HOME
ListMoto - Ariwara No Narihira


--- Advertisement ---



(i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

Ariwara no Narihira
Ariwara no Narihira
(在原 業平, 825–880) was a Japanese courtier and waka poet of the early Heian period. He was named one of both the Six Poetic Geniuses
Six Poetic Geniuses
and the Thirty-Six Poetic Geniuses, and one of his poems was included in the Ogura Hyakunin Isshu
Ogura Hyakunin Isshu
collection. He is also known as Zai Go-Chūjō, Zai Go, Zai Chūjō or Mukashi-Otoko. There are 87 poems attributed to Narihira in court anthologies, though some attributions are dubious. Narihira's poems are exceptionally ambiguous; the compilers of the 10th-century Kokin Wakashū
Kokin Wakashū
thus treated them to relatively long headnotes. Narihira's many renowned love affairs have exerted a profound influence on later Japanese culture. Legends have held that he had affairs with the high priestess of the Ise Grand Shrine
Ise Grand Shrine
and the poet Ono no Komachi, and that he fathered Emperor Yōzei. His love affairs inspired The Tales of Ise, and he has ever since been a model of the handsome, amorous nobleman.

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Birth and ancestry 1.2 Political career 1.3 Romantic affairs 1.4 Journey to the east 1.5 Death 1.6 Burial site 1.7 Descendants

2 Names 3 Poetry

3.1 Characteristic style 3.2 Reception

4 Connection to The Tales of Ise 5 Influence on later Japanese culture 6 Gallery 7 Notes 8 References 9 Works cited 10 Further reading 11 External links

Biography[edit] Birth and ancestry[edit] Ariwara no Narihira
Ariwara no Narihira
was born in 825.[1] He was a grandson of two emperors: Emperor Heizei
Emperor Heizei
through his father, Prince Abo;[2][a] and Emperor Kanmu
Emperor Kanmu
through his mother, Princess Ito.[3] He was the fifth child of Prince Abo,[4] but was supposedly the only child of Princess Ito, who lived in the former capital at Nagaoka.[5] Some of Narihira's poems are about his mother.[5] Abo was banished from the old capital Heijō-kyō
Heijō-kyō
(modern Nara) to Tsukushi Province (within modern Fukuoka) in 824 due to his involvement in a failed coup d'état known as the Kusuko Incident.[6] Narihira was born during his father's exile.[7] After Abo's return to Heijō,[6] in 826, Narihira and his brothers Yukihira, Nakahira and Morihira (ja) were made commoners and given the surname Ariwara.[8] The scholar Ōe no Otondo
Ōe no Otondo
was also a brother of Narihira's.[5] Political career[edit]

The reputed site of Narihira's residence, near Karasuma Oike Station

Although he is remembered mainly for his poetry, Narihira was of high birth and served at court.[9] In 841 he was appointed Lieutenant of the Right Division of Inner Palace Guards, before being promoted to Lieutenant of the Left Division of Inner Palace Guards and then Chamberlain.[5] In 849,[b] he held the Junior Fifth Rank, Lower Grade.[5] Narihira rose to the positions of Provisional Assistant Master of the Left Military Guard, Assistant Chamberlain, Provisional Minor Captain of the Left Division of Inner Palace Guards, Captain of the Right Division of the Bureau of Horses, Provisional Middle Captain of the Right Division of Inner Palace Guards, Provisional Governor of Sagami, reaching the Junior Fourth Rank, Upper Grade.[5] By the end of his life he had risen to Chamberlain and Provisional Governor of Mino.[5] Literary historian and critic Donald Keene
Donald Keene
observed in his description of Narihira as the protagonist of The Tales of Ise:

Narihira combined all the qualities most admired in a Heian courtier: he was of high birth (a grandson of the Emperor Heizei), extremely handsome, a gifted poet, and an all-conquering lover. He was probably also an expert horseman, adept in arms, and a competent official. These aspects of his life are not emphasized in The Tales of Ise, but they distinguish Narihira from other heroes of Heian literature, including Genji.[10]

