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Arkansas
Arkansas
(/ˈɑːrkənsɔː/ AR-kən-saw)[c] is a state in the southeastern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2017.[7][8] Its name is of Siouan derivation from the language of the Osage denoting their related kin, the Quapaw Indians.[9] The state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U.S. Interior Highlands, to the densely forested land in the south known as the Arkansas
Arkansas
Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
and the Arkansas
Arkansas
Delta. Arkansas
Arkansas
is the 29th largest by area and the 33rd most populous of the 50 United States. The capital and most populous city is Little Rock, located in the central portion of the state, a hub for transportation, business, culture, and government. The northwestern corner of the state, such as the Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area and Fort Smith metropolitan area, is a population, education, and economic center. The largest city in the state's eastern part is Jonesboro. The largest city in the state's southeastern part is Pine Bluff. The Territory of Arkansas
Territory of Arkansas
was admitted to the Union as the 25th state on June 15, 1836.[10] In 1861 Arkansas
Arkansas
withdrew from the United States and joined the Confederate States of America
Confederate States of America
during the Civil War. On returning to the Union in 1868, the state continued to suffer due to its earlier reliance on slavery and the plantation economy, causing the state to fall behind economically and socially. White rural interests continued to dominate the state's politics until the civil rights movement. Arkansas
Arkansas
began to diversify its economy following World War II
World War II
and relies on its service industry, aircraft, poultry, steel, tourism, cotton, and rice. The culture of Arkansas
Arkansas
is observable in museums, theaters, novels, television shows, restaurants, and athletic venues across the state. Arkansas's enduring image has earned the state "a special place in the American consciousness".[11] People such as politician and educational advocate William Fulbright; former President Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
who served as the 40th and 42nd Governor of Arkansas; his wife, former Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton; former NATO
NATO
Supreme Allied Commander General Wesley Clark, Walmart
Walmart
magnate Sam Walton;[12] singer-songwriters Johnny Cash
Johnny Cash
and Glen Campbell; the poet C.D. Wright; and physicist William L. McMillan, who was a pioneer in superconductor research; have all lived in Arkansas.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Geography

2.1 Boundaries 2.2 Terrain 2.3 Hydrology 2.4 Flora and fauna 2.5 Climate

3 History

3.1 Early Arkansas 3.2 Purchase by the United States 3.3 Statehood 3.4 Civil War and Reconstruction 3.5 End of the Reconstruction 3.6 Rise of the Jim Crow Laws 3.7 Fall of Segregation 3.8 Prominent American Figures from Arkansas

4 Cities and towns 5 Demographics

5.1 Population 5.2 Ancestry 5.3 Religion

6 Economy

6.1 Industry and commerce

7 Media 8 Culture

8.1 Sports and recreation

9 Health 10 Education

10.1 Educational attainment 10.2 Funding 10.3 Timeline

11 Transportation 12 Law and government

12.1 Executive 12.2 Legislative 12.3 Judicial 12.4 Federal 12.5 Politics

13 Attractions 14 See also 15 Notes 16 References

16.1 Bibliography

17 Further reading 18 External links

Etymology The name Arkansas
Arkansas
derives from the same root as the name for the state of Kansas. The Kansa tribe of Native Americans are closely associated with the Sioux
Sioux
tribes of the Great Plains. The word "Arkansas" itself is a French pronunciation ("Arcansas") of a Quapaw
Quapaw
(a related "Kaw" tribe) word, akakaze, meaning "land of downriver people" or the Sioux word akakaze meaning "people of the south wind". In 1881, the pronunciation of Arkansas
Arkansas
with the final "s" being silent was made official by an act of the state legislature after a dispute arose between Arkansas's two U.S. senators as one favored the pronunciation as /ˈɑːrkənsɔː/ AR-kən-saw while the other favored /ɑːrˈkænzəs/ ar-KAN-zəs.[c] In 2007, the state legislature passed a non-binding resolution declaring that the possessive form of the state's name is Arkansas's, which has been followed increasingly by the state government.[14] Geography Main article: Geography of Arkansas

View from the Ozark Highlands Scenic Byway
Ozark Highlands Scenic Byway
in Boxley Valley

The Ozarks: bend in the Buffalo River from an overlook on the Buffalo River Trail near Steel Creek

The flat terrain and rich soils of the Arkansas Delta
Arkansas Delta
near Arkansas City are in stark contrast to the northwestern part of the state.

Cedar Falls in Petit Jean State Park

Boundaries Arkansas
Arkansas
borders Louisiana
Louisiana
to the south, Texas
Texas
to the southwest, Oklahoma
Oklahoma
to the west, Missouri
Missouri
to the north, and Tennessee
Tennessee
and Mississippi
Mississippi
to the east. The United States
United States
Census Bureau classifies Arkansas
Arkansas
as a southern state, sub-categorized among the West South Central States.[8] The Mississippi River
Mississippi River
forms most of Arkansas's eastern border, except in Clay and Greene, counties where the St. Francis River forms the western boundary of the Missouri
Missouri
Bootheel, and in many places where the channel of the Mississippi
Mississippi
has meandered (or been straightened by man) from its original 1836 course. Terrain Arkansas
Arkansas
can generally be split into two halves, the highlands in the northwest half and the lowlands of the southeastern half.[15] The highlands are part of the Southern Interior Highlands, including The Ozarks
Ozarks
and the Ouachita Mountains. The southern lowlands include the Gulf Coastal Plain
Gulf Coastal Plain
and the Arkansas
Arkansas
Delta.[16] This dual split can yield to general regions named northwest, southwest, northeast, southeast, or central Arkansas. These directionally named regions are broad and not defined along county lines. Arkansas
Arkansas
has seven distinct natural regions: the Ozark Mountains, Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas River Valley, Gulf Coastal Plain, Crowley's Ridge, and the Arkansas Delta, with Central Arkansas
Central Arkansas
sometimes included as a blend of multiple regions.[17] The southeastern part of Arkansas
Arkansas
along the Mississippi
Mississippi
Alluvial Plain is sometimes called the Arkansas
Arkansas
Delta. This region is a flat landscape of rich alluvial soils formed by repeated flooding of the adjacent Mississippi. Farther away from the river, in the southeast portion of the state, the Grand Prairie
Prairie
consists of a more undulating landscape. Both are fertile agricultural areas. The Delta region is bisected by a geological formation known as Crowley's Ridge. A narrow band of rolling hills, Crowley's Ridge
Crowley's Ridge
rises from 250 to 500 feet (76 to 152 m) above the surrounding alluvial plain and underlies many of the major towns of eastern Arkansas.[18] Northwest Arkansas
Northwest Arkansas
is part of the Ozark Plateau
Ozark Plateau
including the Ozark Mountains, to the south are the Ouachita Mountains, and these regions are divided by the Arkansas
Arkansas
River; the southern and eastern parts of Arkansas
Arkansas
are called the Lowlands.[19] These mountain ranges are part of the U.S. Interior Highlands
U.S. Interior Highlands
region, the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
and the Appalachian Mountains.[20] The highest point in the state is Mount Magazine
Mount Magazine
in the Ouachita Mountains,[21] which rises to 2,753 feet (839 m) above sea level.[6] Hydrology

The Buffalo National River
Buffalo National River
is one of many attractions that give the state its nickname, The Natural State.

Arkansas
Arkansas
has many rivers, lakes, and reservoirs within or along its borders. Major tributaries of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
include the Arkansas
Arkansas
River, the White River, and the St. Francis River.[22] The Arkansas
Arkansas
is fed by the Mulberry River and the Fourche LaFave River in the Arkansas River
Arkansas River
Valley, which is also home to Lake Dardanelle. The Buffalo River, Little Red River, Black River and Cache River all serve as tributaries to the White River, which also empties into the Mississippi. The Saline River, Little Missouri
Missouri
River, Bayou Bartholomew, and the Caddo River
Caddo River
all serve as tributaries to the Ouachita River
Ouachita River
in south Arkansas, which eventually empties into the Mississippi
Mississippi
in Louisiana. The Red River briefly serves as the state's boundary with Texas.[23] Arkansas
Arkansas
has few natural lakes and many reservoirs,[quantify] such as Bull Shoals Lake, Lake Ouachita, Greers Ferry Lake, Millwood Lake, Beaver Lake, Norfork Lake, DeGray Lake, and Lake Conway.[24] Arkansas
Arkansas
is home to many caves, such as Blanchard Springs Caverns. More than 43,000 Native American living, hunting and tool making sites, many of them Pre-Columbian burial mounds and rock shelters, have been cataloged by the State Archeologist. Crater of Diamonds State Park near Murfreesboro is the world's only diamond-bearing site accessible to the public for digging.[25][26] Arkansas
Arkansas
is home to a dozen Wilderness Areas totaling 158,444 acres (641.20 km2).[27] These areas are set aside for outdoor recreation and are open to hunting, fishing, hiking, and primitive camping. No mechanized vehicles nor developed campgrounds are allowed in these areas.[28] Flora and fauna

The White River in eastern Arkansas

Arkansas
Arkansas
is divided into three broad ecoregions, the Ozark, Ouachita-Appalachian Forests, Mississippi
Mississippi
Alluvial and Southeast USA Coastal Plains, and the Southeastern USA Plainsand two biomes, the subtropical coniferous forest and the temperate deciduous forest.[29] The state is further divided into seven subregions: the Arkansas Valley, Boston Mountains, Mississippi
Mississippi
Alluvial Plain, Mississippi Valley Loess Plain, Ozark Highlands, Ouachita Mountains, and the South Central Plains.[30] A 2010 United States
United States
Forest Service survey determined 18,720,000 acres (7,580,000 ha) of Arkansas's land is forestland, or 56% of the state's total area.[31] Dominant species in Arkansas's forests include Quercus (oak), Carya (hickory), Pinus echinata (shortleaf pine) and Pinus taeda
Pinus taeda
(loblolly pine).[32][33] Arkansas's plant life varies with its climate and elevation. The pine belt stretching from the Arkansas
Arkansas
delta to Texas
Texas
consists of dense oak-hickory-pine growth. Lumbering and paper milling activity is active throughout the region.[34] In eastern Arkansas, one can find Taxodium
Taxodium
(cypress), Quercus nigra
Quercus nigra
(water oaks), and hickories with their roots submerged in the Mississippi
Mississippi
Valley bayous indicative of the deep south.[35] Nearby Crowley's Ridge
Crowley's Ridge
is only home of the tulip tree in the state, and generally hosts more northeastern plant life such as the beech tree.[36] The northwestern highlands are covered in an oak-hickory mixture, with Ozark white cedars, cornus (dogwoods), and Cercis canadensis
Cercis canadensis
(redbuds) also present. The higher peaks in the Arkansas River
Arkansas River
Valley play host to scores of ferns, including the Woodsia scopulina
Woodsia scopulina
and Adiantum
Adiantum
(maidenhair fern) on Mount Magazine.[37] Climate

Devil's Den State Park, a state park in Washington County, in the fall.

