Response to the Armenian Genocide, American Hist. Rev. 119(1), 2014, pp 47-77

Survivors' testimonies and memory

Balakian, Grigoris. Armenian Golgotha. Translated by Peter Balakian with Aris Sevag. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2009. Bedoukian, Kerop. Some of Us Survived: The Story of an Armenian Boy. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1978. Hartunian, Abraham H. Neither to Laugh nor to Weep: A Memoir of the Armenian Genocide. Translated by Vartan Hartunian. Cambridge, MA: Armenian Heritage Press, 1986. Jacobsen, Maria. Diaries of a Danish missionary: Harpoot, 1907–1919. Princeton: Gomidas Institute, 2001. Lang, David Marshall. The Armenians: A People in Exile. London: Allen & Unwin, 1981. Miller, Donald E. and Lorna Touryan Miller. Survivors: An Oral History of the Armenian Genocide. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993. Panian, Karnig. Goodbye, Antoura: A Memoir of the Armenian Genocide. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2015. Odian, Yervant. Accursed Years: My Exile and Return from Der Zor, 1914–1919. Translated by Ara Stepan Melkonyan. London: Taderon Press, 2009. Svazlyan, Verzhine. The Armenian Genocide
Genocide
and Historical Memory. Translated by Tigran Tsulikian. Yerevan: Gitutiun Publishing House, 2004.

Former Armenian communities

Hovannisian, Richard. Armenian Van/Vaspurakan. Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publishers, 2000. Hovannisian, Richard. Armenian Baghesh/ Bitlis
Bitlis
and Taron/Mush. Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publishers, 2001. Hovannisian, Richard. Armenian Karin/Erzerum. Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publishers, 2003. Hovannisian, Richard. Armenian Sebastia/ Sivas
Sivas
and Lesser Armenia. Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publishers, 2004.

World responses and foreign testimony

Anderson, Margaret Lavinia. "'Down in Turkey, far away': Human Rights, the Armenian Massacres, and Orientalism in Wilhelmine Germany", Journal of Modern History Volume, 79, Number 1, March 2007, pp. 80–111. in JSTOR Barton, James L. Turkish Atrocities: Statements of American Missionaries on the Destruction of Christian Communities in Ottoman Turkey, 1915–1917. Ann Arbor: Gomidas Institute, 1997. Toynbee, Arnold; Bryce, James (1916). Sarafian, Ara, ed. The Treatment of Armenians
Armenians
in the Ottoman Empire, 1915–1916: Documents Presented to Viscount Grey of Falloden, Uncensored ed. Hodder and Stoughton.  Dadrian, Vahakn N. Documentation of the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
in Turkish Sources. Jerusalem: Institute on the Holocaust and Genocide, 1991. Davis, Leslie A. The Slaughterhouse Province: An American Diplomat's Report on the Armenian Genocide, 1915–1917. ew Rochelle, N.Y.: A.D. Caratzas, 1989. Hovannisian, Richard G. "The Allies and Armenia, 1915–18". Journal of Contemporary History 1968 3(1): 145–68. ISSN 0022-0094 Fulltext: in Jstor Libaridian, Gerard. "The Ideology of the Young Turk
Young Turk
Movement", pp. 37–49. In Gerard Libaridian (Ed.) A Crime of Silence, The Armenian Genocide: Permanent Peoples' Tribunal. London: Zed Books, 1985. Morgenthau, Henry (1918). Ambassador Morgenthau's Story. Doubleday, Page. . Nassibian, Akaby (1984). Britain and the Armenian Question, 1915–1923. Croom Helm. ISBN 978-0-7099-1820-2. . Peterson, Merrill D. (2004). "Starving Armenians": America and the Armenian Genocide, 1915–1930 and After. University of Virginia Press. ISBN 978-0-8139-2267-6. . Power, Samantha (2003). "A Problem from Hell": America and the Age of Genocide. Harper. . Severance, Gordon; Severance, Diana (2003). Against the Gates of Hell: The Life & Times of Henry Perry, a Christian Missionary in a Moslem World. University Press of America. ISBN 978-0-7618-2593-7. . Sarafian, Ara, ed. (2004), United States Official Documents on the Armenian Genocide, 1915–1917, Princeton, New Jersey: Gomidas . Winter, Jay, ed. (2004). America and the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
of 1915. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-139-45018-8. 

