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As of 2010

English 74.1% Spanish 19.5% Navajo 1.9% Other 4.5 %

Demonym Arizonan[1]

Capital Phoenix

Largest city Phoenix

Largest metro Phoenix metropolitan area

Area Ranked 6th

 • Total 113,990[2] sq mi (295,234 km2)

 • Width 310 miles (500 km)

 • Length 400 miles (645 km)

 • % water 0.35

 • Latitude 31°  20′ N to 37° N

 • Longitude 109°  03′ W to 114°  49′ W

Population Ranked 14th

 • Total 6,931,071 (2016 est.)[3]

 • Density 57/sq mi  (22/km2) Ranked 33rd

 • Median household income $52,248 [4] (33rd)

Elevation

 • Highest point Humphreys Peak[5][6][7] 12,637 ft (3852 m)

 • Mean 4,100 ft  (1250 m)

 • Lowest point Colorado River
Colorado River
at the Sonora
Sonora
border[6][7] 72 ft (22 m)

Before statehood Arizona
Arizona
Territory

Admission to Union February 14, 1912 (48th)

Governor Doug Ducey
Doug Ducey
(R)

Secretary of State Michele Reagan
Michele Reagan
(R)

Legislature Arizona
Arizona
Legislature

 • Upper house Senate

 • Lower house House of Representatives

U.S. Senators John McCain
John McCain
(R) Jeff Flake
Jeff Flake
(R)

U.S. House delegation 4 Republicans, 4 Democrats, 1 vacancy (list)

Time zones  

 • most of state Mountain: UTC −7 (no DST)

 • Navajo Nation Mountain: UTC −7/−6

ISO 3166 US-AZ

Abbreviations AZ, Ariz.

Website www.az.gov

Arizona
Arizona
state symbols

The Flag of Arizona

The Seal of Arizona

Living insignia

Amphibian Arizona
Arizona
tree frog

Bird Cactus
Cactus
wren

Butterfly Two-tailed swallowtail

Fish Apache
Apache
trout

Flower Saguaro
Saguaro
cactus blossom

Mammal Ring-tailed cat

Reptile Arizona
Arizona
ridge-nosed rattlesnake

Tree Palo verde

Inanimate insignia

Colors Blue, old gold

Firearm Colt Single Action Army
Colt Single Action Army
revolver

Fossil Petrified wood

Gemstone Turquoise

Mineral Fire agate

Motto Latin: Ditat Deus (God enriches)

Rock Petrified wood

Ship USS Arizona

Slogan The Grand Canyon
Grand Canyon
State

Soil Casa Grande

Song " Arizona
Arizona
March Song" "Arizona" (alternate)

State route marker

State quarter

Released in 2008

Lists of United States state symbols

Saguaro
Saguaro
cactus flowers and buds after a wet winter. This is Arizona's official state flower.

Arizona
Arizona
(/ˌærɪˈzoʊnə/ ( listen); Navajo: Hoozdo Hahoodzo [xòːztò xɑ̀xòːtsò]; O'odham: Alĭ ṣonak [ˡaɺi ˡʂonak]) is a U.S. state
U.S. state
in the southwestern region of the United States. It is also part of the Western and the Mountain states. It is the sixth largest and the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona
Arizona
is one of the Four Corners states. It has borders with New Mexico, Utah, Nevada, California, and Mexico, and one point in common with the southwestern corner of Colorado. Arizona's border with Mexico
Mexico
is 389 miles (626 km) long, on the northern border of the Mexican states of Sonora
Sonora
and Baja California. Arizona
Arizona
is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912. Historically part of the territory of Alta California
California
in New Spain, it became part of independent Mexico
Mexico
in 1821. After being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico
Mexico
ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848. The southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase. Southern Arizona
Southern Arizona
is known for its desert climate, with very hot summers and mild winters. Northern Arizona
Northern Arizona
features forests of pine, Douglas fir, and spruce trees; the Colorado
Colorado
Plateau; some mountain ranges (such as the San Francisco
San Francisco
Mountains); as well as large, deep canyons, with much more moderate summer temperatures and significant winter snowfalls. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff, Alpine, and Tucson. In addition to the Grand Canyon
Grand Canyon
National Park, there are several national forests, national parks, and national monuments. About one-quarter of the state[8] is made up of Indian reservations that serve as the home of 27 federally recognized Native American tribes, including the Navajo Nation, the largest in the state and the United States, with more than 300,000 citizens. Although federal law gave all Native Americans the right to vote in 1924, Arizona
Arizona
excluded those living on reservations from voting until its state Supreme Court ruled in 1948 in favor of Native American plaintiffs.[9][10]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 20th century to present

3 Geography and geology

3.1 Earthquakes 3.2 Adjacent states

4 Climate 5 Demographics

5.1 Race and ethnicity 5.2 Languages 5.3 Cities and towns 5.4 Religion

6 Economy

6.1 Employment 6.2 Largest employers 6.3 Taxation

7 Transportation

7.1 Highways

7.1.1 Interstate highways 7.1.2 U.S. routes

7.2 Public transportation, Amtrak, and intercity bus 7.3 Aviation

8 Law and government

8.1 Capitol complex 8.2 State legislative branch 8.3 State executive branch 8.4 State judicial branch 8.5 Counties 8.6 Federal representation 8.7 Political culture 8.8 Same-sex marriage and Civil unions

9 Education

9.1 Elementary and secondary education 9.2 Higher education 9.3 Public universities in Arizona 9.4 Private colleges and universities in Arizona 9.5 Community colleges

10 Art and culture

10.1 Visual arts and museums 10.2 Film 10.3 Music 10.4 Sports

10.4.1 College sports 10.4.2 Baseball

11 Miscellaneous topics

11.1 Notable people 11.2 State symbols

12 See also 13 Notes 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links

Etymology[edit] The state's name appears to originate from an earlier Spanish name, Arizonac, derived from the O'odham name alĭ ṣonak, meaning "small spring," which initially applied only to an area near the silver mining camp of Planchas de Plata, Sonora.[11][12][13][14] To the European settlers, their pronunciation sounded like "Arissona".[15] The area is still known as alĭ ṣonak in the O'odham language.[16] Another possible origin is the Basque phrase haritz ona ("the good oak"), as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area.[17][18][19] There is a misconception that the state's name originated from the Spanish term Árida Zona ("Arid Zone").[15] History[edit]

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Main article: History of Arizona

The North Rim of the Grand Canyon

For thousands of years before the modern era, Arizona
Arizona
was home to numerous Native American tribes. Hohokam, Mogollon and Ancestral Puebloan cultures were among the many that flourished throughout the state. Many of their pueblos, cliffside dwellings, rock paintings and other prehistoric treasures have survived, attracting thousands of tourists each year. The first European contact by native peoples was with Marcos de Niza, a Spanish Franciscan, in 1539. He explored parts of the present state and made contact with native inhabitants, probably the Sobaipuri. The expedition of Spanish explorer Coronado entered the area in 1540–1542 during its search for Cíbola. Father Kino was the next European in the region. A member of the Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
("Jesuits"), he led the development of a chain of missions in the region. He converted many of the Indians to Christianity in the Pimería Alta
Pimería Alta
(now southern Arizona
Arizona
and northern Sonora) in the 1690s and early 18th century. Spain founded presidios ("fortified towns") at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson
Tucson
in 1775. When Mexico
Mexico
achieved its independence from the Kingdom of Spain
Kingdom of Spain
and its Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
in 1821, what is now Arizona
Arizona
became part of its Territory of Nueva California, ("New California"), also known as Alta California
California
("Upper California").[20] Descendants of ethnic Spanish and mestizo settlers from the colonial years still lived in the area, with much deeper roots than later European-American migrants from the United States.

Mexico
Mexico
in 1824. Alta California
California
is the northwestern-most state.

During the Mexican–American War
Mexican–American War
(1847–1848), the U.S. Army occupied the national capital of Mexico
Mexico
City and pursued its claim to much of northern Mexico, including what later became Arizona
Arizona
Territory in 1863 and later the State of Arizona
State of Arizona
in 1912. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) specified that, in addition to language and cultural rights of the existing inhabitants of former Mexican citizens being considered as inviolable, the sum of US$15 million dollars in compensation (equivalent to $424,269,230.77 in 2017.) be paid to the Republic of Mexico.[21] In 1853 the U.S. acquired the land south below the Gila River
Gila River
from Mexico
Mexico
in the Gadsden Purchase
Gadsden Purchase
along the southern border area as encompassing the best future southern route for a transcontinental railway. What is now known as the state of Arizona
Arizona
was initially administered by the United States government as part of the Territory of New Mexico until the southern part of that region seceded from the Union to form the Territory of Arizona.[22] This newly established territory was formally organized by the Confederate States government on Saturday, January 18, 1862, when President Jefferson Davis
Jefferson Davis
approved and signed An Act to Organize the Territory of Arizona,[23] marking the first official use of the name "Territory of Arizona". The Southern territory supplied the Confederate government with men, horses, and equipment. Formed in 1862, Arizona
Arizona
scout companies served with the Confederate States Army
Confederate States Army
during the Civil War. Arizona
Arizona
has the westernmost military engagement on record during the Civil War with the Battle of Picacho Pass.

Geronimo
Geronimo
(far right) and his Apache
Apache
warriors fought against both Mexican and American settlers.

The Federal government declared a new U.S. Arizona
Arizona
Territory, consisting of the western half of earlier New Mexico
New Mexico
Territory, in Washington, D.C., on February 24, 1863. These new boundaries would later form the basis of the state. The first territorial capital, Prescott, was founded in 1864 following a gold rush to central Arizona.[24] Although names including "Gadsonia", "Pimeria", "Montezuma", and "Arizuma" had been considered for the territory,[25] when 16th President Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
signed the final bill, it read "Arizona," and that name was adopted. (Montezuma was not derived from the Aztec emperor, but was the sacred name of a divine hero to the Pima people of the Gila River
Gila River
Valley. It was probably considered—and rejected—for its sentimental value before Congress settled on the name "Arizona.") Brigham Young, patriarchal leader of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Salt Lake City
Salt Lake City
in Utah, sent Mormons
Mormons
to Arizona in the mid- to late 19th century. They founded Mesa, Snowflake, Heber, Safford, and other towns. They also settled in the Phoenix Valley
Phoenix Valley
(or "Valley of the Sun"), Tempe, Prescott, and other areas. The Mormons settled what became northern Arizona
Arizona
and northern New Mexico. At the time these areas were located in a part of the former New Mexico Territory.

Children of Depression-era migrant workers, Pinal County, 1937

20th century to present[edit] During the Mexican Revolution
Mexican Revolution
from 1910 to 1920, several battles were fought in the Mexican towns just across the border from Arizona settlements. Throughout the revolution, numerous Arizonans enlisted in one of the several armies fighting in Mexico. Only two significant engagements took place on U.S. soil between U.S. and Mexican forces: Pancho Villa's 1916 Columbus Raid in New Mexico, and the Battle of Ambos Nogales in 1918 in Arizona. The Americans won the latter. After U.S. soldiers were fired on by Mexican federal troops, the American garrison launched an assault into Nogales, Mexico. The Mexicans eventually surrendered after both sides sustained heavy casualties. A few months earlier, just west of Nogales, an Indian War battle had occurred, considered the last engagement in the American Indian Wars, which lasted from 1775 to 1918. U.S. soldiers stationed on the border confronted Yaqui Indians
Yaqui Indians
who were using Arizona
Arizona
as a base to raid the nearby Mexican settlements, as part of their wars against Mexico. Arizona
Arizona
became a U.S. state
U.S. state
on February 14, 1912. Arizona
Arizona
was the 48th state admitted to the U.S. and the last of the contiguous states to be admitted.

