The ARMENIAN GENOCIDE (Armenian : Հայոց
ցեղասպանություն, Hayots tseghaspanutyun), also known
as the ARMENIAN HOLOCAUST, was the Ottoman government 's systematic
extermination of 1.5 million
Armenians , mostly Ottoman citizens
Ottoman Empire and its successor state, the Republic of
Turkey . The starting date is conventionally held to be 24 April
1915, the day that Ottoman authorities rounded up, arrested, and
deported 235 to 270 Armenian intellectuals and community leaders from
Constantinople to the region of
Ankara , the majority of whom were
eventually murdered. The genocide was carried out during and after
World War I
World War I and implemented in two phases — the wholesale killing of
the able-bodied male population through massacre and subjection of
army conscripts to forced labour, followed by the deportation of
women, children, the elderly, and the infirm on death marches leading
Syrian Desert . Driven forward by military escorts, the
deportees were deprived of food and water and subjected to periodic
robbery, rape, and massacre. Other indigenous and Christian ethnic
groups, such as the Assyrians and the
Ottoman Greeks , were similarly
targeted for extermination by the Ottoman government in the Assyrian
genocide and the
Greek genocide , and their treatment is considered by
some historians to be part of the same genocidal policy. Most
Armenian diaspora communities around the world came into being as a
direct result of the genocide.
Raphael Lemkin was explicitly moved by the annihilation of Armenians
to define systematic and premeditated exterminations within legal
parameters and to coin the word genocide in 1943. The Armenian
Genocide is acknowledged to have been one of the first modern
genocides, because scholars point to the organized manner in which
the killings were carried out in order to eliminate the Armenians, and
it is the second most-studied case of genocide after the Holocaust .
Turkey , the successor state of the Ottoman Empire, repudiates the
word genocide as an accurate term for the mass killings of Armenians
that began under Ottoman rule in 1915. In recent years it has been
faced with repeated calls to recognize them as genocide. To date, 29
countries and 46 U.S. states have officially recognized the mass
killings as genocide , as have most genocide scholars and historians.
* 1 Background
Armenians under Ottoman rule
* 1.2 Reform, 1840s–1880s
Armenian national liberation movement
Armenian national liberation movement
* 1.4 Hamidian massacres, 1894–1896
* 2 Prelude to the
* 2.1 The
Young Turk Revolution
Young Turk Revolution of 1908
* 2.2 The
Adana massacre of 1909
* 2.3 The
World War I
World War I
Battle of Sarikamish
* 3.2 Directive 8682, 25 February
* 3.3 Van, April 1915
* 3.4 Arrest and deportation of Armenian notables, April 1915
* 3.5 Deportations
* 3.5.1 Death marches
* 3.5.2 Concentration camps
* 3.6 Confiscation of property
* 3.6.1 International aid to victims
* 3.7 The "
* 3.8 Massacres
* 3.8.1 Mass burnings
* 3.8.2 Drowning
* 3.8.3 Use of poison and drug overdoses
* 3.9 Trials
* 3.9.1 Turkish courts-martial
* 3.9.2 Detainees in Malta
* 3.9.3 Trial of
* 4 Armenian population, deaths, survivors, 1914 to 1923
* 5 Reports and reactions
* 5.1 The U.S. Mission in the
* 5.1.1 Ambassador Morgenthau\'s Story
* 5.2 Allied forces in the Middle East
* 5.2.1 Arnold Toynbee: The Treatment of
* 5.3 Austrian and German joint mission
Armin T. Wegner
Ottoman Empire and
* 5.5 Russian military
* 5.6 Scandinavian missionaries and diplomats
* 5.7 Persia
* 6 Studies on the
* 6.1 Terminology
* 7 Recognition of the
Republic of Turkey and the
* 7.1.1 Controversies
* 7.2 The Republic of
Armenia and the
* 8 Cultural loss
* 9 Reparations to the victims
* 9.1 Reparations on the grounds of international law
* 9.2 Sèvres Treaty
* 9.3 Lawsuits
* 10 Commemoration
* 10.1 Memorials
* 10.2 Portrayal in the media
* 11 Images
* 12 See also
* 13 Notes
* 14 References
* 15 Further reading
* 15.1 Historical overviews
* 15.2 Specific issues and comparative studies
* 15.3 Survivors\' testimonies and memory
* 15.4 Former Armenian communities
* 15.5 World responses and foreign testimony
* 15.6 Memory and historiography
* 16 External links
Armenians in the
Ottoman Empire and Ottoman Armenian
ARMENIANS UNDER OTTOMAN RULE
The western portion of historical Armenia, known as Western
had come under Ottoman jurisdiction by the 1555
Peace of Amasya and
was permanently divided from Eastern
Armenia by the Treaty of Zuhab
(1639). Thereafter, the region was alternatively referred to as
"Turkish" or "Ottoman" Armenia. The vast majority of
grouped together into a semi-autonomous community, the Armenian millet
, which was led by one of the spiritual heads of the Armenian Orthodox
Armenian Patriarch of Constantinople .
mainly concentrated in the eastern provinces of the Ottoman Empire,
although large communities were also found in the western provinces,
as well as in the capital, Constantinople .
The Armenian community was made up of three religious denominations:
Armenian Catholic , Armenian Protestant , and Armenian Apostolic , the
Church of the vast majority of Armenians. Through the millet system,
the Armenian community were allowed to rule themselves under their own
system of governance with fairly little interference from the Ottoman
government. With the exception of the empire's urban centers and the
extremely wealthy, Constantinople-based Amira class, a social elite
whose members included the Duzians (Directors of the Imperial Mint),
the Balyans (Chief Imperial Architects) and the Dadians
(Superintendent of the Gunpowder Mills and manager of industrial
Armenians — approximately 70% of their population
— lived in poor and dangerous conditions in the rural countryside.
Ottoman census figures clash with the statistics collected by the
Armenian Patriarchate. According to the latter, there were almost
Armenians living in the empire in 1878 (400,000 in
Constantinople and the
Balkans , 600,000 in
Asia Minor and
Lesser Armenia and the area near
Kayseri , and 1,300,000 in
In the eastern provinces, the
Armenians were subject to the whims of
their Turkish and Kurdish neighbors, who would regularly overtax them,
subject them to brigandage and kidnapping, force them to convert to
Islam, and otherwise exploit them without interference from central or
local authorities. In the Ottoman Empire, in accordance with the
dhimmi system implemented in Muslim countries, they, like all other
Christians and also Jews, were accorded certain freedoms. The dhimmi
system in the
Ottoman Empire was largely based upon the
Pact of Umar .
The client status established the rights of the non-Muslims to
property, livelihood and freedom of worship, but they were in essence
treated as second-class citizens in the empire and referred to in
Turkish as gavours , a pejorative word meaning "infidel " or
"unbeliever". The clause of the
Pact of Umar which prohibited
non-Muslims from building new places of worship was historically
imposed on some communities of the
Ottoman Empire and ignored in other
cases, at discretion of the local authorities. Although there were no
laws mandating religious ghettos, this led to non-Muslim communities
being clustered around existing houses of worship. Writing in the
late 1890s after a visit to the Ottoman Empire, the British
archeologist William Ramsay described the earlier conditions of
Armenian life as follows:
We must, however, go back to an older time, if we want to appreciate
what uncontrolled Turkish rule meant, alike to
Armenians and to
Greeks. It did not mean religious persecution; it meant unutterable
contempt ... They were dogs and pigs; and their nature was to be
Christians, to be spat upon, if their shadow darkened a Turk, to be
outraged, to be the mats on which he wiped the mud from his feet.
Conceive the inevitable result of centuries of slavery, of subjection
to insult and scorn, centuries in which nothing that belonged to the
Armenian, neither his property, his house, his life, his person, nor
his family, was sacred or safe from violence – capricious,
unprovoked violence – to resist which by violence meant death!
In addition to other legal limitations, Christians were not
considered equals to Muslims and several prohibitions were placed on
them. Testimony against Muslims by Christians and Jews was
inadmissible in courts of law wherein a Muslim could be punished; this
meant that their testimony could only be considered in commercial
cases. They were forbidden to carry weapons or ride atop horses and
camels. Their houses could not overlook those of Muslims; and their
religious practices were severely circumscribed, e.g., the ringing of
church bells was strictly forbidden.
This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please
help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources .
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2017) (Learn
how and when to remove this template message )
Armenian Question German ethnographic map of Asia
Caucasus in 1914.
Armenians are labeled in blue.
In the mid-19th century, the three major European powers, Great
Britain, France and Russia, began to question the Empire's treatment
of its Christian minorities and pressure it to grant equal rights to
all its subjects. From 1839 to the declaration of a constitution in
1876, the Ottoman government instituted the
Tanzimat , a series of
reforms designed to improve the status of minorities. Nevertheless,
most of the reforms were never implemented because the empire's Muslim
population rejected the principle of equality for Christians. By the
late 1870s, the
Greeks , along with several other Christian nations in
Balkans , frustrated with their conditions, had, often with the
help of the great powers , broken free of Ottoman rule. The Armenians
remained, by and large, passive during these years, earning them the
title of millet-i sadika or the "loyal millet".
In the mid-1860s and early 1870s this passivity gave way to new
currents of thinking in Armenian society. Led by intellectuals
educated at European universities or American missionary schools in
Armenians began to question their second-class status and
press for better treatment from their government. In one such
instance, after amassing the signatures of peasants from Western
Armenia, the Armenian Communal Council petitioned the Ottoman
government to redress their principal grievances: "the looting and
murder in Armenian towns by
Circassians , improprieties
during tax collection, criminal behavior by government officials and
the refusal to accept Christians as witnesses in trial". The Ottoman
government considered these grievances and promised to punish those
responsible, though no meaningful steps were ever taken. :36
Following the violent suppression of Christians in the uprisings in
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina ,
Serbia in 1875, the Great Powers
invoked the 1856 Treaty of Paris by claiming that it gave them the
right to intervene and protect the Ottoman Empire's Christian
minorities. :35ff Under growing pressure, the government of Sultan
Abdul Hamid II declared itself a constitutional monarchy with a
parliament (which was almost immediately prorogued ) and entered into
negotiations with the powers. At the same time, the Armenian patriarch
of Constantinople, Nerses II, forwarded Armenian complaints of
widespread "forced land seizure ... forced conversion of women and
children, arson, protection extortion , rape, and murder" to the
The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 ended with Russia's decisive
victory and its army in occupation of large parts of eastern Turkey,
but not before entire Armenian districts had been devastated by
massacres carried out with the connivance of Ottoman authorities. In
the wake of these events, Patriarch Nerses and his emissaries made
repeated approaches to Russian leaders to urge the inclusion of a
clause granting local self-government to the
Armenians in the
Treaty of San Stefano
Treaty of San Stefano . The Russians were receptive and
drew up the clause, but the Ottomans flatly rejected it during
negotiations. In its place, the two sides agreed on a clause making
Sublime Porte 's implementation of reforms in the Armenian
provinces a condition of Russia's withdrawal, thus designating Russia
the guarantor of the reforms. The clause entered the treaty as
Article 16 and marked the first appearance of what came to be known in
European diplomacy as the Armenian question.
On receiving a copy of the treaty, Britain promptly objected to it
and particularly Article 16, which it saw as ceding too much influence
to Russia. It immediately pushed for a congress of the great powers to
be convened to discuss and revise the treaty, leading to the Congress
of Berlin in June–July 1878. Patriarch Nerses sent a delegation led
by his distinguished predecessor, Archbishop
Khrimian Hayrik , to
speak for the Armenians, but it was not admitted into the sessions on
the grounds that it did not represent a country. Confined to the
periphery, the delegation did its best to contact the representatives
of the powers and argue the case for Armenian administrative autonomy
within the Ottoman Empire, but to little effect.
Following an understanding reached with Ottoman representatives,
Britain drew up an emasculated version of Article 16 to replace the
original, a clause that retained the call for reforms, but omitted any
reference to the Russian occupation, thereby dispensing with the
principal guarantee of their implementation. Despite an ambiguous
reference to great power supervision, the clause failed to offset the
removal of the Russian guarantee with any tangible equivalent, thus
leaving the timing and fate of the reforms to the discretion of the
Sublime Porte. :38–39 The clause was readily adopted as Article 61
of the Treaty of Berlin on the last day of the Congress, to the deep
disappointment of the Armenian delegation.
ARMENIAN NATIONAL LIBERATION MOVEMENT
Armenian national liberation movement
Armenian national liberation movement
Prospects for reforms faded rapidly following the signing of the
Berlin treaty, as security conditions in the Armenian provinces went
from bad to worse and abuses proliferated. Upset with this turn of
events, a number of disillusioned Armenian intellectuals living in
Europe and Russia decided to form political parties and societies
dedicated to the betterment of their compatriots in the Ottoman
Empire. In the last quarter of the 19th century, this movement came to
be dominated by three parties: the Armenakan , whose influence was
limited to Van , the
Social Democrat Hunchakian Party , and the
Armenian Revolutionary Federation (Dashnaktsutiun). Ideological
differences aside, all the parties had the common goal of achieving
better social conditions for the
Armenians of the Ottoman Empire
through self-defense and advocating increased European pressure on
the Ottoman government to implement the promised reforms.
HAMIDIAN MASSACRES, 1894–1896
Hamidian massacres Corpses of massacred Armenians
Erzurum in 1895
Since 1876, the Ottoman state had been led by Sultan
Abdul Hamid II .
Immediately after the Treaty of Berlin was signed, Abdul Hamid
attempted to forestall implementation of its reform provisions by
Armenians did not make up a majority in the provinces
and that their reports of abuses were largely exaggerated or false. In
1890, Abdul Hamid created a paramilitary outfit known as the Hamidiye
which was mostly made up of Kurdish irregulars who were tasked to
"deal with the
Armenians as they wished". :40 As Ottoman officials
intentionally provoked rebellions (often as a result of over-taxation)
in Armenian populated towns, such as in Sasun in 1894 and Zeitun in
1895–1896, these regiments were increasingly used to deal with the
Armenians by way of oppression and massacre. In some instances
Armenians successfully fought off the regiments and in 1895 brought
the excesses to the attention of the Great Powers, who subsequently
condemned the Porte . :40–42
In October 1895, the Powers forced Abdul Hamid to sign a new reform
package designed to curtail the powers of the Hamidiye, but, like the
Berlin Treaty, it was never implemented. On 1 October 1895, 2,000
Armenians assembled in Constantinople to petition for the
implementation of the reforms, but Ottoman police units converged on
the rally and violently broke it up. :57–58 Soon, massacres of
Armenians broke out in Constantinople and then engulfed the rest of
the Armenian-populated provinces of
Trabzon , and Van. Estimates differ on how many
Armenians were killed, but European documentation of the pogroms ,
which became known as the
Hamidian massacres , placed the figures at
between 100,000 and 300,000.
Although Hamid was never directly implicated in ordering the
massacres, it is believed that they had his tacit approval. :42
Frustrated with European indifference to the massacres, a group of
members of the
Armenian Revolutionary Federation seized the
Ottoman Bank on 26 August 1896. This incident brought
further sympathy for
Armenians in Europe and was lauded by the
European and American press, which vilified Hamid and painted him as
the "great assassin", "bloody Sultan", and "
Abdul the Damned ". :35,
115 While the Great Powers vowed to take action and enforce new
reforms, these never came to fruition due to conflicting political and
PRELUDE TO THE GENOCIDE
Main article: Dissolution of the
THE YOUNG TURK REVOLUTION OF 1908
Young Turk Revolution
Young Turk Revolution
Armenians of Constantinople
celebrating the establishment of the CUP government.
On 24 July 1908, Armenians' hopes for equality in the empire
brightened when a coup d\'état staged by officers in the Ottoman
Third Army based in
Abdul Hamid II from power and
restored the country to a constitutional monarchy. The officers were
part of the
Young Turk movement that wanted to reform administration
of the perceived decadent state of the
Ottoman Empire and modernize it
to European standards. The movement was an anti-Hamidian coalition
made up of two distinct groups, the liberal constitutionalists and the
nationalists. The former were more democratic and accepting of
Armenians, whereas the latter were less tolerant of
their frequent requests for European assistance. :140–41 In 1902,
during a congress of the
Young Turks held in Paris, the heads of the
liberal wing, Sabahaddin and
Ahmed Riza Bey, partially persuaded the
nationalists to include in their objectives ensuring some rights for
all the minorities of the empire.
One of the numerous factions within the
Young Turk movement was a
secret revolutionary organization called the Committee of Union and
Progress (CUP). It drew its membership from disaffected army officers
Salonika and was behind a wave of mutinies against the
central government. In 1908, elements of the Third Army and the Second
Army Corps declared their opposition to the Sultan and threatened to
march on the capital to depose him. Hamid, shaken by the wave of
resentment, stepped down from power as
Greeks , Assyrians
, Arabs ,
Bulgarians and Turks alike rejoiced in his dethronement.
THE ADANA MASSACRE OF 1909
Adana massacre The Armenian quarter after the
Adana in 1909.
A countercoup took place in early 1909, ultimately resulting in the
31 March Incident
31 March Incident on 13 April 1909. Some reactionary Ottoman military
elements, joined by Islamic theological students, aimed to return
control of the country to the Sultan and the rule of Islamic law .
Riots and fighting broke out between the reactionary forces and CUP
forces, until the CUP was able to put down the uprising and
court-martial the opposition leaders.
While the movement initially targeted the
Young Turk government, it
spilled over into pogroms against
Armenians who were perceived as
having supported the restoration of the constitution . :68–69 When
Ottoman Army troops were called in, many accounts record that instead
of trying to quell the violence they actually took part in pillaging
Armenian enclaves in
Adana province. The number of
in the course of the
Adana massacre ranged between 15,000 and 30,000
THE BALKAN WARS
In 1912, the
First Balkan War
First Balkan War broke out and ended with the defeat of
Ottoman Empire as well as the loss of 85% of its European
territory. Many in the empire saw their defeat as "Allah's divine
punishment for a society that did not know how to pull itself
together". :84 The Turkish nationalist movement in the country
gradually came to view
Anatolia as their last refuge. The Armenian
population formed a significant minority in this region.
An important consequence of the
Balkan Wars was also the mass
expulsion of Muslims (known as muhacirs ) from the Balkans. Beginning
in the mid-19th century, hundreds of thousands of Muslims, including
Circassians , and
Chechens , were forcibly expelled and others
voluntarily migrated from the
Caucasus and the
Rumelia ) as a
result of the Russo-Turkish wars and the conflicts in the Balkans.
Muslim society in the empire was incensed by this flood of refugees. A
journal published in Constantinople expressed the mood of the times:
"Let this be a warning ... O Muslims, don't get comfortable! Do not
let your blood cool before taking revenge". :86 As many as 850,000 of
these refugees were settled in areas where the
Armenians resided. The
muhacirs resented the status of their relatively well-off neighbors
and, as historian
Taner Akçam and others have noted, some of them
came to play a pivotal role in the killings of the
Armenians and the
confiscation of their properties during the genocide. :86–87 Paul
Henze, meanwhile, argues that the systematic massacres and expulsions
of mostly Muslim
Circassians in the years of 1858-1865 to the Ottoman
Empire inspired the Armenian Genocide.
WORLD WAR I
See also: Middle Eastern theatre of
World War I
World War I
On 2 November 1914, the
Ottoman Empire opened the Middle Eastern
World War I
World War I by entering hostilities on the side of the
Central Powers and against the Allies . The battles of the Caucasus
Campaign , the
Persian Campaign and the
Gallipoli Campaign affected
several populous Armenian centers. Before entering the war, the
Ottoman government had sent representatives to the Armenian congress
Erzurum to persuade Ottoman
Armenians to facilitate its conquest of
Transcaucasia by inciting an insurrection of Russian
the Russian army in the event a
Caucasus front was opened. :136 In
November 1914 Shaykh ul-
Jihad - Holy War against the
Christians: this was later used as a factor to provoke radical masses
in the implementation of the Armenian Genocide.
BATTLE OF SARIKAMISH
Battle of Sarikamish See also:
On 24 December 1914, Minister of War
Enver Pasha implemented a plan
to encircle and destroy the Russian
Caucasus Army at
order to regain territories lost to Russia after the Russo-Turkish War
of 1877–78. Enver Pasha's forces were routed in the battle, and
almost completely destroyed. Returning to Constantinople, Enver Pasha
publicly blamed his defeat on
Armenians in the region having actively
sided with the Russians. :200
DIRECTIVE 8682, 25 FEBRUARY
Ottoman labour battalions
Ottoman labour battalions
On 25 February 1915, the Ottoman General Staff released the War
Minister Enver Pasha's Directive 8682 on "Increased security and
precautions" to all military units calling for the removal of all
Armenians serving in the Ottoman forces from their posts and
for their demobilization. They were assigned to the unarmed Labour
battalions (Turkish: amele taburları). The directive accused the
Armenian Patriarchate of releasing State secrets to the Russians.