Winter at Historic Washington State Park, Arkansas

Arkansas
Arkansas
generally has a humid subtropical climate. While not bordering the Gulf of Mexico, Arkansas
Arkansas
is still close enough to this warm, large body of water for it to influence the weather in the state. Generally, Arkansas
Arkansas
has hot, humid summers and slightly drier, mild to cool winters. In Little Rock, the daily high temperatures average around 93 °F (34 °C) with lows around 73 °F (23 °C) in July. In January highs average around 51 °F (11 °C) and lows around 32 °F (0 °C). In Siloam Springs in the northwest part of the state, the average high and low temperatures in July are 89 and 67 °F (32 and 19 °C) and in January the average high and lows are 44 and 23 °F (7 and −5 °C). Annual precipitation throughout the state averages between about 40 and 60 inches (1,000 and 1,500 mm); somewhat wetter in the south and drier in the northern part of the state.[38] Snowfall is infrequent but most common in the northern half of the state.[22] The half of the state south of Little Rock is more apt to see ice storms. Arkansas's all-time record high is 120 °F (49 °C) at Ozark on August 10, 1936; the all-time record low is −29 °F (−34 °C) at Gravette, on February 13, 1905.[39] Arkansas
Arkansas
is known for extreme weather and frequent storms. A typical year brings thunderstorms, tornadoes, hail, snow and ice storms. Between both the Great Plains
Great Plains
and the Gulf States, Arkansas
Arkansas
receives around 60 days of thunderstorms. Arkansas
Arkansas
is located in Tornado Alley, and as a result, a few of the most destructive tornadoes in U.S. history have struck the state. While sufficiently far from the coast to avoid a direct hit from a hurricane, Arkansas
Arkansas
can often get the remnants of a tropical system, which dumps tremendous amounts of rain in a short time and often spawns smaller tornadoes.

Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures For Various Arkansas
Arkansas
Cities

City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Avg

Fayetteville[40] 44/24 (7/-4) 51/29 (10/-2) 59/38 (15/3) 69/46 (20/8) 76/55 (24/13) 84/64 (29/18) 89/69 (32/20) 89/67 (32/19) 81/59 (27/15) 70/47 (21/9) 57/37 (14/3) 48/28 (9/-2) 68/47 (20/8)

Jonesboro[41] 45/26 (7/-3) 51/30 (11/-1) 61/40 (16/4) 71/49 (22/9) 80/58 (26/15) 88/67 (31/19) 92/71 (34/22) 91/69 (33/20) 84/61 (29/16) 74/49 (23/9) 60/39 (15/4) 49/30 (10/-1) 71/49 (21/9)

Little Rock[42] 51/31 (11/-1) 55/35 (13/2) 64/43 (18/6) 73/51 (23/11) 81/61 (27/16) 89/69 (32/21) 93/73 (34/23) 93/72 (34/22) 86/65 (30/18) 75/53 (24/12) 63/42 (17/6) 52/34 (11/1) 73/51 (23/11)

Texarkana[43] 53/31 (11/-1) 58/34 (15/1) 67/42 (19/5) 75/50 (24/10) 82/60 (28/16) 89/68 (32/20) 93/72 (34/22) 93/71 (34/21) 86/64 (30/18) 76/52 (25/11) 64/41 (18/5) 55/33 (13/1) 74/52 (23/11)

Monticello[44] 52/30 (11/-1) 58/34 (14/1) 66/43 (19/6) 74/49 (23/10) 82/59 (28/15) 89/66 (32/19) 92/70 (34/21) 92/68 (33/20) 86/62 (30/17) 76/50 (25/10) 64/41 (18/5) 55/34 (13/1) 74/51 (23/10)

Fort Smith[45] 48/27 (8/-2) 54/32 (12/0) 64/40 (17/4) 73/49 (22/9) 80/58 (26/14) 87/67 (30/19) 92/71 (33/21) 92/70 (33/21) 84/62 (29/17) 75/50 (23/10) 61/39 (16/4) 50/31 (10/0) 72/50 (22/10)

Average high °F/average low °F (average high °C/average low°C)

History Main article: History of Arkansas Early Arkansas

Platform mounds, such as this one at Toltec Mounds near Scott, were constructed frequently during the Woodland and Mississippian periods

Before European settlement of North America, Arkansas
Arkansas
was inhabited by indigenous peoples for thousands of years. The Caddo, Osage, and Quapaw
Quapaw
peoples encountered European explorers. The first of these Europeans was Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto
Hernando de Soto
in 1541, who crossed the Mississippi
Mississippi
and marched across central Arkansas
Arkansas
and the Ozark Mountains. After finding nothing he considered of value and encountering native resistance the entire way, he and his men returned to the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
where de Soto fell ill. From his deathbed he ordered his men to massacre all of the men of the nearby village of Anilco, who he feared had been plotting with a powerful polity down the Mississippi
Mississippi
River, Quigualtam. His men obeyed and did not stop with the men, but were said to have massacred women and children as well. He died the following day in what is believed to be the vicinity of modern-day McArthur, Arkansas
McArthur, Arkansas
in May 1542. His body was weighted down with sand and he was consigned to a watery grave in the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
under cover of darkness by his men. De Soto had attempted to deceive the native population into thinking he was an immortal deity, sun of the sun, in order to forestall attack by outraged Native Americans on his by then weakened and bedraggled army. In order to keep the ruse up, his men informed the locals that de Soto had ascended into the sky. His will at the time of his death listed: "four Indian slaves, three horses and 700 hogs." which were auctioned off to his men. His starving men, who had been living off maize stolen from Native Americans and who had not been allowed to eat the enormous herd of hogs but had had to care for them, immediately started to butcher them. Later on his remaining men, now commanded by his aide de camp Moscoso, attempted an overland return to Mexico. They made it as far as Texas
Texas
before running into territory too dry for maize farming and too thinly populated to sustain themselves by stealing food from the locals. The expedition promptly backtracked to Arkansas. After building a small fleet of boats they then headed down the Mississippi River and eventually on to Mexico by water.[46][47] Later explorers included the French Jacques Marquette
Jacques Marquette
and Louis Jolliet in 1673, and Frenchmen Robert La Salle
Robert La Salle
and Henri de Tonti
Henri de Tonti
in 1681.[48][49] Tonti established Arkansas Post
Arkansas Post
at a Quapaw
Quapaw
village in 1686, making it the first European settlement in the territory.[50] The early Spanish or French explorers of the state gave it its name, which is probably a phonetic spelling of the Illinois
Illinois
tribe's name for the Quapaw
Quapaw
people, who lived downriver from them.[51][c] The name Arkansas
Arkansas
has been pronounced and spelled in a variety of fashions. The region was organized as the Territory of Arkansaw
Territory of Arkansaw
on July 4, 1819, with the territory admitted to the United States
United States
as the state of Arkansas
Arkansas
on June 15, 1836. The name was historically /ˈɑːrkənsɔː/, /ɑːrˈkænzəs/, and several other variants. Historically and modernly, the people of Arkansas
Arkansas
call themselves either "Arkansans" or "Arkansawyers". In 1881, the Arkansas
Arkansas
General Assembly passed Arkansas
Arkansas
Code 1-4-105 (official text):

Whereas, confusion of practice has arisen in the pronunciation of the name of our state and it is deemed important that the true pronunciation should be determined for use in oral official proceedings.

And, whereas, the matter has been thoroughly investigated by the State Historical Society and the Eclectic Society of Little Rock, which have agreed upon the correct pronunciation as derived from history, and the early usage of the American immigrants.

Be it therefore resolved by both houses of the General Assembly, that the only true pronunciation of the name of the state, in the opinion of this body, is that received by the French from the native Indians and committed to writing in the French word representing the sound. It should be pronounced in three (3) syllables, with the final "s" silent, the "a" in each syllable with the Italian sound, and the accent on the first and last syllables. The pronunciation with the accent on the second syllable with the sound of "a" in "man" and the sounding of the terminal "s" is an innovation to be discouraged.

Citizens of the state of Kansas
Kansas
often pronounce the Arkansas River
Arkansas River
as /ɑːrˈkænzəs ˈrɪvər/, in a manner similar to the common pronunciation of the name of their state. Settlers, such as fur trappers, moved to Arkansas
Arkansas
in the early 18th century. These people used Arkansas Post
Arkansas Post
as a home base and entrepôt.[50] During the colonial period, Arkansas
Arkansas
changed hands between France
France
and Spain
Spain
following the Seven Years' War, although neither showed interest in the remote settlement of Arkansas
Arkansas
Post.[52] In April 1783, Arkansas
Arkansas
saw its only battle of the American Revolutionary War, a brief siege of the post by British Captain James Colbert with the assistance of the Choctaw
Choctaw
and Chickasaw.[53] Purchase by the United States

Evolution from the Territory of Arkansaw
Territory of Arkansaw
to State of Arkansas, 1819–1836

Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte
sold French Louisiana
Louisiana
to the United States
United States
in 1803, including all of Arkansas, in a transaction known today as the Louisiana
Louisiana
Purchase. French soldiers remained as a garrison at Arkansas Post. Following the purchase, the balanced give-and-take relationship between settlers and Native Americans began to change all along the frontier, including in Arkansas.[54] Following a controversy over allowing slavery in the territory, the Territory of Arkansas
Territory of Arkansas
was organized on July 4, 1819.[c] Gradual emancipation in Arkansas
Arkansas
was struck down by one vote, the Speaker of the House Henry Clay, allowing Arkansas
Arkansas
to organize as a slave territory.[55] Slavery
Slavery
became a wedge issue in Arkansas, forming a geographic divide that remained for decades. Owners and operators of the cotton plantation economy in southeast Arkansas
Arkansas
firmly supported slavery, as they perceived slave labor as the best or "only" economically viable method of harvesting their commodity crops.[56] The "hill country" of northwest Arkansas
Arkansas
was unable to grow cotton and relied on a cash-scarce, subsistence farming economy.[57] As European Americans settled throughout the East Coast and into the Midwest, in the 1830s the United States
United States
government forced the removal of many Native American tribes to Arkansas
Arkansas
and Indian Territory
Indian Territory
west of the Mississippi
Mississippi
River. Additional Native American removals began in earnest during the territorial period, with final Quapaw
Quapaw
removal complete by 1833 as they were pushed into Indian Territory.[58] The capital was relocated from Arkansas Post
Arkansas Post
to Little Rock in 1821, during the territorial period.[59] Statehood

Lakeport Plantation, c. 1859 and built south of Lake Village, is the only remaining antebellum plantation house on the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
in Arkansas. Many planters became wealthy from the cotton industry in southern Arkansas.

