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The Arctic
Arctic
Circle is the most northerly of the five major circles of latitude as shown on maps of Earth. It marks the northernmost point at which the noon sun is just visible on the December solstice
December solstice
and the southernmost point at which the midnight sun is just visible on the June solstice. The region north of this circle is known as the Arctic, and the zone just to the south is called the Northern Temperate Zone. As seen from the Arctic, the Sun
Sun
is above the horizon for 24 continuous hours at least once per year (and therefore visible at midnight) and below the horizon for 24 continuous hours at least once per year (and therefore not visible at noon). This is also true in the Antarctic
Antarctic
region, south of the equivalent Antarctic
Antarctic
Circle. The position of the Arctic
Arctic
Circle is not fixed; as of 6 April 2018, it runs 66°33′47.1″ north of the Equator.[1] Its latitude depends on the Earth's axial tilt, which fluctuates within a margin of 2° over a 40,000-year period, due to tidal forces resulting from the orbit of the Moon.[2] Consequently, the Arctic
Arctic
Circle is currently drifting northwards at a speed of about 15 metres (49 feet) per year.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Midnight sun
Midnight sun
and polar night 3 Human habitation 4 Geography

4.1 Climate 4.2 Sites along the Arctic
Arctic
Circle

5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Etymology[edit] The word arctic comes from the Greek word ἀρκτικός (arktikos: "near the Bear, northern")[3] and that from the word ἄρκτος (arktos: "bear").[4] Midnight sun
Midnight sun
and polar night[edit]

Relationship of Earth's axial tilt (ε) to the tropical and polar circles

Further information: Midnight sun
Midnight sun
and Polar night The Arctic
Arctic
Circle is the southernmost latitude in the Northern Hemisphere at which the sun can remain continuously above or below the horizon for twenty-four hours; as a result, at least once each year at any location within the Arctic
Arctic
Circle the sun is visible at local midnight, and at least once it is not visible at local noon.[5] Directly on the Arctic
Arctic
Circle these events occur, in principle, exactly once per year: at the June and December solstices, respectively. However, because of atmospheric refraction and mirages, and because the sun appears as a disk and not a point, part of the midnight sun may be seen on the night of the northern summer solstice up to about 50 minutes (′) (90 km (56 mi)) south of the Arctic
Arctic
Circle; similarly, on the day of the northern winter solstice, part of the sun may be seen up to about 50′ north of the Arctic Circle. That is true at sea level; those limits increase with elevation above sea level, although in mountainous regions there is often no direct view of the true horizon. Human habitation[edit]

Cylindrical projection showing the Arctic
Arctic
Circle in red

Further information: Arctic
Arctic
peoples Only four million people live north of the Arctic
Arctic
Circle due to the severe climate; nonetheless, some areas have been settled for thousands of years by indigenous peoples, who today make up 10% of the region's population.[6] Tens of thousands of years ago, waves of people migrated from eastern Siberia across the Bering Strait
Bering Strait
into North America to settle. Much later, in the historic period, there has been migration into some Arctic
Arctic
areas by Europeans and other immigrants.[citation needed] The largest communities north of the Arctic
Arctic
Circle are situated in Russia
Russia
and Norway: Murmansk
Murmansk
(population 307,257), Norilsk
Norilsk
(175,365), Tromsø
Tromsø
(71,295) and Vorkuta
Vorkuta
(59,231). Rovaniemi
Rovaniemi
(61,329) in Finland is the largest settlement in the immediate vicinity of the Arctic Circle, lying 6 kilometres (4 miles) south of the line. In contrast, the largest North American community north of the Arctic Circle, Sisimiut
Sisimiut
(Greenland), has approximately 5,000 inhabitants. Of the Canadian and United States
United States
Arctic
Arctic
communities, Barrow, Alaska
Barrow, Alaska
is the largest settlement with about 4,000 inhabitants. Geography[edit]