Romantic affairs[edit] Narihira was known as a great lover; a third of his poems included in the Kokin Wakashū
Kokin Wakashū
(Kokinshū) describe his various romantic affairs, and after his death the national history Nihon Sandai Jitsuroku (compiled 901) said of him: "Narihira was elegant and of handsome appearance, but he was unrestrained in his self-indulgence."[11] The Tales of Ise
The Tales of Ise
portrays Narihira as falling in love with Fujiwara no Takaiko (ja), a consort of Emperor Seiwa, and it is hinted that this was one of the reasons for his leaving the capital and travelling east.[5][12] It has been speculated that this romantic affair with the consort of the emperor was the reason why the Sandai Jitsuroku describes his rank as going down from Junior Fifth Rank, Lower Grade to Senior Sixth Rank, Upper Grade, before again rising to Junior Fifth Rank, Upper Grade the following year.[5] However, it has also been speculated that this may be an error in the Sandai Jitsuroku as a result of binding changing the order of events.[5] Furthermore, Fujiwara no Takaiko reputedly had an affair with the monk Zen'yū (善祐), which may have formed the core of the otherwise fictional legend that she also had an affair with Narihira.[5] Whether the affair was historical or not, the Reizei family's commentary on The Tales of Ise speculates that Emperor Yōzei
Emperor Yōzei
was a product of this union, and not the previous emperor.[13] One of Narihira's most famous affairs—the one that gave The Tales of Ise its name—was said to be with Yasuko (ja), high priestess of the Ise Grand Shrine
Ise Grand Shrine
and daughter of Emperor Montoku.[14] The Tales of Ise describes the protagonist, presumed to be Narihira, visiting Ise on a hunt, and sleeping with the priestess.[5] However, a passage in the Kokinshū
Kokinshū
describes the meeting ambiguously, in a manner that implies Narihira did not sleep with the priestess herself but rather another woman in her service.[5] The 12th-century work Gōshidai (江次第) and the 13th-century work Kojidan claim that the product of this union was Takashina no Moronao (高階師尚), who was later adopted by Takashina no Shigenori (高階茂範).[5] Japanologist Helen Craig McCullough stated there was "no evidence" the affair between Narihira and Yasuko was "more than a romantic myth".[14] A headnote to poems 784 and 785 in the Kokinshū
Kokinshū
connects Narihira to the daughter of Ki no Aritsune (ja).[15][c] Medieval commentaries call her Narihira's wife,[17] and some modern scholars, such as Katagiri,[18] do the same, although the only early source that explicitly names her is the note in the Kokinshū.[16] In the classical Noh
Noh
play Izutsu, an adaptation by Zeami Motokiyo
Zeami Motokiyo
of "Tsutsu-Izutsu" (ja) from The Tales of Ise, portrays Narihira and Ki no Aritsune's daughter as childhood playmates who eventually marry; Narihira is unfaithful to his wife, and her pining spirit appears to a monk after their deaths.[19]

Ariwara no Narihira
Ariwara no Narihira
looking for the ghost of Ono no Komachi, in an 1891 print by Yoshitoshi

It has been speculated, based in part on their being considered the most beautiful man and woman of their age, that Narihira and the poet Ono no Komachi
Ono no Komachi
may have been lovers, but there is little evidence for this.[20] Scholars of the 20th century such as Makane Sekitani (関谷真可禰, Sekitani Makane) have held up this speculation, which can be traced back at least as far as the 14th-century historian Kitabatake Chikafusa.[21] Chikafusa likely used Kamakura period
Kamakura period
Kokinshū
Kokinshū
commentaries such as the extant Bishamondō-bon Kokinshū-chū (毘沙門堂本古今集注), which speculates that one of Komachi's poems was left for Narihira after a tryst.[21] The Bishamondō-bon Kokinshū-chū in turn likely worked from a then-common belief that fictional Tales of Ise was a genuine historical work detailing the actual events in Narihira's life (see above).[22] Kamakura period commentaries on The Tales of Ise
The Tales of Ise
therefore tried to insert the names of real women where the original text simply said "a woman", and thus inserted Ono no Komachi
Ono no Komachi
into several passages of the text.[23] The literary scholar Yōichi Katagiri concluded, on the lack of surviving evidence, that, while it is possible that Narihira and Ono no Komachi knew each other and were lovers, there was no usable evidence to say conclusively either way.[24] Journey to the east[edit] The Kokinshū, Tales of Ise and Tales of Yamato all describe Narihira leaving Kyoto to travel east through the Tōkaidō region and crossing the Sumida River, composing poems at famous places (see utamakura) along the way.[5] The Tales of Ise
The Tales of Ise
implies this journey was the result of the scandalous affair between Narihira and Fujiwara no Takaiko.[25] There are doubts as to whether this journey actually took place, from the point of view both that the number of surviving poems is quite small for having made such a trip and composing poems along the way, and in terms of the historical likelihood that a courtier could have gone wandering to the other end of the country with only one or two friends keeping him company.[5] Death[edit] According to the Sandai Jitsuroku, Narihira died on 9 July 880 (the 28th day of the fifth month of Tenchō
Tenchō
6 on the Japanese calendar).[26] Poem 861 in the Kokinshū, Narihira's last, expresses his shock and regret that his death should come so soon:[27]

