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The Arctic
Arctic
(/ˈɑːrktɪk/ or /ˈɑːrtɪk/)[1][Note 1] is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth. The Arctic
Arctic
consists of the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean, adjacent seas, and parts of Alaska
Alaska
(United States), Northern Canada
Northern Canada
(Canada), Finland, Greenland
Greenland
(Kingdom of Denmark), Iceland, Norway, Russia
Russia
and Sweden. Land within the Arctic region has seasonally varying snow and ice cover, with predominantly treeless permafrost (permanently frozen underground ice)-containing tundra. Arctic
Arctic
seas contain seasonal sea ice in many places. The Arctic
Arctic
region is a unique area among Earth's ecosystems. For example, the cultures in the region and the Arctic
Arctic
indigenous peoples have adapted to its cold and extreme conditions. In recent years, Arctic sea ice decline
Arctic sea ice decline
has been caused by global warming.[3][4] Life in the Arctic
Arctic
includes organisms living in the ice, zooplankton and phytoplankton, fish and marine mammals, birds, land animals, plants and human societies.[5] Arctic
Arctic
land is bordered by the subarctic.

Contents

1 Definition and etymology 2 Climate 3 Flora and fauna

3.1 Plants 3.2 Animals

4 Natural resources 5 Palaeontology 6 Indigenous population 7 International cooperation and politics

7.1 Territorial claims 7.2 Exploration 7.3 Pollution 7.4 Preservation

8 Global warming 9 Arctic
Arctic
waters 10 Arctic
Arctic
lands 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 Bibliography 15 Further reading 16 External links

Definition and etymology[edit] The word Arctic
Arctic
comes from the Greek word ἀρκτικός (arktikos), "near the Bear, northern"[6] and that from the word ἄρκτος (arktos), meaning bear.[7] The name refers either to the constellation Ursa Major, the "Great Bear", which is prominent in the northern portion of the celestial sphere, or to the constellation Ursa Minor, the "Little Bear", which contains Polaris, the Pole star, also known as the North Star.[8] There are a number of definitions of what area is contained within the Arctic. The area can be defined as north of the Arctic Circle
Arctic Circle
(66° 33'N), the approximate southern limit of the midnight sun and the polar night. Another definition of the Arctic
Arctic
is the region where the average temperature for the warmest month (July) is below 10 °C (50 °F); the northernmost tree line roughly follows the isotherm at the boundary of this region.[9][10] Climate[edit] Main articles: Climate of the Arctic
Climate of the Arctic
and Global warming
Global warming
in the Arctic The Arctic's climate is characterized by cold winters and cool summers. Its precipitation mostly comes in the form of snow and is low, with most of the area receiving less than 50 cm (20 in). High winds often stir up snow, creating the illusion of continuous snowfall. Average winter temperatures can be as low as −40 °C (−40 °F), and the coldest recorded temperature is approximately −68 °C (−90 °F). Coastal Arctic climates are moderated by oceanic influences, having generally warmer temperatures and heavier snowfalls than the colder and drier interior areas. The Arctic
Arctic
is affected by current global warming, leading to Arctic
Arctic
sea ice shrinkage, diminished ice in the Greenland
Greenland
ice sheet, and Arctic methane release
Arctic methane release
as the permafrost thaws. Due to the poleward migration of the planet's isotherms (about 35 mi (56 km) per decade during the past 30 years as a consequence of global warming), the Arctic
Arctic
region (as defined by tree line and temperature) is currently shrinking.[11] Perhaps the most alarming result of this is arctic sea ice shrinkage. There is a large variance in predictions of Arctic
Arctic
sea ice loss, with models showing near-complete to complete loss in September from 2040 to some time well beyond 2100. About half of the analyzed models show near-complete to complete sea ice loss in September by the year 2100.[3] Flora and fauna[edit] Arctic
Arctic
life is characterized by adaptation to short growing seasons with long periods of sunlight, and to cold, dark, snow-covered winter conditions. Plants[edit]

Arctic vegetation is composed of plants such as dwarf shrubs, graminoids, herbs, lichens, and mosses, which all grow relatively close to the ground, forming tundra. An example of a dwarf shrub is the Bearberry. As one moves northward, the amount of warmth available for plant growth decreases considerably. In the northernmost areas, plants are at their metabolic limits, and small differences in the total amount of summer warmth make large differences in the amount of energy available for maintenance, growth and reproduction. Colder summer temperatures cause the size, abundance, productivity and variety of plants to decrease. Trees cannot grow in the Arctic, but in its warmest parts, shrubs are common and can reach 2 m (6 ft 7 in) in height; sedges, mosses and lichens can form thick layers. In the coldest parts of the Arctic, much of the ground is bare; non-vascular plants such as lichens and mosses predominate, along with a few scattered grasses and forbs (like the Arctic
Arctic
poppy). Animals[edit]