Enver Pasha explained this decision as "out of fear that they would
collaborate with the Russians". Traditionally, the Ottoman Army only
drafted non-Muslim males between the ages of 20 and 45 into the
regular army. The younger (15–20) and older (45–60) non-Muslim
soldiers had always been used as logistical support through the labour
battalions. Before February, some of the Armenian recruits were
utilized as labourers (hamals), though they would ultimately be
Transferring Armenian conscripts from active combat to passive,
unarmed logistic sections was an important precursor to the subsequent
genocide. As reported in
The Memoirs of Naim Bey , the execution of
Armenians in these battalions was part of a premeditated strategy
of the CUP. Many of these Armenian recruits were executed by local
Turkish gangs. :178
VAN, APRIL 1915
Further information: Siege of Van Armed Armenian civilians and
self-defense units during the Siege of Van in April–May 1915
On 19 April 1915,
Jevdet Bey demanded that the city of Van
immediately furnish him 4,000 soldiers under the pretext of
conscription . However, it was clear to the Armenian population that
his goal was to massacre the able-bodied men of Van so that there
would be no defenders.
Jevdet Bey had already used his official writ
in nearby villages, ostensibly to search for arms, but in fact to
initiate wholesale massacres. :202 The
Armenians offered five hundred
soldiers and exemption money for the rest in order to buy time, but
Jevdet Bey accused the
Armenians of "rebellion" and asserted his
determination to "crush" it at any cost. "If the rebels fire a single
shot", he declared, "I shall kill every Christian man, woman, and"
(pointing to his knee) "every child, up to here". :205
The next day, 20 April 1915, the siege of Van began when an Armenian
woman was harassed, and the two Armenian men who came to her aid were
killed by Ottoman soldiers. The Armenian defenders protected the
30,000 residents and 15,000 refugees living in an area of roughly one
square kilometer of the
Armenian Quarter and suburb of Aigestan with
1,500 ablebodied riflemen who were supplied with 300 rifles and 1,000
pistols and antique weapons. The conflict lasted until General
Yudenich of Russia came to their rescue.
Reports of the conflict reached then United States Ambassador to the
Henry Morgenthau, Sr. from
Aleppo and Van, prompting
him to raise the issue in person with Talaat and Enver. As he quoted
to them the testimonies of his consulate officials, they justified the
deportations as necessary to the conduct of the war, suggesting that
complicity of the
Armenians of Van with the Russian forces that had
taken the city justified the persecution of all ethnic Armenians.
ARREST AND DEPORTATION OF ARMENIAN NOTABLES, APRIL 1915
Deportation of Armenian intellectuals on 24
April 1915 Some Armenian intellectuals arrested on 24 April
1915, and following weeks, then deported and killed.
By 1914, Ottoman authorities had already begun a propaganda drive to
Armenians living in the
Ottoman Empire as a threat to the
empire's security. An Ottoman naval officer in the War Office
described the planning:
In order to justify this enormous crime the requisite propaganda
material was thoroughly prepared in Istanbul. 'the
Armenians are in
league with the enemy. They will launch an uprising in Istanbul, kill
off the Ittihadist leaders and will succeed in opening up the straits
'. :220 Interior Minister
Talaat Pasha , who ordered the
On the night of 23–24 April 1915, known as
Red Sunday (Armenian :
Կարմիր Կիրակի Garmir Giragi), the Ottoman government
rounded up and imprisoned an estimated 250 Armenian intellectuals and
community leaders of the Ottoman capital, Constantinople , and later
those in other centers, who were moved to two holding centers near
Ankara. :211–12 This date coincided with Allied troop landings at
Gallipoli after unsuccessful Allied naval attempts to break through
Dardanelles to Constantinople in February and March 1915.
Following the passage of
Tehcir Law on 29 May 1915, the Armenian
leaders, except for the few who were able to return to Constantinople,
were gradually deported and assassinated. The date 24 April is
Genocide Remembrance Day by
Armenians around the
Tehcir Law See also: Armenian casualties of
deportations Map of massacre locations and deportation and
In May 1915, Mehmet
Talaat Pasha requested that the cabinet and Grand
Said Halim Pasha legalize a measure for the deportation of
Armenians to other places due to what
Talaat Pasha called "the
Armenian riots and massacres, which had arisen in a number of places
in the country". However,
Talaat Pasha was referring specifically to
events in Van and extending the implementation to the regions in which
alleged "riots and massacres" would affect the security of the war
zone of the
Caucasus Campaign . Later, the scope of the deportation
was widened in order to include the
Armenians in the other provinces.
The remains of
Armenians massacred at
On 29 May 1915, the CUP Central Committee passed the Temporary Law of
Deportation ("Tehcir Law"), giving the Ottoman government and military
authorization to deport anyone it "sensed" as a threat to national
security. :186–88 Headline of
The New York Times
The New York Times , December 15,
With the implementation of
Tehcir Law , the confiscation of Armenian
property and the slaughter of
Armenians that ensued upon its enactment
outraged much of the Western world. While the Ottoman Empire's wartime
allies offered little protest, a wealth of German and Austrian
historical documents has since come to attest to the witnesses' horror
at the killings and mass starvation of Armenians. :329–31 :212–13
In the United States,
The New York Times
The New York Times reported almost daily on the
mass murder of the Armenian people, describing the process as
"systematic", "authorized" and "organized by the government". Theodore
Roosevelt would later characterize this as "the greatest crime of the
Historian Hans-Lukas Kieser states that, from the statements of
Talaat Pasha it is clear that the officials were aware that the
deportation order was genocidal. Another historian Taner Akçam
states that the telegrams show that the overall coordination of the
genocide was taken over by Talaat Pasha. In 2017, Akçam was able to
access one of the original telegrams, archived in Jerusalem, which
inquired about Armenian liquidation and elimination.
An Armenian woman kneeling beside a dead child in a field
"within sight of help and safety at
Armenians were marched out to the Syrian town of
Deir ez-Zor and
the surrounding desert . There is no evidence that the Ottoman
government provided the extensive facilities and supplies that would
have been necessary to sustain the life of hundreds of thousands of
Armenian deportees during their forced march to the Syrian desert or
after. By August 1915,
The New York Times
The New York Times repeated an unattributed
report that "the roads and the
Euphrates are strewn with corpses of
exiles, and those who survive are doomed to certain death. It is a
plan to exterminate the whole Armenian people".
Talaat Pasha and
Djemal Pasha were completely aware that by abandoning the Armenian
deportees in the desert they were condemning them to certain death. A
dispatch from a "high diplomatic source in Turkey, not American,
reporting the testimony of trustworthy witnesses" about the plight of
Armenian deportees in northern Arabia and the Lower
was extensively quoted by
The New York Times
The New York Times in August 1916:
The witnesses have seen thousands of deported
Armenians under tents
in the open, in caravans on the march, descending the river in boats
and in all phases of their miserable life. Only in a few places does
the Government issue any rations, and those are quite insufficient.
The people, therefore, themselves are forced to satisfy their hunger
with food begged in that scanty land or found in the parched fields.
Naturally, the death rate from starvation and sickness is very high
and is increased by the brutal treatment of the authorities, whose
bearing toward the exiles as they are being driven back and forth over
the desert is not unlike that of slave drivers. With few exceptions no
shelter of any kind is provided and the people coming from a cold
climate are left under the scorching desert sun without food and
water. Temporary relief can only be obtained by the few able to pay
Similarly, Major General Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein
noted that "The Turkish policy of causing starvation is an all too
obvious proof, if proof was still needed as to who is responsible for
the massacre, for the Turkish resolve to destroy the Armenians". :350
German engineers and labourers involved in building the railway also
Armenians being crammed into cattle cars and shipped along
the railroad line. Franz Gunther, a representative for Deutsche Bank
which was funding the construction of the Baghdad Railway, forwarded
photographs to his directors and expressed his frustration at having
to remain silent amid such "bestial cruelty". :326 Major General Otto
von Lossow , acting military attaché and head of the German Military
Plenipotentiary in the Ottoman Empire, spoke to Ottoman intentions in
a conference held in
Batum in 1918:
The Turks have embarked upon the "total extermination of the
Transcaucasia ... The aim of Turkish policy is, as I have
reiterated, the taking of possession of Armenian districts and the
extermination of the Armenians. Talaat's government wants to destroy
all Armenians, not just in Turkey, but also outside Turkey. On the
basis of all the reports and news coming to me here in
hardly can be any doubt that the Turks systematically are aiming at
the extermination of the few hundred thousand
Armenians whom they left
alive until now. :349
Rape was an integral part of the genocide; military commanders told
their men to "do to whatever you wish", resulting in widespread
sexual abuse. Deportees were displayed naked in
Damascus and sold as
sex slaves in some areas, including
Mosul according to the report of
the German consul there, constituting an important source of income
for accompanying soldiers. Dr. Walter Rössler, the German consul in
Aleppo during the genocide, heard from an "objective" Armenian that
around a quarter of young women, whose appearance was "more or less
pleasing", were regularly raped by the gendarmes, and that "even more
beautiful ones" were violated by 10–15 men. This resulted in girls
and women being left behind dying.
A network of 25 concentration camps was set up by the Ottoman
government to dispose of the
Armenians who had survived the
deportations to their ultimate point. This network, situated in the
region of Turkey's present-day borders with Iraq and Syria, was
Şükrü Kaya , one of Talaat Pasha's right-hand men. Some
of the camps were only temporary transit points. Others, such as
Radjo, Katma, and Azaz, were briefly used as mass graves and then
vacated by autumn 1915. Camps such as Lale, Tefridje, Dipsi, Del-El,
and Ra\'s al-\'Ayn were built specifically for those whose life
expectancy was just a few days. According to Hilmar Kaiser , the
Ottoman authorities refused to provide food and water to the victims,
increasing the mortality rate, and Muslim men obtained Armenian women
through recorded marriages, while the deaths of their husbands were
Bernau, an American citizen of German descent, traveled to the areas
Armenians were incarcerated and wrote a report that was deemed
factual by Rössler, the German Consul at Aleppo. He reports mass
graves containing over 60,000 people in
Meskene and large numbers of
mounds of corpses, as the
Armenians died due to hunger and disease. He
reported seeing 450 orphans, who received at most 150 grams of bread
per day, in a tent of 5–6 square meters.
Dysentery swept through the
camp and days passed between the instances of distribution of bread to
some. In "Abu Herrera", near Meskene, he described how the guards let
Armenians starve, and wrote that they searched "horse droppings"
CONFISCATION OF PROPERTY
See also: Confiscated Armenian property in
Tehcir Law brought some measures regarding the property of the
deportees, but in September a new law was proposed. By means of the
"Abandoned Properties" Law (Law Concerning Property, Dept's and Assets
Left Behind Deported Persons, also referred as the "Temporary Law on
Expropriation and Confiscation"), the Ottoman government took
possession of all "abandoned" Armenian goods and properties. Ottoman
Ahmed Riza protested this legislation:
It is unlawful to designate the Armenian assets as "abandoned goods"
for the Armenians, the proprietors, did not abandon their properties
voluntarily; they were forcibly, compulsorily removed from their
domiciles and exiled. Now the government through its efforts is
selling their goods ... If we are a constitutional regime functioning
in accordance with constitutional law we can't do this. This is
atrocious. Grab my arm, eject me from my village, then sell my goods
and properties, such a thing can never be permissible. Neither the
conscience of the Ottomans nor the law can allow it.
On 13 September 1915, the Ottoman parliament passed the "Temporary
Law of Expropriation and Confiscation", stating that all property,
including land, livestock, and homes belonging to Armenians, was to be
confiscated by the authorities. :224
International Aid To Victims
Fundraising poster for the American Committee for Relief in the
Near East See also: American Committee for Armenian and Syrian
American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief
American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief (ACASR, also
known as "
Near East Relief"), established in 1915 just after the
deportations began, was a charitable organization established to
relieve the suffering of the peoples of the
Near East . The
organization was championed by Henry Morgenthau, Sr., American
ambassador to the Ottoman Empire. Morgenthau's dispatches on the mass
Armenians galvanized much support for the organization.
In its first year, the ACRNE cared for 132,000 Armenian orphans from
Yerevan , Constantinople ,
Damascus , and
Jerusalem . A relief organization for refugees in the Middle East
helped donate over $102 million (budget $117,000,000) to Armenians
both during and after the war. :336 Between 1915 and 1930, ACRNE
distributed humanitarian relief to locations across a wide
geographical range, eventually spending over ten times its original
estimate and helping around 2,000,000 refugees.
THE "SPECIAL ORGANIZATION"
Special Organization (Ottoman Empire)
Committee of Union and Progress founded the "Special
Organization" (Turkish : Teşkilât-ı Mahsusa) that participated in
the destruction of the Ottoman Armenian community. This organization
adopted its name in 1913 and functioned like a special forces outfit,
and it has been compared by some scholars to the Nazi
:182, 185 Later in 1914, the Ottoman government influenced the
Special Organization was to take by releasing criminals
from central prisons to be the central elements of this newly formed
Special Organization. According to the Mazhar commissions attached to
the tribunal as soon as November 1914, 124 criminals were released
Bünyan prison. Little by little from the end of 1914 to the
beginning of 1915, hundreds, then thousands of prisoners were freed to
form the members of this organization. Later, they were charged with
escorting the convoys of Armenian deportees.
Vehib Pasha , commander
of the Ottoman Third Army, called those members of the Special
Organization the "butchers of the human species".
Morgenthau's caption: "Those who fell by the wayside. Scenes
like this were common all over the Armenian provinces in the spring
and summer months of 1915. Death in its several forms—massacre,
starvation, exhaustion—destroyed the larger part of the refugees.
The Turkish policy was that of extermination under the guise of
Eitan Belkind was a
Nili member who infiltrated the Ottoman army as
an official. He was assigned to the headquarters of Kemal Pasha. He
claims to have witnessed the burning of 5,000 Armenians. :181, 183
Lt. Hasan Maruf of the Ottoman army describes how a population of a
village were taken all together and then burned. The Commander of the
Third Army Vehib's 12-page affidavit , which was dated 5 December
1918, was presented in the
Trabzon trial series (29 March 1919)
included in the Key Indictment, reporting such a mass burning of the
population of an entire village near
Muş : "The shortest method for
disposing of the women and children concentrated in the various camps
was to burn them". Further, it was reported that "Turkish prisoners
who had apparently witnessed some of these scenes were horrified and
maddened at remembering the sight. They told the Russians that the
stench of the burning human flesh permeated the air for many days
Vahakn Dadrian wrote that 80,000
Armenians in 90 villages
Muş plain were burned in "stables and haylofts".
Trabzon was the main city in
Oscar S. Heizer , the
American consul at Trabzon, reported: "This plan did not suit Nail Bey
... Many of the children were loaded into boats and taken out to sea
and thrown overboard".
Hafiz Mehmet , a Turkish deputy serving
Trabzon, testified during a 21 December 1918 parliamentary session of
the Chamber of Deputies that "the district's governor loaded the
Armenians into barges and had them thrown overboard." The Italian
Trabzon in 1915,
Giacomo Gorrini , writes: "I saw thousands
of innocent women and children placed on boats which were capsized in
the Black Sea".
Vahakn Dadrian places the number of
Trabzon province by drowning at 50,000. The
Armenians having been drowned in the Black Sea; according to
a testimony, women and children were loaded on boats in
"Değirmendere" to be drowned in the sea.
Hoffman Philip, the American chargé d\'affaires at Constantinople,
wrote: "Boat loads sent from Zor down the river arrived at Ana, one
thirty miles away, with three fifths of passengers missing".
Robert Fisk , 900 Armenian women were drowned in Bitlis,
while in Erzincan, the corpses in the
Euphrates resulted in a change
of course of the river for a few hundred meters. Dadrian also wrote
Armenians were drowned in the
Euphrates and its
Use Of Poison And Drug Overdoses
Robert Jay Lifton writes in a parenthesis when
introducing the medical experiments during the Holocaust , "Perhaps
Turkish doctors, in their participation in the genocide against the
Armenians, come closest, as I shall later suggest".
MORPHINE OVERDOSE: During the
Trabzon trial series of the Martial
court, from the sittings between 26 March and 17 May 1919, the
Trabzons Health Services Inspector Dr. Ziya Fuad wrote in a report
that Dr. Saib caused the death of children with the injection of
morphine. The information was allegedly provided by two physicians
(Drs. Ragib and Vehib), both Dr. Saib's colleagues at Trabzons Red
Crescent hospital, where those atrocities were said to have been
TOXIC GAS: Dr. Ziya Fuad and Dr. Adnan, public health services
director of Trabzon, submitted affidavits reporting cases in which two
school buildings were used to organize children and send them to the
mezzanine to kill them with toxic gas equipment.
TYPHOID INOCULATION : The Ottoman surgeon, Dr. Haydar Cemal wrote "on
the order of the Chief Sanitation Office of the Third Army in January
1916, when the spread of typhus was an acute problem, innocent
Armenians slated for deportation at Erzincan were inoculated with the
blood of typhoid fever patients without rendering that blood
'inactive'". Jeremy Hugh Baron writes: "Individual doctors were
directly involved in the massacres, having poisoned infants, killed
children and issued false certificates of death from natural causes.
Nazim 's brother-in-law Dr. Tevfik Rushdu , Inspector-General of
Health Services, organized the disposal of Armenian corpses with
thousands of kilos of lime over six months; he became foreign
secretary from 1925 to 1938".
Turkish Courts-Martial of 1919–20
Turkish Courts-Martial of 1919–20
On the night of 2–3 November 1918 and with the aid of Ahmed Izzet
Pasha , the
Three Pashas (which include Mehmed
Talaat Pasha and Ismail
Enver, the main perpetrators of the Genocide) fled the Ottoman Empire.
In 1919, after the Mudros Armistice , Sultan
Mehmed VI was ordered to
organise courts-martial by the Allied administration in charge of
Constantinople to try members of the Committee of Union and Progress
(CUP) (Turkish: "Ittihat ve Terakki") for taking the Ottoman Empire
into World War I. By January 1919, a report to Sultan Mehmed VI
accused over 130 suspects, most of whom were high officials.
Mehmet VI and
Damat Ferid Pasha , as
representatives of government of the
Ottoman Empire during the Second
Constitutional Era , were summoned to the Paris Peace Conference by US
Secretary of State
Robert Lansing . On 11 July 1919, Damat Ferid Pasha
officially confessed to massacres against the
Armenians in the Ottoman
Empire and was a key figure and initiator of the war crime trials held
World War I
World War I to condemn to death the chief perpetrators
of the Genocide. The military court found that it was the will of
the CUP to eliminate the
Armenians physically, via its Special
Organization . The 1919 pronouncement reads as follows:
The Court Martial taking into consideration the above-named crimes
declares, unanimously, the culpability as principal factors of these
crimes the fugitives Talaat Pasha, former Grand Vizir, Enver Efendi,
former War Minister, struck off the register of the Imperial Army,
Cemal Efendi, former Navy Minister, struck off too from the Imperial
Army, and Dr. Nazim Efendi, former Minister of Education, members of
the General Council of the Union ... the Court Martial pronounces, in
accordance with said stipulations of the Law the death penalty against
Talaat, Enver, Cemal, and Dr. Nazim.
After the pronouncement, the
Three Pashas were sentenced to death in
absentia at the trials in Constantinople. The courts-martial
officially disbanded the CUP and confiscated its assets and the assets
of those found guilty. The courts-martial were dismissed in August
1920 for their lack of transparency, according to then High
Commissioner and Admiral Sir
John de Robeck , and some of the accused
were transported to Malta for further interrogation, only to be
released afterwards in an exchange of POWs . Two of the three Pashas
were later assassinated by Armenian vigilantes during Operation
Detainees In Malta
Effort to prosecute Ottoman war criminals and Malta
Ottoman military members and high-ranking politicians convicted by
the Turkish courts-martial were transferred from Constantinople
prisons to the
Crown Colony of Malta
Crown Colony of Malta on board of the SS Princess Ena
and the HMS Benbow by the British forces, starting in 1919. Admiral
Somerset Gough-Calthorpe was in charge of the operation, together
with Lord Curzon; they did so owing to the lack of transparency of the
Turkish courts-martial. They were held there for three years, while
searches were made of archives in Constantinople, London, Paris and
Washington to find a way to put them in trial. However, the war
criminals were eventually released without trial and returned to
Constantinople in 1921, in exchange for twenty-two British prisoners
of war held by the government in Ankara, including a relative of Lord
Curzon. The government in
Ankara was opposed to political power of the
government in Constantinople . They are often mentioned as the Malta
exiles in some sources.