Japanese text[28] Romanized Japanese[27] English translation[27]

つひにゆく 道とはかねて 聞きしかど 昨日今日とは 思はざりしを

tsui ni yuku michi to wa kanete kikishikado kinō kyō to wa omouwazarishi wo

Long ago I heard That this is the road we must all Travel in the end, But I never thought it might Be yesterday or today.

Burial site[edit]

The Mount Yoshida grave site

The Jūrin-ji grave site

The location of Narihira's grave is uncertain. In the Middle Ages he was considered a deity (kami) or even an avatar of the Buddha Dainichi, and so it is possible that some what have been called graves of Narihira's are in fact sacred sites consecrated to him rather than places where he was actually believed to have been buried.[29] Kansai University professor and scholar of The Tales of Ise
The Tales of Ise
Tokurō Yamamoto (山本登朗, Yamamoto Tokurō) has speculated that the small stone grove on Mount Yoshida in eastern Kyoto known as "Narihira's burial mound" (業平塚, Narihira-zuka) may be such a site.[29] He further speculated that the site became associated with Narihira because it was near the grave-site of Emperor Yōzei, who in the Middle Ages was widely believed to have secretly been fathered by Narihira.[30] Another site traditionally believed to house Narihira's grave is Jūrin-ji (十輪寺) in western Kyoto, which is also known as "Narihira Temple" (なりひら寺, Narihira-dera).[31] Descendants[edit] Among Narihira's children were the waka poets Muneyana (ja) (在原棟梁) and Shigeharu (ja) (在原滋春), and at least one daughter.[32] Through Muneyama, he was also the grandfather of the poet Ariwara no Motokata.[33] One of his granddaughters, whose name is not known, was married to Fujiwara no Kunitsune and engaged in a clandestine affair with Taira no Sadafun.[34] Names[edit] Narihira is also known by the nicknames Zai Go-Chūjō (在五中将),[35] Zai Go (在五)[5] and Zai Chūjō (在中将).[36] Zai is the Sino-Japanese reading of the first character of his surname Ariwara, and Go, meaning "five", refers to him and his four brothers Yukihira, Nakahira, Morihira, and Ōe no Otondo.[5] Chūjō ("Middle Captain") is a reference to the post he held near the end of his life, Provisional Middle Captain of the Right Division of Inner Palace Guards.[37] After the recurring use of the phrase in The Tales of Ise, he is also known as Mukashi-Otoko (昔男).[38] Poetry[edit]

Ariwara no Narihira, from the Ogura Hyakunin Isshu

Narihira left a private collection, the Narihira-shū (業平集),[39] which was included in the Sanjūrokunin-shū (三十六人集).[40] This was likely compiled by a later editor, after the compilation of the Gosen Wakashū
Gosen Wakashū
in the mid-10th century.[5] Thirty poems attributed to Narihira were included in the early 10th-century Kokinshū, and many more in later anthologies, but the attributions are dubious.[5] Ki no Tsurayuki
Ki no Tsurayuki
mentioned Narihira in his kana preface to the Kokinshū
Kokinshū
as one of the Six Poetic Geniuses—important poets of an earlier age.[26] He was also included in Fujiwara no Kintō's later Thirty-Six Poetic Geniuses.[41] Of the eleven poems the Gosen Wakashū
Gosen Wakashū
attributed to Narihira, several were really by others—for example, two were actually by Fujiwara no Nakahira and one by Ōshikōchi no Mitsune.[5] The Shin Kokinshū
Kokinshū
and later court anthologies attribute more poems to Narihira, but many of these were likely misunderstood to have been written by him because of their appearance in The Tales of Ise.[42] Some of these were probably composed after Narihira's death.[43] Combined, poems attributed to Narihira in court anthologies total 87.[44] The following poem by Narihira was included as No. 17 in Fujiwara no Teika's Ogura Hyakunin Isshu:

Japanese text[45] Romanized Japanese[46] English translation[47]

ちはやぶる 神代も聞かず 竜田川 からくれなゐに 水くくるとは

Chihayaburu kami-yo mo kikazu tatsuta-gawa kara-kurenai ni mizu kuguru to wa

Even the almighty gods of old never knew such beauty: on the river Tatsuta in autumn sunlight a brocade— reds flowing above blue water below.