Eleanor Roosevelt
Eleanor Roosevelt
at the Gila River
Gila River
relocation center, April 23, 1943

Cotton farming and copper mining, two of Arizona's most important statewide industries, suffered heavily during the Great Depression. But during the 1920s and even the 1930s, tourism began to develop as the important Arizonan industry it is today. Dude ranches, such as the K L Bar and Remuda in Wickenburg, along with the Flying V and Tanque Verde in Tucson, gave tourists the chance to take part in the flavor and activities of the "Old West". Several upscale hotels and resorts opened during this period, some of which are still top tourist draws. They include the Arizona Biltmore Hotel
Arizona Biltmore Hotel
in central Phoenix (opened 1929) and the Wigwam Resort on the west side of the Phoenix area (opened 1936). Arizona
Arizona
was the site of German POW
POW
camps during World War II and Japanese-American internment camps. Because of wartime fears of Japanese invasion of the West Coast, the government authorized the removal of all Japanese-American residents from western Washington, western Oregon, all of California, and western Arizona. From 1942 to 1945, they were forced to reside in internment camps built in the interior of the country. Many lost their homes and businesses in the process. The camps were abolished after World War II. The Phoenix-area German POW
POW
site was purchased after the war by the Maytag
Maytag
family (of major home appliance fame). It was developed as the site of the Phoenix Zoo. A Japanese-American internment camp was located on Mount Lemmon, just outside the state's southeastern city of Tucson. Another POW
POW
camp was located near the Gila River
Gila River
in eastern Yuma County. Arizona
Arizona
was also home to the Phoenix Indian School, one of several federal Indian boarding schools
Indian boarding schools
designed to assimilate Native American children into mainstream European-American culture. Children were often enrolled into these schools against the wishes of their parents and families. Attempts to suppress native identities included forcing the children to cut their hair, to take and use English names, to speak only English, and to practice Christianity rather than their native religions.[26] Numerous Native Americans from Arizona
Arizona
fought for the United States during World War II. Their experiences resulted in a rising activism in the postwar years to achieve better treatment and civil rights after their return to the state. After Maricopa County
Maricopa County
did not allow them to register to vote, in 1948 veteran Frank Harrison and Harry Austin, of the Mojave- Apache
Apache
Tribe at Fort McDowell Indian Reservation, brought a legal suit, Harrison and Austin v. Laveen, to challenge this exclusion. The Arizona Supreme Court
Arizona Supreme Court
ruled in their favor.[10] Arizona's population grew tremendously with residential and business development after World War II, aided by the widespread use of air conditioning, which made the intensely hot summers more comfortable. According to the Arizona
Arizona
Blue Book (published by the Arizona
Arizona
Secretary of State's office each year), the state population in 1910 was 294,353. By 1970, it was 1,752,122. The percentage growth each decade averaged about 20% in the earlier decades, and about 60% each decade thereafter. In the 1960s, retirement communities were developed. These were special age-restricted subdivisions catering exclusively to the needs of senior citizens; they attracted many retirees who wanted to escape the harsh winters of the Midwest
Midwest
and the Northeast. Sun City, established by developer Del Webb
Del Webb
and opened in 1960, was one of the first such communities. Green Valley, south of Tucson, was another such community, designed as a retirement subdivision for Arizona's teachers. Many senior citizens from across the U.S. and Canada
Canada
come to Arizona
Arizona
each winter and stay only during the winter months; they are referred to as snowbirds. In March 2000, Arizona
Arizona
was the site of the first legally binding election ever held over the internet to nominate a candidate for public office.[27] In the 2000 Arizona
Arizona
Democratic Primary, under worldwide attention, Al Gore
Al Gore
defeated Bill Bradley. Voter turnout in this state primary increased more than 500% over the 1996 primary. Three ships named USS Arizona have been christened in honor of the state, although only USS Arizona (BB-39) was so named after statehood was achieved. Geography and geology[edit] Main article: Geography of Arizona

Köppen climate types of Arizona

The Horseshoe Bend of the Colorado
Colorado
River

West Mitten at Monument Valley

Blue Mesa at Petrified Forest National Park

The Grand Canyon

The San Francisco Peaks
San Francisco Peaks
seen from Bellemont

Sonoran Desert
Desert
at Saguaro
Saguaro
National Park

Cathedral Rock near Red Rock Crossing in Sedona

See also lists of counties, islands, rivers, lakes, state parks, national parks, national forests, and volcanic craters.

Arizona
Arizona
is in the Southwestern United States
Southwestern United States
as one of the Four Corners states. Arizona
Arizona
is the sixth largest state by area, ranked after New Mexico
New Mexico
and before Nevada. Of the state's 113,998 square miles (295,000 km2), approximately 15% is privately owned. The remaining area is public forest and park land, state trust land and Native American reservations. Arizona
Arizona
is well known for its desert Basin and Range region in the state's southern portions, which is rich in a landscape of xerophyte plants such as the cactus. This region's topography was shaped by prehistoric volcanism, followed by the cooling-off and related subsidence. Its climate has exceptionally hot summers and mild winters. The state is less well known for its pine-covered north-central portion of the high country of the Colorado
Colorado
Plateau
Plateau
(see Arizona
Arizona
Mountains forests). Like other states of the Southwest United States, Arizona
Arizona
has an abundance of mountains and plateaus. Despite the state's aridity, 27% of Arizona
Arizona
is forest,[28] a percentage comparable to modern-day France or Germany[citation needed]. The world's largest stand of ponderosa pine trees is in Arizona.[29] The Mogollon Rim, a 1,998-foot (609 m) escarpment, cuts across the state's central section and marks the southwestern edge of the Colorado
Colorado
Plateau. In 2002, this was an area of the Rodeo–Chediski Fire, the worst fire in state history. Located in northern Arizona, the Grand Canyon
Grand Canyon
is a colorful, deep, steep-sided gorge, carved by the Colorado
Colorado
River. The canyon is one of the seven natural wonders of the world and is largely contained in the Grand Canyon
Grand Canyon
National Park—one of the first national parks in the United States. President Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
was a major proponent of designating the Grand Canyon
Grand Canyon
area as a National Park, often visiting to hunt mountain lion and enjoy the scenery. The canyon was created by the Colorado River
Colorado River
cutting a channel over millions of years, and is about 277 miles (446 km) long, ranges in width from 4 to 18 miles (6 to 29 km) and attains a depth of more than 1 mile (1.6 km). Nearly two billion years of the Earth's history have been exposed as the Colorado River
Colorado River
and its tributaries cut through layer after layer of sediment as the Colorado
Colorado
Plateau
Plateau
uplifted. Arizona
Arizona
is home to one of the most well-preserved meteorite impact sites in the world. Created around 50,000 years ago, the Barringer Meteorite
Meteorite
Crater (better known simply as "Meteor Crater") is a gigantic hole in the middle of the high plains of the Colorado Plateau, about 25 miles (40 km) west of Winslow. A rim of smashed and jumbled boulders, some of them the size of small houses, rises 150 feet (46 m) above the level of the surrounding plain. The crater itself is nearly 1 mile (1.6 km) wide, and 570 feet (170 m) deep. Arizona
Arizona
is one of two U.S. states that does not observe Daylight Saving Time (the other being Hawaii). The exception is within the large Navajo Nation
Navajo Nation
(which observes Daylight Saving Time), in the state's northeastern region. Earthquakes[edit] Generally, Arizona
Arizona
is at low risk of earthquakes, except for the southwestern portion which is at moderate risk due to its proximity to Southern California. On the other hand, Northern Arizona
Northern Arizona
is at moderate risk due to numerous faults in the area. The regions near and west of Phoenix have the lowest risk.[30] The earliest Arizona
Arizona
earthquakes were recorded at Fort Yuma, on the California
California
side of the Colorado
Colorado
River. They were centered near the Imperial Valley, or Mexico, back in the 1800s. Residents in Douglas felt the 1887 Sonora
Sonora
earthquake with its epicenter 40 miles to the south in the Mexican state of Sonora.[31] The first damaging earthquake known to be centered within Arizona
Arizona
occurred on January 25, 1906, also including a series of other earthquakes centered near Socorro, New Mexico. The shock was violent in Flagstaff. In September 1910, a series of fifty-two earthquakes caused a construction crew near Flagstaff to leave the area. In 1912, the year Arizona
Arizona
achieved statehood, on August 18, an earthquake caused a 50-mile crack in the San Francisco
San Francisco
Range. In early January 1935, the state experienced a series of earthquakes, in the Yuma area and near the Grand Canyon. Arizona
Arizona
experienced its largest earthquake in 1959, with a tremor of a magnitude 5.6. It was centered near Fredonia, in the state's northwest near the border with Utah. The tremor was felt across the border in Nevada
Nevada
and Utah.[31] Adjacent states[edit]

Utah
Utah
(north) Colorado
Colorado
(northeast) Nevada
Nevada
(northwest) Sonora, Mexico
Mexico
(south) Baja California, Mexico
Mexico
(southwest) New Mexico
New Mexico
(east) California
California
(west)

Climate[edit] Due to its large area and variations in elevation, the state has a wide variety of localized climate conditions. In the lower elevations, the climate is primarily desert, with mild winters and extremely hot summers. Typically, from late fall to early spring, the weather is mild, averaging a minimum of 60 °F (16 °C). November through February are the coldest months, with temperatures typically ranging from 40 to 75 °F (4 to 24 °C), with occasional frosts.[32] About midway through February, the temperatures start to rise, with warm days, and cool, breezy nights. The summer months of June through September bring a dry heat from 90 to 120 °F (32 to 49 °C), with occasional high temperatures exceeding 125 °F (52 °C) having been observed in the desert area.[32] Arizona's all-time record high is 128 °F (53 °C) recorded at Lake Havasu City on June 29, 1994, and July 5, 2007; the all-time record low of −40 °F (−40 °C) was recorded at Hawley Lake on January 7, 1971. Due to the primarily dry climate, large diurnal temperature variations occur in less-developed areas of the desert above 2,500 ft (760 m). The swings can be as large as 83 °F (46 °C) in the summer months. In the state's urban centers, the effects of local warming result in much higher measured night-time lows than in the recent past. Arizona
Arizona
has an average annual rainfall of 12.7 in (323 mm),[33] which comes during two rainy seasons, with cold fronts coming from the Pacific Ocean during the winter and a monsoon in the summer.[34] The monsoon season occurs toward the end of summer. In July or August, the dewpoint rises dramatically for a brief period. During this time, the air contains large amounts of water vapor. Dewpoints as high as 81 °F (27 °C)[35] have been recorded during the Phoenix monsoon season. This hot moisture brings lightning, thunderstorms, wind, and torrential, if usually brief, downpours. These downpours often cause flash floods, which can turn deadly. In an attempt to deter drivers from crossing flooding streams, the Arizona Legislature
Legislature
enacted the Stupid Motorist Law. It is rare for tornadoes or hurricanes to occur in Arizona. Arizona's northern third is a plateau at significantly higher altitudes than the lower desert, and has an appreciably cooler climate, with cold winters and mild summers, though the climate remains semiarid to arid. Extremely cold temperatures are not unknown; cold air systems from the northern states and Canada
Canada
occasionally push into the state, bringing temperatures below 0 °F (−18 °C) to the state's northern parts. Indicative of the variation in climate, Arizona
Arizona
is the state which has both the metropolitan area with the most days over 100 °F (38 °C) (Phoenix), and the metropolitan area in the lower 48 states with the most days with a low temperature below freezing (Flagstaff).[36]

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected cities in Arizona[37]

Location July (°F) July (°C) December (°F) December (°C)

Phoenix 106/83 41/28 66/45 19/7

Tucson 100/74 38/23 65/39 18/4

Yuma 107/82 42/28 68/46 20/8

Flagstaff 81/51 27/11 42/17 6/–8

Prescott 89/60 32/16 51/23 11/–5

Kingman 98/66 37/19 56/32 13/0

Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Arizona

A population density map of Arizona

Historical population

Census Pop.

1860 6,482

1870 9,658

49.0%

1880 40,440

318.7%

1890 88,243

118.2%

1900 122,931

39.3%

1910 204,354

66.2%

1920 334,162

63.5%

1930 435,573

30.3%

1940 499,261

14.6%

1950 749,587

50.1%

1960 1,302,161

73.7%

1970 1,745,944

34.1%

1980 2,718,215

55.7%

1990 3,665,228

34.8%

2000 5,130,632

40.0%

2010 6,392,017

24.6%

Est. 2017 7,016,270

9.8%

Sources: 1910–2010[38] 2015 estimate[39] Note that early censuses may not include Native Americans in Arizona

The United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
estimates that the population of Arizona
Arizona
was 7,016,270 on July 1, 2017, a 9.8% increase since the 2010 United States Census.[39] Arizona
Arizona
remained sparsely settled for most of the 19th century.[40] The 1860 census reported the population of " Arizona
Arizona
County" to be 6,482, of whom 4,040 were listed as "Indians", 21 as "free colored", and 2,421 as "white".[41][42] Arizona's continued population growth puts an enormous stress on the state's water supply.[43] As of 2011, 61.3% of Arizona's children under the age of 1 belonged to minority groups.[44] The population of metropolitan Phoenix increased by 45.3% from 1991 through 2001, helping to make Arizona
Arizona
the second fastest-growing state in the U.S. in the 1990s (the fastest was Nevada).[45] As of July 2017, the population of the Phoenix area is estimated to be over 4.7 million. According to the 2010 United States Census, Arizona
Arizona
had a population of 6,392,017. In 2010, illegal immigrants constituted an estimated 7.9% of the population. This was the second highest percentage of any state in the U.S.[46][47] Metropolitan Phoenix (4.7 million) and Tucson
Tucson
(1 million) are home to about five-sixths of Arizona's people (as of the 2010 census). Metro Phoenix alone accounts for two-thirds of the state's population. Race and ethnicity[edit] In 1980, the Census Bureau reported Arizona's population as 16.2% Hispanic, 5.6% Native American, and 74.5% non-Hispanic white.[48] In 2010, the racial makeup of the state was:

73.0% White 4.6% Native American and Alaska
Alaska
Native 4.1% Black or African American 2.8% Asian 0.2% Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
and Other Pacific Islander 11.9% from some other race 3.4% from two or more races.