Meanwhile, the Peace Conference in Paris established the "Commission
on Responsibilities and Sanctions" in January 1919, which was
commissioned by United States Secretary of State
Robert Lansing .
Based on the commission's work, several articles were added to the
Treaty of Sèvres
Treaty of Sèvres . The
Treaty of Sèvres
Treaty of Sèvres had planned a trial in
August 1920 to determine those responsible for the "barbarous and
illegitimate methods of warfare ... offenses against the laws and
customs of war and the principles of humanity". Article 230 of the
Treaty of Sèvres
Treaty of Sèvres required the
Ottoman Empire hand over to the Allied
Powers the persons responsible for the massacres committed during the
war on August 1, 1914.
European Court of Human Rights
European Court of Human Rights judge Giovanni Bonello
the suspension of prosecution attempts and the release and
repatriation of the detainees was, amongst others, a result of the
lack of an appropriate legal framework with supranational jurisdiction
World War I
World War I no international norms for regulating war
crimes existed, due to a legal vacuum in international law; therefore
(contrary to Turkish sources) no trials were ever held in Malta.
Trial Of Soghomon Tehlirian
On 15 March 1921, former
Talaat Pasha was assassinated
Charlottenburg District of Berlin, Germany, in broad daylight
and in the presence of many witnesses. Talaat's death was part of
Operation Nemesis ", the
Armenian Revolutionary Federation 's
codename for their covert operation in the 1920s to kill the planners
of the Armenian Genocide.
The subsequent trial and acquittal of the assassin, Soghomon
Tehlirian , had an important influence on
Raphael Lemkin , a lawyer of
Jewish descent who campaigned in the
League of Nations
League of Nations to
ban what he called "barbarity" and "vandalism". The term "genocide ",
created in 1943, was coined by Lemkin who was directly influenced by
the massacres of
Armenians during World War I. :210
ARMENIAN POPULATION, DEATHS, SURVIVORS, 1914 TO 1923
Uncovering the bones of
Armenians in Deir ez-Zor. Main
Ottoman Armenian population
Ottoman Armenian population ,
Ottoman Armenian casualties ,
While there is no consensus as to how many
Armenians lost their lives
during the Armenian Genocide, there is general agreement among western
historians that over 800,000
Armenians died between 1914 and 1918.
Estimates vary between 800,000 and 1,500,000 (per the governments of
France, Canada, and other states). Encyclopædia Britannica
references the research of
Arnold J. Toynbee , an intelligence officer
British Foreign Office , who estimated that 600,000 Armenians
"died or were massacred during deportation" in a report compiled on 24
May 1916. This figure, however, accounts for solely the first year
Genocide and does not take into account those who died or were
killed after May 1916.
According to documents that once belonged to Talaat Pasha, more than
Armenians disappeared from official population records
from 1915 through 1916. In 1983, Talaat's widow, Hayriye Talaat
Bafralı, gave the documents and records to Turkish journalist Murat
Bardakçı , who published them in a book titled The Remaining
Documents of Talat Pasha (also known as "Talat Pasha's Black Book").
According to the documents, the number of
Armenians living in the
Ottoman Empire before 1915 stood at 1,256,000. It was presumed,
however, in a footnote by
Talaat Pasha himself, that the Armenian
population was undercounted by thirty percent. Furthermore, the
population of Protestant
Armenians was not taken into account.
Therefore, according to the historian
Ara Sarafian , the population of
Armenians should have been approximately 1,700,000 prior to the start
of the war. However, that number had plunged to 284,157 two years
later in 1917.
Genocide denialist Justin McCarthy calculated an estimate of
the pre-war Armenian population, then subtracted his estimate of
survivors, arriving at a figure of a little less than 600,000 for
Armenian casualties for the period 1914 to 1922. In a more recent
essay, he projected that if the Armenian records of 1913 were
accurate, 250,000 more deaths should be added, for a total of 850,000.
However, McCarthy's numbers have been highly contested by many
specialists. Some of them, like Frédéric Paulin, have severely
criticized McCarthy's methodology and suggest that it is flawed.
Hilmar Kaiser another specialist has made similar claims, as have
Vahakn Dadrian and professor
Levon Marashlian . These
critics not only question McCarthy's methodology and resulting
calculations, but also his primary sources, the Ottoman censuses. They
point out that there was no official census undertaken in 1912; rather
the numbers quoted were based on the records of 1905 which were
conducted during the reign of Sultan Hamid. While Ottoman censuses
claimed an Armenian population of 1.2 million, Fa\'iz El-Ghusein (the
Kharpout ) wrote that there were about 1.9 million
Armenians in the Ottoman Empire, and some modern scholars estimate
over 2 million. German official Max Erwin von Scheubner-Richter
wrote that fewer than 100,000
Armenians survived the genocide, the
rest having been exterminated (German : ausgerottet). :329–30
Mass killings continued under the
Republic of Turkey . During the
Turkish–Armenian War 60,000 to 98,000 Armenian civilians were
estimated to have been killed by the Turkish army. Some estimates put
the total number of
Armenians massacred in the hundreds of thousands.
:327 Dadrian characterized the massacres in the
Caucasus as a
"miniature genocide". :360
REPORTS AND REACTIONS
Main article: Witnesses and testimonies of the Armenian
Workers of the
American Committee for Relief in the Near East
American Committee for Relief in the Near East in
Hundreds of eyewitnesses, including diplomats from the neutral United
States and the Ottoman Empire's own allies, Germany and
Austria-Hungary , recorded and documented numerous acts of
state-sponsored massacres. Many foreign officials offered to intervene
on behalf of the Armenians, including
Pope Benedict XV , only to be
turned away by Ottoman government officials who claimed they were
retaliating against a pro-Russian insurrection. :177 On 24 May 1915,
Triple Entente warned the
Ottoman Empire that "In view of these
new crimes of
Turkey against humanity and civilization, the Allied
Governments announce publicly to the
Sublime Porte that they will hold
personally responsible for these crimes all members of the Ottoman
Government, as well as those of their agents who are implicated in
THE U.S. MISSION IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE
Telegram sent by Ambassador
Henry Morgenthau, Sr. to the State
Department on 16 July 1915 describing the killings of
Armenians as "a
campaign of race extermination".
The United States had consulates throughout the Ottoman Empire,
including locations in
Trebizond , Van, Constantinople , and
Aleppo . It was officially a
neutral party and never declared war on the Ottoman Empire. In
addition to the consulates, there were numerous American Protestant
missionary compounds established in Armenian-populated regions,
including Van and Kharput. The atrocities were reported regularly in
newspapers and literary journals around the world. :282–5
On his return home in 1924 after thirty years as a U.S. Consul in the
Near East, and most of the preceding decade as Consul General at
George Horton wrote his own "account of the Systematic
Extermination of Christian Populations by Mohammedans and of the
Culpability of Certain Great Powers; with a True Story of the Burning
of Smyrna" (1926 subtitle, The Blight of Asia). Horton's account
quoted numerous contemporary communications and eyewitness reports
including one of the massacre of Phocea in 1914, by a Frenchman, and
two of the Armenian massacres of 1914/15, by an American citizen and a
German missionary. :28–29, 34–37. It also quoted U.S. businessman
Walter M. Geddes regarding his time in Damascus: "several Turks whom I
interviewed, told me that the motive of this exile was to exterminate
Many Americans spoke out against the genocide, including former
Theodore Roosevelt , rabbi
Stephen Wise , Alice Stone
Blackwell , and
William Jennings Bryan
William Jennings Bryan , the U.S. Secretary of State
to June 1915. In the U.S. and the United Kingdom, children were
regularly reminded to clean their plates while eating and to "remember
the starving Armenians".
Ambassador Morgenthau\'s Story
Report from a German missionary on the massacre of Armenians
from Erzerum, 31 July 1915 See also: Ambassador Morgenthau\'s Story
Audio recording of Chapter 24, "The Murder of a Nation", from
Ambassador Morgenthau's Story.
As the orders for deportations and massacres were enacted, many
consular officials reported what they were witnessing to Ambassador
Henry Morgenthau, Sr. , who described the massacres as a "campaign of
race extermination" in a telegram sent to the United States Department
of State on 16 July 1915. In memoirs that he completed during 1918,
Morgenthau wrote, "When the Turkish authorities gave the orders for
these deportations, they were merely giving the death warrant to a
whole race; they understood this well, and, in their conversations
with me, they made no particular attempt to conceal the fact ..." :213
The memoirs and reports vividly described the methods used by Ottoman
forces and documented numerous instances of atrocities committed
against the Christian minority.
ALLIED FORCES IN THE MIDDLE EAST
On the Middle Eastern front, the British military was engaged
fighting the Ottoman forces in southern
Gertrude Bell filed the following report after
hearing the account from a captured Ottoman soldier:
The battalion left
Aleppo on 3 February and reached Ras al-Ain in
twelve hours ... some 12,000
Armenians were concentrated under the
guardianship of some hundred
Kurds ... These
Kurds were called
gendarmes, but in reality mere butchers; bands of them were publicly
ordered to take parties of Armenians, of both sexes, to various
destinations, but had secret instructions to destroy the males,
children and old women ... One of these gendarmes confessed to killing
100 Armenian men himself ... the empty desert cisterns and caves were
also filled with corpses ... :327
Winston Churchill described the massacres as an "administrative
holocaust" and noted that "the clearance of the race from Asia Minor
was about as complete as such an act, on a scale so great, could well
be. ... There is no reasonable doubt that this crime was planned and
executed for political reasons. The opportunity presented itself for
clearing Turkish soil of a Christian race opposed to all Turkish
ambitions, cherishing national ambitions that could only be satisfied
at the expense of Turkey, and planted geographically between Turkish
and Caucasian Moslems". :329
Arnold Toynbee: The Treatment Of Armenians
See also: The Treatment of
Armenians in the
Arnold J. Toynbee published the collection of documents The
Armenians in the
Ottoman Empire in 1916. Together with
British politician and historian Viscount James Bryce , he compiled
statements from survivors and eyewitnesses from other countries
including Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Switzerland,
who similarly attested to the systematic massacre of innocent
Armenians by Ottoman government forces.
Bryce had submitted the work to scholars for verification before its
University of Oxford
University of Oxford Regius Professor Gilbert Murray
stated, "... the evidence of these letters and reports will bear any
scrutiny and overpower any skepticism. Their genuineness is
established beyond question". :228 Other professors, including Herbert
Sheffield University and former American Bar Association
Moorfield Storey , came to the same conclusion. :228–29
AUSTRIAN AND GERMAN JOINT MISSION
As allies during the war, the Imperial German mission in the Ottoman
Empire included both military and civilian components. Germany had
brokered a deal with the
Sublime Porte to commission the building of a
railroad called the
Baghdad Railway that would stretch from Berlin to
the Middle East. At the beginning of 1915, Germany's diplomatic
mission was led by Ambassador
Hans Freiherr von Wangenheim who, upon
his death in 1915, was succeeded by Count
Paul Wolff Metternich
Paul Wolff Metternich . Like
Morgenthau, von Wangenheim began receiving many disturbing messages
from consular officials around the
Ottoman Empire that detailed the
massacres of Armenians. From the province of
Adana , Consul Eugene
Buge reported that the CUP chief had sworn to massacre any Armenians
who had survived the deportation marches. :186 In June 1915, von
Wangenheim sent a cable to Berlin reporting that Talaat had admitted
that the deportations were not "being carried out because of 'military
considerations alone'". One month later, he came to the conclusion
that there "no longer was doubt that the Porte was trying to
exterminate the Armenian race in the Turkish Empire". :213
When Wolff-Metternich succeeded von Wangenheim, he continued to
dispatch similar cables: "The Committee demands the extirpation of
the last remnants of the
Armenians and the government must yield ... A
Committee representative is assigned to each of the provincial
Turkification means license to expel, to kill or
destroy everything that is not Turkish".
Another notable figure in the German military camp was Max Erwin von
Scheubner-Richter , who documented various massacres of Armenians. He
sent fifteen reports regarding "deportations and mass killings" to the
German chancellery. His final report noted that fewer than 100,000
Armenians were left alive in the Ottoman Empire: the rest having been
exterminated (German : ausgerottet). :329–30 Scheubner-Richter also
detailed the methods of the Ottoman government, noting its use of the
Special Organization and other bureaucratized instruments of genocide,
as well as how the Ottomans would provoke and exaggerate Armenian
self-defense in order to create the illusion of a rebellion. This was
to give justification for the deportation of Armenians, which is still
argued by genocide deniers to this day. Richter stated the
deportations were intentionally meant to cover up the slaughter of
I have conducted a series of conversations with competent and
influential Turkish personages, and these are my impressions: A large
segment of the Ittihadist party maintains the viewpoint that the
Turkish empire should be based only on the principle of
Pan-Turkism. Its non-Muslim and non-Turkish inhabitants should either
be forcibly islamized, or otherwise they ought to be destroyed. These
gentlemen believe that the time is propitious for the realization of
this plan. The first item on this agenda concerns the liquidation of
the Armenians. Ittihad will dangle before the Allies a specter of an
alleged revolution prepared by the Armenian Dashnak party. Moreover,
local incidents of social unrest and acts of Armenian self-defense
will deliberately be provoked and inflated and will be used as
pretexts to effect the deportations. Once en route, however, the
convoys will be attacked and exterminated by Kurdish and Turkish
brigands, and in part by gendarmes, who will be instigated for that
purpose by Ittihad.
According to Bat Ye'or, an Israeli historian, the Germans also
Armenians being burned to death. She writes: "The Germans,
allies of the Turks in the First World War ... saw how civil
populations were shut up in churches and burned, or gathered en masse
in camps, tortured to death, and reduced to ashes". German officers
stationed in eastern
Turkey disputed the government's assertion that
Armenian revolts had broken out, suggesting that the areas were "quiet
until the deportations began". :212 Other Germans openly supported the
Ottoman policy against the Armenians. As
Hans Humann , the German
naval attaché in Constantinople said to US Ambassador Henry
I have lived in
Turkey the larger part of my life ... and I know the
Armenians. I also know that both
Armenians and Turks cannot live
together in this country. One of these races has got to go. And I
don't blame the Turks for what they are doing to the Armenians. I
think that they are entirely justified. The weaker nation must
Armenians desire to dismember Turkey; they are against
the Turks and the Germans in this war, and they therefore have no
right to exist here. :257
In a genocide conference held in 2001, professor Wolfgang Wipperman
Free University of Berlin introduced documents evidencing that
the German High Command was aware of the mass killings at the time,
but chose not to interfere or speak out. :331 In his reports to Berlin
in 1917, General
Hans von Seeckt supported the reforming efforts of
the Young Turks, writing that "the inner weakness of
Turkey in their
entirety, call for the history and custom of the new Turkish empire to
be written". Seeckt added that "Only a few moments of the destruction
are still mentioned. The upper levels of society had become unwarlike,
the main reason being the increasing mixing with foreign elements of a
long standing unculture". Seeckt blamed all of the problems of the
Ottoman Empire on the Jews and the Armenians, whom he portrayed as a
fifth column working for the Allies. In July 1918, Seeckt sent a
message to Berlin stating that "It is an impossible state of affairs
to be allied with the Turks and to stand up for the Armenians. In my
view any consideration, Christian, sentimental, and political should
be eclipsed by a hard, but clear necessity for war".
One photograph shows two unidentified German army officers, in
company of three Turkish soldiers and a Kurdish man, standing amidst
human remains. The discovery of this photograph prompted English
Robert Fisk to draw a direct line from the Armenian
Genocide to the Holocaust. Fisk, while acknowledging the role playing
by most German diplomats and parliamentaries in the condemnation of
the Ottoman Turks, noted that some of the German witnesses to the
Armenian holocaust would later go on to play a role in the Nazi
regime. For example,
Konstantin Freiherr von Neurath , who was
attached to the Turkish 4th Army in 1915 with instructions to monitor
"operations" against the Armenians, later became Hitler's foreign
minister and "Protector of Bohemia and Moravia" during Reinhard
Heydrich 's terror in Czechoslovakia.
Armin T. Wegner
Armin T. Wegner
Armin T. Wegner
German aspiring writer
Armin T. Wegner enrolled as a medic during the
winter of 1914–15. He defied censorship by taking hundreds of
Armenians being deported and subsequently starving in
northern Syrian camps :326 and in the deserts of Deir-er-Zor. Wegner
was part of a German detachment under field marshal von der Goltz
stationed near the
Baghdad Railway in
Mesopotamia . He later stated:
"I venture to claim the right of setting before you these pictures of
misery and terror which passed before my eyes during nearly two years,
and which will never be obliterated from my mind.". He was eventually
arrested by the Germans and recalled to Germany.
Wegner protested against the atrocities in an open letter submitted
to U.S. President
Woodrow Wilson at the peace conference of 1919. The
letter made a case for the creation of an independent Armenian state.
Also in 1919, he published The Road of No Return ("Der Weg ohne
Heimkehr"), a collection of letters he had written during what he
deemed the "martyrdom" (German: "Martyrium") of the Armenians. A
documentary film depicting Wegner's personal account of the Armenian
Genocide through his own photographs, called "Destination Nowhere: The
Witness" and produced by Dr. J. Michael Hagopian, premiered in Fresno
on 25 April 2000. Prior to the release of the documentary, he was
honored at the Armenian
Genocide Museum in
Yerevan for championing the
Armenians throughout his life.
OTTOMAN EMPIRE AND TURKEY
Mehmet Celal Bey
Mehmet Celal Bey
Although many documents related to systematic massacres were
destroyed during and after the genocide, Turkish historian Taner
Akçam states that the "Turkish sources we already possess provide
sufficient information to prove that what befell the
Armenians in 1915
was a Genocide." Historian
Ara Sarafian similarly notes that "the
available Ottoman materials, especially when used alongside
alternative sources (such as United States records or Armenian
survivor accounts), support the Armenian
Alongside official documentation, many Turkish public figures during
the time have acknowledged the systematic nature of the massacres.
Historian Ahmet Refik (Altınay) wrote in 1919: "The Unionists
(Committee of Union and Progress) wanted to remove the problem of
Vilâyât-ı Sitte by annihilating Armenians." Turkish novelist
Halide Edip , who was openly critical of the decisions made by the
Ottoman government towards the Armenians, wrote in Vakit on 21 October
1918: "We slaughtered the innocent Armenian population...We tried to
Armenians through methods that belong to the medieval
Abdülmecid II , the last Caliph of
Islam of the Ottoman
Dynasty , said of the policy: "I refer to those awful massacres. They
are the greatest stain that has ever disgraced our nation and race.
They were entirely the work of Talat and Enver." Senator Ahmet Riza
stated: "Let's face it, we Turks savagely killed off the Armenians."
Damad Ferid Pasha , speaking about the
Armenians in The
New York Times
New York Times (26 June 1919), said: "The whole civilised world was
shocked by the recital of the crimes alleged to have been committed by
the Turks. It is far from my thought to cast a veil over these
misdeeds, which are such as to make the conscience of mankind shudder
with horror for ever; still less will I endeavour to minimise the
degree of guilt of the actors in the great drama. The aim which I have
set myself is that of showing to the world with proofs in my hand, who
are the truly responsible authors of these terrible crimes." Interior
Ali Kemal Bey wrote in Alemdar on 18 July 1919: "Don't let us
try to throw the blame on the Armenians; we must not flatter ourselves
that the world is filled with idiots. We have plundered the
possessions of the men whom we deported and massacred; we have
sanctioned theft in our Chamber and our Senate."
Reşid Akif Paşa ,
Sivas and head of the Council of State, is especially known
for providing important testimony during the Ottoman Parliament
session of 21 November 1918. His speech outlined the process of how
the official order of deportation contained vague terminology only to
be clarified by special orders of "massacres" sent directly from the
Committee of Union and Progress headquarters and oftentimes the
residence of Talat Pasha himself:
During my few days of service in this government I've learned of a
few secrets and have come across something interesting. The
deportation order was issued through official channels by the minister
of the interior and sent to the provinces. Following this order the
Central Committee circulated its own ominous order to all parties to
allow the gangs to carry out their wretched task. Thus the gangs were
in the field, ready for their atrocious slaughter. Mehmed Şerif
Pasha was a former member of the
Young Turk government who denounced
the annihilation (The New York Times, 10 October 1915).