Characteristic style[edit] Although at least some of the poems attributed to Narihira in imperial anthologies are dubious, there is a large enough body of his work contained in the relatively reliable Kokinshū
Kokinshū
for scholars to discuss Narihira's poetic style.[43] Narihira made use of engo (related words) and kakekotoba (pivot words).[48] The following poem, number 618 in the Kokinshū, is cited by Keene as an example of Narihira's use of engo related to water:

Japanese text[49] Romanized Japanese[50] English translation[50]

つれづれの ながめにまさる 涙河 そでのみぬれて 逢ふよしもなし

tsurezure no nagame ni masaru namidagawa sode nomi nurete au yoshi mo nashi

Lost in idle brooding. That swells with the long rains A river of tears That soaks only my sleeves: There is no way to meet you.

The "water" engo are nagame ("brooding", but a pun on naga-ame "long rain"), namidagawa ("a river of tears") and nurete ("is soaked").[51] Narihira's poems are exceptionally ambiguous by Kokinshū
Kokinshū
standards, and so were treated by the anthology's compilers to relatively long headnotes.[52] He was the only poet in the collection to receive this treatment.[53] An example of Narihira's characteristic ambiguity that Keene cites is Kokinshū
Kokinshū
No. 747:

Japanese text[54] Romanized Japanese[55] English translation[55]

月やあらぬ 春や昔の 春ならぬ わが身ひとつは もとの身にして

tsuki ya aranu haru ya mukashi no haru naranu wa ga mi hitotsu wa moto no mi ni shite

Is that not the moon? And is the spring not the spring Of a year ago? This body of mine alone Remains as it was before.

Scholars have subjected this poem, Narihira's most famous, to several conflicting interpretations in recent centuries.[55] The Edo-period kokugaku scholar Motoori Norinaga
Motoori Norinaga
interpreted the first part of it as a pair of rhetorical questions, marked by the particle ya.[55] He explained away the logical inconsistency with the latter part of the poem that his reading introduced by reading in an "implied" conclusion that though the poet remains the same as before, everything somehow feels different.[55] The late- Edo period
Edo period
waka poet Kagawa Kageki (香川景樹, 1768–1843) took a different view, interpreting the ya as exclamatory: the moon and spring are not those of before, and only the poet himself remains unchanged.[55] A similar problem of interpretation has also plagued Narihira's last poem (quoted above). The fourth line, kinō kyō to wa, is most normally read as "(I never thought) that it might be yesterday or today", but has been occasionally interpreted by scholars to mean "until yesterday I never thought it might be today"; others take it as simply meaning "right about now".[56] But the emotion behind the poem is nonetheless clear: Narihira, who died in his fifties, always knew he must die someday, but is nonetheless shocked that his time has come so soon.[57] Reception[edit] Tsurayuki's preface to the Kokinshū
Kokinshū
describes Narihira's poems as containing "too much feeling and insufficient words. They are like faded flowers whose colour has been lost but which retain a lingering fragrance".[d][43] Ki no Yoshimochi repeats this in his Chinese preface to the Kokinshū, though according to literary scholars Rodd and Henkenius, it may not be negative criticism, and may even "be seen as complimentary".[59] It likely refers to the subjective, emotional nature of his poetry; they say that "'insufficient' may suggest that many of his poems are misleading or unintelligible without explanatory headnotes",[59] and perhaps indicates that "even though Narihira approached the art in an unconventional manner, his poetry succeeds".[59] Keene pointed out that this criticism likely reflected a change in literary tastes in the decades between Narihira's compositions and Tsurayuki's criticisms.[43] His history of Japanese literature, Seeds in the Heart concluded its discussion of Narihira with the following:

Narihira was not a profound poet. His surviving poems are mainly occasional, and even when the expression suggests deeply felt emotion, its worldly manner keeps his poetry from attaining the grandeur of the best Man'yōshū poems in the same vein. He is nevertheless of historical importance as one who maintained the traditions of the waka during the long night of the dominance of poetry in Chinese.[57]

Poet and translator Peter McMillan says the large number of Narihira's poems included in the Kokinshū
Kokinshū
and later court anthologies is an indicator of the high regard in which his poetry was held.[60] Connection to The Tales of Ise[edit] The Tales of Ise
The Tales of Ise
is a collection of narrative episodes, centred on Narihira, and presenting poems he had composed, along with narratives explaining what had inspired the poems.[61] Narihira was once widely considered the author of the work, but scholars have come to reject this attribution.[62] Keene speculates that it is at least possible that Narihira originally composed the work from his and others' poems as a kind of inventive autobiography, and some later author came across his manuscript after his death and expanded on it.[61] The protagonist of the work was likely modelled on him.[63] The work itself was likely put together in something resembling its present form by the middle of 10th century, and took several decades starting with Narihira's death.[64] Three stages have been identified in the composition of the work.[65] The first of these stages would have been based primarily on poems actually composed by Narihira, although the background details provided were not necessarily historical.[65] The second saw poems added to the first layer that were not necessarily by Narihira, and had a higher proportion of fiction to fact.[66] The third and final stage saw some later author adding the use of Narihira's name, and treating him as a legendary figure of the past.[66] The late 11th-century[67] Tale of Sagoromo (ja) refers to Ise by the variant name Zaigo Chūjō no Nikki ("Narihira's diary").[68] Influence on later Japanese culture[edit] In later centuries Narihira has been considered the epitome of the amorous bel homme,[69] and his romantic escapades have given rise to many later legends.[39] He and his contemporary Ono no Komachi
Ono no Komachi
were considered the archetypes of the beautiful man and woman of the Heian court, and appear as such in many later literary works, particularly in Noh
Noh
theatre.[43] It is believed Narihira was one of the men who inspired Murasaki Shikibu when she created Hikaru Genji, the protagonist of The Tale of Genji.[70] Genji makes allusion to The Tales of Ise
The Tales of Ise
and draws parallels between their respective protagonists.[71] Though not directly stated in the text, later commentators have interpreted The Tales of Ise as implying that Narihira's illicit union with the empress Fujiwara no Takaiko made him the true father of Emperor Yōzei; whether Murasaki interpreted the work this way is uncertain, but The Tale of Genji
The Tale of Genji
describes a very similar incident in which the protagonist, a former imperial prince made a commoner, has an affair with an empress and sires a son who ultimately becomes emperor as his true parentage is kept secret.[30] Narihira appears in tales such as 35 and 36 of Book 24 of the late Heian-period Konjaku Monogatarishū.[72] Along with his contemporary Ono no Komachi
Ono no Komachi
and the protagonist of The Tale of Genji, Narihira figured prominently in Edo-period ukiyo-e prints and was alluded to in the ukiyo-zōshi of Ihara Saikaku.[73] The 16th-century warrior Ōtomo Yoshiaki (ja) used Narihira and the courtly world of The Tales of Ise
The Tales of Ise
as an ironic reference in a poem he composed about the severed head of his defeated enemy Tachibana Nagatoshi (立花 長俊), the lord of Tachibana Castle in Chikuzen Province,[74] whom he killed 10 March 1550.[75]

Japanese text[75] Romanized Japanese[76] English translation[76]

立花は 昔男と なりにけり うひかぶりする 心地こそすれ

Tachibana wa mukashi otoko to narinikeri uikaburi suru kokochi koso sure

Tachibana has Now been transformed into A man of long ago. He must feel as if he had First put on an adult's hat.

Gallery[edit]

Ariwara no Narihira
Ariwara no Narihira
image gallery

Drawing of Narihira by Kikuchi Yōsai.

Statue of Narihira at Muryōju-ji (無量寿寺) in Chiryū, Aichi Prefecture.