Map
Map
all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap · Google Maps

Download coordinates as: KML · GPX

The countries transcending the Arctic
Arctic
Circle

The Arctic
Arctic
Circle is roughly 16,000 kilometres (9,900 mi).[7] The area north of the Circle is about 20,000,000 km2 (7,700,000 sq mi) and covers roughly 4% of Earth's surface.[8] The Arctic
Arctic
Circle passes through the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean, the Scandinavian Peninsula, North Asia, Northern America
Northern America
and Greenland. The land within the Arctic
Arctic
Circle is divided among 8 countries: Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia, the United States
United States
(Alaska), Canada
Canada
(Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut), Denmark
Denmark
(Greenland) and Iceland
Iceland
(where it passes through the small offshore island of Grímsey). Climate[edit] Further information: Climate of the Arctic The climate inside the Arctic
Arctic
Circle is generally cold, but the coastal areas of Norway
Norway
have a generally mild climate as a result of the Gulf Stream, which makes the ports of northern Norway
Norway
and northwest Russia
Russia
ice-free all year long. In the interior, summers can be quite warm, while winters are extremely cold. For example, summer temperatures in Norilsk, Russia
Russia
will sometimes reach as high as 30 °C (86 °F), while the winter temperatures frequently fall below −50 °C (−58 °F). Sites along the Arctic
Arctic
Circle[edit] Starting at the prime meridian and heading eastwards, the Arctic Circle passes through:

Co-ordinates Country, territory or sea Notes

66°34′N 000°00′E / 66.567°N 0.000°E / 66.567; 0.000 (Prime Meridian)  Arctic
Arctic
Ocean Norwegian Sea

66°34′N 12°48′E / 66.567°N 12.800°E / 66.567; 12.800 ( Nordland
Nordland
County, Norway)  Norway Nordland
Nordland
County

66°34′N 15°31′E / 66.567°N 15.517°E / 66.567; 15.517 ( Norrbotten
Norrbotten
County, Sweden)  Sweden Norrbotten County
Norrbotten County
(Provinces of Lapland and Norrbotten)

66°34′N 23°51′E / 66.567°N 23.850°E / 66.567; 23.850 (Lapland Province, Finland)  Finland Lapland Region, crosses Rovaniemi
Rovaniemi
Airport

66°34′N 29°28′E / 66.567°N 29.467°E / 66.567; 29.467 (Karelia, Russia)  Russia Republic of Karelia Murmansk
Murmansk
Oblast—from 66°34′N 31°36′E / 66.567°N 31.600°E / 66.567; 31.600 (Murmansk, Russia) Republic of Karelia—from 66°34′N 32°37′E / 66.567°N 32.617°E / 66.567; 32.617 (Karelia, Russia) Murmansk
Murmansk
Oblast (Grand Island)—from 66°34′N 33°10′E / 66.567°N 33.167°E / 66.567; 33.167 (Murmansk, Russia)

66°34′N 33°25′E / 66.567°N 33.417°E / 66.567; 33.417 (Kandalaksha Gulf, White Sea) White Sea Kandalaksha Gulf

66°34′N 34°28′E / 66.567°N 34.467°E / 66.567; 34.467 ( Murmansk
Murmansk
Oblast, Russia)  Russia Murmansk
Murmansk
Oblast (Kola Peninsula)—for about 7 km (4.3 mi)

66°34′N 34°38′E / 66.567°N 34.633°E / 66.567; 34.633 (Kandalaksha Gulf, White Sea) White Sea Kandalaksha Gulf

66°34′N 35°0′E / 66.567°N 35.000°E / 66.567; 35.000 ( Murmansk
Murmansk
Oblast, Kola Peninsula, Russia)  Russia Murmansk
Murmansk
Oblast (Kola Peninsula)

66°34′N 40°42′E / 66.567°N 40.700°E / 66.567; 40.700 (White Sea) White Sea

66°34′N 44°23′E / 66.567°N 44.383°E / 66.567; 44.383 (Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Russia)  Russia Nenets Autonomous Okrug Komi Republic—from 66°34′N 50°51′E / 66.567°N 50.850°E / 66.567; 50.850 (Komi Republic, Russia) Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug—from 66°34′N 63°48′E / 66.567°N 63.800°E / 66.567; 63.800 (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Russia)

66°34′N 71°5′E / 66.567°N 71.083°E / 66.567; 71.083 (Gulf of Ob) Gulf of Ob

66°34′N 72°27′E / 66.567°N 72.450°E / 66.567; 72.450 (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Russia)  Russia Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug Krasnoyarsk Krai—from 66°34′N 83°3′E / 66.567°N 83.050°E / 66.567; 83.050 (Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia) Sakha Republic—from 66°34′N 106°18′E / 66.567°N 106.300°E / 66.567; 106.300 (Sakha Republic, Russia) Chukotka Autonomous Okrug—from 66°34′N 158°38′E / 66.567°N 158.633°E / 66.567; 158.633 (Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia)

66°34′N 171°1′W / 66.567°N 171.017°W / 66.567; -171.017 (Chukchi Sea, Arctic
Arctic
Ocean) Arctic
Arctic
Ocean Chukchi Sea