Some politicians tried to prevent the deportations and subsequent
massacres. One such politician,
Mehmet Celal Bey
Mehmet Celal Bey , was known for
saving thousands of lives and often called the Turkish Oscar Schindler
. During his time as governor of Aleppo, Celal Bey did not believe
that the deportations were meant to "annihilate" the Armenians: "I
admit, I did not believe that these orders, these actions revolved
around the annihilation of the Armenians. I never imagined that any
government could take upon itself to annihilate its own citizens in
this manner, in effect destroying its human capital, which must be
seen as the country's greatest treasure. I presumed that the actions
being carried out were measures deriving from a desire to temporarily
Armenians from the theater of war and taken as the result
of wartime exigencies." However, he later admitted that he was
mistaken and that the goal was "to attempt to annihilate" the
Armenians. When defying the orders of deportation, Celal Bey was
removed from his post as governor of
Aleppo and transferred to Konya.
Nevertheless, as the deportations continued, he repeatedly demanded
that the central authorities provide shelter for the deportees. In
addition to these demands, he sent the
Sublime Porte many telegrams
and letters of protest stating that the "measures taken against the
Armenians were, from every point of view, contrary to the higher
interests of the fatherland." His demands, however, were ignored.
Celal Bey said: "Blood flowed instead of water in the river, and
thousands of innocent children, blameless elderly, helpless women and
strong youths were flowing towards death in this blood flow." Hasan
Mazhar Bey , who was appointed Vali of
Ankara on 18 June 1914, is also
known for having refused to proceed with the order of deportations.
Due to his refusal to deport the Armenians, Mazhar Bey was removed
from his post as governor in August 1915 and replaced with Atif Bey, a
prominent member of the
Special Organization. He recalled: "Then one
day Atif Bey came to me and orally conveyed the interior minister's
orders that the
Armenians were to be murdered during the deportation.
'No, Atif Bey,' I said, 'I am a governor, not a bandit, I cannot do
this, I will leave this post and you can come and do it.'" After
leaving his post, Mazhar went on to report that "in the kaza , the
plunder of Armenian property, by both officials and the population,
assumed incredible proportions." He also became the key figure in the
establishment of the Mazhar Commission, an investigative committee
which immediately took up the task of gathering evidence and
testimonies, with a special effort to obtain inquiries on civil
servants implicated in massacres committed against Armenians.
Süleyman Nazif , the Vali of Baghdad, who but later resigned in
protest of the Ottoman government's policy towards the Armenians,
wrote in a 28 November 1918 issue of the Hadisat newspaper: "Under the
guise of deportations, mass murder was perpetrated. Given the fact
that the crime is all too evident, the perpetrators should have been
During the Republican period, several Turkish politicians expressed
their discontent with the deportations and subsequent massacres.
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk , the first President and founder of the
Republic of Turkey, consistently used the term "shameful act"
(Turkish: fazahat) when referring to the massacres. In the 1
August 1926 issue of the Los Angeles Examiner, Atatürk also said that
Young Turk Party was responsible for "... millions of our
Christian subjects who were ruthlessly driven en masse from their
homes and massacred". At a secret session of the National Assembly,
held on 17 October 1920,
Hasan Fehmi (Ataç) , deputy of Gümüşhane,
said: "As you know, the issue of relocation was an event that made the
world to yell blue and made all of us to be considered murderers. We
knew, before we did it, that the Christian world would not tolerate it
and they would direct their anger and hatred toward us. Why did we
impute the title of murderer to our race? Why did we enter into such
decisive and difficult struggle? That was done just to secure the
future of our country, which we know to be more precious and sacred
than our lives."
The Russian Empire's response to the bombardment of its Black Sea
naval ports was primarily a land campaign through the Caucasus. Early
victories against the
Ottoman Empire from the winter of 1914 to the
spring of 1915 saw significant gains of territory, including relieving
the Armenian bastion resisting in the city of Van in May 1915. The
Russians also reported encountering the bodies of unarmed civilian
Armenians as they advanced. In March 1916, the scenes they saw in the
Erzurum led the Russians to retaliate against the Ottoman III
Army whom they held responsible for the massacres, destroying it in
SCANDINAVIAN MISSIONARIES AND DIPLOMATS
Although a neutral state throughout the war, Sweden had permanent
representatives in the
Ottoman Empire who closely followed and
continuously reported on major developments there. Its embassy in
Constantinople was led by Ambassador
Cossva Anckarsvärd , with M.
Ahlgren as envoy and Captain
Einar af Wirsén
Einar af Wirsén as military attaché. On
7 July 1915, Ambassador Anckarsvärd dispatched a two-page report
concerning the Armenian massacres to
Stockholm . The report began as
The persecutions of the
Armenians have reached hair-raising
proportions and all points to the fact that the
Young Turks want to
seize the opportunity, since due to different reasons there are no
effective external pressure to be feared, to once and for all put an
end to the Armenian question. The means for this are quite simple and
consist of the extermination (utrotandet) of the Armenian nation. :39
On 9 August 1915, Anckarsvärd dispatched yet another report,
confirming his suspicions regarding the plans of the Turkish
government, "It is obvious that the Turks are taking the opportunity
to, now during the war, annihilate the Armenian nation so that when
the peace comes no Armenian question longer exists". :41
Reflecting upon the situation in
Turkey during the final stages of
the war, Envoy Alhgren presented an analysis of the prevailing
Turkey and the hard times which had befallen the
population. In explaining the increased living costs he identified a
number of reasons: "obstacles for domestic trade, the almost total
paralysing of the foreign trade and finally the strong decreasing of
labour power, caused partly by the mobilisation, but partly also by
the extermination of the Armenian race ". :52
Wirsén, when writing his memoirs from his mission to the
Turkey, Minnen från fred och krig ("Memories from Peace and War"),
dedicated an entire chapter to the Armenian genocide, entitled Mordet
på en nation ("The Murder of a Nation"). Commenting on the
interpretation that the deportations resulted from the purported
collaboration of the
Armenians with the Russians, Wirsen states that
the deportations were nothing but a cover for their extermination:
"Officially, these had the goal to move the entire Armenian population
to the steppe regions of Northern
Mesopotamia and Syria, but in
reality they aimed to exterminate the Armenians, whereby the pure
Turkish element in
Asia Minor would achieve a dominating position".
:28 He concluded: "The annihilation of the Armenian nation in Asia
Minor must revolt all human feelings ... The way the Armenian problem
was solved was hair-raising. I can still see in front of me Talaat's
cynical expression, when he emphasized that the Armenian question was
Norwegian missionary nurse Bodil Biørn was based in the town of
Mezereh (now Elazig) and later in Mush, where she worked for widows
and orphaned children in cooperation with other missionaries. She
witnessed the massacres in Mush and saw most of the children in her
care murdered, along with Armenian priests, teachers, and assistants.
She escaped after nine days on horseback, but stayed on in the region
for another two years under increasingly difficult working conditions.
After a period at home she again went to
Armenia and, until she
retired in 1935, worked for Armenian refugees in
Syria and Lebanon.
Bodil Biørn was also an able photographer. Many of her photos are now
in the National Archives of Norway. In combination with her comments,
written in her photo albums or on the back of the prints themselves,
these photos bear strong witness of the atrocities that she saw.
Maria Jacobsen wrote her experiences in a diary
entitled Diaries of a Danish Missionary: Harpoot, 1907–1919, which
according to genocide scholar Ara Sarafian, is a "documentation of the
utmost significance" for research of the Armenian Genocide. Jacobsen
would later be known for having saved thousands of
various relief efforts in the aftermath of the Armenian
She wrote: "It is quite obvious that the purpose of their departure is
the extermination of the Armenian people." Another Danish
missionary, Aage Meyer Benedictsen, wrote in regards to the massacres
that it was a "shattering crime, probably the largest in the history
of the world: The attempt, planned and executed in cold blood, to
murder a whole people, the Armenian, during the World War." Johannes
Østrup , a Danish philologist and professor at the University of
Copenhagen , met with several
Young Turk politicians and leaders prior
to the start of World War I. In his memoirs, Østrup recounts his
meeting with Talat Pasha in the autumn of 1910 in which he writes that
Talat talked openly about his plans to "exterminate" the Armenians.
Due to the period of weak central government and
Tehran 's inability
to protect its territorial integrity, no resistance was offered by the
mostly Islamic Persian troops when, after the withdrawal of Russian
troops from the extreme northwest of Persia, Islamic Turks invaded the
Salmas in northwestern Persia and tortured and massacred the
Christian Armenian inhabitants.
Mohammad-Ali Jamalzadeh , a prominent Persian writer in the 20th
century, studied in Europe where he joined a group of Iranian
nationalists in Berlin who were to eventually start a newspaper
(Rastakhiz) in Baghdad in 1915. After remaining in Baghdad, Jamalzadeh
went to Constantinople where he witnessed the deportations of
Armenians and encountered many corpses during his journey. He wrote
of his experiences and eyewitness accounts decades later in two books
entitled "Qatl-e Amm-e Armanian" (Persian : قتل عام
ارمنیان, literally; Armenian massacres) and "Qatl o
ḡārat-e Arāmaneh dar Torkiya" (On the massacres of
Ottoman Turkey) which were published in 1972 and 1963 respectively.
STUDIES ON THE GENOCIDE
Genocide is widely corroborated by international
genocide scholars. The International Association of
(IAGS), consisting of the world's foremost experts on genocide,
unanimously passed a formal resolution affirming the factuality of the
Armenian Genocide. According to IAGS, "Every book on comparative
genocide studies in the English language contains a segment on the
Armenian Genocide. Leading texts in the international law of genocide
William Schabas 's
Genocide in International Law cite the
Genocide as precursor to the Holocaust and as a precedent for
the law on crimes against humanity. Polish jurist Raphael Lemkin, when
he coined the term genocide in 1943, cited the Turkish extermination
Armenians and the Nazi extermination of the Jews as defining
examples of what he meant by genocide. The killings of Armenians
is genocide as defined by the 1948
United Nations Convention on the
Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. 126 leading
scholars of the holocaust including
Elie Wiesel , and Yehuda Bauer
placed a statement in
The New York Times
The New York Times in June 2000 declaring the
"incontestable fact of the Armenian genocide" and urging western
democracies to acknowledge it. "The Institute on the Holocaust and
Genocide (Jerusalem), and the Institute for the Study of Genocide
(NYC), have affirmed the historical fact of the Armenian Genocide".
Historian Stefan Ihrig observes that the Armenian
Genocide was part
of the prehistory of the Holocaust and that merely ten years before
Hitler's rise to power the German debate on genocide, begun in 1919,
concluded with justifications of genocide and calls for the expulsion
A segment of speech given by
Adolf Hitler to
Wehrmacht commanders at
his Obersalzberg records him asking rhetorically "Who, after all,
speaks to-day of the annihilation of the Armenians?" Historian
Margaret L. Anderson surmises, "we have no reason to doubt the remark
is genuine, both attack and defense obscure an obvious reality" that
Genocide has achieved "iconic status ... as the apex of
horrors imaginable in 1939," and that Hitler used it to persuade the
German military that committing genocide excited a great deal of
"talk", but no serious consequences for a nation that perpetrates
Genocide Play media Lemkin: the origin of
the word "genocide", (CBS News)
Genocide happened before the coining of the term
"genocide". English-language words and phrases used by contemporary
accounts to characterise the event include "massacres", "atrocities",
"annihilation", "holocaust", "the murder of a nation", "race
extermination" and "a crime against humanity".
The survivors of the genocide used a number of Armenian terms to name
the event. Mouradian writes that "Yeghern (Crime/Catastrophe), or
variants like Medz Yeghern (Great Crime) and Abrilian Yeghern (the
April Crime)" were the terms most commonly used. The name "Aghed",
usually translated as "Catastrophe", was, according to Beledian, the
term most often used in
Armenian literature to name the event. After
the coining of the term genocide, the portmanteau word Armenocide was
also used as a name for the Armenian Genocide.
Works that seek to deny the Armenian
Genocide often attach qualifying
words against the term genocide, such as "so-called", "alleged" or
"disputed," or characterise it as a "controversy", or dismiss it as
"Armenian allegations", "Armenian claims" or "Armenian lies", or
employ euphemisms to avoid the word genocide, such as calling it a
"tragedy for both sides", or "the events of 1915". American President
Barack Obama 's use of the term Medz Yeghern when referring to the
Genocide has been described "as a means of avoiding the word
Raphael Lemkin coined the term "genocide" in 1943, with the fate of
Armenians in mind; he later explained that:
...it happened so many times ... It happened to the Armenians, then
Armenians Hitler took action.
Several international organizations have conducted studies of the
atrocities, each in turn determining that the term "genocide" aptly
describes "the Ottoman massacre of
Armenians in 1915–16". Among the
organizations affirming this conclusion are the International Center
for Transitional Justice , the International Association of Genocide
Scholars , and the United Nations' Sub-Commission on Prevention of
Discrimination and Protection of Minorities .
In 2005, the International Association of
Genocide Scholars affirmed
that scholarly evidence revealed the "
Young Turk government of the
Ottoman Empire began a systematic genocide of its Armenian citizens
– an unarmed Christian minority population. More than a million
Armenians were exterminated through direct killing, starvation,
torture, and forced death marches". The IAGS also condemned Turkish
attempts to deny the factual and moral reality of the Armenian
Genocide. In 2007, the
Elie Wiesel Foundation for Humanity produced a
letter signed by 53 Nobel Laureates re-affirming the Genocide
Scholars' conclusion that the 1915 killings of
genocide. Audio recording of Section 3 of Martyred Armenia,
by Fa\'iz El-Ghusein
Bat Ye\'or has suggested that "the genocide of the
Armenians was a
jihad ". Ye'or holds jihad and what she calls "dhimmitude " to be
among the "principles and values" that led to the Armenian Genocide.
This perspective is challenged by Fà'iz el-Ghusein, a
witness of the Armenian persecution, whose 1918 treatise aimed "to
refute beforehand inventions and slanders against the Faith of Islam
and against Moslems generally ... hat the
Armenians have suffered is
to be attributed to the
Committee of Union and Progress ... t has been
due to their nationalist fanaticism and their jealousy of the
Armenians, and to these alone; the Faith of
Islam is guiltless of
their deeds". :49 Arnold Toynbee writes that "the
Young Turks made
Turkish Nationalism work together for their ends, but
the development of their policy shows the Islamic element receding and
the Nationalist gaining ground". Toynbee and various other sources
report that many
Armenians were spared death by marrying into Turkish
families or converting to Islam. El-Ghusein points out that many
converts were put to death, concerned that Westerners would come to
regard the "extermination of the Armenians" :49 as "a black stain on
the history of Islam, which ages will not efface". :51 In one
instance, when an Islamic leader appealed to spare Armenian converts
to Islam, El-Ghusein quotes a government functionary as responding
that "politics have no religion", before sending the converts to their
RECOGNITION OF THE GENOCIDE
Main article: Armenian
COUNCIL OF EUROPE PARLIAMENTARY ASSEMBLY RESOLUTION, 24 APRIL 1998
"Today we commemorate the anniversary of what has been called the
first genocide of the 20th century, and we salute the memory of the
Armenian victims of this crime against humanity". States which
have recognized the Armenian Genocide. Armenian genocide
Larnaca , Cyprus. Cyprus was among the first countries to
recognise the genocide.
As a response to continuing denial by the Turkish state, many
Armenian Diaspora communities have pushed for formal
recognition of the Armenian genocide from various governments around
the world. Twenty-nine countries and forty-three U.S. states have
adopted resolutions acknowledging the Armenian
Genocide as a bona fide
historical event. On 4 March 2010, a U.S. congressional panel
narrowly voted that the incident was indeed genocide; within minutes
the Turkish government issued a statement critical of "this resolution
which accuses the Turkish nation of a crime it has not committed". The
Armenian Assembly of America (AAA) and the Armenian National Committee
of America (ANCA) have as their main lobbying agenda to press Congress
and the President for an increase of economic aid for
Armenia and the
reduction of economic and military assistance for Turkey. The efforts
also include reaffirmation of a genocide by Ottoman
Turkey in 1915.
As of 2015 , Israel, the United Kingdom and United States do not
recognize what happened a century ago as a "genocide". Despite his
previous public recognition and support of genocide bills, as well as
election campaign promises to formally recognize the Armenian
Barack Obama throughout his two terms as U.S. President,
abstained from using the term "genocide". In his 24 April 2016
commemoration statements Obama referred to the Armenian
its Armenian synonym, Medz Yeghern (spelled "Meds Yeghern" in the
statements). Despite a large number of direct descendants of the
Armenian genocide living in Jerusalem, specifically in the Armenian
Israel still refuses to recognize the genocide.
Pope Francis described it as the "First genocide of the XX century",
causing a diplomatic row with Turkey. The bishop of Rome defended his
pronouncement by saying it was his duty to honour the memory of the
innocent men, women and children who were "senselessly" murdered by
Ottoman Turks 100 years before he became Pontiff. He also called on
all heads of state and international organizations to recognize "the
truth of what transpired and oppose such crimes without ceding to
ambiguity or compromise." In a resolution, the European Parliament
commended the statement pronounced by the Pope and encouraged Turkey
to recognise the genocide and so pave the way for a "genuine
reconciliation between the Turkish and Armenian peoples".
On 24 April 2015, the German parliament overwhelmingly adopted a
resolution recognising the Genocide. Leading the debate, the Bundestag
Norbert Lammert declared, "What happened in the middle of
the First World War in the
Ottoman Empire under the eyes of the world
was a genocide." Armenian
Genocide Remembrance Day in Volgograd
A bill penalizing denial of the Armenian
Genocide has been introduced
in the Russian
State Duma in November 2015.
REPUBLIC OF TURKEY AND THE GENOCIDE
See also: Armenian
According to Kemal Çiçek, the head of the Armenian Research Group
Turkish Historical Society , in
Turkey there is no official
thesis on the Armenian issue. The
Republic of Turkey 's formal stance
is that the deaths of
Armenians during the "relocation" or
"deportation" cannot aptly be deemed "genocide", a position that has
been supported with a plethora of diverging justifications: that the
killings were not deliberate or systematically orchestrated; that the
killings were justified because
Armenians posed a Russian-sympathizing
threat as a cultural group; that the
Armenians merely starved to
death, or any of various characterizations referring to marauding
"Armenian gangs". Some suggestions seek to invalidate the genocide on
semantic or anachronistic grounds (the word genocide was not coined
until 1943). Turkish
World War I
World War I casualty figures are often cited to
mitigate the effect of the number of Armenian dead.
Volkan Vural, retired ambassador of
Turkey to Germany and Spain, says
that the Turkish state should apologize for what happened to the
Armenians during the deportations of 1915 and what happened to the
Greeks during the
Istanbul Pogrom . He also states, "I think that,
the Armenian issue can be solved by politicians and not by historians.
I don't believe that historical facts about this issue is not
revealed. The historical facts are already known. The most important
point here is that how these facts will be interpreted and will affect
Turkish governmental sources have asserted that the historically
demonstrated "tolerance of the Turkish people" itself renders the
Genocide an impossibility. A
Der Spiegel article addressed
this modern Turkish conception of history thus:
Would you admit to the crimes of your grandfathers, if these crimes
didn't really happen?" asked ambassador Öymen. But the problem lies
precisely in this question, says
Hrant Dink , publisher and
editor-in-chief of the Istanbul-based Armenian weekly
Agos . Turkey's
bureaucratic elite have never really shed themselves of the Ottoman
tradition—in the perpetrators, they see their fathers, whose honor
they seek to defend. This tradition instills a sense of identity in
Turkish nationalists—both from the left and the right, and it is
passed on from generation to generation through the school system.
This tradition also requires an antipole against which it could define
itself. Since the times of the Ottoman Empire, religious minorities
have been pushed into this role.
Turkey started an "initiative to resolve Armenian
allegations regarding 1915" by using archives in Turkey,
other countries. Armenian president
Robert Kocharian rejected this
offer by saying, "It is the responsibility of governments to develop
bilateral relations and we do not have the right to delegate that
responsibility to historians. That is why we have proposed and propose
again that, without pre-conditions, we establish normal relations
between our two countries". Additionally, Turkish foreign minister of
Abdullah Gül , invited the United States and other
countries to contribute to such a commission by appointing scholars to
"investigate this tragedy and open ways for Turks and
Turkish Prime Minister
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan issued a
circular that calls the government institutions to use the phrase
"Events of 1915" (in Turkish, 1915 Olayları) instead of the phrase
"so-called Armenian genocide" (in Turkish, sözde Ermeni
Efforts by the Turkish government and its agents to quash mention of
the genocide have resulted in numerous scholarly, diplomatic,
political and legal controversies.