Memory and historiography

Auron, Yair [Oron, Ya'ir] (2005) [2003], The Banality of Denial: Israel
Israel
and the Armenian Genocide, Transaction . Bevan, Robert (2006), "Cultural Cleansing: Who Remembers the Armenians?", The Destruction of Memory: Architecture at War, pp. 25–60, ISBN 1-86189-319-1 . Fatma Müge Göçek and Donald Bloxham. "The Armenian Genocide" in The Historiography of Genocide. Dan Stone, ed. London: Palgrave Macmillan. 2008, pp. 344–72. online Gutman, David. "Ottoman Historiography and the End of the Genocide Taboo: Writing the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
into Late Ottoman History." Journal of the Ottoman and Turkish Studies Association 2:1 (2015) pp 167–183. online[permanent dead link] Hovannisian, Richard G, ed. (1999), Remembrance and Denial: The Case of the Armenian Genocide , 316 pp. Khatchadourian, Raffi. "Letter from Turkey. A Century of Silence." The New Yorker, 5 January 2015, pp. 32–53. Laycock, Jo. "Beyond National Narratives? Centenary Histories, the First World War and the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
Armenian Genocide." Revolutionary Russia 28.2 (2015): 93-117. Der Matossian, Bedross (Winter 2015), "Explaining the Unexplainable: Recent Trends in the Armenian Genocide
Genocide
Historiography" (PDF), Journal of Levantine Studies, 5 (2): 143–166, retrieved 11 June 2017  Melson, Robert (1982), "A Theoretical Inquiry into the Armenian Massacres of 1894–1896", Comparative Studies in Society and History, 24 (3): 481–509, doi:10.1017/S0010417500010100 . ——— (1989), "Revolutionary Genocide: On the causes of the Armenian genocide of 1915 and the Holocaust", Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Hein online, 4 (2): 161–74, doi:10.1093/hgs/4.2.161 . Peroomian, Rubina (1993), Literary Responses to Catastrophe: A Comparison of the Armenian and the Jewish
Jewish
Experience .

Documentaries

Screamers (video)format= requires url= (help) (documentary).  access-date= requires url= (help) "The Armenian Genocide
Genocide
I THE GREAT WAR - Week 37". The Great War. 9 April 2015. Retrieved 2 February 2018. 

External links

Find more aboutArmenian Genocideat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Learning resources from Wikiversity Data from Wikidata

The Armenian Genocide
Genocide
Institute-Museum, Yerevan, AM . Armenian National Institute, Washington, D.C.  (dedicated to the study, research, and affirmation of the Armenian Genocide). "Fall of the Ottoman Empire", Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence (chronological index & articles), ISSN 1961-9898, archived from the original on 5 March 2011 . Genocide, AM .

v t e

Armenian Genocide

Background

Armenians
Armenians
in the Ottoman Empire Armenian Question Bayazıt Massacre (1877) (ru; hy; uk) Hamidian massacres
Hamidian massacres
(1894–96) Ottoman Bank
Ottoman Bank
(1896) Yıldız (1905) Adana
Adana
(1909) Young Turk Revolution
Young Turk Revolution
(1908)

The Genocide

Congress at Erzurum Red Sunday Tehcir Law Forced labour Mass rape Genocide
Genocide
casualties Deportation
Deportation
camps

Deir ez-Zor Ra's al-'Ayn

Foreign aid and relief

Near East
Near East
Foundation National Armenian Relief Committee

Demography

Pre-genocide population Post-genocide population

Secret Armenians Islamized Armenians

Resistance

Armenian militia Zeitun Van Musa Dagh Urfa Shabin-Karahisar

Responsible parties

Young Turks: Committee of Union and Progress

Talaat Enver Djemal Behaeddin Shakir

Special
Special
Organization

Reshid Djevdet Topal Osman

Kurdish Irregulars

Trials

Courts-Martial Malta Tribunals Soghomon Tehlirian

See also

Operation Nemesis Recognition

"I Apologize" campaign

Denial Reparations Timeline Witnesses and testimonies Contemporaneous press coverage Armenian quote Cultural portrayal 100th anniversary Memorials

Prominent visitors to Tsitsernakaberd

Alfortville Armenian Genocide
Genocide
Memorial bombings Assassination of Hrant Dink

v t e

Armenia articles

History  (timeline)