When Arkansas
Arkansas
applied for statehood, the slavery issue was again raised in Washington, D.C.. Congress eventually approved the Arkansas Constitution after a 25-hour session, admitting Arkansas
Arkansas
on June 15, 1836 as the 25th state and the 13th slave state, having a population of about 60,000.[60] Arkansas
Arkansas
struggled with taxation to support its new state government, a problem made worse by a state banking scandal and worse yet by the Panic of 1837. Civil War and Reconstruction In early antebellum Arkansas, the southeast Arkansas
Arkansas
slave based economy developed rapidly. On the eve of the Civil War in 1860, enslaved African Americans numbered 111,115 people, just over 25% of the state's population.[61] Plantation agriculture set the state and region behind the nation for decades.[62] The wealth developed among planters of southeast Arkansas
Arkansas
caused a political rift to form between the northwest and southeast.[63] Many politicians were elected to office from the Family, the Southern rights political force in antebellum Arkansas. Residents generally wanted to avoid a civil war. When the Gulf states seceded in early 1861, Arkansas
Arkansas
voted to remain in the Union.[63] Arkansas
Arkansas
did not secede until Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
demanded Arkansas
Arkansas
troops be sent to Fort Sumter to quell the rebellion there. On May 6, a state convention voted to terminate Arkansas's membership in the Union and join the Confederate States of America.[63] Arkansas
Arkansas
held a very important position for the Rebels, maintaining control of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
and surrounding Southern states. The bloody Battle of Wilson's Creek
Battle of Wilson's Creek
just across the border in Missouri shocked many Arkansans who thought the war would be a quick and decisive Southern victory. Battles early in the war took place in northwest Arkansas, including the Battle of Cane Hill, Battle of Pea Ridge, and Battle of Prairie
Prairie
Grove. Union General Samuel Curtis swept across the state to Helena in the Delta in 1862. Little Rock was captured the following year. The government shifted the state Confederate capital to Hot Springs, and then again to Washington from 1863–1865, for the remainder of the war. Throughout the state, guerrilla warfare ravaged the countryside and destroyed cities.[64] Passion for the Confederate cause waned after implementation of programs such as the draft, high taxes, and martial law. Under the Military Reconstruction Act, Congress declared Arkansas restored to the Union in June 1868, after the Legislature
Legislature
accepted the 14th Amendment. The Republican-controlled reconstruction legislature established universal male suffrage (though temporarily disfranchising former Confederate Army
Army
officers, who were all Democrats), a public education system for blacks and whites, and passed general issues to improve the state and help more of the population. The State soon came under control of the Radical Republicans
Radical Republicans
and Unionists, and led by Governor Powell Clayton, they presided over a time of great upheaval as Confederate sympathizers and the Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
fought the new developments, particularly voting rights for African Americans. End of the Reconstruction In 1874, the Brooks-Baxter War, a political struggle between factions of the Republican Party shook Little Rock and the state governorship. It was settled only when President Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant
ordered Joseph Brooks to disperse his militant supporters.[65] Following the Brooks-Baxter War, a new state constitution was ratified, re-enfranchising former Confederates. In 1881, the Arkansas
Arkansas
state legislature enacted a bill that adopted an official pronunciation of the state's name, to combat a controversy then simmering. (See Law and Government below.) After Reconstruction, the state began to receive more immigrants and migrants. Chinese, Italian, and Syrian
Syrian
men were recruited for farm labor in the developing Delta region. None of these nationalities stayed long at farm labor; the Chinese especially quickly became small merchants in towns around the Delta. Many Chinese became such successful merchants in small towns that they were able to educate their children at college.[66] Some early 20th-century immigration included people from eastern Europe. Together, these immigrants made the Delta more diverse than the rest of the state. In the same years, some black migrants moved into the area because of opportunities to develop the bottomlands and own their own property.

Wife and children of a sharecropper in Washington County, Arkansas, c. 1935

Construction of railroads enabled more farmers to get their products to market. It also brought new development into different parts of the state, including the Ozarks, where some areas were developed as resorts. In a few years at the end of the 19th century, for instance, Eureka Springs
Eureka Springs
in Carroll County grew to 10,000 people, rapidly becoming a tourist destination and the fourth-largest city of the state. It featured newly constructed, elegant resort hotels and spas planned around its natural springs, considered to have healthful properties. The town's attractions included horse racing and other entertainment. It appealed to a wide variety of classes, becoming almost as popular as Hot Springs. Rise of the Jim Crow Laws In the late 1880s, the worsening agricultural depression catalyzed Populist and third party movements, leading to interracial coalitions. Struggling to stay in power, in the 1890s the Democrats in Arkansas followed other Southern states in passing legislation and constitutional amendments that disfranchised blacks and poor whites. Democrats wanted to prevent their alliance.[citation needed] In 1891 state legislators passed a requirement for a literacy test, knowing that it would exclude many blacks and whites. At the time when more than 25% of the population could neither read nor write. In 1892, they amended the state constitution to require a poll tax and more complex residency requirements, both of which adversely affected poor people and sharecroppers, forcing most blacks and many poor whites from voter rolls. By 1900 the Democratic Party expanded use of the white primary in county and state elections, further denying blacks a part in the political process. Only in the primary was there any competition among candidates, as Democrats held all the power. The state was a Democratic one-party state for decades, until after passage of the federal Civil Rights Act of 1964
Civil Rights Act of 1964
and Voting Rights Act of 1965
Voting Rights Act of 1965
to enforce constitutional rights.[67] Between 1905 and 1911, Arkansas
Arkansas
began to receive a small immigration of German, Slovak, and Scots-Irish from Europe. The German and Slovak peoples settled in the eastern part of the state known as the Prairie, and the Irish founded small communities in the southeast part of the state. The Germans
Germans
were mostly Lutheran and the Slovaks
Slovaks
were primarily Catholic. The Irish were mostly Protestant
Protestant
from Ulster, of Scots and Northern Borders descent. Based on the order of President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
given shortly after Imperial Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor, nearly 16,000 Japanese Americans were forcibly removed from the West Coast of the United States and incarcerated in two internment camp located in the Arkansas Delta.[68] The Rohwer Camp in Desha County
Desha County
operated from September 1942 to November 1945 and at its peak interned 8,475 prisoners.[68] The Jerome War Relocation Center
Jerome War Relocation Center
in Drew County
Drew County
operated from October 1942 to June 1944 and held c. 8,000 prisoners.[68] Fall of Segregation After the Supreme Court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education
Brown v. Board of Education
of Topeka, Kansas
Kansas
in 1954 that segregation in public schools was unconstitutional, some students worked to integrate schools in the state. The Little Rock Nine
Little Rock Nine
brought Arkansas
Arkansas
to national attention in 1957 when the Federal government had to intervene to protect African-American students trying to integrate a high school in the Arkansas
Arkansas
capital. Governor Orval Faubus
Orval Faubus
had ordered the Arkansas National Guard to aid segregationists in preventing nine African-American students from enrolling at Little Rock's Central High School. After attempting three times to contact Faubus, President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
sent 1000 troops from the active-duty 101st Airborne Division to escort and protect the African-American students as they entered school on September 25, 1957. In defiance of federal court orders to integrate, the governor and city of Little Rock decided to close the high schools for the remainder of the school year. By the fall of 1959, the Little Rock high schools were completely integrated.[69] Prominent American Figures from Arkansas Bill Clinton, the 42nd President of the United States, was born in Hope. Before his presidency, Clinton served as the 40th and 42nd Governor of Arkansas, a total of nearly 12 years. Cities and towns

Cleveland County Courthouse in Rison

See also: List of cities and towns in Arkansas, Arkansas
Arkansas
metropolitan areas, and List of townships in Arkansas Little Rock has been Arkansas's capital city since 1821 when it replaced Arkansas Post
Arkansas Post
as the capital of the Territory
Territory
of Arkansas.[70] The state capitol was moved to Hot Springs and later Washington during the Civil War when the Union armies threatened the city in 1862, and state government did not return to Little Rock until after the war ended. Today, the Little Rock–North Little Rock–Conway metropolitan area is the largest in the state, with a population of 724,385 in 2013.[71] The Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area
Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area
is the second-largest metropolitan area in Arkansas, growing at the fastest rate due to the influx of businesses and the growth of the University of Arkansas
Arkansas
and Walmart.[72] The state has eight cities with populations above 50,000 (based on 2010 census). In descending order of size, they are: Little Rock, Fort Smith, Fayetteville, Springdale, Jonesboro, North Little Rock, Conway, and Rogers. Of these, only Fort Smith and Jonesboro are outside the two largest metropolitan areas. Other cities are located in Arkansas such as Pine Bluff, Crossett, Bryant, Lake Village, Hot Springs, Bentonville, Texarkana, Sherwood, Jacksonville, Russellville, Bella Vista, West Memphis, Paragould, Cabot, Searcy, Van Buren, El Dorado, Blytheville, Harrison, Dumas, Rison, Warren, and Mountain Home. Demographics Population

Left: Arkansas's population distribution. Red indicates high density in urban areas, green indicates low density in rural areas. Right: Map showing population changes by county between 2000 and 2010. Blue indicates population gain, purple indicates population loss, and shade indicates magnitude.

Main article: Demographics of Arkansas The United States
United States
Census Bureau estimates that the population of Arkansas
Arkansas
was 2,978,204 on July 1, 2015, a 2.14% increase since the 2010 United States
United States
Census.[73] As of 2015, Arkansas
Arkansas
has an estimated population of 2,978,204.[73] From fewer than 15,000 in 1820, Arkansas's population grew to 52,240 during a special census in 1835, far exceeding the 40,000 required to apply for statehood.[74] Following statehood in 1836, the population doubled each decade until the 1870 Census conducted following the Civil War. The state recorded growth in each successive decade, although it gradually slowed in the 20th century. It recorded population losses in the 1950 and 1960 Censuses. This outmigration was a result of multiple factors, including farm mechanization, decreasing labor demand, and young educated people leaving the state due to a lack of non-farming industry in the state.[75] Arkansas
Arkansas
again began to grow, recording positive growth rates ever since and exceeding the 2 million mark during the 1980 Census.[76] Arkansas's rate of change, age distributions, and gender distributions mirror national averages. Minority group
Minority group
data also approximates national averages. There are fewer people in Arkansas
Arkansas
of Hispanic or Latino origin than the national average.[77] The center of population of Arkansas
Arkansas
for 2000 was located in Perry County, near Nogal.[78]

Historical population

Census Pop.