Turkey recalled its ambassador to France to protest the
Genocide monument erected in
Marseille "to the memory of the 1,500,000
Armenian victims of the genocide ordered by the Turkish rulers in
In 1973, the Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and
Protection of Minorities , a former UN body, mandated special
rapporteur Nicodème Ruhashyankiko to produce a report on the issue of
genocide. Early drafts of Ruhashyankiko's report referred to the World
War I era Ottoman massacre of
Armenians as genocide, but that
reference disappeared from his final report (1978) under pressure from
The Israeli Foreign Ministry attempted to prevent any mention of the
Genocide at an international conference on genocide held in
Tel Aviv in 1982. Several reports suggested that
Turkey had warned
Turkish Jews might face "reprisals" if the conference permitted
Armenian participation. This charge was "categorically denied" by
Turkey; the Israeli Foreign Ministry supported Turkey's protestation
that there had been no threats against Jews, suggesting that its
intervention in the genocide conference was based on considerations
"vital to the
In the same year, the
Institute of Turkish Studies in Washington,
D.C. (ITS) was established by a $3 million grant from the Turkish
Israel Charny identifies the ITS and some of its foremost
deniers of the Armenian genocide, such as Stanford Shaw , Heath W.
Lowry , and Justin McCarthy , as the Turkish government's principal
agency in the United States for promoting research on
Turkey and the
Ottoman Empire, but also denial of the Armenian Genocide.
A 1989 United States Senate proposal to recognize the Armenian
Genocide stoked the ire of Turkey. The proposal occurred in the
context of the publication of "The Slaughterhouse Province", the
eyewitness report by
Leslie Davis , American diplomat and consul in
Kharpert from 1914-1917, who reported that "thousands and thousands of
Armenians, mostly innocent and helpless women and children, were
butchered" in the last days of the Ottoman Empire.
Turkey responded by
United States Navy
United States Navy visits to
Turkey and suspending some
United States military training facilities on Turkish territory. The
American scholar who assembled the United States archive documents for
publication, Susan K. Blair , went into hiding after a series of
In 1990, psychologist
Robert Jay Lifton received a letter from the
Turkish Ambassador to the United States, Nuzhet Kandemir, questioning
his inclusion of references to the Armenian
Genocide in one of his
books. The ambassador inadvertently included a draft of the letter,
written by scholar
Heath W. Lowry , advising the ambassador on how to
prevent mention of the Armenian
Genocide in scholarly works. In 1996,
Lowry was named to a chair at
Princeton University that had been
financed by the Turkish government, sparking a debate on ethics in
Ragıp Zarakolu , a Turkish human rights activist, published
the Turkish translation of the book called History of the Genocide
Yves Ternon . The book was the first to be published in
Turkey that openly acknowledged the events of 1915 as genocide . Soon
after its publication, he received threats and in 1994, the publishing
firm of Ragıp Zorakolu was the target of a bomb attack.
Prosecutors acting on their own initiative have used Article 301 of
the Turkish Penal Code prohibiting "insulting Turkishness" to silence
a number of prominent Turkish intellectuals who spoke of atrocities
Armenians in the last days of the
Ottoman Empire (most of
these cases have been dismissed). During a February 2005 interview
Das Magazin , novelist
Orhan Pamuk made statements implicating
Turkey in massacres against
Armenians and persecution of the Kurds,
declaring: "Thirty thousand
Kurds and a million
Armenians were killed
in these lands and nobody but me dares to talk about it". Subjected to
a hate campaign , he left Turkey, before returning in 2005 to defend
his right to freedom of speech : "What happened to the Ottoman
Armenians in 1915 was a major thing that was hidden from the Turkish
nation; it was a taboo. But we have to be able to talk about the
past". Lawyers of two Turkish ultranationalist professional
associations led by
Kemal Kerinçsiz then brought criminal charges
against Pamuk. However, on 23 January 2006 the charges of "insulting
Turkishness" were dropped (for reasons not necessarily tied to the
case), a move welcomed by the EU.
These prosecutions have often been accompanied by hate campaigns and
threats, as was the case for
Hrant Dink , who was prosecuted three
times for "insulting Turkishness ", and murdered in 2007. Later,
photographs of the assassin being honored as a hero while in police
custody, posing in front of the
Turkish flag with grinning policemen,
gave the academic community still more cause for pause with regard to
engaging the Armenian issue. Kerinçsiz, the leading lawyer behind
the prosecutions, has been accused of plotting to overthrow the
government as a member of the alleged
Ergenekon network .
After a meeting with then UK Prime Minister Gordon Brown in 2010,
Turkey's prime minister announced that the Turkish government might
order the expulsion of all illegal Armenian immigrants from Turkey.
The statement came after recent US House Committee and Swedish
Parliament resolutions over the Armenian
Genocide affirmation. He
repeated the statement in a BBC interview immediately afterwards,
declaring that there were 100,000 illegal Armenian citizens living in
Turkey and that:
If necessary, I may have to tell these 100,000 to go back to their
country because they are not my citizens. I don't have to keep them in
Armenian Prime Minister
Tigran Sargsyan responded to Erdoğan's
statement by saying that this kind of threat reminded
Armenians of the
Genocide and that it does not improve relations between the
two countries. The exact number of illegal
estimated to be only 12,000–13,000, contrary to the figure used by
THE REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA AND THE GENOCIDE
Nagorno-Karabakh War and
Sumgait pogrom The Armenian
Genocide Remembrance Day is a national holiday in Armenia.
Armenia has been involved in a protracted ethnic-territorial conflict
Azerbaijan , a Turkic state, since
Azerbaijan became independent
Soviet Union in 1991. The conflict has featured several
pogroms, massacres, and waves of ethnic cleansing , by both sides.
Some foreign policy observers and historians have suggested that
Armenia and the
Armenian diaspora have sought to portray the modern
conflict as a continuation of the Armenian Genocide, in order to
influence modern policy-making in the region. :232–3 According to
Thomas Ambrosio , the Armenian
Genocide furnishes "a reserve of public
sympathy and moral legitimacy that translates into significant
political influence ... to elicit congressional support for
The rhetoric leading up to the onset of the conflict, which unfolded
in the context of several pogroms against Armenians, was dominated by
references to the Armenian Genocide, including fears that it would be,
or was in the course of being, repeated. During the conflict, the
Azeri and Armenian governments regularly accused each other of
genocidal intent, although these claims have been treated skeptically
by outside observers. :232–33
The worldwide recognition of the
Genocide is a core aspect of
Armenia's foreign policy.
Varagavank monastery in Van (1913), burned and destroyed by the
Turkish army in May 1915. See also: Armenian cultural heritage in
The premeditated destruction of objects of Armenian cultural,
religious, historical and communal heritage was yet another key
purpose of both the genocide itself and the post-genocidal campaign of
denial. Armenian churches and monasteries were destroyed or changed
into mosques, Armenian cemeteries flattened, and, in several cities
(e.g., Van), Armenian quarters were demolished.
Aside from the deaths,
Armenians lost their wealth and property
without compensation. Businesses and farms were lost, and all
schools, churches, hospitals, orphanages, monasteries, and graveyards
became Turkish state property. In January 1916, the Ottoman Minister
of Commerce and Agriculture issued a decree ordering all financial
institutions operating within the empire's borders to turn over
Armenian assets to the government. It is recorded that as much as six
million Turkish gold pounds were seized along with real property,
cash, bank deposits, and jewelry. The assets were then funneled to
European banks, including Deutsche and Dresdner banks.
After the end of World War I,
Genocide survivors tried to return and
reclaim their former homes and assets, but were driven out by the
Ankara Government .
In 1914, the Armenian Patriarch in Constantinople presented a list of
the Armenian holy sites under his supervision. The list contained
2,549 religious places of which 200 were monasteries while 1,600 were
churches. In 1974 UNESCO stated that after 1923, out of 913 Armenian
historical monuments left in Eastern Turkey, 464 have vanished
completely, 252 are in ruins, and 197 are in need of repair (in stable
REPARATIONS TO THE VICTIMS
Main article: Armenian
REPARATIONS ON THE GROUNDS OF INTERNATIONAL LAW
United Nations Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to
Reparation for Victims of Gross Violations of Human Rights and
International Humanitarian Law provide in part, that reparation may be
claimed individually and where appropriate collectively, by the direct
victims of violations of human rights and international humanitarian
law, the immediate family, dependants or other persons or groups of
persons closely connected with the direct victims. According to Henry
Theriault, while current members of Turkish society cannot be blamed
morally for the destruction of Armenians, present-day Republic of
Turkey , as successor state to the
Ottoman Empire and as beneficiary
of the wealth and land expropriations brought forth through the
genocide, is responsible for reparations.
Particularly important are Principles 9 and 12 that state, that civil
claims relating to reparations for gross violations of human rights
and international humanitarian law shall not be subject to statutes of
limitations (article 9), and that restitution shall be provided to
re-establish the situation that existed prior to the violations of
human rights or international humanitarian law. The restitution
requires, inter alia – return to one's place of residence and
restoration of property.
Professor of International Law of
Geneva School of Diplomacy , former
Secretary of the
UN Human Rights Committee and former Chief of
Petitions at the Office of the
UN High Commissioner for Human Rights ,
Dr. Alfred de Zayas stated that, because of the continuing character
of the crime of genocide in factual and legal terms, the remedy of
restitution has not been foreclosed. Thus the survivors of the
genocide against the Armenians, both individually and collectively,
have standing to advance a claim for restitution. Whenever possible
complete restitution or restoration to the previous condition should
be granted. Where it is not possible, relevant compensation may be
substituted as a remedy.
In an article published in the European Journal of International Law
, Vahagn Avedian, leaving aside the limitations of the UN Genocide
Convention, emphasizes the applicability of international laws that
prevailed at the time and remain in force up to the present, e.g. the
Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 , more specifically the Martens
Clause , pertaining to the protection of civilian population, but also
existing international laws on unlawful confiscation, etc. Thus, the
actions of the Turkish governments (the Ottoman, the insurgent
nationalist movement as well as the succeeding republic), should be
viewed from the perspective of Internationally Wrongful Acts. Avedian
the Republic not only failed to stop doing the wrongful acts of its
predecessor, but it also continued the very internationally wrongful
acts committed by the
Young Turk government. Thus, the insurgent
National Movement, which later became the Republic, made itself
responsible for not only its own wrongful acts, but also those of its
predecessor, including the act of genocide committed in 1915–1916.
Although there are different opinions on the legitimacy of the Treaty
of Sèvres and its relativity to reparation claims, there are
specialists who claim that some of its elements retain the force of
law. In particular, the fixing of the proper borders of an Armenian
state was undertaken pursuant to the treaty and determined by a
binding arbitral award, regardless of whether the treaty was
ultimately ratified. The committee process determining the arbitral
award was agreed to by the parties and, according to international
law, the resulting determination has legal force regardless of the
ultimate fate of the treaty.
In July 2004, after the
California State Legislature
California State Legislature passed the
Genocide Insurance Act , descendants of Armenian Genocide
victims settled a case for about 2,400 life insurance policies from
New York Life written on
Armenians living in the Ottoman Empire.
Around 1918, the Turkish government attempted to recover payments for
the people it had killed, with the argument that there were no
identifiable heirs to the policy holders. The settlement provided $20
million, of which $11 million was for heirs of the
Genocide Memorial on the hill of Tsitsernakaberd
See also: List of Armenian
Genocide memorials and List of visitors to
Over 135 memorials, spread across 25 countries, commemorate the
In 1965, the 50th anniversary of the genocide, a 24-hour mass protest
was initiated in
Yerevan demanding recognition of the Armenian
Genocide by Soviet authorities. A memorial was completed two years
Tsitsernakaberd above the
Hrazdan gorge in Yerevan. The
memorial contains a 44 metres (144 ft) stele which symbolizes the
national rebirth of Armenians. Twelve slabs are positioned in a
circle, representing 12 lost provinces in present-day Turkey. At the
center of the circle there is an eternal flame . Each 24 April,
hundreds of thousands of people walk to the monument, which is the
official memorial of the genocide, and lay flowers around the eternal
flame. The Armenian
Genocide Museum-Institute, situated in
Tsitsernakaberd, presents a rich collection of books and archival
materials (photographs, documents, demographic tables, documentaries)
about the history of the Armenian Genocide; it is also a research
institute and a library. The museum holds a permanent, online and
temporary exhibitions, which give a detailed and documented
description of that period and of the atrocities. Visits to the
museum are a part of the protocol of the Republic of Armenia. Many
official foreign delegations have already visited the Museum, among
Pope John Paul II ,
Pope Francis , President of the Russian
Vladimir Putin , Presidents of France
Jacques Chirac ,
Francois Hollande and other well-known public and political figures.
The museum is open to the public for guided tours in Armenian,
Russian, English, French, and German.
PORTRAYAL IN THE MEDIA
Main article: Armenian
Genocide in culture Play media
"Ravished Armenia" (also called "Auction of Souls")
The first artwork known to have been influenced by the Armenian
Genocide was a medal struck in St. Petersburg while the massacres and
deportations of 1915 were at their height. It was issued as a token of
Russian sympathy for Armenian suffering. Since then, dozens of similar
medals have been commissioned in various countries.
Numerous eyewitness accounts of the atrocities were published,
notably those of Swedish missionary
Alma Johansson and U.S. Ambassador
Henry Morgenthau, Sr. German medic
Armin Wegner wrote several books
about the atrocities he witnessed while stationed in the Ottoman
Empire. Years later, having returned to Germany, Wegner was imprisoned
Nazism , and his books were burnt by the Nazis.
Probably the best known literary work on the Armenian
Franz Werfel 's 1933
The Forty Days of Musa Dagh . It was a bestseller
that became particularly popular among the youth in the
during the Nazi era. :302–4
Kurt Vonnegut 's 1988 novel Bluebeard features the Armenian Genocide
as an underlying theme. Other novels incorporating the Armenian
Louis de Berniéres ' Birds without Wings, Edgar
Hilsenrath 's German-language
The Story of the Last Thought , and
Stefan Żeromski 's 1925
The Spring to Come . A story in Edward
Saint-Ivan's 2006 anthology "The Black Knight's God" includes a
fictional survivor of the Armenian Genocide.
The first film about the Armenian
Genocide appeared in 1919, a
Hollywood production titled Ravished
Armenia . It was produced by the
American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief
American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief and was based on the
narrative account of survivor
Aurora Mardiganian , who played herself.
It resonated with acclaimed director
Atom Egoyan , influencing his
2002 Ararat . Several movies are based on the Armenian Genocide
including the 2014 drama film The Cut ,
1915 The Movie , and The
Promise . There are also references to the
Elia Kazan 's
America, America and
Henri Verneuil 's
Mayrig . At the Berlin
International Film Festival of 2007 Italian directors Paolo and
Vittorio Taviani presented another film about the atrocities, based on
Antonia Arslan's book,
La Masseria Delle Allodole (The Farm of the
The paintings of Armenian-American
Arshile Gorky , a seminal figure
Abstract Expressionism , are considered to have been influenced by
the suffering and loss of the period. In 1915, at age 10, Gorky fled
his native Van and escaped to Russian-
Armenia with his mother and
three sisters, only to have his mother die of starvation in
1919. His two The Artist and His Mother paintings are based on a
photograph with his mother taken in Van.
Arshile Gorky 's The
Artist and His Mother (ca. 1926–36)
Several musicians have dedicated songs to the Armenian Genocide. In
1975, famous French-Armenian singer
Charles Aznavour recorded the song
"Ils sont tombés " ("They Fell"), dedicated to the memory of Armenian
Genocide victims. The American band
System of a Down , composed of
four descendants of Armenian
Genocide survivors, has promoted
awareness of the Armenian
Genocide through its lyrics, including
P.L.U.C.K. and in concerts. On 23 April 2015, the band performed a
free concert in the Republic Square,
Yerevan to commemorate the 100th
anniversary of the genocide. In late 2003,
Diamanda Galás released
the album Defixiones, Will and Testament: Orders from the Dead, an
80-minute memorial tribute to the Armenian, Assyrian and Greek victims
of the genocide in Turkey. "The performance is an angry meditation on
genocide and the politically cooperative denial of it, in particular
the Turkish and American denial of the Armenian, Assyrian, and
Anatolian Greek genocides from 1914 to 1923". In 2008,
Andrey Kasparov premiered Tsitsernakabert,
an original work for modern dance and six musicians: alto flute, bass/
contrabass flute, violin, two percussionists, and mezzo-soprano. The
work opens with eight dancers posed in a circle — inclined toward
the circle's centre — in a tableau reminiscent of the eponymous
memorial to victims of the Armenian Genocide, situated in
Armenian genocide survivors discovered in Salt and sent to Jerusalem
in April 1918.
Armenian orphans in
Merzifon , 1918.
Transport of Armenians.
Decapitated heads of
Armenians placed on stakes.
Armenian refugees in Van crowding around a public oven in 1915.
Tortured Armenian woman next to child, as reported by the Iskri
Newspaper of Russia.
Soldiers holding the skulls of victims of the Armenian Genocide.
Armenians ordered by the authorities to gather in the main square of
the city to be deported. The crowd was eventually massacred.
An Armenian mother beside the corpses of her five children.
Armenian monastery in
Bitlis with severed heads and corpses in the
Deportations of Armenians.
Refugee camp in Syria.
Corpses of Armenian children.
Port Said, Egypt.
Armenian refugees in Hauran,
Syria eating a carcass of a horse.
5,000 children from Kharpert on donkeys or marching on foot.
Armenian corpses in Diyarbakir.
Armenians massacred in
Aleppo after the 1918 Armistice laid out in
front of the Armenian Relief Hospital.
Armenians being hanged by Turkish guards.
Armenians in Mamuret Al-Aziz province.
Armenians being deported.
Near East Relief with Armenian refugees in Bitlis.
Armenian refugee children near Athens, 1923, after the Population
exchange between Greece and
Armenian refugees at the American Relief eye hospital.
An Armenian refugee woman and her son.
Armenian refugees under the
Near East relief.
Armenian refugees in Syria.
Transport to Greece.
Children taken in by
Near East Relief.
Transport to Greece.
Armenian refugees in Alexandropol.
Armenian refugee children in Aleppo.
* 100th anniversary of the Armenian
Aghet – Ein Völkermord , German documentary film on the
Armenian Orphan Rug
* Confiscated Armenian properties in
Effects of genocide on youth
* Historiography of the fall of the
* Press coverage during the Armenian
* Racism in
* Rape during the Armenian
* Witnesses and testimonies of the Armenian
* ^ The Armenian
Genocide is generally associated with 1915, the
year that most of the atrocities took place. The span varies from
source to source: 1915–1916, 1915–1917, 1915–1918, 1915–1923,
* ^ A B 1.5 million is the most published number, however,
estimates vary from 800,000 to 1,800,000
* ^ Հայոց ցեղասպանութիւն in classical Armenian
* ^ "
Tsitsernakaberd Memorial Complex". Armenian Genocide
Museum-Institute . Retrieved 17 June 2016.
* ^ Kifner, John (7 December 2007). "Armenian
Genocide of 1915: An
The New York Times
The New York Times .
* ^ "The forgotten Holocaust: The Armenian massacre that inspired
Daily Mail . London. 11 October 2007.
* ^ Göçek, Fatma Müge (2015). Denial of violence : Ottoman past,
Turkish present and collective violence against the Armenians,
1789–2009. Oxford University Press. p. 1. ISBN 0-19-933420-X .
* ^ Auron, Yair (2000). The banality of indifference: Zionism & the
Armenian genocide. Transaction. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-7658-0881-3 .
* ^ Forsythe, David P. (11 August 2009). Encyclopedia of human
rights (Google Books). Oxford University Press. p. 98. ISBN
* ^ Chalk, Frank Robert; Jonassohn, Kurt (10 September 1990). The
history and sociology of genocide: analyses and case studies. Institut
montréalais des études sur le génocide. Yale University Press. pp.
270–. ISBN 978-0-300-04446-1 .
* ^ Fisk, Robert (14 October 2006). "Let me denounce genocide from
the dock". The Independent. Archived from the original on 24 January
2014. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
* ^ "8 facts about the Armenian genocide 100 years ago". CNN.com.
* ^ "100 Years Ago, 1.5 Million
Armenians Were Systematically
Killed. Today, It\'s Still Not A \'Genocide\'.". The Huffington Post.