Hispanics or Latinos of any race made up 29.6% of the state's population. Non-Hispanic whites formed 57.8% of the total population.[49]

Arizona
Arizona
racial breakdown of population

Racial composition 1970[50] 1990[50] 2000[51] 2010[52]

White 90.6% 80.8% 75.5% 73.0%

Native 5.4% 5.5% 5.0% 4.6%

Black 3.0% 3.0% 3.1% 4.1%

Asian 0.5% 1.5% 1.8% 2.8%

Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
and other Pacific Islander – – 0.1% 0.2%

Other race 0.5% 9.1% 11.6% 11.9%

Two or more races – – 2.9% 3.4%

Arizona's five largest ancestry groups, as of 2009, were:[53]

Mexican (27.4%); German (16.0%); Irish (10.8%); English (10.1%); Italian (4.6%).

Languages[edit]

Top 10 non-English languages spoken in Arizona

Language Percentage of population (as of 2010)[54]

Spanish 20.80%

Navajo 1.48%

German 0.39%

Chinese (including Mandarin) 0.39%

Tagalog 0.33%

Vietnamese 0.30%

Other North American indigenous languages (especially indigenous languages of Arizona) 0.27%

French 0.26%

Arabic 0.24%

Apache 0.18%

Korean 0.17%

Extent of the Spanish language
Spanish language
in the state of Arizona

As of 2010, 72.90% (4,215,749) of Arizona
Arizona
residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language, while 20.80% (1,202,638) spoke Spanish, 1.48% (85,602) Navajo, 0.39% (22,592) German, 0.39% (22,426) Chinese (which includes Mandarin), 0.33% (19,015) Tagalog, 0.30% (17,603) Vietnamese, 0.27% (15,707) Other North American Indigenous Languages (especially indigenous languages of Arizona), and French was spoken as a main language by 0.26% (15,062) of the population over the age of five. In total, 27.10% (1,567,548) of Arizona's population age 5 and older spoke a mother language other than English.[54] Arizona
Arizona
is home to the largest number of speakers of Native American languages in the 48 contiguous states, as over 85,000 individuals reported speaking Navajo,[55] and 10,403 people reported Apache, as a language spoken at home in 2005.[55] Arizona's Apache
Apache
County has the highest concentration of speakers of Native American Indian languages in the United States.[56] Cities and towns[edit]

View of suburban development in Scottsdale, 2006

Art Deco
Art Deco
doors of the Cochise County
Cochise County
Courthouse in Bisbee

See also: List of places in Arizona, List of cities and towns in Arizona, and List of Arizona
Arizona
counties Phoenix, located in Maricopa County, is the capital and the largest city in Arizona. Other prominent cities in the Phoenix metro area include Mesa (the third largest city in Arizona), Chandler (the fourth largest city in Arizona), Glendale, Peoria, Buckeye, Sun City, Sun City West, Fountain Hills, Surprise, Gilbert, El Mirage, Avondale, Tempe, Tolleson and Scottsdale, with a total metropolitan population of just over 4.3 million.[57] It has an average July high temperature of 106 °F (41 °C), one of the highest of any metropolitan area in the United States, offset by an average January high temperature of 67 °F (19 °C), the basis of its winter appeal. Tucson, with a metro population of just over one million, is the state's second-largest city. It is located in Pima County, approximately 110 miles (180 km) southeast of Phoenix. Tucson
Tucson
was incorporated in 1877, making it the oldest incorporated city in Arizona. It is home to the University of Arizona. Major incorporated suburbs of Tucson
Tucson
include Oro Valley and Marana
Marana
northwest of the city, Sahuarita south of the city, and South Tucson
Tucson
in an enclave south of downtown. It has an average July temperature of 100 °F (38 °C) and winter temperatures averaging 65 °F (18 °C). Saguaro
Saguaro
National Park, just west of the city in the Tucson
Tucson
Mountains, is the locale of the largest collection of Saguaro cacti in the world. The Prescott metropolitan area includes the cities of Prescott, Cottonwood, Camp Verde and numerous other towns spread out over the 8,123 square miles (21,000 km2) of Yavapai County
Yavapai County
area. With 212,635 residents, this cluster of towns forms the third largest metropolitan area in the state. The city of Prescott (population 41,528) lies approximately 100 miles (160 km) northwest of the Phoenix metropolitan area. Situated in pine tree forests at an elevation of about 5,500 feet (1,700 m), Prescott enjoys a much cooler climate than Phoenix, with average summer highs around 88 °F (31 °C) and winter temperatures averaging 50 °F (10 °C). Yuma is center of the fourth-largest metropolitan area in Arizona. Located in Yuma County, it is near the borders of California
California
and Mexico. It is one of the hottest cities in the United States, with an average July high of 107 °F (42 °C). (The same month's average in Death Valley
Death Valley
is 115 °F (46 °C).) The city features sunny days about 90% of the year. The Yuma Metropolitan Statistical Area has a population of 160,000. Yuma attracts many winter visitors from all over the United States. Flagstaff, in Coconino County, is the largest city in northern Arizona, and is at an elevation of nearly 7,000 feet (2,100 m). With its large Ponderosa pine
Ponderosa pine
forests, snowy winter weather and picturesque mountains, it is a stark contrast to the desert regions typically associated with Arizona. It is sited at the base of the San Francisco Peaks, the highest mountain range in the state of Arizona, which contain Humphreys Peak, the highest point in Arizona
Arizona
at 12,633 feet (3,851 m). Flagstaff has a strong tourism sector, due to its proximity to numerous tourist attractions including: Grand Canyon National Park, Sedona, and Oak Creek Canyon. Historic U.S. Route 66
U.S. Route 66
is the main east-west street in the town. The Flagstaff metropolitan area is home to 134,421 residents and the main campus of Northern Arizona University. Lake Havasu
Lake Havasu
City, in Mohave County, known as "Arizona's playground," was developed on the Colorado River
Colorado River
and is named after Lake Havasu. Lake Havasu
Lake Havasu
City has a population of about 53,000 people. It is famous for huge spring break parties, sunsets and the London Bridge, relocated from London, England. Lake Havasu
Lake Havasu
City was founded by real estate developer Robert P. McCulloch
Robert P. McCulloch
in 1963.[58] It has two colleges, Mohave Community College
Mohave Community College
and ASU Colleges in Lake Havasu
Lake Havasu
City.[59]

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Arizona Source:[60]

Rank Name County Pop.

Phoenix

Tucson 1 Phoenix Maricopa 1,445,632

Mesa

Chandler

2 Tucson Pima 520,116

3 Mesa Maricopa 439,041

4 Chandler Maricopa 236,123

5 Glendale Maricopa 226,721

6 Scottsdale Maricopa 217,385

7 Gilbert Maricopa 208,453

8 Tempe Maricopa 161,719

9 Peoria Maricopa 154,065

10 Surprise Maricopa 117,517

Religion[edit]

The Spanish mission of San Xavier del Bac, founded in 1700

Religion in Arizona
Arizona
(2014)[61]

Religion

Percent

Protestant

39%

None

27%

Catholic

21%

Mormon

5%

Jewish

2%

Jehovah's Witness

1%

Hindu

1%

Buddhist

1%

Muslim

1%

Other

2%

As of the year 2010, the Association of Religion Data Archives reported that the three largest denominational groups in Arizona
Arizona
were the Catholic
Catholic
Church, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints and non-denominational Evangelical Protestants. The Catholic
Catholic
Church has the highest number of adherents in Arizona
Arizona
(at 930,001), followed by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
with 410,263 members reported[62] and then non-denominational Evangelical Protestants, reporting 281,105 adherents.[63] The religious body with the largest number of congregations is The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (with 836 congregations[64]) followed by the Southern Baptist Convention
Southern Baptist Convention
(with 323 congregations). According to the Association of Religion Data Archives, the fifteen largest denominations by number of adherents in 2010 and 2000 were:[65][66]

Religion 2010 Population 2000 Population

Catholic
Catholic
Church 930,001 974,884

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 410,263 251,974

Non-denominational Christian 281,105 63,885[nb 1]

Southern Baptist Convention 126,830 138,516

Assemblies of God 123,713 82,802

United Methodist Church 54,977 53,232

Christian Churches and Churches of Christ 48,386 33,162

Evangelical Lutheran Church in America 42,944 69,393

Lutheran Church– Missouri
Missouri
Synod 26,322 24,977

Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) 26,078 33,554

Episcopal Church (United States) 24,853 31,104

Seventh-day Adventist Church 20,924 11,513

Church of the Nazarene 16,991 18,143

Lutheran Congregations in Mission for Christ 14,350 0

Churches of Christ 14,151 14,471

Regarding non-Christian denominations, Hinduism became the largest non-Christian religion (when combining all denominations) in 2010, with over 32,000 adherents in several denominations, followed by Judaism with over 20,000 in three denominations, and Buddhism with over 19,000 adherents in several denominations.[65][67][68] Economy[edit]

Arizona's Meteor Crater
Meteor Crater
is a tourist attraction.

See also: Arizona
Arizona
locations by per capita income The 2011 total gross state product was $259 billion. This figure gives Arizona
Arizona
a larger economy than such countries as Ireland, Finland, and New Zealand. The composition of the state's economy is moderately diverse; although health care, transportation and the government remain the largest sectors. The state's per capita income is $40,828, ranking 39th in the U.S. The state had a median household income of $50,448, making it 22nd in the country and just below the U.S. national mean.[69] Early in its history, Arizona's economy relied on the "five C's": copper (see Copper mining in Arizona), cotton, cattle, citrus, and climate (tourism). Copper is still extensively mined from many expansive open-pit and underground mines, accounting for two-thirds of the nation's output. Employment[edit] The state government is Arizona's largest employer, while Banner Health is the state's largest private employer, with over 39,000 employees (2016). As of March 2016[update], the state's unemployment rate was 5.4%.[70] The top employment sectors in Arizona
Arizona
are (August 2014, excludes agriculture):

Sector Employees (thousands)

Trade, transportation, and utilities 488.6

Government 408.5

Education and health services 392.1

Professional and business services 384.2

Leisure and hospitality 286.4

Financial activities 193.2

Manufacturing 156.0

Construction 118.2

Other services 88.2

Information 41.8

Mining
Mining
and logging 13.7

Largest employers[edit] According to The Arizona
Arizona
Republic, the largest private employers in the state as of 2016 were:[71]

Rank Company Employees Industry

1 Banner Health 39,781 Health care

2 Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. 34,856 Discount retailer

3 Kroger
Kroger
Co. 16,856 Grocery stores

4 McDonald's
McDonald's
Corp. 15,781 Food service

5 Wells Fargo
Wells Fargo
& Co. 15,071 Financial services

6 Albertsons Inc. 14,490 Grocery stores, retail drugstores

7 Intel Corp. 11,300 Semiconductor manufacturing

8 HonorHealth 10,600 Health care

9 (tie) American Airlines 10,000 Airline

Home Depot Inc. 10,000 Retail
Retail
home improvement

Honeywell
Honeywell
International Inc. 10,000 Aerospace manufacturing

12 Bank of America
Bank of America
Corp. 9,800 Financial services

13 Raytheon
Raytheon
Co. 9,600 Defense (missile manufacturing)

14 JP Morgan Chase & Co. 9,500 Financial services

15 Bashas' Supermarkets 8,525 Grocery stores

16 Target Corp. 8,241 Discount retailer

17 Freeport-McMoRan
Freeport-McMoRan
Copper & Gold Inc. 8,030 Mining

18 Dignity Health 8,000 Health care

19 CVS Health 7,200 Pharmaceutical services (including retail drugstores)

20 American Express
American Express
Co. 7,079 Financial services

21 Circle K
Circle K
Corp. 6,800 Convenience stores

22 UnitedHealthcare 6,000 Health care

23 Pinnacle West Capital Corp. 6,407 Electric utility

24 Mayo Foundation 6,274 Health care

25 Amazon.com 6,000 Online Shopping

In southern Arizona, the top ten largest public employers, as of 2011, were:[72]

Ranking Institution/Agency Employees (2011)

1 University of Arizona 10,481

2 State of Arizona 8,866

3 Davis–Monthan Air Force Base 8,462

4 Tucson
Tucson
Unified School District 6,709

5 U.S. Army Intelligence Center and Fort Huachuca 6,225

6 Pima County 6,403

7 City of Tucson 4,930

8 Tohono O'odham Nation 4,350

9 United States Border Patrol 3,530

10 Pinal County 2,340

Taxation[edit] Arizona
Arizona
collects personal income taxes in five brackets: 2.59%, 2.88%, 3.36%, 4.24% and 4.54%.[73] The state transaction privilege tax is 5.6%; however, county and municipal sales taxes generally add an additional 2%. The state rate on transient lodging (hotel/motel) is 7.27%. The state of Arizona
Arizona
does not levy a state tax on food for home consumption or on drugs prescribed by a licensed physician or dentist. However, some cities in Arizona
Arizona
do levy a tax on food for home consumption. All fifteen Arizona
Arizona
counties levy a tax. Incorporated municipalities also levy transaction privilege taxes which, with the exception of their hotel/motel tax, are generally in the range of 1-to-3%. These added assessments could push the combined sales tax rate to as high as 10.7%.