66°34′N 164°38′W / 66.567°N 164.633°W / 66.567; -164.633 (Seward Peninsula, Alaska, United States)  United States Alaska
Alaska
(Seward Peninsula)

66°34′N 163°44′W / 66.567°N 163.733°W / 66.567; -163.733 (Kotzebue Sound, Arctic
Arctic
Ocean) Arctic
Arctic
Ocean Kotzebue Sound

66°34′N 161°56′W / 66.567°N 161.933°W / 66.567; -161.933 (Alaska, United States)  United States Alaska—passing through Selawik Lake

66°34′N 141°0′W / 66.567°N 141.000°W / 66.567; -141.000 (Yukon, Canada)  Canada Yukon Northwest Territories—from 66°34′N 133°36′W / 66.567°N 133.600°W / 66.567; -133.600 (Northwest Territories, Canada), passing through the Great Bear
Bear
Lake Nunavut—from 66°34′N 115°56′W / 66.567°N 115.933°W / 66.567; -115.933 (Nunavut, Canada)

66°34′N 82°59′W / 66.567°N 82.983°W / 66.567; -82.983 (Foxe Basin, Hudson Bay)  Canada Foxe Basin, Nunavut

66°34′N 73°25′W / 66.567°N 73.417°W / 66.567; -73.417 (Baffin Island, Nunavut, Canada)  Canada Nunavut
Nunavut
(Baffin Island), passing through Nettilling Lake

66°30′N 65°29′W / 66.500°N 65.483°W / 66.500; -65.483 (Baffin Island, Nunavut)  Canada Nunavut
Nunavut
(Baffin Island), passing through Auyuittuq National Park
Auyuittuq National Park
(sign location)

66°34′N 61°24′W / 66.567°N 61.400°W / 66.567; -61.400 (Davis Strait, Atlantic Ocean) Atlantic Ocean Davis Strait

66°34′N 53°16′W / 66.567°N 53.267°W / 66.567; -53.267 (Greenland)  Greenland Kingdom of Denmark, passing through Kangerlussuaq Fjord

66°34′N 37°0′W / 66.567°N 37.000°W / 66.567; -37.000 (Greenland)  Greenland Kingdom of Denmark, passing through Schweizerland

66°34′N 34°9′W / 66.567°N 34.150°W / 66.567; -34.150 ( Denmark
Denmark
Strait, Atlantic Ocean) Atlantic Ocean Denmark
Denmark
Strait Greenland
Greenland
Sea—from 66°34′N 26°18′W / 66.567°N 26.300°W / 66.567; -26.300 ( Greenland
Greenland
Sea)

66°34′N 18°1′W / 66.567°N 18.017°W / 66.567; -18.017 (Grímsey, Iceland)  Iceland Island of Grímsey

66°34′N 17°59′W / 66.567°N 17.983°W / 66.567; -17.983 ( Greenland
Greenland
Sea, Atlantic Ocean) Atlantic Ocean Greenland
Greenland
Sea Norwegian Sea—from 66°34′N 12°32′W / 66.567°N 12.533°W / 66.567; -12.533 (Norwegian Sea)

A sign along the Dalton Highway
Dalton Highway
marking the location of the Arctic Circle in Alaska

Arctic
Arctic
Circle line in Rovaniemi, Finland

Aurora Borealis above Arctic
Arctic
Circle sign along the Dempster Highway
Dempster Highway
in Yukon
Yukon
at 66°33′55″N 136°18′26″W / 66.565325°N 136.307169°W / 66.565325; -136.307169

A sign on the Vikingen island
Vikingen island
marking the Arctic
Arctic
Circle in Norway

The Arctic
Arctic
Circle on Grímsey
Grímsey
in Iceland

Arctic
Arctic
Circle sign by the Inland Line
Inland Line
railway, Sweden

See also[edit]

Arctic
Arctic
portal

Circumpolar circle Arctic
Arctic
Cooperation and Politics Territorial claims in the Arctic Arctic
Arctic
haze Scott Polar Research Institute Antarctic
Antarctic
Circle Tropic of Cancer Tropic of Capricorn

References[edit]