* ^ Kieser, Hans-Lukas; Schaller, Dominik J. (2002), Der
Völkermord an den Armeniern und die Shoah (in German), Chronos, p.
114, ISBN 3-0340-0561-X
* ^ Walker, Christopher J. (1980), Armenia: The Survival of A
Nation, London: Croom Helm, pp. 200–03
* ^ Bryce, Viscount James ; Toynbee, Arnold (2000), Sarafian, Ara,
ed., The Treatment of
Armenians in the Ottoman Empire, 1915–1916:
Documents Presented to Viscount Grey of Falloden (uncensored ed.),
Princeton, NJ : Gomidas, pp. 635–49, ISBN 0-9535191-5-5
* ^ Schaller, Dominik J; Zimmerer, Jürgen (2008). "Late Ottoman
genocides: the dissolution of the
Ottoman Empire and Young Turkish
population and extermination policies – introduction". Journal of
Genocide Research. 10 (1): 7–14. doi :10.1080/14623520801950820 .
* ^ Jones, Adam (2010). Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction.
Taylor & Francis. pp. 171–72. ISBN 978-0-203-84696-4 . A resolution
was placed before the IAGS membership to recognize the Greek and
Assyrian/Chaldean components of the Ottoman genocide against
Christians, alongside the Armenian strand of the genocide (which the
IAGS has already formally acknowledged). The result, passed
emphatically in December 2007 despite not inconsiderable opposition,
was a resolution which I co-drafted, reading as follows: ...
* ^ "The Many Armenian Diasporas, Then and Now". GeoCurrents.
Retrieved 13 December 2015.
* ^ Totally Unofficial: The Autobiography of Raphael Lemkin. New
Haven and London: Yale University Press. 2013. pp. 19–20.
* ^ The Armenian
Genocide (1915–16): Overview, United States
Holocaust Memorial Museum
* ^ A B "Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly Resolution".
Armenian genocide. Retrieved 17 June 2016.
* ^ A B Ferguson, Niall (2006). The War of the World:
Twentieth-Century Conflict and the Descent of the West. New York:
Penguin Press. p. 177. ISBN 1-59420-100-5 .
* ^ "A Letter from The International Association of Genocide
Genocide Watch. 13 June 2005.
* ^ A B Rummel, RJ (1 April 1998), "
The Holocaust in Comparative
and Historical Perspective", The Journal of Social Issues, 3 (2)
* ^ "For Turkey, denying an Armenian genocide is a question of
identity". america.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2015-12-13.
* ^ Renwick Monroe, Kristen (2012). Ethics in an Age of Terror and
Genocide: Identity and Moral Choice.
Princeton University Press. p.
13. ISBN 0-691-15143-1 . Retrieved 17 June 2016.
* ^ Loytomaki, Stiina (2014). Law and the Politics of Memory:
Confronting the Past. Routledge. p. 31. ISBN 978-1-136-00736-1 . To
date, more than 20 countries in the world have officially recognized
the events as genocide and most historians and genocide scholars
accept this view.
* ^ Frey, Rebecca Joyce (2009).
Genocide and International Justice.
Infobase Publishing. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-8160-7310-8 . Retrieved 15
* ^ "Texas Recognizes the Armenian Genocide; Becomes 46th State to
Acknowledge the Crime". Armenianweekly.com.
* ^ Herzig, Edmund; Kurkchiyan, Marina (2004). The Armenians: Past
and Present in the Making of National Identity. Routledge. p. 47. ISBN
* ^ Khachaturian, Lisa (2011). Cultivating Nationhood in Imperial
Russia: The Periodical Press and the Formation of a Modern Armenian
Identity. Transaction Publishers. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-4128-1372-3 .
* ^ Adalian, Rouben Paul (2010). Historical Dictionary of Armenia
(2 ed.). Scarecrow Press. p. 337. ISBN 978-0-8108-7450-3 .
* ^ Barsoumian, Hagop (1982), "The Dual Role of the Armenian Amira
Class within the Ottoman Government and the Armenian Millet
(1750–1850)", in Braude, Benjamin; Lewis, Bernard, Christians and
Jews in the Ottoman Empire: The Functioning of a Plural Society, I,
New York: Holmes & Meier
* ^ A B Barsoumian, Hagop (1997), "The Eastern Question and the
Tanzimat Era", in Hovannisian, Richard G , The Armenian People From
Ancient to Modern Times, II: Foreign Dominion to Statehood: The
Fifteenth Century to the Twentieth Century, New York: St. Martin's,
pp. 175–201, ISBN 0-312-10168-6
* ^ (in Armenian) Hambaryan, Azat S. (1981). "Հայաստանի
սոցիալ-տնտեսական և քաղաքական
դրությունը 1870–1900 թթ." in Հայ Ժողովրդի
Պատմություն , ed.
Tsatur Aghayan et al. Yerevan: Armenian
Academy of Sciences, vol. 6, p. 22.
* ^ A B A ́goston, Ga ́bor; Alan Masters, Bruce (2010).
Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire.
Infobase Publishing . pp.
185–86. ISBN 978-1-4381-1025-7 . Retrieved 15 April 2016.
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Balakian, Peter (2003). The
Burning Tigris: The Armenian
Genocide and America's Response. New
York: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-019840-0 .
* ^ Ramsay, W.M. (1897). Impressions of
Turkey during Twelve Years'
Wanderings. London: Hodder and Stoughton. pp. 206–07.
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q Akçam, Taner (2006). A
Shameful Act: The Armenian
Genocide and the Question of Turkish
Responsibility. New York: Metropolitan Books. ISBN 0-8050-7932-7 .
* ^ A B C D E F G H I Dadrian, Vahakn N (1995). The History of the
Armenian Genocide: Ethnic Conflict from the
Anatolia to the
Caucasus. Oxford: Berghahn Books. ISBN 1-57181-666-6 .
* ^ "Article 16",
Treaty of San Stefano
Treaty of San Stefano , As the evacuation of the
Russian troops of the territory they occupy in
Armenia ... might give
rise to conflicts and complications detrimental to the maintenance of
good relations between the two countries, the
Sublime Porte engaged to
carry into effect, without further delay, the improvements and reforms
demanded by local requirements in the provinces inhabited by Armenians
and to guarantee their security from
* ^ Nalbandian, Louise (1963), The Armenian Revolutionary Movement:
The Development of Armenian Political Parties through the Nineteenth
Century, Berkeley: University of California Press
* ^ Libaridian, Gerard (2011). "What was Revolutionary about
Armenian Revolutionary Parties in the Ottoman Empire?". In Suny,
Ronald ; et al. A Question of Genocide:
Armenians and Turks at the End
of the Ottoman Empire. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 82–112.
* ^ "Armenian Genocide". history.com. History .
* ^ The German Foreign Ministry operative, Ernst Jackh, estimated
Armenians were killed and a further 50,000 expelled from
the provinces during the Hamidian unrest. French diplomats placed the
figures at 250,000 killed. The German pastor
Johannes Lepsius was more
meticulous in his calculations, counting the deaths of 88,000
Armenians and the destruction of 2,500 villages, 645 churches and
monasteries, and the plundering of hundreds of churches, of which 328
were converted into mosques.
* ^ "
Young Turk Revolution". matrix.msu.edu. Archived from the
original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 13 December 2015.
* ^ "Days of horror described; American missionary an eyewitness of
murder and rapine".
The New York Times
The New York Times . 28 April 1909.
* ^ "30,000 Killed in massacres; Conservative estimate of victims
of Turkish fanaticism in
The New York Times
The New York Times . 25 April
* ^ Henze, Paul. Circassian Resistance. Page 111
* ^ Walker, Christopher J . "
World War I
World War I and the Armenian
Genocide". The Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times. II. p.
* ^ “La Turchia in guerra “ in “Pro Familia”, Milanօ, 17
Geniano, 1915 pp. 38-42
* ^ “Berliner Morgenpost”, “ Der Heilige Krieg der
Muselmanen”, November 14, 1914
* ^ Ludke T.,
Jihad made in Germany, Ottoman and German Propaganda
and Intelligence Operations in the First Word War, Transaction
Publishers, 2005, pp. 12-13
* ^ Vahakn Dadrian, The History of the Armenian Genocide. Ethnic
Conflict from the
Anatolia to eh Caucasus, Berghahn Books,
Oxford, 1995, pp. 3-6
* ^ Suny 2015 , pp. 244
* ^ Toynbee, Arnold. Armenian Atrocities: The Murder of a Nation.
London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1915, pp. 181–82.
* ^ A B C D Morgenthau, Henry (2010) . Ambassador Morgenthau\'s
Story: A Personal Account of the Armenian Genocide. Cosimo, Inc. ISBN
978-1-61640-396-6 . Retrieved 15 April 2016.
* ^ Hinterhoff, Eugene. Persia: The Stepping Stone To India.
Marshall Cavendish Illustrated Encyclopedia of World War I. IV. pp.
* ^ Ugur Ungor; Mehmet Polatel (9 June 2011). Confiscation and
Young Turk Seizure of Armenian Property. Bloomsbury
Publishing. p. 65. ISBN 978-1-4411-1020-6 . ...were rounded up and
deported to the interior where most were murdered.
* ^ Heather Rae (15 August 2002). State Identities and the
Homogenisation of Peoples. Cambridge University Press. p. 160. ISBN
978-0-521-79708-5 . on the night of 23–24 April 1915 with the arrest
of hundreds of intellectuals and leaders of the Armenian community in
They were deported to
Anatolia where they were put to death.
* ^ Steven L. Jacobs (2009). Confronting Genocide: Judaism,
Christianity, Islam. Lexington Books. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-7391-3589-1 .
On 24 April 1915 the Ministry of the Interior ordered the arrest of
Armenian parliamentary deputies, former ministers, and some
intellectuals. Thousands were arrested, including 2,345 in the
capital, most of whom were subsequently executed ...
* ^ Alan Whitehorn (26 May 2015). The Armenian Genocide: The
Essential Reference Guide. ABC-CLIO. p. 139. ISBN 978-1-61069-688-3 .
That particular date was chosen because on April 24, 1915, the Ottoman
Young Turk government began deporting hundreds of Armenian leaders and
intellectuals from Constantinople (Istanbul); most were later murdered
* ^ Emmanuel Sampath Nelson (2005). The Greenwood Encyclopedia of
Multiethnic American Literature: A - C. Greenwood Publishing Group. p.
205. ISBN 978-0-313-33060-5 . On the night of April 24, 1915, the
brightest representatives of the Armenian intellectual elite of
Constantinople, including writers, musicians, politicians, and
scientists were arrested and brutally massacred.
* ^ Motta, Giuseppe (2014). Less Than Nations: Volume 1 and 2 :
Central-Eastern European minorities after WWI. Newcastle upon Tyne:
Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 11–2. ISBN 1443858595 .
* ^ "Twenty-Seven". Ambassador Morgenthau\'s Story. BYU. 1918.
* ^ A B C D E F G Fisk, Robert (2005). The Great War for
Civilisation: The Conquest of the Middle East . New York: Alfred A
Knopf. ISBN 1-84115-007-X .
* ^ A B C Fromkin, David (1989).
A Peace to End All Peace : The
Fall of the
Ottoman Empire and the Creation of the Modern Middle East.
New York: Avon Books. ISBN 0-8050-6884-8 .
* ^ Theodore Roosevelt, Letters and Speeches, New York: Library of
America, 2004, p. 736. See Rosen, Ruth. "The hidden holocaust". San
Francisco Chronicle. 15 December 2003.
* ^ Kabacali, Alpay (1994). Talat Paşa'nın hatıraları.
* ^ "Ermeni Meselesi" (PDF) (in Turkish). Hist.net. 11 March 2001.
* ^ Akçam, Taner (2004). From empire to republic: Turkish
nationalism and the Armenian genocide. Zed Books. p. 174. ISBN
* ^ Arango, Tim (22 April 2017). "\'Sherlock Holmes of Armenian
Genocide\' Uncovers Lost Evidence".
The New York Times
The New York Times . United
States. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
"Recently Discovered Telegram Reveals Evidence For Armenian
Genocide". All things Considered. United States: National Public
Radio. 24 April 2017. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
Mandell, Ariane (23 April 2017). "Lost Evidence of Armenian Genocide
Jerusalem Archive". The
Jerusalem Post. Israel.
Retrieved 24 April 2017. * ^ A B "Exiled
Armenians starve in the
desert; Turks drive them like slaves, American committee hears ;-
Treatment raises death rate".
The New York Times
The New York Times . 8 August 1916.
Archived from the original on 2 February 2012.
* ^ "
Armenians are sent to perish in desert; Turks accused of plan
to exterminate whole population; people of Karahissar massacred". The
New York Times
New York Times . 18 August 1915.
* ^ "Génocide arménien: le scénario". l'Histoire (in French). 1
* ^ Von Joeden-Forgey, Elisa (2010). "Gender and Genocide". In
Donald Bloxham, A. Dirk Moses. The Oxford Handbook of Genocide
Studies. Oxford University Press. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-19-923211-6 .
* ^ Akçam, Taner (2012). The Young Turks' Crime against Humanity:
Genocide and Ethnic Cleansing in the Ottoman Empire.
Princeton University Press. pp. 312–15. ISBN 978-0-691-15333-9 .
* ^ Gust, Wolfgang (2013). The Armenian Genocide: Evidence from the
German Foreign Office Archives, 1915–1916. Berghahn Books. pp.
26–27. ISBN 978-1-78238-143-3 .
* ^ "L\'extermination des déportés Arméniens ottomans dans les
camps de concentration de Syrie-Mésopotamie (1915–1916)".
imprescriptible.fr (in French). Retrieved 17 June 2016.
* ^ Kotek, Joël; Rigoulot, Pierre (2000). Le siècle des camps (in
French). JC Lattès. ISBN 2-7096-4155-0 .
* ^ Kaiser, Hilmar (2010). "18.
Genocide at the Twilight of the
Ottoman Empire". In Donald Bloxham. The Oxford Handbook of Genocide
Studies. A. Dirk Moses. OUP Oxford. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-19-161361-6 .
Retrieved 15 April 2016.
* ^ Gust, Wolfgang (2013). The Armenian Genocide: Evidence from the
German Foreign Office Archives, 1915–191. Berghahn Books. pp.
653–54. ISBN 978-1-78238-143-3 .
* ^ Bayur, Yusuf Hikmet, Türk İnkılabı Tarihi. Ankara: Türk
Tarih Kurumu Basımevi, 1983, vol. 3, pt. 3, as cited in Dadrian,
History of the Armenian Genocide, pp. 223–24.
* ^ Robert Marrus, Michael (2002). The Unwanted: European Refugees
from the First World War Through the Cold War. Temple University
Press. pp. 83–84. ISBN 1-4399-0551-7 .
* ^ "Would Send Here 550,000 Armenians; Morgenthau Urges Scheme to
Save Them From Turks". The New York Times, 13 September 1915.
* ^ Oren, Michael B (2007).
Power, Faith and Fantasy : America in
the Middle East 1776 to the Present. New York: WW Norton & Co. ISBN
* ^ Goldberg, Andrew. The Armenian Genocide. Two Cats Productions,
* ^ Suzanne E. Moranian. "The Armenian
Genocide and American
Missionary Relief Efforts", in America and the Armenian
Jay Winter (ed.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
* ^ "Fact sheet: armenian genocide". Knights of Vartan Armenian
Research Center, The University of Michigan-Dearborn. Archived from
the original on 21 August 2014.
* ^ Dadrian, Vahakn (November 1991). "The Documentation of the
World War I
World War I Armenian Massacres in the Proceedings of the Turkish
Military Tribunal". International Journal of Middle East Studies. 23
(4): 549–76 (560).
JSTOR 163884 . doi :10.1017/S0020743800023412 .
* ^ Kevorkian, Raymond (2011). The Armenian Genocide: A Complete
History. I.B.Tauris. p. 432. ISBN 0857730207 .
* ^ Rummel, Rudolf J.
Genocide never again (book 5) (PDF). Llumina
Press. ISBN 1-59526-075-7 . Retrieved 17 June 2016.
* ^ Guenter Lewy (Fall 2005). "Revisiting the Armenian Genocide".
Middle East Quarterly.
* ^ A B Auron, Yair (2000). "The Banality of Indifference: Zionism
and the Armenian Genocide". New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction
British Foreign Office 371/2781/264888, Appendices B., p. 6.
* ^ Takvimi Vekayi, No. 3540, 5 May 1919.
* ^ McClure, Samuel S. Obstacles to Peace. Boston, New York:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 1917, pp. 400–01.
* ^ A B Viscount Bryce (1916). "The Treatment of
Armenians in the
Ottoman Empire 1915–16: Documents presented to Viscount Grey of
Falloden, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs". New York and
London: GP Putnam's Sons, for His Majesty's Stationery Office.
* ^ A B C Charny,
Israel W.; Tutu, Desmond; Wiesenthal, Simon
(2000). Encyclopedia of genocide (Repr ed.). Oxford: ABC-Clio. p. 95.
ISBN 0-87436-928-2 .
* ^ 11 April 1919 report. U.S. National Archives. R.G. 59. 867.
* ^ Winter, Jay (2004). America and the Armenian
Genocide of 1915.
Cambridge University Press. p. 81. ISBN 978-1-139-45018-8 .
* ^ Toronto Globe, 26 August 1915.
* ^ Takvimi Vekdyi, No. 3616, 6 August 1919, p. 2.
* ^ Akçam 2012 , p. 312.
* ^ Cipher telegram, 12 July 1916. U.S. National Archives, R.G.
* ^ Lifton, Robert Jay. Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the
Psychology of Genocide, New York: Basic Books, 1986, p. xii.
* ^ Dadrian, Vahakn N. "The Turkish Military Tribunal\'s
Prosecution of the Authors of the Armenian Genocide: Four Major
Court-Martial Series". Holocaust and
Genocide Studies, 11(1), 1997,
Genocide Study Project, HF Guggenheim Foundation, in The
Genocide Studies , Volume 11, Number 1, Spring 1997.
* ^ A B Vahakn N. Dadrian, "The Role of Turkish Physicians in the
World War I
World War I
Genocide of Ottoman Armenians".
The Holocaust and Genocide
Studies 1, no. 2 (1986), pp. 169–92.
* ^ Baron, Jeremy Hugh. "Genocidal Doctors". Journal of the Royal
Society of Medicine. November 1999, 92, pp. 590–93.
* ^ Akçam, Taner (1996). Armenien und der Völkermord: Die
Istanbuler Prozesse und die Türkische Nationalbewegung (in German).
Hamburg: Hamburger Edition. p. 185.
* ^ Gunnar Heinsohn: Lexikon der Völkermorde. Reinbek 1998.
Rowohlt Verlag. p. 80 (German)
* ^ Recognizing the 81st Anniversary of the Armenian Genocide.
United States Government Printing Office . Retrieved 21 January 2013
* ^ Armenian
Genocide Survivors Remember. Queens Gazette. Retrieved
21 January 2013
* ^ Libaridian, Gerald J. (2007). Modern
Armenia people, nation,
state. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers. pp. 134–35. ISBN
* ^ Public Record Office, Foreign Office, 371/4174/136069 in
Dadrian 1995 , p. 342
* ^ Türkei By Klaus-Detlev. Grothusen.
* ^ A B Bonello 2008 .
* ^ Yarwood, Lisa (2011). "Armenian Massacre 1915". State
accountability under international law : holding states accountable
for a breach of "jus cogens" norms. Abingdon: Routledge. ISBN
* ^ Turkey\'s EU Minister, Judge
Giovanni Bonello And the Armenian
Genocide - \'Claim about Malta Trials is nonsense\'. The Malta
Independent . 19 April 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2013
* ^ Lemkin, Raphael (April 1946). "Genocide". American Scholar. 15
(2): 227–30. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
* ^ A B C Bloxham, Donald (2005). "The Great Game of Genocide:
Imperialism, Nationalism, and the Destruction of the Ottoman
Armenians". Oxford: Oxford University Press.
* ^ "94th Anniversary of the Armenian
Genocide at the desert of Der
Zor". Armenian Orthodox Church (official website). 17 April 2009.
* ^ John G. Heidenrich (2001). How to prevent genocide: a guide for
policymakers, scholars, and the concerned citizen. Greenwood
Publishing Group. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-275-96987-5 .