Single Tax rate Joint Tax rate

0 – $10,000 2.590% 0 – $20,000 2.590%

$10,000 – $25,000 2.880% $20,001 – $50,000 2.880%

$25,000 – $50,000 3.360% $50,001 – $100,000 3.360%

$50,000 – $150,001 4.240% $100,000 – $300,001 4.240%

$150,001 + 4.540% $300,001 + 4.540%

Transportation[edit] Main article: Transportation in Arizona

Entering Arizona
Arizona
on I-10 from New Mexico

Highways[edit] Interstate highways[edit] I-8 I-10 Future I-11 I-15 I‑17 I‑19 I-40 U.S. routes[edit] US 60 US 64 US 70 US 89 US 91 US 93 US 95 US 160 US 163 US 180 US 191 Main interstate routes include I-17, and I-19 traveling north-south, I-8, I-10, and I-40, traveling east-west, and a short stretch of I-15 traveling northeast–southwest through the extreme northwestern corner of the state. In addition, the various urban areas are served by complex networks of state routes and highways, such as the Loop 101, which is part of Phoenix's vast freeway system. Public transportation, Amtrak, and intercity bus[edit] The Phoenix and Tucson
Tucson
metropolitan areas are served by public bus transit systems. Yuma and Flagstaff also have public bus systems. Greyhound Lines
Greyhound Lines
serves Phoenix, Tucson, Flagstaff, Yuma, and several smaller communities statewide.

A Navajo man on horseback in Monument Valley

A light rail system, called Valley Metro Rail, was completed in December 2008; it connects Central Phoenix with the nearby cities of Mesa and Tempe. In Tucson, the Sun Link streetcar system travels through the downtown area, connecting the main University of Arizona
University of Arizona
campus with Mercado San Agustin on the western edge of downtown Tucson. Sun Link, loosely based on the Portland Streetcar, launched in July 2014.[74] Amtrak
Amtrak
Southwest Chief
Southwest Chief
route serves the northern part of the state, stopping at Winslow, Flagstaff, Williams and Kingman. The Texas
Texas
Eagle and Sunset Limited
Sunset Limited
routes serve South-Central Arizona, stopping at Tucson, Maricopa, Yuma and Benson. Phoenix lost Amtrak
Amtrak
service in 1996 with the discontinuation of the Desert
Desert
Wind, and now an Amtrak
Amtrak
bus runs between Phoenix and the station in Maricopa. See also: List of passenger train stations in Arizona Aviation[edit] See also: List of airports in Arizona Airports with regularly scheduled commercial flights include: Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport (IATA: PHX, ICAO: KPHX) in Phoenix (the largest airport and the major international airport in the state); Tucson International Airport
Tucson International Airport
(IATA: TUS, ICAO: KTUS) in Tucson; Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport
Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport
(IATA: AZA, ICAO: KIWA) in Mesa; Yuma International Airport
Yuma International Airport
(IATA: NYL, ICAO: KNYL) in Yuma; Prescott Municipal
Municipal
Airport (PRC) in Prescott; Flagstaff Pulliam Airport
Flagstaff Pulliam Airport
(IATA: FLG, ICAO: KFLG) in Flagstaff, and Grand Canyon
Grand Canyon
National Park Airport (IATA: GCN, ICAO: KGCN, FAA: GCN), a small, but busy, single-runway facility providing tourist flights, mostly from Las Vegas. Phoenix Sky Harbor is currently 7th busiest airport in the world in terms of aircraft movements, and 17th for passenger traffic.[75][76] Other significant airports without regularly scheduled commercial flights include Scottsdale Municipal Airport
Scottsdale Municipal Airport
(IATA: SCF, ICAO: KSDL) in Scottsdale, and Deer Valley Airport
Deer Valley Airport
(IATA: DVT, ICAO: KDVT, FAA: DVT) home to two flight training academies and the Nation's busiest general aviation airport.[77] Law and government[edit] Main article: Government of Arizona See also: Arizona
Arizona
Constitution, United States congressional delegations from Arizona, List of Arizona
Arizona
Governors, Political party strength in Arizona, and Arizona
Arizona
Revised Statutes Capitol complex[edit]

The original Arizona
Arizona
State Capitol, Phoenix

The state capital of Arizona
Arizona
is Phoenix. The original Capitol building, with its distinctive copper dome, was dedicated in 1901 (construction was completed for $136,000 in 1900), when the area was still a territory. Phoenix became the official state capital with Arizona's admission to the union in 1912. The House of Representatives and Senate buildings were dedicated in 1960, and an Executive Office Building was dedicated in 1974 (the ninth floor of this building is where the Office of the Governor is located). The original Capitol building was converted into a museum. The Capitol complex is fronted and highlighted by the richly landscaped Wesley Bolin
Wesley Bolin
Memorial Plaza, named after Wesley Bolin, a governor who died in office in the 1970s. Numerous monuments and memorials are on the site, including the anchor and signal mast from the USS Arizona (one of the U.S. Navy ships sunk in Pearl Harbor) and a granite version of the Ten Commandments. State legislative branch[edit] The Arizona
Arizona
Legislature
Legislature
is bicameral (like the legislature of every other state except Nebraska) and consists of a thirty-member Senate and a 60-member House of Representatives. Each of the thirty legislative districts has one senator and two representatives. Legislators are elected for two-year terms. Each Legislature
Legislature
covers a two-year period. The first session following the general election is known as the first regular session, and the session convening in the second year is known as the second regular session. Each regular session begins on the second Monday in January and adjourns sine die (terminates for the year) no later than Saturday of the week in which the 100th day from the beginning of the regular session falls. The President of the Senate and Speaker of the House, by rule, may extend the session up to seven additional days. Thereafter, the session can only be extended by a majority vote of members present of each house. The current majority party is the Republican Party, which has held power in both houses since 1993. Arizona
Arizona
state senators and representatives are elected for two-year terms and are limited to four consecutive terms in a chamber, though there is no limit on the total number of terms. When a lawmaker is term-limited from office, it is not uncommon for him or her to run for election in the other chamber. The fiscal year 2006–07 general fund budget, approved by the Arizona Legislature
Legislature
in June 2006, is slightly less than $10 billion. Besides the money spent on state agencies, it also includes more than $500 million in income- and property tax cuts, pay raises for government employees, and additional funding for the K–12 education system. State executive branch[edit]

State of Arizona
State of Arizona
elected officials

Governor Doug Ducey
Doug Ducey
(R)

Secretary of State Michele Reagan
Michele Reagan
(R)

Attorney General Mark Brnovich
Mark Brnovich
(R)

State Treasurer Jeff DeWit
Jeff DeWit
(R)

Superintendent of Public Instruction Diane Douglas
Diane Douglas
(R)

State Mine Inspector Joe Hart (R)

Corporation Commissioner

Thomas Forese
Thomas Forese
(R) Bob Burns (R) Andy Tobin
Andy Tobin
(R) Boyd Dunn (R) Justin Olson
Justin Olson
(R)

Arizona's executive branch is headed by a governor, who is elected to a four-year term. The governor may serve any number of terms, though no more than two in a row. Arizona
Arizona
is one of the few states that does not maintain a governor's mansion. During office the governors reside within their private residence, and all executive offices are housed in the executive tower at the state capitol. The current governor of Arizona
Arizona
is Doug Ducey
Doug Ducey
(R). Former Governor Jan Brewer
Jan Brewer
assumed office after Janet Napolitano
Janet Napolitano
had her nomination by Barack Obama
Barack Obama
for Secretary of Homeland Security confirmed by the United States Senate.[78] Arizona
Arizona
has had four female governors, more than any other state. Other elected executive officials include the Secretary of State, State Treasurer, State Attorney General, Superintendent of Public Instruction, State Mine Inspector and a five-member Corporation Commission. All elected officials hold a term of four years, and are limited to two consecutive terms (except the office of the State Mine Inspector, which is limited to 4 terms[79]). Arizona
Arizona
is one of seven states that do not have a specified lieutenant governor. The secretary of state is the first in line to succeed the governor in the event of death, disability, resignation, or removal from office. The line of succession also includes the attorney general, state treasurer and superintendent of public instruction. Since 1977, four secretaries of state and one attorney general have risen to Arizona's governorship through these means. State judicial branch[edit] The Arizona Supreme Court
Arizona Supreme Court
is the highest court in Arizona. The court currently consists of one chief justice, a vice chief justice, and three associate justices. Justices are appointed by the governor from a list recommended by a bipartisan commission, and are re-elected after the initial two years following their appointment. Subsequent re-elections occur every six years. The supreme court has appellate jurisdiction in death penalty cases, but almost all other appellate cases go through the Arizona Court of Appeals beforehand. The court has original jurisdiction in a few other circumstances, as outlined in the state constitution. The court may also declare laws unconstitutional, but only while seated en banc. The court meets in the Arizona Supreme Court
Arizona Supreme Court
Building at the capitol complex (at the southern end of Wesley Bolin
Wesley Bolin
Plaza). The Arizona
Arizona
Court of Appeals, further divided into two divisions, is the intermediate court in the state. Division One is based in Phoenix, consists of sixteen judges, and has jurisdiction in the Western and Northern regions of the state, along with the greater Phoenix area. Division Two is based in Tucson, consists of six judges, and has jurisdiction over the Southern regions of the state, including the Tucson
Tucson
area. Judges are selected in a method similar to the one used for state supreme court justices. Each county of Arizona
Arizona
has a superior court, the size and organization of which are varied and generally depend on the size of the particular county. Counties[edit] Arizona
Arizona
is divided into political jurisdictions designated as counties. As of 1983 there were 15 counties in the state, ranging in size from 1,238 square miles (3,210 km2) to 18,661 square miles (48,330 km2).