Early

Origins Name Kura–Araxes culture Hayk Hayasa-Azzi Mitanni Nairi Kingdom of Urartu Median kingdom Orontid Dynasty Achaemenid Empire

Satrapy of Armenia

Kingdom of Armenia Roman Armenia Parthian Empire Byzantine Armenia Sasanian Armenia

Middle

Arminiya Sajids Bagratuni Armenia Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Sallarids Ilkhanate Chobanids Ag Qoyunlu Kara Koyunlu Ottoman Armenia 1508–1828 Persian Armenia Safavid Iran Afsharid Iran Qajar Iran

Erivan Khanate Karabakh Khanate Treaty of Turkmenchay

Russian Armenia

Modern

First Republic of Armenia Soviet Armenia Independent Armenia

By topic

Armenian Genocide Nagorno-Karabakh conflict Armenian national liberation movement more...

Geography

Ararat Plain Armenian Highlands Cities Earthquakes Extreme points Lake Sevan Mountains Municipalities Rivers and lakes Shikahogh State Reserve Shirak Plain more...

Politics

Administrative divisions Constitution Corruption Elections Foreign relations Government Human rights Military National Assembly National Security Service Police Political parties President Prime Minister President of the National Assembly more on government on politics

Economy

Agriculture Armex (stock exchange) Central Bank Dram (currency) Energy Mining Pension reform Telecommunications Tourism Transport Waste management

Culture

Alphabet Architecture Art Cinema Cuisine Dance Language

Eastern Western

Literature Music Sport Theatre more...

Demographics

Census Crime Education Ethnic minorities Health People

diaspora

Social issues Women more...

Religion

Armenian Apostolic Church Armenian Catholic Church Armenian Evangelical Church Armenian Brotherhood Church Judaism Islam more...

Symbols

Armenian Cross Armenian eternity sign Coat of arms Flag Mount Ararat National anthem Apricot Grape Pomegranate

Outline Index

Book Category Portal

v t e

World War I

Home fronts

Theatres

European

Balkans Western Front Eastern Front Italian Front

Middle Eastern

Gallipoli Sinai and Palestine Caucasus Persia Mesopotamia South Arabia

African

South West East Kamerun Togoland North

Asian and Pacific

Tsingtao German New Guinea and Samoa

At sea

North Atlantic U-boat campaign Mediterranean North Sea Baltic

Indian, Pacific and South Atlantic Oceans

Papeete Madras Penang Cocos Coronel Falkland Islands Más a Tierra

Principal participants (people)

Entente powers

Belgium Brazil China France

French Empire

Greece Italy Japan Montenegro Portuguese Empire Romania Russia

Russian Empire Russian Republic

Serbia United Kingdom

British Empire

United States

Central Powers

Germany Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire Bulgaria

Timeline

Pre-War conflicts

Scramble for Africa
Scramble for Africa
(1880–1914) Russo-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
(1905) First Moroccan (Tangier) Crisis (1905–06) Agadir Crisis
Agadir Crisis
(1911) Italo-Turkish War
Italo-Turkish War
(1911–12) French conquest of Morocco
French conquest of Morocco
(1911–12) First Balkan War
First Balkan War
(1912–13) Second Balkan War
Second Balkan War
(1913)

Prelude

Origins Sarajevo assassination Anti-Serb riots in Sarajevo July Crisis

Autumn 1914

Battle of the Frontiers Battle of Cer First Battle of the Marne Siege of Tsingtao Battle of Tannenberg Battle of Galicia Battle of the Masurian Lakes Battle of Kolubara Battle of Sarikamish Race to the Sea First Battle of Ypres

1915

Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes Second Battle of Ypres Battle of Gallipoli Second Battle of Artois Battles of the Isonzo Gorlice–Tarnów Offensive Great Retreat Second Battle of Champagne Kosovo Offensive Siege of Kut Battle of Loos

1916

Erzurum
Erzurum
Offensive Battle of Verdun Lake Naroch Offensive Battle of Asiago Battle of Jutland Battle of the Somme

first day

Brusilov Offensive Baranovichi Offensive Battle of Romani Monastir Offensive Battle of Transylvania

1917

Capture of Baghdad First Battle of Gaza Zimmermann Telegram Second Battle of Arras Second Battle of the Aisne Kerensky Offensive Third Battle of Ypres (Passchendaele) Battle of Mărășești Battle of Caporetto Southern Palestine Offensive Battle of Cambrai Armistice of Erzincan