1810 1,062

1820 14,273

1,244.0%

1830 30,388

112.9%

1840 97,574

221.1%

1850 209,897

115.1%

1860 435,450

107.5%

1870 484,471

11.3%

1880 802,525

65.6%

1890 1,128,211

40.6%

1900 1,311,564

16.3%

1910 1,574,449

20.0%

1920 1,752,204

11.3%

1930 1,854,482

5.8%

1940 1,949,387

5.1%

1950 1,909,511

−2.0%

1960 1,786,272

−6.5%

1970 1,923,295

7.7%

1980 2,286,435

18.9%

1990 2,350,725

2.8%

2000 2,673,400

13.7%

2010 2,915,918

9.1%

Est. 2017 3,004,279

3.0%

Source: 1910–2010[79] 2016 estimate[73]

Ancestry In terms of race and ethnicity, the state was 80.1% white (74.2% non-Hispanic white), 15.6% black or African American, 0.9% American Indian and Alaska
Alaska
Native, 1.3% Asian, and 1.8% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race made up 6.6% of the population.[80] As of 2011, 39.0% of Arkansas's population younger than age 1 were minorities.[81]

Arkansas
Arkansas
Racial Breakdown of Population

Racial composition 1990[82] 2000[83] 2010[84]

White 82.7% 80.0% 77.0%

African American 15.9% 15.7% 15.4%

Asian 0.5% 0.8% 1.2%

Native 0.5% 0.7% 0.8%

Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
and other Pacific Islander – 0.1% 0.2%

Other race 0.3% 1.5% 3.4%

Two or more races – 1.3% 2.0%

European Americans have a strong presence in the northwestern Ozarks and the central part of the state. African Americans live mainly in the southern and eastern parts of the state. Arkansans of Irish, English and German ancestry are mostly found in the far northwestern Ozarks
Ozarks
near the Missouri
Missouri
border. Ancestors of the Irish in the Ozarks were chiefly Scots-Irish, Protestants from Northern Ireland, the Scottish lowlands and northern England part of the largest group of immigrants from Great Britain and Ireland before the American Revolution. English and Scots-Irish immigrants settled throughout the backcountry of the South and in the more mountainous areas. Americans of English stock are found throughout the state.[85] A 2010 survey of the principal ancestries of Arkansas's residents revealed the following:[86]

15.5% African American 12.3% Irish 11.5% German 11.0% American 10.1% English 4.7% Mexican 2.1% French 1.7% Scottish 1.7% Dutch 1.6% Italian 1.4% Scots-Irish

Most of the people identifying as American are of English descent and/or Scots-Irish descent. Their families have been in the state so long, in many cases since before statehood, that they choose to identify simply as having American ancestry or do not in fact know their own ancestry. Their ancestry primarily goes back to the original 13 colonies and for this reason many of them today simply claim American ancestry. Many people who identify themselves as Irish descent are in fact of Scots-Irish descent.[87][88][89][90] According to the 2006–2008 American Community Survey, 93.8% of Arkansas's population (over the age of five) spoke only English at home. About 4.5% of the state's population spoke Spanish at home. About 0.7% of the state's population spoke any other Indo-European languages. About 0.8% of the state's population spoke an Asian language, and 0.2% spoke other languages.[clarification needed dubious] Religion Arkansas, like most other Southern states, is part of the Bible Belt and is predominantly Protestant. The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2010 were the Southern Baptist Convention
Southern Baptist Convention
with 661,382; the United Methodist Church
United Methodist Church
with 158,574; non-denominational Evangelical Protestants with 129,638; and the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
with 122,662. There are some residents of the state who live by other religions such as Islam, Judaism, Wicca, Paganism, Hinduism, Buddhism or who claim no religious affiliation.[91]

Religion in Arkansas
Arkansas
(2014)[92]

Religion

Percent

Protestant

70%

None

18%

Catholic

8%

Mormon

1%

Muslim

2%

Other

1%

Economy

The Simmons Tower
Simmons Tower
is the state's tallest building.

See also: Economy of Arkansas, List of Arkansas
Arkansas
companies, and Arkansas
Arkansas
locations by per capita income Once a state with a cashless society in the uplands and plantation agriculture in the lowlands, Arkansas's economy has evolved and diversified. The state's gross domestic product (GDP) was $119 billion in 2015.[93] Six Fortune 500
Fortune 500
companies are based in Arkansas, including the world's #1 retailer, Walmart; Tyson Foods, J.B. Hunt, Dillard's, Murphy USA, and Windstream
Windstream
are also headquartered in the state.[94] The per capita personal income in 2015 was $39,107, ranking forty-fifth in the nation.[95] The median household income from 2011–15 was $41,371, ranking forty-ninth in the nation.[96] The state's agriculture outputs are poultry and eggs, soybeans, sorghum, cattle, cotton, rice, hogs, and milk. Its industrial outputs are food processing, electric equipment, fabricated metal products, machinery, and paper products. Mines in Arkansas
Arkansas
produce natural gas, oil, crushed stone, bromine, and vanadium.[97] According to CNBC, Arkansas ranks as the 20th best state for business, with the 2nd-lowest cost of doing business, 5th-lowest cost of living, 11th best workforce, 20th-best economic climate, 28th-best educated workforce, 31st-best infrastructure and the 32nd-friendliest regulatory environment.[citation needed] Arkansas
Arkansas
gained twelve spots in the best state for business rankings since 2011.[98] As of 2014, Arkansas
Arkansas
was the most affordable U.S. state
U.S. state
to live in.[99] As of November 2016, the state's unemployment rate is 4.0%[100] Industry and commerce Arkansas's earliest industries were fur trading and agriculture, with development of cotton plantations in the areas near the Mississippi River. They were dependent on slave labor through the American Civil War. Today only approximately 3% of the population is employed in the agricultural sector,[101] it remains a major part of the state's economy, ranking 13th in the nation in the value of products sold.[102] The state is the U.S.'s largest producer of rice, broilers, and turkeys,[103] and ranks in the top three for cotton, pullets, and aquaculture (catfish).[102] Forestry remains strong in the Arkansas Timberlands, and the state ranks fourth nationally and first in the South in softwood lumber production.[104] Automobile parts manufacturers have opened factories in eastern Arkansas
Arkansas
to support auto plants in other states. Bauxite
Bauxite
was formerly a large part of the state's economy, mined mostly around Saline County.[105] Tourism is also very important to the Arkansas
Arkansas
economy; the official state nickname "The Natural State" was created for state tourism advertising in the 1970s, and is still used to this day. The state maintains 52 state parks and the National Park Service
National Park Service
maintains seven properties in Arkansas. The completion of the William Jefferson Clinton Presidential Library in Little Rock has drawn many visitors to the city and revitalized the nearby River Market District. Many cities also hold festivals, which draw touristss to Arkansas
Arkansas
culture, such as The Bradley County Pink Tomato
Tomato
Festival in Warren, King Biscuit Blues Festival, Ozark Folk Festival, Toad Suck Daze, and Tontitown Grape Festival. Media

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2017)

See also: Category: Arkansas
Arkansas
media As of 2010 many Arkansas
Arkansas
local newspapers are owned by WEHCO Media, Alabama-based Lancaster Management, Kentucky-based Paxton Media Group, Missouri-based Rust Communications, Nevada-based Stephens Media, and New York-based GateHouse Media.[106] Culture

Arkansas
Arkansas
state symbols

The Flag of Arkansas

Living insignia

Bird Northern mockingbird

Butterfly Diana fritillary

Flower Apple
Apple
blossom

Insect Western honey bee

Mammal White-tailed deer

Tree Loblolly pine

Inanimate insignia

Beverage Milk

Dance Square dance

Food South Arkansas
South Arkansas
vine ripe pink tomato

Gemstone Diamond

Instrument Fiddle

Mineral Quartz

Rock Bauxite

Soil Stuttgart

Song "Arkansas", " Arkansas
Arkansas
(You Run Deep In Me)", "Oh, Arkansas", "The Arkansas
Arkansas
Traveler"

Tartan Arkansas
Arkansas
Traveler Tartan

State route marker

State quarter

Released in 2003

Lists of United States
United States
state symbols

One of the bridge pavilions over Crystal Spring at Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, Bentonville

Main article: Culture of Arkansas The culture of Arkansas
Arkansas
is available to all in various forms, whether it be architecture, literature, or fine and performing arts. The state's culture also includes distinct cuisine, dialect, and traditional festivals. Sports are also very important to the culture of Arkansas, ranging from football, baseball, and basketball to hunting and fishing. Perhaps the best-known piece of Arkansas's culture is the stereotype of its citizens as shiftless hillbillies.[107] The reputation began when the state was characterized by early explorers as a savage wilderness full of outlaws and thieves.[108] The most enduring icon of Arkansas's hillbilly reputation is The Arkansas
Arkansas
Traveller, a painted depiction of a folk tale from the 1840s.[109] Although intended to represent the divide between rich southeastern plantation Arkansas
Arkansas
planters and the poor northwestern hill country, the meaning was twisted to represent a Northerner lost in the Ozarks
Ozarks
on a white horse asking a backwoods Arkansan for directions.[110] The state also suffers from the racial stigma common to former Confederate states, with historical events such as the Little Rock Nine
Little Rock Nine
adding to Arkansas's enduring image.[111] Art and history museums display pieces of cultural value for Arkansans and tourists to enjoy. Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art
Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art
in Bentonville was visited by 604,000 people in 2012, its first year.[112] The museum includes walking trails and educational opportunities in addition to displaying over 450 works covering five centuries of American art.[113] Several historic town sites have been restored as Arkansas
Arkansas
state parks, including Historic Washington State Park, Powhatan Historic State Park, and Davidsonville Historic State Park. Arkansas
Arkansas
features a variety of native music across the state, ranging from the blues heritage of West Memphis, Pine Bluff, Helena-West Helena to rockabilly, bluegrass, and folk music from the Ozarks. Festivals such as the King Biscuit Blues Festival and Bikes, Blues, and BBQ pay homage to the history of blues in the state. The Ozark Folk Festival in Mountain View is a celebration of Ozark culture and often features folk and bluegrass musicians. Literature set in Arkansas
Arkansas
such as I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings
I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings
by Maya Angelou
Maya Angelou
and A Painted House by John Grisham
John Grisham
describe the culture at various time periods. Sports and recreation

The flooded forested bottomlands of east Arkansas
Arkansas
attract wintering waterfowl (Wapanocca National Wildlife Refuge).