Arizona
Arizona
counties

County name County seat Year founded 2010 population[80] Percent of total Area (sq. mi.) Percent of total

Apache St. Johns 1879 71,518 1.12 % 11,218 9.84 %

Cochise Bisbee 1881 131,346 2.05 % 6,219 5.46 %

Coconino Flagstaff 1891 134,421 2.10 % 18,661 16.37 %

Gila Globe 1881 53,597 0.84 % 4,796 4.21 %

Graham Safford 1881 37,220 0.58 % 4,641 4.07 %

Greenlee Clifton 1909 8,437 0.13 % 1,848 1.62 %

La Paz Parker 1983 20,489 0.32 % 4,513 3.96 %

Maricopa Phoenix 1871 3,817,117 59.72 % 9,224 8.09 %

Mohave Kingman 1864 200,186 3.13 % 13,470 11.82 %

Navajo Holbrook 1895 107,449 1.68 % 9,959 8.74 %

Pima Tucson 1864 980,263 15.34 % 9,189 8.06 %

Pinal Florence 1875 375,770 5.88 % 5,374 4.71 %

Santa Cruz Nogales 1899 47,420 0.74 % 1,238 1.09 %

Yavapai Prescott 1864 211,033 3.30 % 8,128 7.13 %

Yuma Yuma 1864 195,751 3.06 % 5,519 4.84 %

Totals: 15

6,392,017

113,997

Federal representation[edit] Arizona's two United States Senators are John McCain
John McCain
(R), the 2008 Republican Presidential Nominee, and Jeff Flake
Jeff Flake
(R). As of the start of the 115th Congress, Arizona's representatives in the United States House of Representatives
United States House of Representatives
are Tom O'Halleran
Tom O'Halleran
(D-1), Martha McSally
Martha McSally
(R-2), Raul Grijalva
Raul Grijalva
(D-3), Paul Gosar
Paul Gosar
(R-4), Andy Biggs (R-5), David Schweikert
David Schweikert
(R-6), Ruben Gallego
Ruben Gallego
(D-7) and Kyrsten Sinema (D-9). Arizona
Arizona
gained a ninth seat in the House of Representatives due to redistricting based on Census 2010. The 8th district became vacant when Trent Franks
Trent Franks
resigned on December 8, 2017. Political culture[edit]

Presidential elections results

Year Republican Democratic

2016 49.15% 1,240,656 45.35% 1,144,709

2012 53.65% 1,233,654 44.59% 1,025,232

2008 53.60% 1,230,111 45.12% 1,034,707

2004 54.87% 1,104,294 44.40% 893,524

2000 50.95% 781,652 44.67% 685,341

1996 44.29% 622,073 46.52% 653,288

1992 38.47% 572,086 36.52% 543,050

1988 59.95% 702,541 38.74% 454,029

1984 66.42% 681,416 32.54% 333,854

1980 60.61% 529,688 28.24% 246,843

1976 56.37% 418,642 39.80% 295,602

1972 61.64% 402,812 30.38% 198,540

1968 54.78% 266,721 35.02% 170,514

1964 50.45% 242,535 49.45% 237,753

1960 55.52% 221,241 44.36% 176,781

See also: Elections in Arizona, Political party strength in Arizona

Treemap
Treemap
of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election

Voter registration and party enrollment as of October 28, 2016[update][81]

Party Number of voters Percentage

Republican 1,239,614 34.54%

Independent 1,219,297 33.98%

Democratic 1,091,323 30.41%

Libertarian Party 31,358 0.87%

Green Party 6,894 0.19%

Total 3,588,466 100%

From statehood through the late 1940s, Arizona
Arizona
was primarily dominated by the Democratic Party. During this time period, the Democratic candidate for the presidency carried the state each election, with the only exceptions being the elections of 1920, 1924 and 1928—all three of which were national Republican landslides. In 1924 Congress had passed a law granting citizenship and suffrage to all Native Americans, some of whom had previously been excluded as members of tribes on reservations. Legal interpretations of Arizona's constitution prohibited Native Americans living on reservations from voting, classifying them as being under "guardianship."[10] This interpretation was overturned as being incorrect and unconstitutional in 1948 by the Arizona
Arizona
Supreme Court, following a suit by World War II Indian veterans Frank Harrison and Harry Austin, both of the Fort McDowell Yavapai Nation. The landmark case is Harrison and Austin v. Laveen. After the men were refused the opportunity to register in Maricopa County, they filed suit against the registrar. The National Congress of American Indians, the Department of Justice, the Department of the Interior, and the American Civil Liberties Union
American Civil Liberties Union
all filed amicus curiae (friends of the court) briefs in the case. The State Supreme Court established the rights of Native Americans to vote in the state; at the time, they comprised about 11% of the population.[10] That year, a similar provision was overturned in New Mexico
Mexico
when challenged by another Indian veteran in court. These were the only two states that had continued to prohibit Native Americans from voting.[9][10] Since the election of Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
in 1952, the majority of state voters have favored Republicans in presidential elections. Arizona
Arizona
voted Republican in every presidential election from 1952 to 1992, with Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
and Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
winning the state by particularly large margins. During this forty-year span, it was the only state not to be carried by a Democrat at least once. Democrat Lyndon Johnson, in 1964, lost the state by less than 5,000 votes to Arizona
Arizona
Senator and native Barry Goldwater. (This was the most closely contested state in what was otherwise a landslide victory for Johnson that year.) Democrat Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
ended this streak in 1996, when he won Arizona
Arizona
by a little over two percentage points (Clinton had previously come within less than two percent of winning Arizona's electoral votes in 1992). Since then, the majority of the state has continued to support Republican presidential candidates by solid margins. Since the late 20th century, the Republican Party has also dominated Arizona
Arizona
politics in general. The fast-growing Phoenix and Tucson suburbs became increasingly friendly to Republicans from the 1950s onward. During this time, many "Pinto Democrats," or conservative Democrats from rural areas, became increasingly willing to support Republicans at the state and national level. While the state normally supports Republicans at the federal level, Democrats are often competitive in statewide elections. Two of the last five governors have been Democrats. On March 4, 2008, Senator John McCain
John McCain
effectively clinched the Republican nomination for 2008, becoming the first presidential nominee from the state since Barry Goldwater
Barry Goldwater
in 1964. Arizona
Arizona
politics are dominated by a longstanding rivalry between its two largest counties, Maricopa and Pima—home to Phoenix and Tucson, respectively. The two counties have almost 75 percent of the state's population and cast almost 80 percent of the state's vote. They also elect a substantial majority of the state legislature. Maricopa County
Maricopa County
is home to almost 60 percent of the state's population, and most of the state's elected officials live there. It has voted Republican in every presidential election since 1948. This includes the 1964 run of native son Barry Goldwater; he would not have carried his home state without his 20,000-vote margin in Maricopa County. Similarly, while McCain won Arizona
Arizona
by eight percentage points in 2008, aided by his 130,000-vote margin in Maricopa County. In contrast, Pima County, home to Tucson, and most of southern Arizona have historically voted more Democratic. While Tucson's suburbs lean Republican, they hold to a somewhat more moderate brand of Republicanism than is common in the Phoenix area. Arizona
Arizona
rejected a same-sex marriage ban in a referendum as part of the 2006 elections. Arizona
Arizona
was the first state in the nation to do so. Same-sex marriage was not recognized in Arizona, but this amendment would have denied any legal or financial benefits to unmarried homosexual or heterosexual couples.[82] In 2008, Arizona voters passed Proposition 102, an amendment to the state constitution to define marriage as a union of one man and one woman. It passed by a more narrow majority than similar votes in a number of other states.[83] In 2010, Arizona
Arizona
passed SB 1070, called the toughest illegal immigration legislation in the nation. A fierce debate erupted between supporters and detractors of the law.[84] The United States Supreme Court
United States Supreme Court
heard arguments March 18, 2013, regarding the validity of the Arizona
Arizona
law, which requires individuals to show documents proving U.S. citizenship in order to register to vote in national elections.[85] Same-sex marriage and Civil unions[edit] In 2006, Arizona
Arizona
became the first state in the United States to reject a proposition, Prop 107, that would have banned same-sex marriage and civil unions.[86] However, in 2008, Arizona
Arizona
voters approved of Prop 102, a constitutional ban on same-sex marriage.[87] Prior to same-sex marriage being legal, the City of Bisbee became the first jurisdiction in Arizona
Arizona
to approve of civil unions.[88] The state's Attorney General at the time, Tom Horne, threatened to sue, but rescinded the threat once Bisbee amended the ordinance; Bisbee approved of civil unions in 2013.[89] The municipalities of Clarkdale, Cottonwood, Jerome, Sedona, and Tucson
Tucson
also passed civil unions.[90] A November 2011 Public Policy Polling
Public Policy Polling
survey found that 44% of Arizona voters supported the legalization of same-sex marriage, while 45% opposed it and 12% were not sure. A separate question on the same survey found that 72% of respondents supported legal recognition of same-sex couples, with 40% supporting same-sex marriage, 32% supporting civil unions, 27% opposing all legal recognition and 1% not sure. Arizona
Arizona
Proposition 102, known by its supporters as the Marriage Protection Amendment, appeared as a legislatively referred constitutional amendment on the November 4, 2008 ballot in Arizona, where it was approved: 56.2%–43%. It amended the Arizona Constitution to define marriage as between one man and one woman.[91] On October 17, 2014, Arizona Attorney General
Arizona Attorney General
Tom Horne announced that his office would no longer object to same-sex marriage, in response to a U.S. District Court Ruling on Arizona
Arizona
Proposition 102. On that day, each county's Clerk of the Superior Court began to issue same-sex marriage licenses, and Arizona
Arizona
became the 31st state to legalize same-sex marriage. Education[edit] Elementary and secondary education[edit] Public schools in Arizona
Arizona
are separated into about 220 local school districts which operate independently, but are governed in most cases by elected county school superintendents; these are in turn overseen by the Arizona
Arizona
State Board of Education (a division of the Arizona Department of Education) and the state Superintendent of Public Instruction (elected in partisan elections every even-numbered year when there is not a presidential election, for a four-year term). In 2005, a School District Redistricting Commission was established with the goal of combining and consolidating many of these districts. Higher education[edit]

The University of Arizona
University of Arizona
located in Tucson

Arizona State University
Arizona State University
located in Tempe

Northern Arizona
Northern Arizona
University located in Flagstaff

Arizona
Arizona
is served by three public universities: The University of Arizona, Arizona
Arizona
State University, and Northern Arizona
Northern Arizona
University. These schools are governed by the Arizona
Arizona
Board of Regents. Private higher education in Arizona
Arizona
is dominated by a large number of for-profit and "chain" (multi-site) universities.[92] Embry–Riddle Aeronautical University, Prescott
Embry–Riddle Aeronautical University, Prescott
and Prescott College are Arizona's only non-profit four-year private colleges.[93] Arizona
Arizona
has a wide network of two-year vocational schools and community colleges. These colleges were governed historically by a separate statewide Board of Directors but, in 2002, the state legislature transferred almost all oversight authority to individual community college districts.[94] The Maricopa County
Maricopa County
Community College District includes 11 community colleges throughout Maricopa County
Maricopa County
and is one of the largest in the nation. Public universities in Arizona[edit]

Arizona
Arizona
State University, (Sun Devils) Tempe/Phoenix/Mesa Northern Arizona
Northern Arizona
University, (Lumberjacks) Flagstaff/Yuma/Prescott University of Arizona, (Wildcats) Tucson/Sierra Vista, M.D. college in downtown Phoenix and UA Agricultural Center in Yuma/Maricopa

Private colleges and universities in Arizona[edit]

American Indian College Carrington College Argosy University Arizona
Arizona
Christian University Art Center College of Design Art Institute of Tucson Art Institute of Phoenix A.T. Still University Brookline College Brown Mackie College Collins College Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Grand Canyon
Grand Canyon
University International Baptist College

Midwestern University Northcentral University Ottawa University University of Phoenix Penn Foster College[95] Phoenix School of Law Prescott College Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine Thunderbird School of Global Management University of Advancing Technology Western Governors University Western International University

Community colleges[edit]

Arizona
Arizona
Western College Central Arizona
Arizona
College Cochise College Coconino Community College Diné College Eastern Arizona
Arizona
College Chandler-Gilbert Community College Estrella Mountain Community College GateWay Community College Glendale Community College

Maricopa County
Maricopa County
Community College District Mesa Community College Mohave Community College Northland Pioneer College Paradise Valley Community College Phoenix College Pima Community College Rio Salado Community College Scottsdale Community College South Mountain Community College Yavapai College

Art and culture[edit] Visual arts and museums[edit] See also: List of museums in Arizona Phoenix Art Museum, located on the historic Central Avenue corridor in Phoenix, is the Southwest's largest collection of visual art from across the world. The museum displays international exhibitions alongside the museum's collection of more than 18,000 works of American, Asian, European, Latin American, Western American, modern and contemporary art, and fashion design. With a community education mandate since 1951, Phoenix Art Museum
Phoenix Art Museum
holds a year-round program of festivals, live performances, independent art films and educational programs. The museum also has PhxArtKids, an interactive space for children; photography exhibitions through the museum's partnership with the Center for Creative Photography; the landscaped Sculpture Garden and dining at Arcadia Farms. Arizona
Arizona
is a recognized center of Native American art, with a number of galleries showcasing historical and contemporary works. The Heard Museum, also located in Phoenix, is a major repository of Native American art. Some of the signature exhibits include a full Navajo hogan, the Mareen Allen Nichols Collection containing 260 pieces of contemporary jewelry, the Barry Goldwater
Barry Goldwater
Collection of 437 historic Hopi kachina dolls, and an exhibit on the 19th century boarding school experiences of Native Americans. The Heard Museum
Heard Museum
has about 250,000 visitors a year. Sedona, Jerome, and Tubac are known as a budding artist colonies, and small arts scenes exist in the larger cities and near the state universities. Film[edit] See also: List of films shot in Arizona