1918

Operation Faustschlag Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Spring Offensive Second Battle of the Marne Battle of Baku Hundred Days Offensive Vardar Offensive Battle of Megiddo Third Transjordan attack Meuse-Argonne Offensive Battle of Vittorio Veneto Battle of Aleppo Armistice of Salonica Armistice of Mudros Armistice of Villa Giusti Armistice with Germany

Other conflicts

Mexican Revolution
Mexican Revolution
(1910–20) Somaliland Campaign
Somaliland Campaign
(1910–20) Libyan resistance movement (1911–43) Maritz Rebellion (1914–15) Zaian War
Zaian War
(1914–21) Indo-German Conspiracy (1914–19) Senussi Campaign
Senussi Campaign
(1915–16) Volta-Bani War
Volta-Bani War
(1915–17) Easter Rising
Easter Rising
(1916) Anglo-Egyptian Darfur Expedition
Anglo-Egyptian Darfur Expedition
(1916) Kaocen Revolt (1916–17) Central Asian Revolt (1916-17) Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
(1917) Finnish Civil War
Finnish Civil War
(1918)

Post-War conflicts

Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
(1917–21) Ukrainian–Soviet War
Ukrainian–Soviet War
(1917–21) Armenian–Azerbaijani War
Armenian–Azerbaijani War
(1918–20) Georgian–Armenian War
Georgian–Armenian War
(1918) German Revolution (1918–19) Revolutions and interventions in Hungary (1918–20) Hungarian–Romanian War
Hungarian–Romanian War
(1918–19) Greater Poland Uprising (1918–19) Estonian War of Independence
Estonian War of Independence
(1918–20) Latvian War of Independence
Latvian War of Independence
(1918–20) Lithuanian Wars of Independence
Lithuanian Wars of Independence
(1918–20) Third Anglo-Afghan War
Third Anglo-Afghan War
(1919) Egyptian Revolution (1919) Polish–Ukrainian War
Polish–Ukrainian War
(1918–19) Polish–Soviet War
Polish–Soviet War
(1919–21) Irish War of Independence
Irish War of Independence
(1919–21) Turkish War of Independence

Greco-Turkish War (1919–22) Turkish–Armenian War
Turkish–Armenian War
(1920)

Iraqi revolt (1920) Polish–Lithuanian War
Polish–Lithuanian War
(1920) Vlora War
Vlora War
(1920) Franco-Syrian War
Franco-Syrian War
(1920) Soviet–Georgian War (1921) Irish Civil War
Irish Civil War
(1922–23)

Aspects

Opposition

Pacifism Anti-war movement

Deployment

Schlieffen Plan
Schlieffen Plan
(German) Plan XVII
Plan XVII
(French)

Warfare

Military engagements Naval warfare Convoy system Air warfare Cryptography

Room 40

Horse use Poison gas Railways Strategic bombing Technology Trench warfare Total war Christmas truce Last surviving veterans

Civilian impact Atrocities Prisoners

Casualties Economic history 1918 flu pandemic Destruction of Kalisz Rape of Belgium German occupation of Belgium German occupation of Luxembourg German occupation of northeastern France Ober Ost Ottoman people

Armenian Genocide Assyrian genocide Pontic Greek genocide

Urkun (Kyrgyzstan) Blockade of Germany Women

Australia

Popular culture German prisoners of war in the United States

Agreements

Partition of the Ottoman Empire Sykes–Picot Agreement Agreement of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne French-Armenian Agreement Damascus
Damascus
Protocol Paris Peace Conference Venizelos–Tittoni agreement

Treaties

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Treaty of Lausanne Treaty of London Treaty of Neuilly Treaty of St. Germain Treaty of Sèvres Treaty of Trianon Treaty of Versailles

Consequences

Aftermath "Fourteen Points" League of Nations World War I
World War I
memorials Centenary

outbreak

Category Portal

v t e

Turkish nationalism

Ideology

Turanism Anatolianism Pan-Turkism Turkification Sun Language Theory Kemalism Atatürk personality cult Racism

Organizations

Grey Wolves Youth Union of Turkey Ergenekon (allegation) Turkish Revenge Brigade Turkish Resistance Organisation Deep state