Sports have become an integral part of the culture of Arkansas, and her residents enjoy participating in and spectating various events throughout the year. Team sports and especially collegiate football have been important to Arkansans. College football in Arkansas
Arkansas
began from humble beginnings. The University of Arkansas
University of Arkansas
first fielded a team in 1894 when football was a very dangerous game. Recent studies of the damage to team members from the concussions common in football make it clear that the danger persists. "Calling the Hogs" is a cheer that shows support for the Razorbacks, one of the two NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision
NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision
(FBS) teams in the state. High school football also began to grow in Arkansas
Arkansas
in the early 20th century. Over the years, many Arkansans have looked to the Razorbacks football team as the public image of the state. Following the Little Rock Nine
Little Rock Nine
integration crisis at Little Rock Central High School, Arkansans looked to the successful Razorback teams in the following years to repair the state's reputation. Although the University of Arkansas
University of Arkansas
is based in Fayetteville, the Razorbacks have always played at least one game per season at War Memorial Stadium in Little Rock in an effort to keep fan support in central and south Arkansas. Arkansas State University
Arkansas State University
joined the University of Arkansas
University of Arkansas
in FBS (then known as Division I-A) in 1992 after playing in lower divisions for nearly two decades. The two schools have never played each other, due to the University
University
of Arkansas's policy of not playing intrastate games.[114] Two other campuses of the University of Arkansas
University of Arkansas
System are Division I members. The University of Arkansas
University of Arkansas
at Pine Bluff is a member of the Southwestern Athletic Conference, a league whose members all play football in the second-level Football Championship Subdivision (FCS). The University of Arkansas
University of Arkansas
at Little Rock is a member of the FBS Sun Belt Conference, but is one of two conference schools that has no football program. The state's other Division I member is the University
University
of Central Arkansas, which is a full member (including football) of the FCS Southland Conference. Seven of Arkansas's smaller colleges play in NCAA Division II, with six in the Great American Conference
Great American Conference
and one in the Heartland Conference. Two other small Arkansas
Arkansas
colleges compete in NCAA Division III, in which athletic scholarships are prohibited. Baseball runs deep in Arkansas
Arkansas
and has been popular before the state hosted Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
(MLB) spring training in Hot Springs from 1886-1920s. Two minor league teams are based in the state. The Arkansas Travelers
Arkansas Travelers
play at Dickey-Stephens Park
Dickey-Stephens Park
in North Little Rock, and the Northwest Arkansas Naturals
Northwest Arkansas Naturals
play in Arvest Ballpark
Arvest Ballpark
in Springdale. Both teams compete in the Texas
Texas
League. Related to the state's frontier past, hunting continues in the state. The state created the Arkansas
Arkansas
Game and Fish Commission in 1915 to regulate hunting and enforce those regulations.[115] Today a significant portion of Arkansas's population participates in hunting duck in the Mississippi
Mississippi
flyway and deer across the state.[116] Millions of acres of public land are available for both bow and modern gun hunters.[116] Fishing has always been popular in Arkansas, and the sport and the state have benefited from the creation of reservoirs across the state. Following the completion of Norfork Dam, the Norfork Tailwater
Norfork Tailwater
and the White River have become a destination for trout fishers. Several smaller retirement communities such as Bull Shoals, Hot Springs Village, and Fairfield Bay have flourished due to their position on a fishing lake. The Buffalo National River
Buffalo National River
has been preserved in its natural state by the National Park Service
National Park Service
and is frequented by fly fishers annually. Health

UAMS Medical Center, Little Rock

See also: List of hospitals in Arkansas As of 2012, Arkansas, as with many Southern states, have a high incidence of premature death, infant mortality, cardiovascular deaths, and occupational fatalities compared to the rest of the United States.[117] The state is tied for 43rd with New York in percentage of adults who regularly exercise.[118] Arkansas
Arkansas
is usually ranked as one of the least healthy states due to high obesity, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle rates.[117] However, a Gallup poll demonstrates that Arkansas
Arkansas
made the most immediate progress in reducing its number of uninsured residents following the passage of the Affordable Care Act. The percentage of uninsured in Arkansas
Arkansas
dropped from 22.5 percent in 2013 to 12.4 percent in August 2014.[119] The Arkansas
Arkansas
Clean Indoor Air Act went into effect in 2006, a statewide smoking ban excluding bars and some restaurants.[120] Healthcare in Arkansas
Arkansas
is provided by a network of hospitals as members of the Arkansas
Arkansas
Hospital Association. Major institutions with multiple branches include Baptist Health, Community Health Systems, and HealthSouth. The University of Arkansas
University of Arkansas
for Medical Sciences (UAMS) in Little Rock operates the UAMS Medical Center, a teaching hospital ranked as high performing nationally in cancer and nephrology.[121] The pediatric division of UAMS Medical Center
UAMS Medical Center
is known as Arkansas
Arkansas
Children's Hospital, nationally ranked in pediatric cardiology and heart surgery.[122] Together, these two institutions are the state's only Level I trauma centers.[123] Education See also: List of colleges and universities in Arkansas, List of high schools in Arkansas, and List of school districts in Arkansas Arkansas
Arkansas
has 1,064 state-funded kindergartens, elementary, junior- and senior high schools.[124] The state supports a network of public universities and colleges, including two major university systems: Arkansas
Arkansas
State University System and University of Arkansas
University of Arkansas
System. The University
University
of Arkansas, flagship campus of the University of Arkansas
University of Arkansas
System in Fayetteville was ranked #63 among public schools in the nation by U.S. News & World Report.[125] Other public institutions include University
University
of Arkansas
Arkansas
at Pine Bluff, Arkansas
Pine Bluff, Arkansas
Tech University, Henderson State University, Southern Arkansas
Arkansas
University, and University
University
of Central Arkansas
Arkansas
across the state. It is also home to 11 private colleges and universities including Hendrix College, one of the nation's top 100 liberal arts colleges, according to U.S. News & World Report.[126] In the 1920s the state required all children to attend public schools. The school year was set at 131 days, although some areas were unable to meet that requirement.[127][128] Although unusual in the West, school corporal punishment is not uncommon in Arkansas, with 20,083 public school students[129] paddled at least one time, according to government data for the 2011–2012 school year.[130] The rate of corporal punishment in public schools is higher only in Mississippi.[130] Educational attainment Arkansas
Arkansas
is one of the most under-educated states in the Union. It ranks near the bottom in terms of percentage of the population with either a high school or college degree. The state's educational system has a history of under-funding, low teachers' salaries and political meddling in the curriculum.[131] Educational statistics during these early days are fragmentary and unreliable. Many counties did not submit full reports to the Secretary of State who did double-duty as Commissioner of Common Schools. However, the percentage of Whites over twenty years of age who were illiterate was given as:

1840 21% 1850 25% 1860 17%

[132] In 2010 Arkansas
Arkansas
students earned an average score of 20.3 on the ACT exam, just below the national average of 21. These results were expected due to the large increase in the number of students taking the exam since the establishment of the Academic Challenge Scholarship.[133] Top high schools receiving recognition from the U.S. News & World Report are spread across the state, including Haas Hall Academy in Fayetteville, KIPP Delta Collegiate in Helena-West Helena, Bentonville, Rogers, Rogers Heritage, Valley Springs, Searcy, and McCrory.[134] A total of 81 Arkansas
Arkansas
high schools were ranked by the U.S. News & World Report in 2012.[135]

Old Main, part of the Campus Historic District at the University
University
of Arkansas
Arkansas
in Fayetteville

Arkansas
Arkansas
ranks as the 32nd smartest state on the Morgan Quitno Smartest State Award, 44th in percentage of residents with at least a high school diploma, and 48th in percentage of bachelor's degree attainment.[136][137] Arkansas
Arkansas
has been making strides in education reform. Education Week has praised the state, ranking Arkansas
Arkansas
in the top 10 of their Quality Counts Education Rankings every year since 2009 while scoring it in the top 5 during 2012 and 2013.[138][139][140] Arkansas
Arkansas
specifically received an A in Transition and Policy Making for progress in this area consisting of early-childhood education, college readiness, and career readiness.[141] Governor Mike Beebe
Mike Beebe
has made improving education a major issue through his attempts to spend more on education.[142] Through reforms, the state is a leader in requiring curricula designed to prepare students for postsecondary education, rewarding teachers for student achievement, and providing incentives for principals who work in lower-tier schools.[143] Funding As an organized territory, and later in the early days of statehood, education was funded by the sales of Federally-controlled public lands. This system was inadequate and prone to local graft. In an 1854 message to the Legislature, Governor Elias N. Conway said, "We have a common-school law intended as a system to establish common schools in all part of the state; but for the want of adequate means there are very few in operation under this law." At this time, only about a quarter of children were enrolled in school. [144] By the beginning of the American Civil War, the state had only twenty-five publicly-funded common schools.[145] In 1867, the state legislature was still controlled by ex-Confederates. It passed a Common Schools Law that allowed public funded but limited schools to White children. The 1868 legislature banned former Confederates and passed a more wide-ranging law detailing funding and administrative issues and allowing Black children to attend school. In furtherance of this, the postwar 1868 state constitution was the first to permit a personal-property tax to fund the lands and buildings for public schools. With the 1868 elections, the first county school commissioners took office.[146] In 2014, the state spent $9,616 per student, compared with a national average of about $11,000 putting Arkansas
Arkansas
in nineteenth place.[147] Timeline 1829 Territorial legislature permits townships to establish schools. [144] 1868 State law required racial segregation of schools. 1871 University of Arkansas
University of Arkansas
established. 1873 University of Arkansas
University of Arkansas
at Pine Bluff established as a school to train Black teachers. 1877 Philander Smith College
Philander Smith College
established as a school for Black students. 1890 Henderson State University
University
established as a private school. The state assumed responsibility for it in 1929 as Henderson State Teachers College. 1885 Arkansas School for the Deaf
Arkansas School for the Deaf
and Arkansas
Arkansas
School for the Blind established. 1909 Arkansas
Arkansas
Tech University, Southern Arkansas
Arkansas
University, University of Arkansas
University of Arkansas
at Monticello and Arkansas
Arkansas
State University established as schools offering high school diplomas and vocational training. c. 1920 Schooling made compulsory.[131] 1925 University
University
of Central Arkansas
Central Arkansas
established as Arkansas
Arkansas
State Normal School established. 1948 University of Arkansas
University of Arkansas
School of Law admits a Black student 1957 Governor Orval Faubus
Orval Faubus
used National Guard troops to oppose racial integration of Little Rock Central High School. 1958 In Cooper v. Aaron
Cooper v. Aaron
the United States
United States
Supreme Court ruled the state was bound to integrate school despite the opposition of the governor and legislature. 1983 The Arkansas State Supreme Court
Arkansas State Supreme Court
ruled the state's funding of education was Constitutionally deficient.[131] Transportation Main articles: Transportation in Arkansas, List of Arkansas
Arkansas
railroads, and Aviation in Arkansas