Woodblock print by Ryūkōsai Jokei of kabuki actor Yoshizawa Iroha I (ja) portraying Narihira

Narihira and Nijō no Tsubone at the Fuji River, woodblock print by Yoshitoshi, 1882

Notes[edit]

^ The Daijisen entry "Ariwara no Narihira" names Prince Abo
Prince Abo
as his father, and its entry on the latter ("Abo-shinnō") names Emperor Heizei as his father. ^ Fukui lists Nariwara's age at this point as 25, according East Asian age reckoning. ^ Section 19 of the Tales of Ise recounts the same exchange of poems between the two, but does not explicitly name the poets.[16] ^ その心あまりて、ことばたらず。しぼめる花の色なくて、にほひ残れるごとし (sono kokoro amarite, kotoba tarazu. Shibomeru hana no iro nakute, nioi nokoreru gotoshi).[58]

References[edit]

^ Keene 1999, p. 224; Fukui 1983, pp. 99–100; McMillan 2010, p. 135 n. 17; My Pedia 1996; Daijisen 1998. ^ Keene 1999, p. 224; Fukui 1983, pp. 99–100; McMillan 2010, p. 135 n. 17; My Pedia 1996; Britannica 2014; Suzuki, Yamaguchi & Yoda 2005, p. 28. ^ Fukui 1983, pp. 99–100; McMillan 2010, p. 135 n. 17; My Pedia 1996; Britannica 2014. ^ Britannica 2014; My Pedia 1996; Daijisen 1998. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Fukui 1983, pp. 99–100. ^ a b Okada 1991, p. 140. ^ Okada 1991, p. 141. ^ Britannica 2014; My Pedia 1996; Fukui 1983. ^ Keene 1999, p. 224. ^ Keene 1999, p. 453. ^ Keene 1999, 225, citing (240, note 27) Mezaki 1970 : 24. ^ Nishizawa Masashi column "Ariwara no Narihira: Ōchō no Playboy" in Nishizawa 2002: 60. ^ Yamamoto 2003, pp. 29–30. ^ a b McCullough 1968, p. 230; Schalow 2007, p. 26. ^ Katagiri 2005, p. 311–312; Kido 2000, p. 23. ^ a b Kido 2000, p. 24. ^ Kido 2000, p. 23. ^ Katagiri 2005, p. 477 note on "Ki no Aritsune no musume" in the poet index, where she is described as "在原業平の妻".. ^ Brazell & Araki 1998, pp. 143–144. ^ Katagiri 2015, pp. 8–13. ^ a b Katagiri 2015, p. 9. ^ Katagiri 2015, p. 10. ^ Katagiri 2015, pp. 10–11. ^ Katagiri 2015, p. 13. ^ Fukui 1983, pp. 99–100; Nishizawa 2002, p. 60. ^ a b Keene 1999, p. 224; Fukui 1983, pp. 99–100; McMillan 2010, p. 135 n. 17; My Pedia 1996; Britannica 2014; Daijisen 1998. ^ a b c Keene 1999, pp. 232–233. ^ Katagiri 2005, p. 341. ^ a b Yamamoto 2003, p. 29. ^ a b Yamamoto 2003, p. 30. ^ Makino 2007, p. 337. ^ Fukui 1983, pp. 99–100; Britannica 2014. ^ Fukui 1983, p. 100. ^ Keene 1999, pp. 280–281. ^ Britannica 2014; My Pedia 1996; Daijisen 1998; Suzuki, Yamaguchi & Yoda 2005, p. 28. ^ Britannica 2014; Suzuki, Yamaguchi & Yoda 2005, p. 28. ^ Videen 1989, p. 9. ^ Daijisen 1998b. ^ a b My Pedia 1996. ^ Britannica 2014. ^ Britannica 2014; Fukui 1983, pp. 99–100; McMillan 2010, p. 135 n. 17; My Pedia 1996; Daijisen 1998. ^ Fukui 1983, pp. 99–100; Keene 1999, p. 225. ^ a b c d e Keene 1999, p. 225. ^ McMillan 2010, p. 135 n. 17; Britannica 2014. ^ Suzuki, Yamaguchi & Yoda 2005, p. 28. ^ McMillan 2010, p. 158. ^ McMillan 2010, p. 19. ^ Keene 1999, p. 229. ^ Katagiri 2005, p. 254. ^ a b Keene 1999, p. 230. ^ Keene 1999, pp. 229–230. ^ Fukui 1983, pp. 99–100; Keene 1999, p. 226, citing (240, note 31) Okumura 1975: 23. ^ Keene 1999, p. 226, citing (240, note 31) Okumura 1975 : 23. ^ Katagiri 2005, p. 299. ^ a b c d e f Keene 1999, p. 226. ^ Keene 1999, p. 233, citing (242, note 61) Mezaki 1970 : 152. ^ a b Keene 1999, p. 233. ^ Katagiri 2005, p. 28. ^ a b c Rodd & Henkenius 1984, p. 383. ^ McMillan 2010, p. 135 n. 17. ^ a b Keene 1999, p. 452. ^ McMillan 2010, p. 135. ^ Daijisen 1998; Suzuki, Yamaguchi & Yoda 2005, p. 28; McMillan 2010, p. 135 n. 17; My Pedia 1996; Britannica 2014. ^ Keene 1999, p. 453, citing (472, note 57) Fukui p. 115 in Katagiri et al. 1972. See also McCullough 1968: 187–193 for a discussion in English of the different texts of the work. ^ a b Keene 1999, p. 472, note 57, citing Katagiri 1975: 15–23. ^ a b Keene 1999, p. 472, note 57, citing Katagiri 1975 : 15–23. ^ Keene 1999, pp. 518–519. ^ Keene 1999, p. 545, note 25. ^ Britannica 2014; Daijisen 1998; Keene 1999, p. 225. ^ Nishizawa 2002, p. 60. ^ Schalow 2007, p. 38. ^ Mabuchi et al. 2001: 605. ^ Nishizawa 2002, p. 60; Shirane 2008, p. 88. ^ Keene 1999, pp. 1132–1133. ^ a b Kawada 1943, p. 116. ^ a b Keene 1999, p. 1133.