Political parties

Young Turks
Young Turks
(Ottoman Empire) Committee of Union and Progress
Committee of Union and Progress
(Ottoman Empire) Republican People's Party (1923–1944) Nation Party (1948) Republican Villagers Nation Party Nation Party (1962) Nationalist Movement Party Nation Party (1992) Workers' Party (left-wing) Great Union Party Bright Turkey
Turkey
Party Independent Turkey
Turkey
Party Homeland Party People's Ascent Party Nationalist and Conservative Party Rights and Equality Party National Party Nationalist Turkey
Turkey
Party Patriotic Party (left-wing) İYİ Party Ötüken Union Party

People

Namık Kemal Talaat Pasha Enver Pasha Ziya Gökalp Ömer Seyfettin Mehmet Emin Yurdakul Yusuf Akçura Ahmet Ağaoğlu Zeki Velidi Togan Rıza Nur Nihal Atsız Nejdet Sançar Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Alparslan Türkeş Muhsin Yazıcıoğlu Gün Sazak Doğu Perinçek Gökçe Fırat Çulhaoğlu Kemal Kerinçsiz Osman Pamukoğlu Meral Akşener

Historical events

Adana
Adana
massacre Greek genocide Armenian Genocide Assyrian genocide 1934 Thrace pogroms Zilan massacre

Incidents

Elza Niego affair Istanbul
Istanbul
pogrom

2005 exhibition assault

Maraş massacre Assassination of Kemal Türkler Assassination of Hrant Dink Alfortville Armenian Genocide
Genocide
Memorial Bombings Murder of Sevag Balıkçı

Policies

Geographical name changes Animal name changes 1934 Resettlement Law Varlık Vergisi The Twenty Classes Citizen, speak Turkish! Confiscation of Armenian property Surname Law Article 301 Ne mutlu Türküm diyene Sovereignty unconditionally belongs to the Nation Armenian Genocide
Genocide
denial

v t e

Genocide
Genocide
topics

Genocides (list by death toll)

Dzungar Mongols (1750s) Circassian genocide
Circassian genocide
(1860s) Herero and Namaqua (1904–1907) Greek (1914–1923) Assyrian (1914–1925) Armenian (1915–1923) Libyan Genocide
Genocide
(1923–1932) Holodomor
Holodomor
(1932–1933) The Holocaust
The Holocaust
(1941–1945) Porajmos
Porajmos
(1941–1944) Serbian (1941–1945) Aardakh (1944–1948) Bangladesh (1971) East Timor (1974–1999) Cambodian (1975–1979) Guatemalan Maya (1981–1983) Kurds
Kurds
in Iraq (1986–1989) Partition of India
Partition of India
(1947) Polish genocide(s) in the USSR

Great Purge Era (1937–1938 Occupation of Poland (1939–1945)

Katyn massacre
Katyn massacre
(1940)

Massacres of Poles
Poles
in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia (1943–1944) Burundian genocides (1972 & 1993) Rwandan (1994) Selk'nam genocide
Selk'nam genocide
(1890s–1900s) Bosnian genocide
Bosnian genocide
(1992–1995)

Srebrenica massacre
Srebrenica massacre
(1995)

ISIL Genocides (2014–)

Yazidis Shias Christians

Terms

Democide

Autogenocide

Politicide

Classicide Eliticide

Policide Ethnocide

Cultural genocide

Gendercide Genocidal massacre Utilitarian genocide Genocide
Genocide
of indigenous peoples

Methods

Genocidal rape Extermination camp Killing Fields Death marches Death squads

Genocide
Genocide
denial

The Holocaust

trivialization

Armenian Bosnian Rwandan Holodomor Cambodian

Issues

Definitions Genocide
Genocide
law Prevention Effects on young survivors

Notable figures

Adolf Hitler Adolf Eichmann Ante Pavelić Benito Mussolini Heinrich Himmler Reinhard Heydrich Talaat Pasha Enver Pasha Djemal Pasha Stepan Bandera Joseph Stalin Nikolai Yezhov Pol Pot Hirohito Omar al-Bashir Augustin Bizimungu Radovan Karadžić Lothar von Trotha Efraín Ríos Montt Saddam Hussein

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 184444072 LCCN: sh85007296 GND: 7505167-9 SUDOC: 027349675 BNF: cb11941072s (da

.