The Greenville Bridge
Greenville Bridge
over the Mississippi
Mississippi
River, August 2009

The Missouri
Missouri
and Northern Arkansas
Arkansas
Railroad

Transportation in Arkansas
Transportation in Arkansas
is overseen by the Arkansas
Arkansas
Department of Transportation (ArDOT), headquartered in Little Rock. Several main corridors pass through Little Rock, including Interstate 30 (I-30) and I-40 (the nation's 3rd-busiest trucking corridor).[148] In northeast Arkansas, I-55 travels north from Memphis to Missouri, with a new spur to Jonesboro (I-555). Northwest Arkansas
Northwest Arkansas
is served by I-540 from Fort Smith to Bella Vista, which is a segment of future I-49. The state also has the 13th largest state highway system in the nation.[149] Arkansas
Arkansas
is served by 2,750 miles (4,430 km) of railroad track divided among twenty-six railroad companies including three Class I railroads.[150] Freight railroads are concentrated in southeast Arkansas
Arkansas
to serve the industries in the region. The Texas
Texas
Eagle, an Amtrak passenger train, serves five stations in the state Walnut Ridge, Little Rock, Malvern, Arkadelphia, and Texarkana. Arkansas
Arkansas
also benefits from the use of its rivers for commerce. The Mississippi River
Mississippi River
and Arkansas River
Arkansas River
are both major rivers. The United States Army
Army
Corps of Engineers maintains the McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System, allowing barge traffic up the Arkansas
Arkansas
River to the Port of Catoosa
Port of Catoosa
in Tulsa, Oklahoma. There are four airports with commercial service: Clinton National Airport, Northwest Arkansas
Northwest Arkansas
Regional Airport, Fort Smith Regional Airport, and Texarkana Regional Airport, with dozens of smaller airports in the state. Public transit and community transport services for the elderly or those with developmental disabilities are provided by agencies such as the Central Arkansas
Central Arkansas
Transit Authority and the Ozark Regional Transit, organizations that are part of the Arkansas
Arkansas
Transit Association. Law and government Main article: Politics and government of Arkansas As with the federal government of the United States, political power in Arkansas
Arkansas
is divided into three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. Each officer's term is four years long. Office holders are term-limited to two full terms plus any partial terms before the first full term.[151] Executive Main article: Governor of Arkansas See also: List of Governors of Arkansas The Governor of Arkansas
Governor of Arkansas
is Asa Hutchinson, a Republican, who was inaugurated on January 13, 2015.[152][153] The six other elected executive positions in Arkansas
Arkansas
are lieutenant governor, secretary of state, attorney general, treasurer, auditor, and land commissioner.[154] The governor also appoints qualified individuals to lead various state boards, committees, and departments. Arkansas governors served two-year terms until a referendum lengthened the term to four years, effective with the 1986 general election. In Arkansas, the lieutenant governor is elected separately from the governor and thus can be from a different political party.[155] Legislative Main article: Arkansas
Arkansas
General Assembly The Arkansas General Assembly
Arkansas General Assembly
is the state's bicameral bodies of legislators, composed of the Senate and House of Representatives. The Senate contains 35 members from districts of approximately equal population. These districts are redrawn decennially with each US census, and in election years ending in "2", the entire body is put up for reelection. Following the election, half of the seats are designated as two-year seats and are up for reelection again in two years, these "half-terms" do not count against a legislator's term limits. The remaining half serve a full four-year term. This staggers elections such that half the body is up for re-election every two years and allows for complete body turnover following redistricting.[156] Arkansas
Arkansas
voters selected a 21–14 Republican majority in the Senate in 2012. Arkansas
Arkansas
House members can serve a maximum of three two-year terms. House districts are redistricted by the Arkansas
Arkansas
Board of Apportionment. Following the 2012 elections, Republicans gained a 51–49 majority in the House of Representatives.[157] The Republican Party majority status in the Arkansas
Arkansas
State House of Representatives following the 2012 elections is the party's first since 1874. Arkansas
Arkansas
was the last state of the old Confederacy to never have Republicans control either chamber of its house since the Civil War.[158] Following the term limits changes, studies have shown that lobbyists have become less influential in state politics. Legislative staff, not subject to term limits, have acquired additional power and influence due to the high rate of elected official turnover.[159] Judicial Main article: Courts of Arkansas Arkansas's judicial branch has five court systems: Arkansas
Arkansas
Supreme Court, Arkansas
Arkansas
Court of Appeals, Circuit Courts, District Courts and City Courts. Most cases begin in district court, which is subdivided into state district court and local district court. State district courts exercise district-wide jurisdiction over the districts created by the General Assembly, and local district courts are presided over by part-time judges who may privately practice law. 25 state district court judges preside over 15 districts, with more districts created in 2013 and 2017. There are 28 judicial circuits of Circuit Court, with each contains five subdivisions: criminal, civil, probate, domestic relations, and juvenile court. The jurisdiction of the Arkansas
Arkansas
Court of Appeals is determined by the Arkansas
Arkansas
Supreme Court, and there is no right of appeal from the Court of Appeals to the high court. The Arkansas Supreme Court
Arkansas Supreme Court
can review Court of Appeals cases upon application by either a party to the litigation, upon request by the Court of Appeals, or if the Arkansas Supreme Court
Arkansas Supreme Court
feels the case should have been initially assigned to it. The twelve judges of the Arkansas Court of Appeals
Arkansas Court of Appeals
are elected from judicial districts to renewable six-year terms. The Arkansas Supreme Court
Arkansas Supreme Court
is the court of last resort in the state, composed of seven justices elected to eight-year terms. Established by the Arkansas Constitution
Arkansas Constitution
in 1836, the court's decisions can be appealed to only the Supreme Court of the United States. Federal Both of Arkansas's U.S. Senators, John Boozman
John Boozman
and Tom Cotton, are Republicans. The state has four seats in U.S. House of Representatives. All four seats are held by Republicans: Rick Crawford (1st district), French Hill (2nd district), Steve Womack
Steve Womack
(3rd district), and Bruce Westerman
Bruce Westerman
(4th district).[160] Politics Main article: Politics and government of Arkansas

Presidential elections results

Year Republican Democratic

2016 60.57% 684,872 33.65% 380,494

2012 60.57% 647,744 36.88% 394,409

2008 58.72% 638,017 38.86% 422,310

2004 54.31% 572,898 44.55% 469,953

2000 51.31% 472,940 45.86% 422,768

1996 36.80% 325,416 53.74% 475,171

1992 35.48% 337,324 53.21% 505,823

1988 56.37% 466,578 42.19% 349,237

1984 60.47% 534,774 38.29% 338,646

1980 48.13% 403,164 47.52% 398,041

1976 34.93% 268,753 64.94% 499,614

1972 68.82% 445,751 30.71% 198,899

Treemap
Treemap
of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election.

Arkansas
Arkansas
Governor Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
brought national attention to the state with a long speech at the 1988 Democratic National Convention endorsing Michael Dukakis. Some journalists suggested the speech was a threat to his ambitions; Clinton defined it "a comedy of error, just one of those fluky things".[161] Clinton won the Democratic nomination for President the following cycle. Presenting himself as a "New Democrat" and using incumbent George H. W. Bush's broken promise against him, Clinton won the 1992 presidential election (43.0% of the vote) against Republican Bush (37.4% of the vote) and billionaire populist Ross Perot, who ran as an independent (18.9% of the vote). Most Republican strength traditionally lay mainly in the northwestern part of the state, particularly Fort Smith and Bentonville, as well as North Central Arkansas
Central Arkansas
around the Mountain Home area. In the latter area, Republicans have been known to get 90 percent or more of the vote, while the rest of the state was more Democratic. After 2010, Republican strength expanded further to the Northeast and Southwest and into the Little Rock suburbs. The Democrats are mostly concentrated to central Little Rock, the Mississippi
Mississippi
Delta, the Pine Bluff area, and the areas around the southern border with Louisiana. Arkansas
Arkansas
has only elected three Republicans to the U.S. Senate since Reconstruction: Tim Hutchinson, who was defeated after one term by Mark Pryor; John Boozman, who defeated incumbent Blanche Lincoln; and Tom Cotton, who defeated Mark Pryor
Mark Pryor
in the 2014 elections. Before 2013, the General Assembly had not been controlled by the Republican Party since Reconstruction, with the GOP holding a 51-seat majority in the state House and a 21-seat (of 35) in the state Senate following victories in 2012. Arkansas
Arkansas
was one of just three states among the states of the former Confederacy that sent two Democrats to the U.S. Senate (the others being Florida
Florida
and Virginia) for any period during the first decade of the 21st century. In 2010, Republicans captured three of the state's four seats in the U.S. House of Representatives. In 2012, Republicans won election for all four House seats. Arkansas
Arkansas
held the distinction of having a U.S. House delegation composed entirely of military veterans (Rick Crawford – Army; Tim Griffin
Tim Griffin
Army
Army
Reserve; Steve Womack
Steve Womack
Army
Army
National Guard, Tom Cotton- Army). In 2014, the last Democrat in Arkansas's Congressional Delegation, Mark Pryor, was defeated in campaign to win a third term in the U.S. Senate, leaving the entire congressional delegation in GOP hands for the first time since Reconstruction. Reflecting the state's large evangelical population, the state has a strong social conservative bent. Under the Arkansas
Arkansas
Constitution Arkansas
Arkansas
is a right to work state, its voters passed a ban on same-sex marriage with 75% voting yes,[162] and the state is one of a handful with legislation on its books banning abortion in the event Roe v. Wade is ever overturned. Attractions

Blanchard Springs Caverns
Blanchard Springs Caverns
in Stone County is a tourist destination.