View of Monument Valley
Monument Valley
from John Ford's Point

Several major Hollywood films, such as Billy Jack, U Turn, Waiting to Exhale, Just One of the Guys, Can't Buy Me Love, Bill & Ted's Excellent Adventure, The Scorpion King, The Banger Sisters, Used Cars, and Raising Arizona
Raising Arizona
have been made there (as have many Westerns). The 1993 science fiction movie Fire in the Sky, based on a reported alien abduction in the town of Snowflake, was set in Snowflake. It was filmed in the Oregon
Oregon
towns of Oakland, Roseburg, and Sutherlin. The 1974 film Alice Doesn't Live Here Anymore, for which Ellen Burstyn won the Academy Award for Best Actress, and also starring Kris Kristofferson, was set in Tucson. The climax of the 1977 Clint Eastwood film The Gauntlet takes place in downtown Phoenix. The final segments of the 1984 film Starman take place at Meteor Crater
Meteor Crater
outside Winslow. The Jeff Foxworthy
Jeff Foxworthy
comedy documentary movie Blue Collar Comedy Tour was filmed almost entirely at the Dodge Theatre. Some of Alfred Hitchcock's classic film Psycho was shot in Phoenix, the ostensible home town of the main character. Some of the television shows filmed or set in Arizona
Arizona
include The New Dick Van Dyke Show, Medium, Alice, The First 48, Insomniac with Dave Attell, Cops, and America's Most Wanted. The TV sitcom Alice, which was based on the movie was set in Phoenix. Twilight had passages set in Phoenix at the beginning and the end of the film. Music[edit] Main article: Music of Arizona Arizona
Arizona
is prominently featured in the lyrics of many Country and Western songs, such as Jamie O'Neal's hit ballad "There Is No Arizona". George Strait's "Oceanfront Property" uses "ocean front property in Arizona" as a metaphor for a sucker proposition. The line "see you down in Arizona
Arizona
Bay" is used in a Tool song in reference to the possibility (expressed as a hope by comedian Bill Hicks) that Southern California
California
will one day fall into the ocean. Glen Campbell, a notable resident, popularized the song "By The Time I Get To Phoenix".

Standin' on the Corner Park
Standin' on the Corner Park
and mural in Winslow, Arizona

"Arizona" was the title of a popular song recorded by Mark Lindsay. Arizona
Arizona
is mentioned by the hit song "Take It Easy", written by Jackson Browne
Jackson Browne
and Glenn Frey
Glenn Frey
and performed by the Eagles. Arizona
Arizona
is also mentioned in the Beatles' song "Get Back", credited to John Lennon and Paul McCartney; McCartney sings: "JoJo left his home in Tucson, Arizona, for some California
California
grass." "Carefree Highway", released in 1974 by Gordon Lightfoot, takes its name from Arizona State Route 74 north of Phoenix.[96] Arizona's budding music scene is helped by emerging bands, as well as some well-known artists. The Gin Blossoms, Chronic Future, Roger Clyne and the Peacemakers, Jimmy Eat World, Caroline's Spine, and others began their careers in Arizona. Also, a number of punk and rock bands got their start in Arizona, including JFA, The Feederz, Sun City Girls, The Meat Puppets, The Maine, The Summer Set, and more recently Authority Zero and Digital Summer. Arizona
Arizona
also has many singers and other musicians. Singer, songwriter and guitarist Michelle Branch
Michelle Branch
is from Sedona. The late Chester Bennington, the former lead vocalist of Linkin Park, and mash-up artist DJ Z-Trip
DJ Z-Trip
are both from Phoenix. One of Arizona's better known musicians is shock rocker Alice Cooper, who helped define the genre. Maynard James Keenan, the lead singer of the bands Tool, A Perfect Circle, and Puscifer, calls the town of Cornville his current home. Other notable singers include country singers Dierks Bentley
Dierks Bentley
and Marty Robbins, folk singer Katie Lee, Fleetwood Mac's Stevie Nicks, CeCe Peniston, Rex Allen, 2007 American Idol winner Jordin Sparks, and Linda Ronstadt. Arizona
Arizona
is also known for its heavy metal scene, which is centered in and around Phoenix. In the early to mid-1990s, it included bands such as Job for a Cowboy, Knights of the Abyss, Greeley Estates, Eyes Set To Kill, blessthefall, The Word Alive, The Dead Rabbitts, and Abigail Williams. The band Soulfly
Soulfly
calls Phoenix home and Megadeth
Megadeth
lived in Phoenix for about a decade. Beginning in and around 2009, Phoenix began to host a burgeoning desert rock and sludge metal underground, (ala' Kyuss in 1990s California) led by bands like Wolves of Winter, Asimov and Dead Canyon. American composer Elliott Carter
Elliott Carter
composed his first String Quartet (1950–51) while on sabbatical (from New York) in Arizona. The quartet won a Pulitzer Prize
Pulitzer Prize
and other awards and is now a staple of the string quartet repertoire.[citation needed] Sports[edit] Main article: Sports in Arizona Professional sports teams in Arizona
Arizona
include:

Club Sport League Championships

Arizona
Arizona
Cardinals American football National Football League 2 (1925, 1947)

Phoenix Suns Basketball National Basketball
Basketball
Association 0

Arizona
Arizona
Diamondbacks Baseball Major League Baseball 1 (2001)

Arizona
Arizona
Coyotes Ice hockey National Hockey League 0

Arizona
Arizona
Rattlers Indoor football Indoor Football League 6 (1994, 1997, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2017)

Phoenix Rising FC Soccer United Soccer
Soccer
League 0

Phoenix Mercury Basketball Women's National Basketball
Basketball
Association 3 (2007, 2009, 2014)

Tucson
Tucson
Roadrunners Ice hockey American Hockey League 0

Northern Arizona
Northern Arizona
Suns Basketball NBA G League 1

The University of Phoenix
University of Phoenix
stadium hosted Super Bowl XLII
Super Bowl XLII
on February 3, 2008, and Super Bowl XLIX
Super Bowl XLIX
on February 1, 2015. Due to its numerous golf courses, Arizona
Arizona
is home to several stops on the PGA Tour, most notably the Phoenix Open, held at the TPC of Scottsdale, and the WGC-Accenture Match Play Championship
WGC-Accenture Match Play Championship
at the Ritz-Carlton Golf Club
Ritz-Carlton Golf Club
in Marana. Auto racing is another sport known in the state. Phoenix International Raceway in Avondale is home to NASCAR
NASCAR
race weekends twice a year. Firebird International Raceway
Firebird International Raceway
near Chandler is home to drag racing and other motorsport events. College sports[edit] College sports are also prevalent in Arizona. The Arizona
Arizona
State Sun Devils and the Arizona Wildcats
Arizona Wildcats
belong to the Pac-12 Conference
Pac-12 Conference
while the Northern Arizona
Northern Arizona
Lumberjacks compete in the Big Sky Conference
Big Sky Conference
and the Grand Canyon
Grand Canyon
Antelopes compete for in the Western Athletic Conference. The rivalry between Arizona State Sun Devils
Arizona State Sun Devils
and the Arizona Wildcats
Arizona Wildcats
predates Arizona's statehood, and is the oldest rivalry in the NCAA.[97] The Territorial Cup, first awarded in 1889 and certified as the oldest trophy in college football,[98] is awarded to the winner of the annual football game between the two schools. Arizona
Arizona
also hosts several college football bowl games. The Fiesta Bowl, originally held at Sun Devil Stadium, is now held at University of Phoenix Stadium in Glendale. The Fiesta Bowl
Fiesta Bowl
is part of the new College Football Playoff
College Football Playoff
(CFP). University of Phoenix
University of Phoenix
Stadium was also home to the 2007 and 2011 BCS National Championship Games.

A spring training game between the Cubs and White Sox at HoHoKam Park

Baseball[edit] Arizona
Arizona
is a popular location for Major League Baseball
Baseball
spring training, as it is the site of the Cactus
Cactus
League. Spring training
Spring training
was first started in Arizona
Arizona
in 1947, when Brewers owner Veeck sold them in 1945 but went onto purchase the Cleveland Indians in 1946. He decided to train the Cleveland Indians in Tucson
Tucson
and convinced the New York Giants to give Phoenix a try. Thus the Cactus
Cactus
League was born.[99] On March 9, 1995, Arizona
Arizona
was awarded a franchise to begin play for the 1998 season. A $130 million franchise fee was paid to Major League Baseball
Baseball
and on January 16, 1997, the Diamondbacks were officially voted into the National League. Since their debut, the Diamondbacks have won five National League West titles, one National League Championship pennant, and the 2001 World Series. Miscellaneous topics[edit] Notable people[edit] Main article: List of people from Arizona Some notable Arizonans involved in politics and government include:

Former Arizona Governor
Arizona Governor
Jan Brewer Former Surgeon General of the United States
Surgeon General of the United States
Richard Carmona Former United States Secretary of Transportation Mary Peters[100] Former Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O'Connor[101] Former Supreme Court Chief Justice William Rehnquist[102] Former U.S. Senator Dennis DeConcini[103] Former Maricopa County
Maricopa County
Sheriff Joe Arpaio[citation needed] Former Graham County Sheriff Richard Mack[citation needed] National Education Association President Dennis Van Roekel[104] Junior Republican Senator Jon Kyl, former Senate Minority Whip.[105] Presidential candidate (2000, 2008) and Senior Republican Senator John McCain[106] Presidential candidate (1964) and former U.S. Senator Barry Goldwater[107] Former Governor, Secretary of the Interior, and Presidential candidate (1988) Bruce Babbitt[108] Presidential candidate (1976) and former Arizona
Arizona
congressman Mo Udall and his brother Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall[citation needed] Former U.S. Senator Carl Hayden[citation needed] Former United States Solicitor General
United States Solicitor General
Rex E. Lee.[109] Former Governor and Secretary of Homeland Security in the Obama Administration Janet Napolitano[110] Former State Senator Jack Taylor also served as mayor of Mesa and was for one two-year term a member of the Arizona
Arizona
House of Representatives.[111]

Arizona
Arizona
notables in culture and the arts include:

Labor leader and civil rights pioneer Cesar Estrada Chavez
Cesar Estrada Chavez
was from San Luis, near Yuma[citation needed] Actress Emma Stone
Emma Stone
is from Scottsdale Actress Gail Edwards
Gail Edwards
resides in Sedona Author Zane Grey Architect Frank Lloyd Wright Disc sports (Frisbee) pioneer Ken Westerfield
Ken Westerfield
currently lives in Bisbee Film director Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
was raised in Phoenix and attended Arcadia High School Actor David Spade
David Spade
was raised in Scottsdale and graduated from Arizona State University Actress Lynda Carter, star of Wonder Woman, is from Phoenix and attended Arizona
Arizona
State University Horse owner and trainer Bob Baffert. Musicians Chester Bennington
Chester Bennington
of Linkin Park
Linkin Park
(Phoenix), Alice Cooper (Phoenix), Stevie Nicks
Stevie Nicks
of Fleetwood Mac
Fleetwood Mac
(Phoenix), (Jerome), Linda Ronstadt (Tucson), Michelle Branch
Michelle Branch
(Sedona), Nate Ruess
Nate Ruess
of Fun. (Glendale) Musicians in the bands Meat Puppets
Meat Puppets
(Phoenix/Tempe), Authority Zero (Mesa), Gin Blossoms
Gin Blossoms
(Tempe), Chronic Future
Chronic Future
(Scottsdale), Jimmy Eat World (Mesa), The Format
The Format
(Glendale), Stellar Kart (Phoenix), Malignus Youth (Sierra Vista), and Job for a Cowboy
Job for a Cowboy
(Glendale). Poet Jim Simmerman of Flagstaff Frederick Sommer, an artist/photographer, moved to Tucson
Tucson
in 1931 and lived in Prescott from 1935 to 1999 Rancher and political insider John G.F. Speiden – Jay Six Ranch Author Diana Gabaldon
Diana Gabaldon
mostly known for Outlander was born in and resides in Arizona Musician Zella Day
Zella Day
is originally from Pinetop, Arizona