* ^ "French in
Armenia \'genocide\' row". BBC News. 12 October
2006. Archived from the original on 7 April 2008.
* ^ Woods, Allan (6 May 2006). "
Turkey protests Harper\'s marking
Ottawa Citizen . Archived from the original on 13 March
* ^ "Death toll of the Armenian Massacres". Encyclopædia
* ^ Melson, Robert (1996). Revolution and genocide: on the origins
of the Armenian genocide and the Holocaust (1st pbk. ed.). Chicago:
University of Chicago Press. p. 147. ISBN 0-226-51991-0 .
* ^ Sarafian, Ara (13 March 2009). "Talaat Pasha\'s Black Book
documents his campaign of race extermination, 1915–17" (PDF).
Armenian Cause Foundation. The Armenian Reporter.
* ^ Tavernise, Sabrina "Nearly a Million
Genocide Victims, Covered
in a Cloak of Amnesia".
The New York Times
The New York Times , 8 March 2009.
* ^ Justin McCarthy, The End of Ottoman Anatolia, in Muslims and
Minorities: The Population of Ottoman
Anatolia and the End of the
Empire, New York Univ. Press, 1983.
* ^ Justin McCarthy, The Population of the Ottoman Armenians, in
Armenians in the Late Ottoman Period, The Turkish Historical
Society For The Council Of Culture, Arts And Publications Of The Grand
National Assembly Of Turkey, Ankara, 2001, pp. 65–86
* ^ Frédéric Paulin, Négationnisme et théorie des populations
stables : le cas du génocide arménien, in Hervé Lebras (dir.),
L'Invention des populations. Biologie, Idéologie et politique,
Editions Odile Jacob, 2000.
* ^ Hilmar Kaiser, a German expert on the Armenian genocide, also
criticizes McCarthy's calculation techniques in an interview with Dirk
van Delft published in the NRC Handelsblad, p. 51, Amsterdam,
Saturday, 27 May 2000
* ^ Vahakn N. Dadrian, Warrant for Genocide: Key Elements of
Turko-Armenian Conflict, New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers,
1999. See also his essay: Ottoman Archives and Denial of the Armenian
Genocide, in The Armenian Genocide: History, Politics, Ethics, R.G.
Hovanissian, ed. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992 pp. 294–97
* ^ Levon Marashlian, Politics and Demography: Armenians, Turks and
Kurds in the Ottoman Empire, Zoryan Institute for Contemporary
Armenian Research & Documentation Inc. September 1990
* ^ Kemal H. Karpat, Ottoman Population 1830–1914: Demographic
and Social Characteristics, Madiscon, Wisconsin: University of
Wisconsin Press, 1985. See also Tableau indicant le nombre des divers
éléments de la population dans l'Empire Ottoman au 1er Mars 1330 (14
Mars 1914), Istanbul: Zellitch Brothers, 1919. Foreword by Refet. FO
371/4229/86552. May 1919.
* ^ El-Ghusein, Fà\'iz (1917). Martyred
Armenia . p. 7.
* ^ Levene, Mark (2013). The crisis of genocide. the European
rimlands, 1912-1938 (First ed.). OUP Oxford. pp. 125–6. ISBN
* ^ Whitehorn, Alan (2015). The Armenian Genocide: The Essential
Reference Guide. ABC-CLIO. p. 78. ISBN 1610696883 .
* ^ Fisk, Robert (2005), The Great War for Civilisation: The
Conquest of the Middle East, New York: Alfred A Knopf, ISBN
Christopher J. Walker (1980). Armenia, the Survival of a Nation.
St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-04944-7 .
* Akçam, Taner (2007). A Shameful Act: The Armenian
the Question of Turkish Responsibility. p. 327.
* ^ These are according to the figures provided by Alexander
Miasnikian , the President of the Council of People's Commissars of
Soviet Armenia, in a telegram he sent to the Soviet Foreign Minister
Georgy Chicherin in 1921. Miasnikyan's figures were broken down as
follows: of the approximately 60,000
Armenians who were killed by the
Turkish armies, 30,000 were men, 15,000 women, 5,000 children, and
10,000 young girls. Of the 38,000 who were wounded, 20,000 were men,
10,000 women, 5,000 young girls, and 3,000 children. Instances of mass
rape, murder and violence were also reported against the Armenian
populace of Kars and Alexandropol: See
Vahakn Dadrian . (2003). The
History of the Armenian Genocide: Ethnic Conflict from the
Anatolia to the Caucasus. New York: Berghahn Books, pp. 360–61. ISBN
Armenia : The Survival of a Nation, Christopher Walker, 1980.
* ^ 1915 declaration
* Affirmation of the United States Record on the Armenian Genocide
Resolution 106th Congress, 2nd Session, House of Representatives
* Affirmation of the United States Record on the Armenian Genocide
Resolution (Introduced in House of Representatives) 109th Congress,
1st Session, H.RES.316, 14 June 2005. 15 September 2005 House
Committee/Subcommittee:International Relations actions. Status:
Ordered to be Reported by the Yeas and Nays: 40–7.
* "Crimes Against Humanity", 23 British Yearbook of International
Law (1946) p. 181
* William A. Schabas,
Genocide in International Law: The Crimes of
Crimes, Cambridge University Press, 2000, pp. 16–17
* Original source of the telegram sent by the Department of State,
Washington containing the French, British and Russian joint
* ^ A B Horton, George (2008) . The Blight of Asia, An Account of
the Systematic Extermination of Christian Populations by Mohammedans
and of the Culpability of Certain Great Powers; with the True Story of
the Burning of Smyrna. London: Gomidas Institute (Sterndale Classics).
ISBN 978-1-903656-79-2 . Foreword by
James W. Gerard (1926) with a
new introduction by James L. Marketos (2003 or 2008).
* ^ Winter, Jay, ed. (2003). America and the Armenian genocide of
1915. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 183. ISBN
* ^ Merrill D. Peterson, "Starving Armenians": America and the
Armenian Genocide, 1915–1930 and After. Charlottesville: University
of Virginia Press, 2004.
* ^ James L. Barton, Turkish Atrocities: Statements of American
Missionaries on the Destruction of Christian Communities in Ottoman
Turkey, 1915–1917. Gomidas Institute, 1998, ISBN 1-884630-04-9 .
* ^ The Treatment of
Armenians in the Ottoman Empire, 1915–1916:
Documents Presented to Viscount Grey of Falloden by Viscount James
Bryce and Arnold Toynbee, Uncensored Edition.
Ara Sarafian (ed.)
Princeton, New Jersey: Gomidas Institute, 2000. ISBN 0-9535191-5-5 .
* ^ Auswärtiges Amt, West German Foreign Office Archives, K170,
no. 4674, folio 63, in Balakian, The Burning Tigris, p. 186.
* ^ Ambrosio, Thomas (2002). Ethnic identity groups and U.S.
foreign policy. Westport (Conn.): Praeger. pp. 155–6. ISBN
* ^ Charney,
Israel (1994). The Widening Circle of Genocide. W. W.
Norton & Company. p. 107. ISBN 1-4128-3965-3 .
* ^ Ye'or, Bat (1985). The Dhimmi: Jews and Christians Under Islam.
Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 95. ISBN 1-61147-079-X .
* ^ A B C D Dabag, Mihran "The Decisive Generation:
Self-authorization and delegations in deciding a genocide" pages
113–135 from Genocide: Approaches, Case Studies, And Responses
edited by Graham Charles Kinloch, Raj P. Mohan, New York: Algora
Publishing, 2005 p. 121.
Robert Fisk (21 October 2012). "Photograph links Germans to
Armenia genocide". London: The Independent.
Armin T. Wegner e gli Armeni in Anatolia, 1915: Immagini e
Armin T. Wegner and the
Armenians in Anatolia, 1915 :
images and testimonies, Milan, Guerini, 1996. See also Wegner. "Photo
collection". Armenian Genocide.
* ^ Nazer, James (1968). The first genocide of the 20th century:
the story of the Armenian massacres in text and pictures. T & T
Publishing, inc. p. 123.
* ^ "Wegner Biographie" (in German). DE.
* ^ Der Mugrdechian, Barlow (May 2000). ""Destination Nowhere"
Premieres in Fresno". Hye Sharzhoom. Archived from the original on
* ^ Bartrop, Paul R.; Jacobs, Steven Leonard. Modern Genocide: The
Definitive Resource and Document Collection. ABC-CLIO. p. 64. ISBN
* ^ A B C Dadrian, Vahakn N. (1991). Documentation of the Armenian
Genocide in Turkish Sources. Institute on the Holocaust and Genocide.
* ^ Akçam, Taner (2004). From empire to republic: Turkish
nationalism and the Armenian genocide. Zed Books. p. 158. ISBN
* ^ Karakachian, Vahakn (2 April 2015). "Interview With Ara
Sarafian, Director of the Gomidas Institute". Horizon Weekly.
* ^ Ahmet Refik (transcribed by Hamide Koyukan), Kafkas Yolunda
İki Komite İki Kıtal, Ankara, Kebikeç Yayınları, 1994, ISBN
975-7981-00-1 , p. 27.
* ^ Insel, Ahmet (February 2009). "\'This Conduct Was a Crime
Against Humanity\': An Evaluation of the Initiative to Apologize to
the Armenians". Birikim. Retrieved 10 June 2017.
* ^ "Eye Witnesses Tell The Story". Greek America. Cosmos
Communications Group. 4 (1–7): 36. 1998.
* ^ A B Najmuddin; Najmuddin, Dilshad; Shahzad (2006). Armenia: A
Resume with Notes on Seth\'s
Armenians in India. Trafford Publishing.
ISBN 1-4669-5461-2 .
* ^ Fisk, Robert (2008). The age of the warrior selected essays.
New York: Nation Books. p. 57. ISBN 0-7867-3180-X .
* ^ Rettman, Andrew (2011-12-22). "Franco-Turkish relations hit new
low on genocide bill". EUobserver.
* ^ Jerjian, George (2003). The truth will set us free: Armenians
and Turks reconciled. GJ Communication. p. 46.
* ^ "Allies Reject Turkey\'s Plea".
The New York Times
The New York Times . 26 June
* ^ "Turkish Statesman Denounces Atrocities: Cherif Pasha Says
Young Turks Long Planned to Exterminate the Armenian" (PDF). The New
York Times . 10 October 1915. Retrieved 15 April 2016. II-19:3,4
* ^ "Türk Schindler\'i: Vali Celal Bey". NTVMSNBC (in Turkish). 4
* ^ A B Akçam 2012 , p. 425.
* ^ A B C Derogy, Jacques (1990). Resistance and Revenge: The
Armenian Assassination of the Turkish Leaders Responsible for the 1915
Massacres and Deportations. Transaction Publishers. p. 32. ISBN
* ^ "Halep Valisi Celal'in Anılar", Vakit, 12 December 1918,
Turkish text: Nehirde su yerine kan akıyor ve binlerce masum çocuk,
kabahatsız ihtiyar, aciz kadınlar, kuvvetli gençler bu kan
cereyanı içinde ademe doğru akıp gidiyorlardı.
* ^ Bedrosyan, Raffi (29 July 2013). "The Real Turkish Heroes of
1915". The Armenian Weekly.
* ^ Hull , Isabel V. (2013). Absolute Destruction: Military Culture
and the Practices of War in Imperial Germany. Cornell University
Press. p. 273. ISBN 0-8014-6708-X .
* ^ Kévorkian, Raymond H. (2010). The Armenian genocide : a
complete history (Reprinted. ed.). London: I. B. Tauris. p. 417. ISBN
* ^ Kieser, Hans-Lukas (2006).
Turkey Beyond Nationalism Towards
Post-Nationalist Identities. London:
I.B. Tauris & Co. p. 119. ISBN
* ^ Dadrian, Vahakn N.; Akçam, Taner (2011). Judgment at Istanbul
the Armenian genocide trials (English ed.). New York: Berghahn Books.
p. 28. ISBN 0-85745-286-X .
* ^ Akçam, Taner (2004). From empire to republic : Turkish
nationalism and the Armenian genocide (2. impr. ed.). New York: Zed
Books. p. 200. ISBN 1-84277-526-X .
* ^ Babikian, Aris (3 June 1998). "Wall of silence built around
Armenian genocide". The Ottawa Citizen. p. A14.
* ^ Babikian, Aris (16 January 2001). "Clear evidence of Turkish
responsibility for Armenian genocide". The Daily Telegraph. London
(UK). p. 27.
* ^ "Kemal Promises More Hangings of Political Antagonists in
Turkey". Los Angeles Examiner. 1 August 1926. Archived from the
original on 11 April 2015.
* ^ Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi Gizli Celse Zabıtları, Vol.
I, Ankara, Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları, 1985, p. 177,
Turkish text: Tehcir meselesi, biliyorsunuz ki dünyayı velveleye
veren ve hepimizi katil telâkki ettiren bir vaka idi. Bu yapılmazdan
evvel âlem-i nasraniyetin bunu hazmetmeyeceği ve bunun için bütün
gayz ve kinini bize tevcih edeceklerini biliyorduk. Neden katillik
ünvanını nefsimize izafe ettik? Neden o kadar azim, müşkül bir
dava içine girdik? Sırf canımızdan daha aziz ve daha mukaddes
bildiğimiz vatanımızın istikbalini taht-ı emniyete almak için
Special Cable to
The New York Times
The New York Times (23 February 1915).
"Massacre By Turks in
Armenians Led Out into the
Streets and Shot or Drowned – Old Friends Not Spared".
New York Times
New York Times Dispatch. Russians Slaughter Turkish IIIrd Army:
Give No Quarter to Men Held Responsible for the Massacre of Armenians.
The New York Times, 6 March 1916.
* ^ A B C D E Avedian, Vahagn (21 May 2008). "The Armenian Genocide
1915: From a Neutral Small State\'s Perspective: Sweden" (PDF).
Uppsala University. Retrieved 17 June 2016.
* ^ "Armenia". Norwegian State Archive. Retrieved 17 June 2016.
* ^ A B "Danish Photo Exhibit Documents Armenian Life In Ottoman
Harpoot and Mezreh; Diaries of
Maria Jacobsen to Be Issued". Armenian
Reporter. 34 (2): 22. 13 October 2001. ISSN 1074-1453 .
* ^ A B Naguib, edited by Nefissa; Okkenhaug, Inger Marie (2008).
Interpreting welfare and relief in the Middle East (. ed.). Leiden:
Brill. ISBN 90-04-16436-7 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link
* ^ Sarafian (2001). Jacobsen, Maria, ed. Diaries of a Danish
missionary : Harpoot, 1907–1919. introd. by Ara. Transl. by Kirsten
Vind. Princeton, NJ : Gomidas Inst. ISBN 1-903656-07-9 .
* ^ Bjørnlund, Matthias (2008). "Karen Jeppe, Aage Meyer
Benedictsen, and the Ottoman Armenians: National survival in imperial
and colonial settings". Haigazian Armenological Review. 28: 9–43.
* ^ Bjørnlund, Matthias (Fall 2006). "\'When the Cannons Talk, the
Diplomats Must be Silent\' – A Danish diplomat in Constantinople
during the Armenian genocide".
Genocide Studies and Prevention. 1 (2):
197–223. doi :10.3138/1567-7412-6rq6-441q .
* ^ Østrup, Johannes (1938). Erindringer (in Danish). H.
Hirsch-sprungs forlag. p. 118.
* ^ "The
Jihad Rampant in Persia by Rev. Robert M. Labree-reporting
from Tabriz, Persia". Cilicia.com. July 1915. Retrieved 17 June 2016.
* ^ A B "Jamalzadeh, Mohammad-Ali". Encyclopædia Iranica.
Retrieved 17 June 2016.
* ^ "International Association of
Genocide Scholars Officially
Recognizes Ottoman Genocides Against the Armenians, Assyrians, and
Hellenics". 11 March 2008.
Yair Auron . The Banality of Denial:
Israel and the Armenian
Genocide. Transaction Publishers, 2004. p. 9: "...when Raphael Lemkin
coined the word genocide in 1944 he cited the 1915 annihilation of
Armenians as a seminal example of genocide"
William Schabas .
Genocide in international law: the crimes of
crimes. Cambridge University Press, 2000. p. 25: "Lemkin's interest in
the subject dates to his days as a student at Lvov University, when he
intently followed attempts to prosecute the perpetration of the
massacres of the Armenians"
* ^ Dirk Moses, A. (2004).
Genocide and Settler Society: Frontier
Violence and Stolen Indigenous Children in Australian History.
Berghahn Books. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-57181-410-4 . Retrieved 15 April
2016. Indignant that the perpetrators of the Armenian genocide had
largely escaped prosecution, Lemkin, who was a young state prosecutor
in Poland, began lobbying in the early 1930s for international law to
criminalize the destruction of such groups.
* ^ "Coining a Word and Championing a Cause: The Story of Raphael
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM), Holocaust
Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 2010-06-15. Lemkin's
memoirs detail early exposure to the history of Ottoman attacks
Armenians (which most scholars believe constitute genocide),
antisemitic pogroms, and other histories of group-targeted violence as
key to forming his beliefs about the need for legal protection of
* ^ "
Jewish World Watch. The Armenian
genocide (1915–1923) was the first of the 20th century to capture
world-wide attention; in fact,
Raphael Lemkin coined his term
"genocide" in reference to the mass murder of ethnic
Armenians by the
Young Turk government of the Ottoman Empire.
* ^ "An Open Letter Concerning Historians Who Deny the Armenian
Genocide" (PDF). International Association of
Genocide Scholars. 1
October 2006. Retrieved 17 June 2016.
* ^ "The relationship between the Armenian
Genocide and the
Holocaust is apparent in two periods of history. The first is the
debate that raged in Germany regarding the slaughter of
its ally the
Ottoman Empire in the early 1920s. The debate came down
in favor of genocide, and by the time the Nazis came to power,
violence against the
Armenians had been understood and even outright
justified, already for decades. The second period is when the Nazis
were in power and looked to the post-ethnic cleansing
Turkey as a role
model."; Ihrig, Stefan; How the Armenian
Genocide Shaped the
* ^ "
Adolf Hitler - Statements on Record Relating to the Armenian
Genocide". Armenian-genocide.org. 22 August 1939. Retrieved 14 April
* ^ Suny, Ronald (2011). A question of genocide :
Turks at the end of the Ottoman Empire. Oxford New York: Oxford
University Press. p. 199. ISBN 0-19-978104-4 .
* ^ Richard G Hovannisian, The Armenian Genocide, History Politics,
Ethics., 1992, p. xvi.
* ^ Khatchig Mouradian, "Explaining the Unexplainable: The
Terminology Employed by the Armenian Media when Referring to 1915",
The Armenian Weekly, 23 September 2006.
* ^ Krikor Beledian, "L'expérience de la catastrophe dans la
littérature arménienne", Revue d'histoire arménienne contemporaine,
no. 1, 1995, p. 131.
* ^ Martine Hovanessian, "Exil et catastrophe arménienne: le
difficile travail de deuil," in William Berthomière and Christine
Chivallon (eds.), Les diasporas dans le monde contemporain, Paris:
Karthala-MSHA, 2006, p. 231.
* ^ Erdoğan tells Germany to look at own 'genocide' history, Yeni
Şafak, 6 June 2016. "...Armenian claims of "genocide" during the 1915
Turkey denies the alleged Armenian "genocide",
* ^ "History group head slams \'outlandish\' German resolution".
aa.com.tr. 7 June 2016. Retrieved 17 June 2016.
* ^ Ayda Erbal, "Mea Culpas, Negotiations, Apologias: Revisiting
the 'Apology' of Turkish Intellectuals," in Birgit Schwelling (ed.),
Reconciliation, Civil Society, and the Politics of Memory:
Transnational Initiatives in the 20th Century, Bielefeld: Transcript,
2012, p. 88: "Seemingly unaware that any term used to refer to a
historical crime of this nature is necessarily always already
'politicized,' when used in this context, just as when President Obama
used the same term as a means of avoiding the word genocide, Medz
Yeghern ceases to be a private term of communal mourning for
Armenians, it becomes something else: a political instrument in the
hands of others."
* ^ Stanley, Alessandra (17 April 2006). "A PBS Documentary Makes
Its Case for the Armenian Genocide, With or Without a Debate". The New
York Times .
* ^ A B "
Turkey Recalls Envoys Over Armenian Genocide".
International Center for Transitional Justice. 8 May 2006. Archived
from the original on 3 July 2008.
* ^ "International Center for Transitional Justice". Armeniapedia.
Retrieved 17 June 2016.
* ^ International Association of
Genocide Scholars (13 June 2005).
"Letter to Prime Minister Erdogan".
Genocide Watch. Archived from the
original on 4 June 2007.
* ^ "Nobel Laureates call for tolerance, contact and cooperation
between Turks and Armenians" (PDF).