Arkansas
Arkansas
is home to many areas protected by the National Park System. These include:[163]

Arkansas Post
Arkansas Post
National Memorial at Gillett Blanchard Springs Caverns Buffalo National River Fort Smith National Historic Site Hot Springs National Park Little Rock Central High School
Little Rock Central High School
National Historic Site Pea Ridge National Military Park President William Jefferson Clinton Birthplace Home National Historic Site Arkansas
Arkansas
State Capitol Building List of Arkansas
Arkansas
state parks

See also

Arkansas
Arkansas
portal

Outline of Arkansas
Outline of Arkansas
– organized list of topics about Arkansas Index of Arkansas-related articles

Notes

^ a b Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988. ^ The Geographic Names Index System (GNIS) of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) indicates that the official name of this feature is Magazine Mountain, not "Mount Magazine". Although not a hard and fast rule, generally "Mount X" is used for a peak and "X Mountain" is more frequently used for ridges, which better describes this feature. Magazine Mountain appears in the GNIS as a ridge,[5] with Signal Hill identified as its summit.[6] "Mount Magazine" is the name used by the Arkansas
Arkansas
Department of Parks and Tourism, which follows what the locals have used since the area was first settled. ^ a b c d The name Arkansas
Arkansas
has been pronounced and spelled in a variety of fashions. The region was organized as the Territory
Territory
of Arkansaw on July 4, 1819, but the territory was admitted to the United States as the state of Arkansas
Arkansas
on June 15, 1836. The name was historically /ˈɑːrkənsɔː/, /ɑːrˈkænzəs/, and several other variants. Historically and modernly, the people of Arkansas
Arkansas
call themselves either "Arkansans" or "Arkansawyers". In 1881, the Arkansas General Assembly passed the following concurrent resolution, now Arkansas
Arkansas
Code 1 April 105:[13]

Whereas, confusion of practice has arisen in the pronunciation of the name of our state and it is deemed important that the true pronunciation should be determined for use in oral official proceedings. And, whereas, the matter has been thoroughly investigated by the State Historical Society and the Eclectic Society of Little Rock, which have agreed upon the correct pronunciation as derived from history, and the early usage of the American immigrants.. Be it therefore resolved by both houses of the General Assembly, that the only true pronunciation of the name of the state, in the opinion of this body, is that received by the French from the native Indians and committed to writing in the French word representing the sound. It should be pronounced in three (3) syllables, with the final "s" silent, the "a" in each syllable with the Italian sound, and the accent on the first and last syllables. The pronunciation with the accent on the second syllable with the sound of "a" in "man" and the sounding of the terminal "s" is discouraged by Arkansans.

Despite this, the state's name is still frequently mispronounced, especially by non-Americans; in fact, it is spelled in Cyrillic with the ar-KAN-zəs pronunciation. Citizens of the state of Kansas
Kansas
often pronounce the Arkansas River
Arkansas River
as /ɑːrˈkænzəs ˈrɪvər/, in a manner similar to the common pronunciation of the name of their state.

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Historical Association. 58.  Fletcher, John Gould (1989). Carpenter, Lucas, ed. Arkansas. 2. Fayetteville, AR: University of Arkansas
University of Arkansas
Press. ISBN 1-55728-040-1. OCLC 555740849.  Johnson, William R. (Spring 1965). "Prelude to the Missouri Compromise: A New York Congressman's Effort to Exclude Slavery
Slavery
from Arkansas
Arkansas
Territory". Arkansas
Arkansas
Historical Quarterly. Arkansas Historical Association. 24: 47–66.  Scroggs, Jack B ( Autumn
Autumn
1961). " Arkansas
Arkansas
Statehood: A Study in State and National Political Schism". Arkansas
Arkansas
Historical Quarterly. Arkansas
Arkansas
Historical Association. 20: 227–244.  Smith, Richard M. (1989). The Atlas of Arkansas. The University
University
of Arkansas
Arkansas
Press. ISBN 978-1557280473.  White, Lonnie J. ( Autumn
Autumn
1962). " Arkansas
Arkansas
Territorial Indian Affairs". Arkansas
Arkansas
Historical Quarterly. Arkansas
Arkansas
Historical Association. 21: 193–212.  Sutherlin, Diann (1996). The Arkansas
Arkansas
Handbook (2nd ed.). Little Rock, Arkansas: Fly By Night Press. ISBN 0-932531-03-2. LCCN 95-90761.  The WPA Guide to 1930s Arkansas. Federal Writers' Project
Federal Writers' Project
(1st paperback ed.). Lawrence, KS: University
University
Press of Kansas. 1987 [1941]. ISBN 978-0700603411. LCCN 87-81307. 

Further reading

Blair, Diane D. & Jay Barth Arkansas
Arkansas
Politics & Government: Do the People Rule? (2005) Deblack, Thomas A. With Fire and Sword: Arkansas, 1861–1874 (2003) Donovan, Timothy P. and Willard B. Gatewood Jr., eds. The Governors of Arkansas
Arkansas
(1981) Dougan, Michael B. Confederate Arkansas
Arkansas
(1982), Duvall, Leland. ed., Arkansas: Colony and State (1973) Hamilton, Peter Joseph. The Reconstruction Period (1906), full length history of era; Dunning School approach; 570 pp; ch 13 on Arkansas Hanson, Gerald T. and Carl H. Moneyhon. Historical Atlas of Arkansas (1992) Key, V. O. Southern Politics (1949) Kirk, John A., Redefining the Color Line: Black Activism in Little Rock, Arkansas, 1940–1970 (2002). McMath, Sidney S. Promises Kept (2003) Moore, Waddy W. ed., Arkansas
Arkansas
in the Gilded Age, 1874–1900 (1976). Peirce, Neal R. The Deep South States of America: People, Politics, and Power in the Seven Deep South States (1974). Thompson, Brock. The Un-Natural State: Arkansas
Arkansas
and the Queer South (2010) Thompson, George H. Arkansas
Arkansas
and Reconstruction (1976) Whayne, Jeannie M. Arkansas
Arkansas
Biography: A Collection of Notable Lives (2000) White, Lonnie J. Politics on the Southwestern Frontier: Arkansas Territory, 1819–1836 (1964) Williams, C. Fred. ed. A Documentary History Of Arkansas
Arkansas
(2005)

External links

Find more aboutArkansasat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

Arkansas.gov – Official State Website Arkansas
Arkansas
State Facts from USDA Official State tourism website The Encyclopedia of Arkansas
Arkansas
History & Culture Energy & Environmental Data for Arkansas U.S. Census Bureau 2000 Census of Population and Housing for Arkansas, U.S. Census Bureau USGS real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of Arkansas Arkansas
Arkansas
Summer Camps Arkansas
Arkansas
Shakespeare Theatre Arkansas
Arkansas
at Ballotpedia Arkansas
Arkansas
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Geographic data related to Arkansas
Arkansas
at OpenStreetMap Arkansas
Arkansas
State Code (the state statutes of Arkansas) Arkansas
Arkansas
State Databases – Annotated list of searchable databases produced by Arkansas
Arkansas
state agencies and compiled by the Government Documents Roundtable of the American Library Association.

Preceded by Missouri List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union Admitted on June 15, 1836 (25th) Succeeded by Michigan

Topics related to Arkansas The Natural State

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 State of Arkansas

Little Rock (capital)

Topics

Index Outline Arkansans Aviation Colleges and universities Congressional delegations Constitution County government Energy Geography Government Governors High schools Historic Landmarks History Images Lakes Media

Newspapers Radio TV

Music Places Rivers School districts Sports and recreation State parks Territory Tourist attractions Townships Transportation Water

Seal of Arkansas

Society

Crime Culture Demographics Economy Education Politics

Regions

Arkansas River
Arkansas River
Valley Ark-La-Tex Bayou Bartholomew Boston Mountains Central Arkansas Crowley's Ridge Delta Four State Area Mississippi
Mississippi
Alluvial Plain New Madrid Seismic Zone Northwest Arkansas Ouachita Mountains Ozarks Piney Woods South Arkansas Timberlands

Metros

Central Arkansas Northwest Arkansas Fort Smith Texarkana Jonesboro Pine Bluff Hot Springs Tri-State

Largest cities

Little Rock Fort Smith Fayetteville Springdale Jonesboro North Little Rock Conway Rogers Pine Bluff Bentonville Hot Springs Benton Texarkana Sherwood Jacksonville Russellville Bella Vista West Memphis Paragould Cabot

Counties

Arkansas Ashley Baxter Benton Boone Bradley Calhoun Carroll Chicot Clark Clay Cleburne Cleveland Columbia Conway Craighead Crawford Crittenden Cross Dallas Desha Drew Faulkner Franklin Fulton Garland Grant Greene Hempstead Hot Spring Howard Independence Izard Jackson Jefferson Johnson Lafayette Lawrence Lee Lincoln Little River Logan Lonoke Madison Marion Miller Mississippi Monroe Montgomery Nevada Newton Ouachita Perry Phillips Pike Poinsett Polk Pope Prairie Pulaski Randolph Saline Scott Searcy Sebastian Sevier Sharp St. Francis Stone Union Van Buren Washington White Woodruff Yell

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Protected areas of Arkansas

Federal

National Park

Hot Springs

National Historic Sites

Fort Smith Little Rock Central High School President William Jefferson Clinton Birthplace Home

National Forests

Ouachita Ozark-St. Francis

National Memorial

Arkansas
Arkansas
Post

National Military Park

Pea Ridge

National River

Buffalo

National Wildlife Refuges

Bald Knob Big Lake Cache River Felsenthal Holla Bend Logan Cave Overflow Pond Creek Wapanocca White River

Wilderness Areas

Big Lake Black Fork Mountain Buffalo National River Caney Creek Dry Creek East Fork Flatside Hurricane Creek Leatherwood Poteau Mountain Richland Creek Upper Buffalo

State

State Parks

Arkansas
Arkansas
Museum of Natural Resources Arkansas Post
Arkansas Post
Museum Bull Shoals-White River Cane Creek Conway Cemetery Cossatot River Crater of Diamonds Crowley's Ridge Daisy Davidsonville Historic DeGray Lake
DeGray Lake
Resort Delta Heritage Trail Devil's Den Hampson Archeological Museum Herman Davis Historic Washington Hobbs Jacksonport Jenkins' Ferry Battleground Lake Hamilton and Lake Catherine Lake Charles Lake Chicot Lake Dardanelle Lake Fort Smith Lake Frierson Lake Ouachita Lake Poinsett Logoly Louisiana
Louisiana
Purchase Lower White River Museum Mammoth Spring Marks' Mills Battleground Millwood Mississippi
Mississippi
River Moro Bay Mount Magazine Mount Nebo Ozark Folk Center Parkin Archeological Petit Jean Pinnacle Mountain Plantation Agriculture Museum Poison Springs Battleground Powhatan Historic Prairie
Prairie
Grove Battlefield Queen Wilhelmina South Arkansas
South Arkansas
Arboretum Toltec Mounds Archeological Village Creek White Oak
Oak
Lake Withrow Springs Woolly Hollow

State Forest

Poison Springs State Forest

Wildlife Management Areas

List

v t e

Southern United States

Topics

Culture Cuisine Geography Economy Government and Politics History Sports

States

Alabama Arkansas Florida Georgia Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Virginia