Works cited[edit]

Brazell, Karen; Araki, James T. (1998). Traditional Japanese Theater: An Anthology of Plays. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-10873-7.  "Ariwara no Narihira" 在原業平. Britannica Kokusai Dai-Hyakkajiten (in Japanese). Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
2014. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-04-25.  "Ariwara no Narihira" 在原業平. Daijisen (in Japanese). Shogakukan. 1998.  "Mukashi-Otoko" 昔男. Daijisen (in Japanese). Shogakukan. 1998.  Fukui, Teisuke (1983). "Ariwara no Narihira". Nihon Koten Bungaku Daijiten 日本古典文学大辞典 (in Japanese). 1. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten. pp. 99–100. OCLC 11917421.  Katagiri, Yōichi (2005). Kokin Wakashū
Kokin Wakashū
(in Japanese). Tokyo: Kasama Shoin. ISBN 978-4-305-70417-7.  Katagiri, Yōichi (2015). Shinsō-ban: Ono no Komachi
Ono no Komachi
Tsuiseki 新装版 小野小町追跡 (in Japanese). Tokyo: Kasama Shoin. ISBN 978-4-305-70781-9.  Keene, Donald (1999) [1993]. A History of Japanese Literature, Vol. 1: Seeds in the Heart – Japanese Literature from Earliest Times to the Late Sixteenth Century (paperback ed.). New York, NY: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-11441-7.  Kido, Kuniko (2000). "Ise Monogatari kochū in okeru Ki no Aritsune no musume" 『伊勢物語』古注における紀有常の娘 (PDF). Mie Daigaku Nihongo-gaku Bungaku (in Japanese). Mie University
Mie University
(11): 23–32.  McCullough, Helen Craig (1968). Tales of Ise: Lyrical Episodes from 10th Century Japan. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-0653-0.  Mabuchi Kazuo, Kunisaki Fumimaro, Inagaki Taiichi. 2001 (6th ed. 2006). Konjaku Monogatarishū (3) in Shinpen Nihon Koten Bungaku Zenshū series . Tokyo: Shogakukan. McMillan, Peter (2010). One Hundred Poets, One Poem Each. New York: Columbia University Press.  Kawada, Jun (1943). Sengoku jidai wakashū 戰國時代和歌集 [Sengoku period waka anthology] (in Japanese). Kōchō Shorin. OCLC 40506247.  Nishizawa, Masashi, ed. (2002). Koten Bungaku o Yomu tame no Yōgo-Jiten 古典文学を読むための用語辞典 [Terminological Dictionary for Reading Classical Japanese Literature] (in Japanese). Tokyo: Tōkyō-dō Shuppan. ISBN 978-4-490-10600-8.  Makino, Osamu (2007). Kettei-han Kyōto no jisha 5050 wo aruku. Ge (rakusei, rakuhoku (seiiki), rakunan, rakugai hen) [決定版] 京都の寺社505を歩く. 下(洛西・洛北(西域)・洛南・洛外編) (in Japanese). PHP Kenkyūsho. ISBN 978-4-569-69248-7.  "Ariwara no Narihira" 在原業平. My Pedia (in Japanese). Hitachi. 1996.  Okada, Richard H. (1991). Figures of Resistance: Language, Poetry, and Narrating in The Tale of the Genji and Other Mid-Heian Texts. Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-1192-5.  Rodd, Laurel Rasplica; Henkenius, Mary Catherine, eds. (1984). Kokinshū: A Collection of Poems Ancient and Modern. University of Tokyo Press. ISBN 978-4-13-087048-1.  Schalow, Paul Gordon (2007). A Poetics of Courtly Male Friendship in Heian Japan. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press – via Project MUSE.  Shirane, Haruo (2008). Early Modern Japanese Literature: An Anthology, 1600–1900, Abridged. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-14415-5.  Suzuki, Hideo; Yamaguchi, Shin'ichi; Yoda, Yasushi (2005). Genshoku: Ogura Hyakunin Isshu
Ogura Hyakunin Isshu
原色小倉百人一首. Shiguma Besuto. Tokyo: Bun'eidō. ISBN 978-4-578-10082-9.  Videen, Susan Downing (1989). Tales of Heichū. Harvard University Asia Center. ISBN 978-0-674-38715-7.  Yamamoto, Tokurō (June 2003). "Yoshida-yama no Narihira-zuka" 吉田山の業平塚 (PDF). Reki (in Japanese): 27–30. Retrieved 21 September 2015 – via Kansai University. 