Elie Wiesel Foundation. 9 April
2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 July 2007.
* ^ Danielyan, Emil (10 April 2007). "Nobel Laureates Call For
Armenian-Turkish Reconciliation". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.
Archived from the original on 2 July 2007.
* ^ Phillips, David L. (9 April 2007). "Nobel Laureates Call For
Turkish-Armenian Reconciliation" (PDF). The
Elie Wiesel Foundation for
Humanity. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 June 2007.
* ^ Bostom, Andrew G. (26 August 2007). "Congress Must Recognize
the Armenian Genocide".
American Thinker . Archived from the original
on 28 August 2007. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link )
* ^ Ye'or, Bat.
Islam and Dhimmitude. Madison, New Jersey:
Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2002, p. 374.
* ^ A B C D El-Ghusein, Fà\'iz (1918). Martyred Armenia. ISBN
* ^ Toynbee, Arnold Joseph. Turkey: a Past and a Future. 1917, pp.
* ^ Cohan, Sara (October 2005). "A Brief History of the Armenian
Genocide" (PDF). Social Education. 69 (6): 333–37. Retrieved 10 June
* ^ Kamiya, Gary (16 October 2007), "Genocide: An inconvenient
truth", Salon (opinion)
* ^ Jaschik, Scott (10 October 2007),
Genocide Deniers, . Sabah (in
Turkish). 27 July 2007. Archived from the original on 17 October 2012.
Erdoğan, eylülde ABD Kongresi'nin gündemine gelmesi beklenen
soykırım iddialarına ilişkin genelgesinde, kamu kurumlarının,
'1915 yılı olayları', '1915 yılı olayları ile ilgili Ermeni
iddiaları veya varsayımları' ifadelerini kullanmalarını istedi.
* ^ Derogy, Jacques (1 July 1990). Resistance and revenge: the
Armenian assassination of the Turkish leaders responsible for the 1915
massacres and deportations. Transaction Publishers. p. 196. ISBN
978-0-88738-338-0 . Retrieved 5 June 2017.
* ^ Thornberry, Patrick. International Law and the Rights of
Minorities, p. 64, fn. 27
* ^ "
Genocide Parley with
Armenians to Proceed", The New York Times
, 4 June 1982.
* ^ Howe, Marvine. "
Turkey Denies it Threatened Jews Over Parley on
New York Times
New York Times , 5 June 1982.
* ^ "
Armenians to Take Part In
Tel Aviv Seminar", The New York
Times , 16 June 1982.
* ^ Charny, Israel, Encyclopedia of Genocide, Vol. 1, Oxford, 2000,
* ^ McKenna, Kate. "Account of Armenian Massacre Provokes
The New York Times
The New York Times , 3 December 1989.
* ^ Honan, William H. "Princeton Is Accused of Fronting For the
The New York Times
The New York Times , 22 May 1996.
* ^ Smith, Roger W.; Markusen, Eric; Lifton, Robert Jay (1995).
"Professional Ethics and the Denial of Armenian Genocide". Holocaust
Genocide Studies. 9 (1): 1–22. doi :10.1093/hgs/9.1.1 .
* ^ "Armenian
Genocide Cannot Be Denied",
The New York Times
The New York Times , 2
* ^ Akınhay, Osman. "Ragıp Zarakolu: Hümanist Ekol, Benim Suç
Ortağımdır". Mesele Dergi (in Turkish).
* ^ Corley, Felix (14 February 2002). "Ayse Nur Zarakolu". The
Independent . Retrieved 26 November 2016.
* ^ Rainsford, Sarah (14 December 2005). "Author\'s trial set to
test Turkey". BBC.
* ^ Matossian, Nouritza (27 February 2005). "They say \'incident\'.
To me it\'s genocide".
The Observer . London. Archived from the
original on 29 August 2013 – via The Guardian.
* ^ "Court drops Turkish writer\'s case". BBC.co.uk. 23 January
2006. Retrieved 5 June 2017.
* ^ "IPI Deplores Callous Murder of Journalist in Istanbul".
International Press Institute. 22 January 2007. Archived from the
original on 26 September 2007.
* ^ "Samast\'a jandarma karakolunda kahraman muamelesi" . Radikal
(in Turkish). 2 February 2007. Archived from the original on 5
* ^ "IPI Deplores Callous Murder of Journalist in Istanbul".
International Press Institute . 22 January 2007. Archived from the
original on 3 March 2007.
* ^ "
Turkey Ergenekon case: Ex-army chief Basbug gets life". BBC. 5
* ^ "
Turkey threatens to expel 100,000 Armenians".
BBC News . March
* ^ "
Turkey threatens to expel 100,000
Armenians over genocide
The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph . March 17, 2010.
* ^ "Erdogan Threatens To Deport
Armenians From Turkey". Asbarez.
17 March 2010.
* ^ Ozinian, Alin (5 December 2009). "Report: 12,000 Armenian
citizens working illegally in Turkey". Today's Zaman. Archived from
the original on 29 April 2014.
* ^ A B Ambrosio, Thomas. Ethnic Identity Groups and U.S. Foreign
Policy. 2002, p. 12.
* ^ Atabaki, Touraj and Mehendale, Sanjyot. Central Asia and the
Caucasus: Transnationalism and Diaspora. 2005, pp. 85–86.
* ^ Kaufman, Stuart J. Modern Hatreds: The Symbolic Politics of
Ethnic War. New York: Cornell University Press, 2001, p. 55.
* ^ Safrastyan, Ruben (29 April 2005). "
Genocide Factor in
Armenia\'s Foreign Policy". Global Politician. Archived from the
original on 26 March 2014.
* ^ Kévorkian, Raymond H. (2011). The Armenian Genocide: A
Complete History. London:
I.B. Tauris . p. 326. ISBN 978-1-84885-561-8
* ^ Bevan, Robert. The Destruction of Memory: Architecture at War.
Reaktion Books, 2007, pp. 52–60.
* ^ A B C Totten, Samuel ; Parsons, William S.; Charny,
(2004). Century of Genocide: Critical Essays and Eyewitness Accounts.
Psychology Press. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-415-94430-4 . Retrieved 24 April
* ^ A B C "Armenian
File Class Action against
Deutsche Bank and
Dresdner Bank Announces Kabateck Brown Kellner LLP".
Business Wire. 6 May 2010.
* ^ Cultural
Genocide in The Armenian
* ^ Bevan, Robert (2006). The destruction of memory architecture at
war. London: Reaktion. pp. 52–59. ISBN 1-86189-638-7 .
* ^ A B "QUESTION OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF ALL PERSONS SUBJECTED TO
ANY FORM OF DETENTION OR IMPRISONMENT".
United Nations Commission on
* ^ A B Theriault, Henry (April 2010). "Theriault: The Global
Reparations Movement and Meaningful Resolution of the Armenian
Genocide". Armenian Weekly. Archived from the original on 10 May 2010.
Retrieved 6 May 2010.
* ^ Commission on Human Rights, fifty-third session, Doc.
E/CN.4/1997/104. Compare with the first report by Professor Theo van
Boven C/CH.4/Sub.2/1993/8 of 2 July 1993, section IX, and the second
report C/CN.4/Sub.2/1996/7 of 24 May 1996
* ^ De Zayas, Alfred (December 2007). "The
Genocide against the
Armenians 1915–1923 and the relevance of the 1948 Genocide
Convention". Alfred de Zayas. Archived from the original on 4 May
* ^ Avedian, Vahagn (August 2012). "State Identity, Continuity, and
Responsibility: The Ottoman Empire, the
Republic of Turkey and the
Armenian Genocide" (PDF). European Journal of International Law.
United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. 23 (3): 797–820. ISSN
0938-5428 . doi :10.1093/ejil/chs056 .
* ^ Toriguian, Shavarsh (1988). The Armenian question and
international law (2nd ed.). La Verne, Calif., U.S.A.: ULV Press. pp.
45–48. ISBN 0-911707-13-1 .
* ^ A B Brophy, Alfred L. (2006). Reparations: Pro & Con. New York:
Oxford University Press. pp. 119–20. ISBN 0-19-530408-X .
* ^ Memorials to the Armenian Genocide, Armenian National
* ^ Freedman, Jeri (2009). The Armenian genocide. New York: Rosen
Pub. Group. p. 49. ISBN 1-4042-1825-4 .
* ^ "The Armenian
Genocide Museum-Institute". genocide-museum.am.
Retrieved 5 June 2017.
* ^ Dictionary of Genocide: A-L By Samuel Totten, Paul Robert
Bartrop, Steven L. Jacobs - page 21
* ^ Sarkisyan, Henry (1975). Works of the State History History
Museum of Armenia. IV: Armenian Theme in Russian Medallic Art.
Yerevan: Hayastan. p. 136.
* ^ Wolfgang Gerlach & William Templer (1933-04-11). "Document:
Armin T. Wegner\'s Letter to German Chancellor Adolf Hitler, Berlin,
Easter Monday, April 11, 1933 – Gerlach and Templer 8 (3): 395 –
Genocide Studies". Hgs.oxfordjournals.org. Retrieved
* ^ "Autorenseite Wegners" (in German). DE: Aktion Patenschaften
für verbrannte Bücher. Archived from the original on 21 May 2008.
* ^ Ballard, J. G. (23 April 1988). "Scheming with a smile –
Review of \'Bluebeard\' by Kurt Vonnegut".
The Guardian . Retrieved 5
* ^ Fatih Akin\'s Film on 1915 to Premiere at Venice Film Festival,
* ^ \'1915\' a creative take on Armenian genocide, Los Angeles
* ^ "\'Fate of the Furious\' Stays on Top; \'Unforgettable,\' \'The
Promise\' Bomb". Reuters. Retrieved May 20, 2017.
* ^ Wolfgang Höbel & Alexander Smoltczyk. "Armenian
the Berlin Film Festival: "The Lark Farm" Wakens Turkish Ghosts".
Spiegel Online. Retrieved 2016-06-18.
* ^ Herrera, Hayden (2005). Arshile Gorky: His Life and Work.
Macmillan. ISBN 1-4668-1708-9 .
* ^ Theriault, Kim. Rethinking Arshile Gorky. Penn State Press.
ISBN 0271047089 .
* ^ Mari Terzian. "The status of Armenian communities living in the
United States". Azad-Hye. Archived from the original on 28 September
* ^ Abrahamian, Line (14 September 2006). "Talking With Turks and
Armenians About the Genocide". Reader\'s Digest Canada. Archived from
the original on 5 October 2006.
* ^ Tankian, Serj (25 April 2015). "System Of A Down Singer on
Armenian Genocide: \'We\'re Still Here, We\'re Still Alive.\'". Time .
Retrieved 5 June 2017.
* ^ Galás, Diamanda. "Defixiones: Orders from the Dead". The San
Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007.
* ^ Old Dominion University (18 March 2008). "Old Dominion
University Calendar Diehn CREO Concert: The Synergy of Dance, Art
and Music". Ww2.odu.edu.
* ^ Rutherford, Laine M. "Composer and troupe pay tribute to
Armenia." Virginian-Pilot 15 March 2008: E5.
* ^ Rutherford, Laine M. "Tsitsernakabert: Original piece makes a
powerful statement." Virginian-Pilot 19 March 2008: E5.
* 'L'Arménie Martyre -une victime du pangermanisme', Eugène
Griselle, chanoine honoraire de Beauvais. Bloud et Gay Éditeurs,
* Akçam, Taner . A Shameful Act: The Armenian
Genocide and the
Question of Turkish Responsibility. New York: Metropolitan Books,
* Akçam, Taner (2012). The Young Turks\' Crime Against Humanity:
Genocide and Ethnic Cleansing in the Ottoman Empire.
Princeton University Press.
* Balakian, Peter . The Burning Tigris: The Armenian
America's Response. New York: HarperCollins, 2003. ISBN 0-06-019840-0
* Bloxham, Donald . The Great Game of Genocide: Imperialism,
Nationalism, and the Destruction of the Ottoman Armenians. Oxford:
Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-19-927356-1
* Dadrian, Vahakn (1995). The History of the Armenian Genocide:
Ethnic Conflict from the
Anatolia to the Caucasus. Oxford:
Berghahn Books. ISBN 978-1-57181-666-5 .
* Dadrian, Vahakn. Warrant for Genocide: Key Elements of
Turko-Armenian Conflict. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction
Publishers, 2003. ISBN 1-56000-389-8
* De Waal, Thomas (2015). Great Catastrophe :
Armenians and Turks in
the Shadow of Genocide. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN
* Kévorkian, Raymond . The Armenian Genocide: A Complete History.
London: I.B. Tauris, 2011. ISBN 978-0-85771-930-0
* Suny, Ronald Grigor . "They Can Live in the Desert but Nowhere
Else": A History of the Armenian Genocide. Princeton, NJ: Princeton
University Press, 2015. ISBN 978-0-691-14730-7
SPECIFIC ISSUES AND COMPARATIVE STUDIES
* Bobelian, Michael. Children of Armenia: A Forgotten
the Century-Long Struggle for Justice. New York: Simon & Schuster,
* Bonello, Giovanni (2008). Histories of Malta - Confessions and
Transgressions, Vol.9. Fondazzjoni Patrimonju Malti. ISBN
* Dadrian, Vahakn . "
Genocide as a Problem of National and
International Law: The
World War I
World War I Armenian Case and its Contemporary
Yale Journal of International Law , Volume 14,
Number 2, 1989.
* Dadrian, Vahakn. Key Elements in the Turkish Denial of the
Armenian Genocide. Toronto: Zoryan Institute, 1999.
* Dadrian, Vahakn. "Patterns of Twentieth Century Genocides: the
Armenian, Jewish, and Rwandan Cases". Journal of
2004, 6 (4), pp. 487–522.
* Göçek, Fatma Müge. Denial of Violence: Ottoman Past, Turkish
Present, and Collective Violence against the Armenians, 1789–2009.
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.
* Hovannisian, Richard (ed.) The Armenian Genocide: History,
Politics, Ethics. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992.
* Hovannisian, Richard. Remembrance and Denial: The Case of the
Armenian Genocide. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1998.
* Hovannisian, Richard. The Armenian Genocide: Cultural and Ethical
Legacies. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers, 2007.
* Hovannisian, Richard G. and Simon Payalsian (eds). Armenian
Cilicia. Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publishers, 2008.
* Mann, Michael . The Dark Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic
Cleansing. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge, UP, 2004.
* Melson, Robert , Revolution and Genocide: On the Origins of the
Genocide and the Holocaust. Chicago: University of Chicago
* Power, Samantha. "
A Problem from Hell ": America and the Age of
Genocide. New York: Harper Perennial 2003.
* Sanasarian, Eliz (1989). "Gender Distinction in the Genocide
Process: A Preliminary Study of the Armenian Case". Holocaust and
Genocide Studies. 4 (4): 449–61. PMID 20684116 . doi
* Üngör, Uğur Ümit (2011), The Making of Modern Turkey: Nation
and State in Eastern Anatolia, 1913–1950, Oxford: Oxford University
* Michelle Tusan, “Crimes against Humanity”: Human Rights, the
British Empire, and the Origins of the Response to the Armenian
Genocide, American Hist. Rev. 119(1), 2014, pp 47-77
SURVIVORS\' TESTIMONIES AND MEMORY
* Balakian, Grigoris. Armenian Golgotha. Translated by Peter
Balakian with Aris Sevag. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2009.
* Bedoukian, Kerop. Some of Us Survived: The Story of an Armenian
Boy. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1978.
* Hartunian, Abraham H. Neither to Laugh nor to Weep: A Memoir of
the Armenian Genocide. Translated by Vartan Hartunian. Cambridge, MA:
Armenian Heritage Press, 1986.
* Jacobsen, Maria. Diaries of a Danish missionary: Harpoot,
1907–1919. Princeton: Gomidas Institute, 2001.
* Lang, David Marshall. The Armenians: A People in Exile. London:
Allen Bryce, James (1916). Sarafian, Ara, ed. The Treatment of
Armenians in the Ottoman Empire, 1915–1916: Documents Presented to
Viscount Grey of Falloden, Uncensored ed. Hodder and Stoughton.
* Dadrian, Vahakn N. Documentation of the Armenian
Turkish Sources. Jerusalem: Institute on the Holocaust and Genocide,
* Davis, Leslie A. The Slaughterhouse Province: An American
Diplomat's Report on the Armenian Genocide, 1915–1917. ew Rochelle,
N.Y.: A.D. Caratzas, 1989.
* Hovannisian, Richard G. "The Allies and Armenia, 1915–18".
Journal of Contemporary History 1968 3(1): 145–68. ISSN 0022-0094
Fulltext: in Jstor
* Libaridian, Gerard. "The Ideology of the
Young Turk Movement", pp.
37–49. In Gerard Libaridian (Ed.) A Crime of Silence, The Armenian
Genocide: Permanent Peoples' Tribunal. London: Zed Books, 1985.
* Morgenthau, Henry (1918). Ambassador Morgenthau\'s Story.
Doubleday, Page. .
* Nassibian, Akaby (1984). Britain and the Armenian Question,
1915–1923. Croom Helm. ISBN 978-0-7099-1820-2 . .
* Peterson, Merrill D. (2004). "Starving Armenians": America and the
Armenian Genocide, 1915–1930 and After. University of Virginia
Press. ISBN 978-0-8139-2267-6 . .
* Power, Samantha (2003). "
A Problem from Hell ": America and the
Age of Genocide. Harper. .
* Severance, Gordon; Severance, Diana (2003). Against the Gates of
Hell: The Life & Times of Henry Perry, a Christian Missionary in a
Moslem World. University Press of America. ISBN 978-0-7618-2593-7 . .
* Sarafian, Ara, ed. (2004), United States Official Documents on the
Armenian Genocide, 1915–1917, Princeton, New Jersey: Gomidas .
* Winter, Jay , ed. (2004). America and the Armenian
1915. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-139-45018-8 .
MEMORY AND HISTORIOGRAPHY
* Auron, Yair (2005) , The Banality of Denial:
Israel and the
Armenian Genocide, Transaction .
* Bevan, Robert (2006), "Cultural Cleansing: Who Remembers the
Armenians?", The Destruction of Memory: Architecture at War, pp.
25–60, ISBN 1-86189-319-1 .
* Fatma Müge Göçek and Donald Bloxham. "The Armenian Genocide" in
The Historiography of Genocide. Dan Stone, ed. London: Palgrave
Macmillan. 2008, pp. 344-72. online
* Gutman, David. "Ottoman Historiography and the End of the Genocide
Taboo: Writing the Armenian
Genocide into Late Ottoman History."
Journal of the Ottoman and Turkish Studies Association 2:1 (2015) pp
* Hovannisian, Richard G, ed. (1999), Remembrance and Denial: The
Case of the Armenian
Genocide , 316 pp.
* Khatchadourian, Raffi. "Letter from Turkey. A Century of Silence."
The New Yorker
The New Yorker , 5 January 2015, pp. 32–53.
* Laycock, Jo. "Beyond National Narratives? Centenary Histories, the
First World War and the Armenian
Genocide Armenian Genocide."
Revolutionary Russia 28.2 (2015): 93-117.
* Der Matossian, Bedross (Winter 2015), "Explaining the
Unexplainable: Recent Trends in the Armenian
(PDF), Journal of Levantine Studies, 5 (2): 143–166, retrieved 11
* Melson, Robert (1982), "A Theoretical Inquiry into the Armenian
Massacres of 1894–1896", Comparative Studies in Society and History,
24 (3): 481–509, doi :10.1017/S0010417500010100 .
* ——— (1989), "Revolutionary Genocide: On the causes of the
Armenian genocide of 1915 and the Holocaust", Holocaust and Genocide
Studies, Hein online, 4 (2): 161–74, doi :10.1093/hgs/4.2.161 .
* Peroomian, Rubina (1993), Literary Responses to Catastrophe: A
Comparison of the Armenian and the
Jewish Experience .
This article's USE OF EXTERNAL LINKS MAY NOT FOLLOW\'S
POLICIES OR GUIDELINES. Please improve this article by removing
excessive or inappropriate external links, and converting useful links
where appropriate into footnote references . (April 2017) (Learn how
and when to remove this template message )
Find more aboutARMENIAN GENOCIDEat's sister projects
* Definitions from Wiktionary
* Media from Commons
* News from Wikinews
* Quotations from Wikiquote
* Texts from Wikisource
* Textbooks from Wikibooks
* Learning resources from Wikiversity
* The Armenian
Genocide Institute-Museum, Yerevan, AM .
* Armenian National Institute, Washington, D.C. (dedicated to the