Major cities

Atlanta Birmingham Charleston Charlotte Columbia Dallas Fort Worth Greensboro Houston Jacksonville Little Rock Memphis Miami Nashville New Orleans Norfolk Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City Orlando Raleigh Richmond Tampa Tulsa

State capitals

Atlanta Austin Baton Rouge Charleston Columbia Jackson Little Rock Montgomery Nashville Raleigh Richmond Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City Tallahassee

v t e

 New France
France
(1534–1763)

Subdivisions

Acadia
Acadia
(1604–1713) Canada (1608–1763) Pays d'en Haut Domaine du roy Louisiana
Louisiana
(1682–1762, 1802–1803) Illinois Country
Illinois Country
Ohio
Ohio
Country Newfoundland (1662–1713) Île Royale (1713–1763)

Towns

Acadia
Acadia
(Port Royal) Canada

Quebec Trois-Rivières Montreal Détroit

Île Royale

Louisbourg

Louisiana

Mobile Biloxi New Orleans

Newfoundland

Plaisance

List of towns

Forts

Fort Rouillé Fort Michilimackinac Fort de Buade Fort de Chartres Fort Detroit Fort Carillon Fort Condé Fort Duquesne Fortress of Louisbourg Castle Hill Fort St. Louis (Illinois) Fort St. Louis (Texas) List of Forts

Government

Canada

Governor General Intendant Sovereign Council Bishop of Quebec Governor of Trois-Rivières Governor of Montreal

Acadia

Governor Lieutenant-General

Newfoundland

Governor Lieutenant-General

Louisiana

Governor Intendant Superior Council

Île Royale

Governor Intendant Superior Council

Law

Intendancy Superior Council Admiralty court Provostship Officiality Seigneurial court Bailiff Maréchaussée Code Noir

Economy

Seigneurial system Fur trade Company of 100 Associates Crozat's Company Mississippi
Mississippi
Company Compagnie de l'Occident Chemin du Roy Coureur des bois Voyageurs

Society

Population

1666 census

Habitants King's Daughters Casquette girls Métis Amerindians Slavery Plaçage Gens de couleur libres

Religion

Jesuit missions Récollets Grey Nuns Ursulines Sulpicians

War and peace

Military of New France Intercolonial Wars French and Iroquois Wars Great Upheaval Great Peace of Montreal Schenectady massacre Deerfield massacre

Related

French colonization of the Americas French colonial empire History of Quebec History of the Acadians History of the French-Americans French West Indies Carib Expulsion Atlantic slave trade

Category Portal Commons

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New Spain
Spain
(1521–1821)

Conflicts

Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire
Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire
Spanish conquest of Guatemala
Spanish conquest of Guatemala
Spanish conquest of Yucatán
Spanish conquest of Yucatán
Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604)
Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604)
Anglo-Spanish War (1625–30)
Anglo-Spanish War (1625–30)
Dutch Revolt
Dutch Revolt
Anglo-Spanish War (1654–60)
Anglo-Spanish War (1654–60)
Piracy in the Caribbean
Piracy in the Caribbean
Queen Anne's War
Queen Anne's War
War of Jenkins' Ear
War of Jenkins' Ear
Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War
→ Spanish involvement in the American Revolutionary War

Conflicts with indigenous peoples during colonial rule

Mixtón War
Mixtón War
Yaqui Wars
Yaqui Wars
Chichimeca War
Chichimeca War
→ Philippine revolts against Spain
Spain
Acaxee Rebellion
Acaxee Rebellion
Spanish–Moro conflict
Spanish–Moro conflict
Acoma Massacre
Acoma Massacre
Tepehuán Revolt
Tepehuán Revolt
→ Tzeltal Rebellion → Pueblo Revolt
Pueblo Revolt
Pima Revolt
Pima Revolt
→ Spanish American wars of independence

Government and administration

Central government

Habsburg Spain

Charles I Joanna of Castile Philip II Philp III Philip IV Charles II

Bourbon Spain

Philip V (also reigned after Louis I) Louis I Ferdinand VI Charles III Charles IV Ferdinand VII of Spain
Spain
(also reigned after Joseph I)

Viceroys of New Spain

List of viceroys of New Spain

Audiencias

Guadalajara Captaincy General of Guatemala Manila Mexico Santo Domingo

Captancies General

Cuba Guatemala Philippines Puerto Rico Santo Domingo Yucatán Provincias Internas

Intendancy

Havana New Orleans State of Mexico Chiapas Comayagua Nicaragua Camagüey Santiago de Cuba Guanajuato Valladolid Guadalajara Zacatecas San Luis Potosí Veracruz Puebla Oaxaca Durango Sonora Mérida, Yucatán

Politics

Viceroy Gobernaciones Adelantado Captain general Corregidor (position) Cabildo Encomienda

Treaties

Treaty of Tordesillas Treaty of Zaragoza Peace of Westphalia Treaty of Ryswick Treaty of Utrecht Congress of Breda Treaty of Fontainebleau (1762) Treaty of Paris (1783) Treaty of Córdoba Adams–Onís Treaty

Notable cities, provinces, & territories

Cities

Mexico City Veracruz Xalapa Puebla Toluca Cuernavaca Oaxaca Morelia Acapulco Campeche Mérida Guadalajara Durango Monterrey León Guanajuato Zacatecas Pachuca Querétaro Saltillo San Luis Potosí Los Ángeles Yerba Buena (San Francisco) San José San Diego Santa Fe Albuquerque El Paso Los Adaes San Antonio Tucson Pensacola St. Augustine Havana Santo Domingo San Juan Antigua Guatemala Cebu Manila

Provinces & territories

La Florida Las Californias Santa Fe de Nuevo México Alta California Baja California Tejas Nueva Galicia Nueva Vizcaya Nueva Extremadura New Kingdom of León Cebu Bulacan Pampanga

Other areas

Spanish Formosa

Explorers, adventurers & conquistadors

Pre-New Spain explorers

Christopher Columbus Ferdinand Magellan Juan Sebastián Elcano Vasco Núñez de Balboa Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar

Explorers & conquistadors

Hernán Cortés Juan Ponce de León Nuño de Guzmán Bernal Díaz del Castillo Pedro de Alvarado Pánfilo de Narváez Hernando de Soto Francisco Vásquez de Coronado Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo Miguel López de Legazpi Ángel de Villafañe Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Luis de Carabajal y Cueva Juan de Oñate Juan José Pérez Hernández Gaspar de Portolà Manuel Quimper Cristóbal de Oñate Andrés de Urdaneta Ruy López de Villalobos Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (Yucatán conquistador) Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (founder of Nicaragua) Gil González Dávila Francisco de Ulloa Juan José Pérez Hernández Dionisio Alcalá Galiano Bruno de Heceta Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra Alonso de León Ignacio de Arteaga y Bazán José de Bustamante y Guerra José María Narváez Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa Antonio Gil Y'Barbo Alexander von Humboldt Thomas Gage

Catholic
Catholic
Church in New Spain

Spanish missions in the Americas

Spanish missions in Arizona Spanish missions in Baja California Spanish missions in California Spanish missions in the Carolinas Spanish missions in Florida Spanish missions in Georgia Spanish missions in Louisiana Spanish missions in Mexico Spanish missions in New Mexico Spanish missions in the Sonoran Desert Spanish missions in Texas Spanish missions in Virginia Spanish missions in Trinidad

Friars, fathers, priests, & bishops

Pedro de Gante Gerónimo de Aguilar Toribio de Benavente Motolinia Bernardino de Sahagún Juan de Zumárraga Alonso de Montúfar Vasco de Quiroga Bartolomé de las Casas Alonso de Molina Diego Durán Diego de Landa Gerónimo de Mendieta Juan de Torquemada Juan de Palafox y Mendoza Carlos de Sigüenza y Góngora Eusebio Kino Francisco Javier Clavijero Junípero Serra Francisco Palóu Fermín Lasuén Esteban Tápis José Francisco de Paula Señan Mariano Payeras Sebastián Montero Marcos de Niza Francisco de Ayeta Antonio Margil Francisco Marroquín Manuel Abad y Queipo Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla José María Morelos

Other events

Suppression of the Jesuits California
California
mission clash of cultures Cargo system Indian Reductions

Society and culture

Indigenous peoples

Mesoamerican

Aztec Maya Huastec Mixtec P'urhépecha Totonac Pipil Kowoj K'iche' Kaqchikel Zapotec Poqomam Mam

Caribbean

Arawak Ciboney Guanajatabey

California

Mission Indians Cahuilla Chumash Cupeño Juaneño Kumeyaay Luiseño Miwok Mohave Ohlone Serrano Tongva

Southwestern

Apache Coahuiltecan Cocopa Comanche Hopi Hualapai La Junta Navajo Pima Puebloan Quechan Solano Yaqui Zuni

North-Northwest Mexico

Acaxee Chichimeca Cochimi Kiliwa Ópata Tepehuán

Florida
Florida
& other Southeastern tribes

Indigenous people during De Soto's travels Apalachee Calusa Creek Jororo Pensacola Seminole Timucua Yustaga

Filipino people

Negrito Igorot Mangyan Peoples of Palawan Ati Panay Lumad Bajau Tagalog Cebuano

Others

Taiwanese aborigines Chamorro people

Architecture

Spanish Colonial style by country Colonial Baroque style Forts Missions

Trade & economy

Real Columbian Exchange Manila galleon Triangular trade

People & classes

Casta

Peninsulars

Criollo Indios Mestizo Castizo Coyotes Pardos Zambo Negros

People

Juan Bautista de Anza Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo Francis Drake Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla Eusebio Kino La Malinche Fermín Lasuén Limahong Moctezuma II Junípero Serra Hasekura Tsunenaga

New Spain
Spain
Portal

v t e

Political divisions of the Confederate States (1861–65)

States

Alabama Arkansas Florida Georgia Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia

West Virginia1

States in exile

Kentucky Missouri

Territory

Arizona2

1 Admitted to the Union
Admitted to the Union
June 20, 1863. 2 Organized January 18, 1862.

v t e

Political divisions of the United States

States

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

Federal district

Washington, D.C.

Insular areas

American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico U.S. Virgin Islands

Outlying islands

Baker Island Howland Island Jarvis Island Johnston Atoll Kingman Reef Midway Atoll Navassa Island Palmyra Atoll Wake Island

Indian reservations

List of Indian reservations

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 150033129 LCCN: n79034503 ISNI: 0000 0004 0647 0986 GND: 4079828-8 SUDOC: 176560335 BNF: cb11997202n (data)

Coordinates: 34°48′N 92°12′W / 34.8°N 92.2°

.