State symbols[edit]

Cactus
Cactus
wren, the Arizona
Arizona
state bird

Arizona
Arizona
state amphibian: Arizona
Arizona
treefrog (Hyla eximia) Arizona
Arizona
state bird: cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus) Arizona
Arizona
state butterfly: two-tailed swallowtail (Papilio multicaudata) Arizona
Arizona
state colors: federal blue and old gold Arizona
Arizona
state fish: Apache trout
Apache trout
(Oncorhynchus apache)[112] Arizona
Arizona
state flag: Flag of the State of Arizona Arizona
Arizona
state flower: saguaro blossom (Carnegiea gigantea) Arizona
Arizona
state fossil: petrified wood Arizona
Arizona
state gemstone: turquoise Arizona
Arizona
state mammal: ring-tailed cat (Bassariscus astutus) Arizona
Arizona
state motto: Ditat Deus
Ditat Deus
(Latin God enriches) Arizona
Arizona
state neckwear: bolo tie Arizona
Arizona
state reptile: Arizona ridge-nosed rattlesnake
Arizona ridge-nosed rattlesnake
(Crotalus willardi) Arizona
Arizona
state seal: Great Seal of the State of Arizona Arizona
Arizona
state slogan: Grand Canyon
Grand Canyon
State Arizona
Arizona
state songs: " Arizona
Arizona
March Song" (by Margaret Rowe Clifford) and "Arizona" (by Rex Allen, Jr.)[113] Arizona
Arizona
state tree: palo verde (Parkinsonia) Arizona
Arizona
state gun: Colt Single Action Army
Colt Single Action Army
revolver[114]

See also[edit]

Arizona
Arizona
portal

Outline of Arizona
Outline of Arizona
– organized list of topics about Arizona Index of Arizona-related articles

Notes[edit]

^ In 2000, this designation was broken into two groups: Independent, Non-Charismatic Churches (34,130 adherents) and Independent, Charismatic Churches (29,755 adherents)

References[edit]

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Arizona
Economy at a Glance". Bls.gov. Retrieved September 9, 2016.  ^ " Arizona
Arizona
Republic 100: State's biggest employers". The Arizona Republic. ^ " Southern Arizona
Southern Arizona
Major Employers Archived October 16, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.." Tucson
Tucson
Regional Economic Opportunities. ^ " Arizona
Arizona
Income Tax Rates for 2017". www.tax-rates.org.  ^ "Tucson: Streetcar Plan Wins With 60% of Vote". Lightrailnow.org. Retrieved December 28, 2011.  ^ World's busiest airports by traffic movements ^ World's busiest airports by passenger traffic ^ "Deer Valley Airport". Phoenix.gov. Archived from the original on April 23, 2011. Retrieved July 25, 2010.  ^ "Ariz. GOP would gain if Napolitano gets Obama post". KTAR. Associated Press. November 20, 2008. Retrieved December 28, 2011.  ^ "Format Document". Azleg.gov. January 1, 1993. Retrieved September 9, 2016.  ^ "Table 1. The Counties and the Most Populous Incorporated Places in 2010 in Arizona: 2000 and 2010". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved January 8, 2012. Archived October 17, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Voter Registration Statistics" (PDF). Arizona
Arizona
Secretary of State Elections Bureau. Retrieved November 7, 2016.  ^ " Arizona
Arizona
stands alone against marriage ban – Queer Lesbian Gay News". Gay.com. Archived from the original on May 16, 2016. Retrieved July 25, 2010.  ^ Ban on gay unions solidly supported in most of Arizona
Arizona
Archived November 8, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Archibold, Randal C. (April 23, 2010). " Arizona
Arizona
Enacts Stringent Law on Immigration". The New York Times. Retrieved December 28, 2011.  ^ "High court to weigh Arizona
Arizona
voter registration case". Reuters. March 15, 2013. Retrieved March 17, 2013.  ^ "Why Arizona
Arizona
Flipped On Gay Marriage". Retrieved 2017-11-15.  ^ McKinley, Jesse; Goodstein, Laurie (2008-11-05). "Bans in 3 States on Gay Marriage". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-11-15.  ^ " Arizona
Arizona
city poised to pass state's first civil union ordinance". Reuters. 2013-04-02. Retrieved 2017-11-15.  ^ Press, Associated (2013-06-05). " Bisbee, Arizona
Bisbee, Arizona
same-sex marriage: Council approves civil unions measure". KNXV. Retrieved 2017-11-15.  ^ "Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Relationships" (PDF). samesexrelationshipguide.com. August 31, 2015. Retrieved October 14, 2017.  ^ "AZ pro-civil unions, remembers Goldwater fondly" (PDF).  ^ College Navigator – Arizona
Arizona
National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education ^ "College Navigator – Prescott College". nces.ed.gov.  ^ 2002 Legislature
Legislature
– HB 2710, which later became ARS 15-1444 ^ "AZ Private Postsecondary Institutions". Azhighered.org. Retrieved September 9, 2016.  ^ Crawdaddy (April 1975).  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ Knauer, Tom (November 22, 2006). "What is the Territorial Cup?". The Wildcat Online. Archived from the original on October 8, 2008. Retrieved April 2, 2007.  ^ Official 2007 NCAA Division I
NCAA Division I
Football Records Book (PDF). National Collegiate Athletic Association. 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 25, 2008.  ^ "Buckhorn Baths: A unique Mesa landmark". www.azcentral.com.  ^ "Mary Peters". ntl.bts.gov/. Retrieved September 9, 2013.  ^ "Sandra Day O'Connor". .law.cornell.edu. Retrieved September 9, 2013.  ^ "William Rehnquist". Directory of Federal Judges. Retrieved September 9, 2013.  ^ "Dennis DeConcini". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved September 9, 2013.  ^ "Dennis Van Roekel". National Education Association. Retrieved September 9, 2013.  ^ "Jon Kyl". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved September 9, 2013.  ^ "John McCain". MProject Vote Smart. Retrieved September 9, 2013.  ^ "Barry Goldwater". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved September 9, 2013.  ^ "Bruce Babbitt". The Washington Post Company. December 15, 1999. Retrieved September 9, 2013.  ^ "Rex E. Lee". Deseret News. Retrieved September 9, 2013.  ^ "Janet Napolitano". MProject Vote Smart. Retrieved September 9, 2013.  ^ "Jerald Jackson Taylor". apnewsarchive.com. April 3, 1995. Retrieved July 31, 2015.  ^ Carter, Julie Meka. " Apache
Apache
Trout Recovery: A Wildlife Success Story". Wildlife & Conservation. Arizona
Arizona
Game and Fish Department. Archived from the original on September 20, 2013. Retrieved September 28, 2013.  ^ Kids' Page – Arizona
Arizona
State Songs ^ " Arizona
Arizona
Gets an Official State Gun – And It's Manufactured in Connecticut". Retrieved April 15, 2017. 

Further reading[edit]

Bayless, Betsy, 1998, Arizona
Arizona
Blue Book, 1997–1998. Phoenix, Arizona. McIntyre, Allan J., 2008, The Tohono O'odham and Pimeria Alta. Arcadia Publishing, Charleston, South Carolina. (ISBN 978-0-7385-5633-8). Miller, Tom (editor), 1986, Arizona: The Land and the People. University of Arizona
University of Arizona
Press, Tucson. (ISBN 978-0-8165-1004-7). Officer, James E., 1987, Hispanic Arizona, 1536–1856. University of Arizona
Arizona
Press, Tucson. (ISBN 978-0-8165-0981-2). Thomas, David M. (editor), 2003, Arizona
Arizona
Legislative Manual. In Arizona
Arizona
Phoenix, Arizona, Arizona
Arizona
Legislative Council. Google Print. Retrieved January 16, 2006. Trimble, Marshall, 1998, Arizona, A Cavalcade of History. Treasure Chest Publications, Tucson, Arizona. (ISBN 978-0-918080-43-1). Woosley, Anne I., 2008, Early Tucson. Arcadia Publishing, Charleston, South Carolina. (ISBN 978-0-7385-5646-8).

External links[edit]

Find more aboutArizonaat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

Official state government website

Official Website of the State of Arizona

Other reference links

Arizona
Arizona
State Guide, from the Library of Congress Arizona
Arizona
Regional Accounts Data at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
(archived August 19, 2002) Arizona
Arizona
Demographic Data from FedStats Arizona
Arizona
USDA State Fact Sheet Arizona
Arizona
Indicators, state's central resource for information on a wide range of topics Energy Data & Statistics for Arizona Arizona
Arizona
State Databases – Annotated list of searchable databases produced by Arizona
Arizona
state agencies and compiled by the Government Documents Roundtable of the American Library Association. Arizona
Arizona
State Library, Archives and Public Records Arizona
Arizona
at Ballotpedia Arizona
Arizona
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Geographic data related to Arizona
Arizona
at OpenStreetMap

Tourism information links

Official Arizona
Arizona
Office of Tourism Arizona
Arizona
Game & Fish Department (Hunting, Boating & Fishing) Arizona
Arizona
State Parks American Southwest, a National Park Service
National Park Service
Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary Arizona
Arizona
at Curlie (based on DMOZ)

Preceded by New Mexico List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union Admitted on February 14, 1912 (48th) Succeeded by Alaska

Places adjacent to Arizona

 Nevada  Utah  Colorado

 California

 Arizona:

Outline Index

 New Mexico

 Baja California,  Mexico  Sonora,  Mexico

Topics related to Arizona The Grand Canyon
Grand Canyon
State; The Copper State

v t e

 State of Arizona

Phoenix (capital)

Topics

Index Climate Delegations Geography Government

Constitution Governor Legislature

History

World War II

Museums Music People Transportation Tourist attractions

Society

Culture Crime Demographics Economy Education Politics

Regions

Arizona
Arizona
Strip Arizona
Arizona
Sun Corridor Coconino Plateau Colorado
Colorado
Plateau Grand Canyon Kaibab Plateau Mogollon Plateau Mogollon Rim Mojave Desert Monument Valley North Central Arizona Northeast Arizona Northern Arizona Oak Creek Canyon Phoenix Metropolitan Area Safford area San Francisco
San Francisco
Volcanic Field Sonoran Desert Southern Arizona
Southern Arizona
(Traditional Arizona) Transition zone Verde Valley White Mountains

Counties

Apache Cochise Coconino Gila Graham Greenlee La Paz Maricopa Mohave Navajo Pima Pinal Santa Cruz Yavapai Yuma

Cities

Buckeye Casa Grande Chandler Flagstaff Gilbert Glendale Kingman Lake Havasu
Lake Havasu
City Mesa Peoria Phoenix Prescott Scottsdale Sierra Vista Tempe Tucson Yuma

v t e

Mayors of cities with populations exceeding 100,000 in Arizona

Greg Stanton
Greg Stanton
(D) (Phoenix) Jonathan Rothschild
Jonathan Rothschild
(D) (Tucson) John Giles (R) (Mesa) Jay Tibshraeny (R) (Chandler) Jerry Weiers (NP) (Glendale) Jim Lane (R) (Scottsdale) Jenn Daniels (R) (Gilbert) Mark Mitchell (D) (Tempe) Cathy Carlat (Peoria) Sharon Wolcott (D) (Surprise)

v t e

Protected areas of Arizona

Federal

National Parks

Grand Canyon Petrified Forest Saguaro

National Historical Parks, Historic Sites and Memorials

Tumacácori NHP Fort Bowie NHS Hubbell Trading Post NHS Coronado NMem

National Monuments

National Park Service Canyon
Canyon
de Chelly Casa Grande Ruins Chiricahua Hohokam
Hohokam
Pima Montezuma Castle Navajo Organ Pipe Cactus Pipe Spring Sunset Crater Tonto Tuzigoot Walnut Canyon Wupatki

Bureau of Land Management Agua Fria Grand Canyon-Parashant (jointly managed with the NPS) Ironwood Forest Sonoran Desert Vermilion Cliffs

National Conservation Areas

Gila Box Riparian Las Cienegas San Pedro Riparian

National Recreation Areas

Glen Canyon Lake Mead

National Trails

Arizona
Arizona
National Scenic Trail Juan Bautista de Anza
Juan Bautista de Anza
National Historic Trail Old Spanish National Historic Trail