^ "Obliquity of the Ecliptic (Eps Mean)". Neoprogrammics.com. Retrieved 13 May 2014.  ^ Berger, A. L. (1976). "Obliquity and Precession for the Last 5000000 Years". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 51: 127–135. Bibcode:1976A&A....51..127B.  ^ Liddell, Henry; Scott, Robert. "Arktikos". A Greek–English Lexicon. Perseus Digital Library.  ^ Liddell, Henry; Scott, Robert. "Arktos". A Greek–English Lexicon. Perseus Digital Library.  ^ Burn, Chris. The Polar Night (PDF). The Aurora Research Institute. Retrieved 28 September 2015.  ^ " Arctic
Arctic
Population". www.athropolis.com.  ^ Nuttall, Mark (2004). Encyclopedia of the Arctic
Arctic
Volumes 1, 2 and 3. Routledge. p. 115. ISBN 978-1579584368. Retrieved 26 July 2016.  ^ Marsh, William M.; Kaufman, Martin M. (2012). Physical Geography: Great Systems and Global Environments. Cambridge University Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-521-76428-5. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Arctic
Arctic
Circle.

Look up arctic circle in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Terra Incognita: Exploration of the Canadian Arctic—Historical essay about early expeditions to the Canadian Arctic, illustrated with maps, photographs and drawings Temporal Epoch Calculations ©2006 by James Q. Jacobs Download: Epoch v2009.xls (modify D4) Useful constants" See: Obliquity of the ecliptic

v t e

Arctic
Arctic
topics

History

Arctic
Arctic
research Exploration of the Arctic History of whaling

Government

Arctic
Arctic
Council Arctic
Arctic
cooperation and politics Arctic
Arctic
Ocean Conference Chief Directorate of the Northern Sea Route Ilulissat Declaration Inuit
Inuit
Circumpolar Council Saami Council Territorial claims in the Arctic United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

Geography

Arctic
Arctic
Circle Arctic
Arctic
ecology Arctic
Arctic
Ocean Arctic
Arctic
Cyclone Arctic
Arctic
geography terminology Greenland
Greenland
ice sheet Impact craters of the Arctic Nordicity North Pole Populated places in the Arctic Tundra

Regions

Arctic
Arctic
Alaska British Arctic
Arctic
Territories Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic

Climate

Arctic
Arctic
Climate Impact Assessment Arctic
Arctic
dipole anomaly Arctic
Arctic
oscillation Arctic
Arctic
sea ice

decline ecology and history

Climate change in the Arctic Climate of Alaska Effects of global warming on marine mammals Polar climate Polar amplification Polar vortex

Fauna

Arctic
Arctic
fox Beluga whale Bowhead whale Lemming Muskox Narwhal Polar bear Reindeer Seal

bearded harp hooded ribbon ringed

Snowy owl Walrus

Flora

Arctic
Arctic
ecology Arctic
Arctic
vegetation Tundra

Culture

Arctic
Arctic
peoples Subarctic peoples Chukchi Chukotka Evenks Inuit Gwich'in Khanty Koryaks Nenets Northern indigenous Russian peoples Sami Selkup Yakuts Yukaghir Arctic
Arctic
Winter Games Tsagaan Sar
Tsagaan Sar
(New Year's Day)

Economy

Natural resources Petroleum exploration

Arctic
Arctic
Refuge drilling controversy

Protected areas Transportation

Transport

Arctic
Arctic
Bridge Arctic
Arctic
shipping routes Northeast Passage Northwest Passage Northern Sea Route Polar air route Transpolar Sea Route Search and rescue

Category Portal WikiProject

v t e

Circles of latitude / meridians

Equator Tropic of Cancer Tropic of Capricorn Arctic
Arctic
Circle Antarctic
Antarctic
Circle Equator Tropic of Cancer Tropic of Capricorn Arctic
Arctic
Circle Antarctic
Antarctic
Circle Equator Tropic of Cancer Tropic of Capricorn Arctic
Arctic
Circle Antarctic
Antarctic
Circle W 0° E 30° 60° 90° 120° 150° 180° 30° 60° 90° 120° 150° 180° 5° 15° 25° 35° 45° 55° 65° 75° 85° 95° 105° 115° 125° 135° 145° 155° 165° 175° 5° 15° 25° 35° 45° 55° 65° 75° 85° 95° 105° 115° 125° 135° 145° 155° 165° 175° 10° 20° 40° 50° 70° 80° 100° 110° 130° 140° 160° 170° 10° 20° 40° 50° 70° 80° 100° 110° 130° 140° 160° 170° 0° 10° 20° 30° 40° 50° 60° 70° 80° 90° 10° 20° 30° 40° 50° 60° 70° 80° 90° 5° N 15° 25° 35° 45° 55° 65° 75° 85° 5° S 15° 25° 35° 45° 55° 65° 75° 85° 45x90

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