Further reading[edit]

Katagiri, Yōichi; Fukui, Teisuke; Takahashi, Seiji; Shimizu, Yoshiko (1972). Taketori Monogatari, Yamato Monogatari, Ise Monogatari, Heichū Monogatari. Nihon Koten Bungaku Zenshū. Shogakukan.  Katagiri, Yōichi (1975). Ise Monogatari, Yamato Monogatari. Kanshō Nihon Koten Bungaku. Kadokawa Shoten.  Mezaki, Tokue (1970). Ariwara no Narihira, Ono no Komachi. Chikuma Shobō.  Okumura, Tsuneya (1975). " Kokinshū
Kokinshū
no Seishin". Bungaku. 43 (8). 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ariwara no Narihira.

List of Narihira's poems in the International Research Center for Japanese Studies's online waka database. The Narihira-shū in the same database. Ariwara no Narihira
Ariwara no Narihira
on Kotobank.

v t e

Six Poetic Geniuses

Ariwara no Narihira Sōjō Henjō Kisen
Kisen
Hōshi Ōtomo no Kuronushi Fun'ya no Yasuhide Ono no Komachi

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 117181478 LCCN: n81047188 ISNI: 0000 0000 8327 922X GND: 136763480 BNF: cb148708640 (data) BIBSYS: 9904

.

Time at 25451224.833333, Busy percent: 30
***************** NOT Too Busy at 25451224.833333 3../logs/periodic-service_log.txt
1440 = task['interval'];
25451903.666667 = task['next-exec'];
0 = task['last-exec'];
daily-work.php = task['exec'];
25451224.833333 Time.

10080 = task['interval'];
25460543.666667 = task['next-exec'];
0 = task['last-exec'];
weekly-work.php = task['exec'];
25451224.833333 Time.

30 = task['interval'];
25451229.966667 = task['next-exec'];
25451199.966667 = task['last-exec'];
PeriodicStats.php = task['exec'];
25451224.833333 Time.

1440 = task['interval'];
25451903.666667 = task['next-exec'];
0 = task['last-exec'];
PeriodicBuild.php = task['exec'];
25451224.833333 Time.

1440 = task['interval'];
25451903.666667 = task['next-exec'];
0 = task['last-exec'];
build-sitemap-xml.php = task['exec'];
25451224.833333 Time.

60 = task['interval'];
25451244.833333 = task['next-exec'];
25451184.833333 = task['last-exec'];
cleanup.php = task['exec'];
25451224.833333 Time.

2 = task['interval'];
25451226.416667 = task['next-exec'];
25451224.416667 = task['last-exec'];
parse-contens.php = task['exec'];
25451224.833333 Time.