National Forests

Apache-Sitgreaves Coconino

Elden Pueblo Honanki Heritage Site Palatki Heritage Site V-Bar-V Heritage Site

Coronado Kaibab Prescott Tonto

National Wildlife Refuges

Bill Williams River Buenos Aires Cabeza Prieta Cibola Havasu Imperial Kofa Leslie Canyon San Bernardino

Wilderness Areas

See List of Arizona
Arizona
Wilderness Areas

Wild and Scenic Rivers

Fossil Creek Verde River

State

State Parks

Alamo Lake Boyce Thompson Arboretum Buckskin Mountain Catalina Cattail Cove Dead Horse Ranch Fool Hollow Lake Fort Verde Granite Mountain Hotshots Memorial Homolovi Jerome Kartchner Caverns Lake Havasu Lost Dutchman Lyman Lake McFarland Oracle Patagonia Lake Picacho Peak Red Rock Riordan Mansion River Island Roper Lake San Rafael Slide Rock Sonoita Creek Tombstone Courthouse Tonto Natural Bridge Tubac Presidio Verde River
Verde River
Greenway Yuma Quartermaster Depot Yuma Territorial Prison

Wildlife areas

Becker Lake Cluff Ranch Luna Lake Mittry Lake Powers Butte Santa Rita White Mountain Grasslands Willcox Playa

Municipal

Nature parks

Phoenix Mountains Park and Recreation Area South Mountain Park Papago Park

Other

National Natural Landmarks

See List of National Natural Landmarks in Arizona

National Historic Landmarks

See List of National Historic Landmarks in Arizona

Historic Places

See National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
listings in Arizona

Arizona
Arizona
State Parks (web)

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Sports teams based in Arizona

Baseball

MLB Arizona
Arizona
Diamondbacks AzL Angels Athletics Brewers Cubs Diamondbacks Dodgers Giants Indians Mariners Padres Padres 2 Rangers Reds Royals White Sox AFL Glendale Desert
Desert
Dogs Peoria Javelinas Scottsdale Scorpions Mesa Solar Sox Surprise Saguaros Salt River Rafters PL Tucson
Tucson
Saguaros AWL Edmonton Capitals Laredo Apaches Team Canada Yuma Tejanos

Basketball

NBA Phoenix Suns NBA G League Northern Arizona
Northern Arizona
Suns WNBA Phoenix Mercury

Football

NFL Arizona
Arizona
Cardinals IFL Arizona
Arizona
Rattlers IWFL Phoenix Phantomz

Hockey

NHL Arizona
Arizona
Coyotes AHL Tucson
Tucson
Roadrunners WSHL Phoenix Knights

Soccer

USL Phoenix Rising FC PDL FC Tucson NPSL FC Arizona UPSL Arizona
Arizona
Scorpions FC Sporting Arizona
Arizona
FC WPSL FC Tucson
Tucson
Women Phoenix Del Sol

Roller derby

WFDTA Arizona
Arizona
Roller Derby Tucson
Tucson
Roller Derby RDCL Arizona
Arizona
Derby Dames

Rugby

ARU Camelback Rugby Club Northern Arizona
Northern Arizona
Rugby Football Club Old Pueblo Lions Rugby Football Club Tempe Rugby Club Tucson
Tucson
Magpies Rugby Football Club Yuma Rugby Football Club

College athletics (NCAA Division I)

Arizona
Arizona
Wildcats Arizona
Arizona
State Sun Devils Grand Canyon
Grand Canyon
Antelopes Northern Arizona
Northern Arizona
Lumberjacks

College athletics (NAIA)

Arizona
Arizona
Christian University Benedictine University at Mesa Embry–Riddle Aeronautical University

College athletics (NJCAA)

Arizona
Arizona
Western College Central Arizona
Arizona
College Chandler-Gilbert Community College Cochise College Eastern Arizona
Arizona
College Estrella Mountain Community College GateWay Community College Glendale Community College Mesa Community College Paradise Valley Community College Phoenix College Pima Community College Scottsdale Community College South Mountain Community College Tohono O'odham Community College Yavapai College

v t e

Western United States

Regions

Rocky Mountains Great Basin West Coast Pacific Northwest Mountain States

States

Alaska Arizona California Colorado Hawaii Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Wyoming

Major metropolitan areas

Los Angeles Phoenix San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay Area San Bernardino-Riverside Seattle San Diego Denver Portland Las Vegas Sacramento

Major cities

Anchorage Albuquerque Denver Honolulu Las Vegas Los Angeles Long Beach Oakland Phoenix Portland Reno Riverside Sacramento San Bernardino San Diego San Francisco San Jose Salt Lake City Seattle Spokane Tucson

State capitals

Boise Carson City Cheyenne Denver Helena Honolulu Juneau Olympia Phoenix Sacramento Salem Salt Lake City Santa Fe

v t e

New Spain
New Spain
(1521–1821)

Conflicts

Spanish conquest of the Aztec
Aztec
Empire → Spanish conquest of Guatemala
Spanish conquest of Guatemala
Spanish conquest of Yucatán
Spanish conquest of Yucatán
Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604)
Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604)
Anglo-Spanish War (1625–30)
Anglo-Spanish War (1625–30)
Dutch Revolt
Dutch Revolt
Anglo-Spanish War (1654–60)
Anglo-Spanish War (1654–60)
Piracy in the Caribbean
Piracy in the Caribbean
Queen Anne's War
Queen Anne's War
War of Jenkins' Ear
War of Jenkins' Ear
→ Seven Years' War → Spanish involvement in the American Revolutionary War

Conflicts with indigenous peoples during colonial rule

Mixtón War
Mixtón War
Yaqui Wars
Yaqui Wars
Chichimeca War
Chichimeca War
Philippine revolts against Spain
Philippine revolts against Spain
Acaxee Rebellion
Acaxee Rebellion
Spanish–Moro conflict
Spanish–Moro conflict
Acoma Massacre
Acoma Massacre
Tepehuán Revolt
Tepehuán Revolt
→ Tzeltal Rebellion → Pueblo Revolt
Pueblo Revolt
Pima Revolt
Pima Revolt
→ Spanish American wars of independence

Government and administration

Central government

Habsburg Spain

Charles I Joanna of Castile Philip II Philp III Philip IV Charles II

Bourbon Spain

Philip V (also reigned after Louis I) Louis I Ferdinand VI Charles III Charles IV Ferdinand VII of Spain
Ferdinand VII of Spain
(also reigned after Joseph I)

Viceroys of New Spain

List of viceroys of New Spain

Audiencias

Guadalajara Captaincy General of Guatemala Manila Mexico Santo Domingo

Captancies General

Cuba Guatemala Philippines Puerto Rico Santo Domingo Yucatán Provincias Internas

Intendancy

Havana New Orleans State of Mexico Chiapas Comayagua Nicaragua Camagüey Santiago de Cuba Guanajuato Valladolid Guadalajara Zacatecas San Luis Potosí Veracruz Puebla Oaxaca Durango Sonora Mérida, Yucatán

Politics

Viceroy Gobernaciones Adelantado Captain general Corregidor (position) Cabildo Encomienda

Treaties

Treaty of Tordesillas Treaty of Zaragoza Peace of Westphalia Treaty of Ryswick Treaty of Utrecht Congress of Breda Treaty of Fontainebleau (1762) Treaty of Paris (1783) Treaty of Córdoba Adams–Onís Treaty

Notable cities, provinces, & territories

Cities

Mexico
Mexico
City Veracruz Xalapa Puebla Toluca Cuernavaca Oaxaca Morelia Acapulco Campeche Mérida Guadalajara Durango Monterrey León Guanajuato Zacatecas Pachuca Querétaro Saltillo San Luis Potosí Los Ángeles Yerba Buena (San Francisco) San José San Diego Santa Fe Albuquerque El Paso Los Adaes San Antonio Tucson Pensacola St. Augustine Havana Santo Domingo San Juan Antigua Guatemala Cebu Manila

Provinces & territories

La Florida Las Californias Santa Fe de Nuevo México Alta California Baja California Tejas Nueva Galicia Nueva Vizcaya Nueva Extremadura New Kingdom of León Cebu Bulacan Pampanga

Other areas

Spanish Formosa

Explorers, adventurers & conquistadors

Pre-New Spain explorers

Christopher Columbus Ferdinand Magellan Juan Sebastián Elcano Vasco Núñez de Balboa Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar

Explorers & conquistadors

Hernán Cortés Juan Ponce de León Nuño de Guzmán Bernal Díaz del Castillo Pedro de Alvarado Pánfilo de Narváez Hernando de Soto Francisco Vásquez de Coronado Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo Miguel López de Legazpi Ángel de Villafañe Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Luis de Carabajal y Cueva Juan de Oñate Juan José Pérez Hernández Gaspar de Portolà Manuel Quimper Cristóbal de Oñate Andrés de Urdaneta Ruy López de Villalobos Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (Yucatán conquistador) Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (founder of Nicaragua) Gil González Dávila Francisco de Ulloa Juan José Pérez Hernández Dionisio Alcalá Galiano Bruno de Heceta Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra Alonso de León Ignacio de Arteaga y Bazán José de Bustamante y Guerra José María Narváez Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa Antonio Gil Y'Barbo Alexander von Humboldt Thomas Gage

Catholic
Catholic
Church in New Spain

Spanish missions in the Americas

Spanish missions in Arizona Spanish missions in Baja California Spanish missions in California Spanish missions in the Carolinas Spanish missions in Florida Spanish missions in Georgia Spanish missions in Louisiana Spanish missions in Mexico Spanish missions in New Mexico Spanish missions in the Sonoran Desert Spanish missions in Texas Spanish missions in Virginia Spanish missions in Trinidad

Friars, fathers, priests, & bishops

Pedro de Gante Gerónimo de Aguilar Toribio de Benavente Motolinia Bernardino de Sahagún Juan de Zumárraga Alonso de Montúfar Vasco de Quiroga Bartolomé de las Casas Alonso de Molina Diego Durán Diego de Landa Gerónimo de Mendieta Juan de Torquemada Juan de Palafox y Mendoza Carlos de Sigüenza y Góngora Eusebio Kino Francisco Javier Clavijero Junípero Serra Francisco Palóu Fermín Lasuén Esteban Tápis José Francisco de Paula Señan Mariano Payeras Sebastián Montero Marcos de Niza Francisco de Ayeta Antonio Margil Francisco Marroquín Manuel Abad y Queipo Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla José María Morelos

Other events

Suppression of the Jesuits California
California
mission clash of cultures Cargo system Indian Reductions

Society and culture

Indigenous peoples

Mesoamerican

Aztec Maya Huastec Mixtec P'urhépecha Totonac Pipil Kowoj K'iche' Kaqchikel Zapotec Poqomam Mam

Caribbean

Arawak Ciboney Guanajatabey

California

Mission Indians Cahuilla Chumash Cupeño Juaneño Kumeyaay Luiseño Miwok Mohave Ohlone Serrano Tongva

Southwestern

Apache Coahuiltecan Cocopa Comanche Hopi Hualapai La Junta Navajo Pima Puebloan Quechan Solano Yaqui Zuni

North-Northwest Mexico

Acaxee Chichimeca Cochimi Kiliwa Ópata Tepehuán

Florida
Florida
& other Southeastern tribes

Indigenous people during De Soto's travels Apalachee Calusa Creek Jororo Pensacola Seminole Timucua Yustaga

Filipino people

Negrito Igorot Mangyan Peoples of Palawan Ati Panay Lumad Bajau Tagalog Cebuano

Others

Taiwanese aborigines Chamorro people

Architecture

Spanish Colonial style by country Colonial Baroque style Forts Missions

Trade & economy

Real Columbian Exchange Manila galleon Triangular trade

People & classes

Casta

Peninsulars

Criollo Indios Mestizo Castizo Coyotes Pardos Zambo Negros

People

Juan Bautista de Anza Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo Francis Drake Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla Eusebio Kino La Malinche Fermín Lasuén Limahong Moctezuma II Junípero Serra Hasekura Tsunenaga

New Spain
New Spain
Portal

v t e

Political divisions of the United States

States

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

Federal district

Washington, D.C.

Insular areas

American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico U.S. Virgin Islands

Outlying islands

Baker Island Howland Island Jarvis Island Johnston Atoll Kingman Reef Midway Atoll Navassa Island Palmyra Atoll Wake Island

Indian reservations

List of Indian reservations

Coordinates: 34°N 112°W / 34°N 112°W / 34; -112

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 125475793 LCCN: n79034873 ISNI: 0000 0004 0647 0417 GND: 4002920-7 SUDOC: 176326391 BNF:

.