Muskox

A snowy owl

Herbivores on the tundra include the Arctic
Arctic
hare, lemming, muskox, and caribou. They are preyed on by the snowy owl, Arctic
Arctic
fox, Grizzly bear, and wolf. The polar bear is also a predator, though it prefers to hunt for marine life from the ice. There are also many birds and marine species endemic to the colder regions. Other terrestrial animals include wolverines, moose, Dall sheep, ermines, and Arctic ground squirrels. Marine mammals include seals, walrus, and several species of cetacean—baleen whales and also narwhals, killer whales, and belugas. An excellent and famous example of a ring species exists and has been described around the arctic circle in the form of the Larus
Larus
gulls. Natural resources[edit] See also: Natural resources of the Arctic and Petroleum exploration in the Arctic The Arctic
Arctic
includes sizable natural resources (oil, gas, minerals, fresh water, fish and if the subarctic is included, forest) to which modern technology and the economic opening up of Russia
Russia
have given significant new opportunities. The interest of the tourism industry is also on the increase. The Arctic
Arctic
contains some of the last and most extensive continuous wilderness areas in the world, and its significance in preserving biodiversity and genotypes is considerable. The increasing presence of humans fragments vital habitats. The Arctic
Arctic
is particularly susceptible to the abrasion of groundcover and to the disturbance of the rare breeding grounds of the animals that are characteristic to the region. The Arctic
Arctic
also holds 1/5 of the Earth's water supply.[citation needed] Palaeontology[edit]

Marine fossils in Canadian Arctic

During the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
time period, the Arctic
Arctic
still had seasonal snows, though only a light dusting and not enough to permanently hinder plant growth. Animals such as the Chasmosaurus, Hypacrosaurus, Troodon, and Edmontosaurus
Edmontosaurus
may have all migrated north to take advantage of the summer growing season, and migrated south to warmer climes when the winter came. A similar situation may also have been found amongst dinosaurs that lived in Antarctic
Antarctic
regions, such as the Muttaburrasaurus
Muttaburrasaurus
of Australia. However, others claim that dinosaurs lived year-round at very high latitudes, such as near the Colville River, which is now at about 70° N but at the time (70 million years ago) was 10° further north.[12] Indigenous population[edit]

Circumpolar coastal human population distribution c. 2009 (includes indigenous and non-indigenous).

Main article: Circumpolar peoples Further information: Indigenous peoples
Indigenous peoples
of Siberia
Siberia
and Inuit Circumpolar Council The earliest inhabitants of North America's central and eastern Arctic are referred to as the Arctic small tool tradition
Arctic small tool tradition
(AST) and existed c. 2500 BC. AST consisted of several Paleo-Eskimo
Paleo-Eskimo
cultures, including the Independence cultures and Pre-Dorset culture.[13][14] The Dorset culture (Inuktitut: Tuniit or Tunit) refers to the next inhabitants of central and eastern Arctic. The Dorset culture
Dorset culture
evolved because of technological and economic changes during the period of 1050–550 BC. With the exception of the Quebec/ Labrador
Labrador
peninsula, the Dorset culture vanished around 1500 AD.[15] Supported by genetic testing, evidence shows that descendants of the Dorset culture, known as the Sadlermiut, survived in Aivilik, Southampton and Coats Islands, until the beginning of the 20th century.[16] The Dorset/Thule culture transition dates around the 9th–10th centuries. Scientists theorize that there may have been cross-contact of the two cultures with sharing of technology, such as fashioning harpoon heads, or the Thule may have found Dorset remnants and adapted their ways with the predecessor culture.[17] Others believe the Thule displaced the Dorset. By 1300, the Inuit, present-day Arctic inhabitants and descendants of Thule culture, had settled in west Greenland, and moved into east Greenland
Greenland
over the following century. Over time, the Inuit
Inuit
have migrated throughout the Arctic
Arctic
regions of Canada, Greenland, Russia, and the United States.[18] Other Circumpolar North indigenous peoples include the Chukchi, Evenks, Inupiat, Khanty, Koryaks, Nenets, Sami, Yukaghir, Gwich'in, and Yupik. The Yupik still refer to themselves as Eskimo, which means "snowshoe netters", not "raw meat eaters" as it is sometimes mistakenly translated.[19] International cooperation and politics[edit] Main article: Arctic
Arctic
cooperation and politics

Polar bears on the sea ice of the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean, near the North Pole. USS Honolulu pictured.

The eight Arctic
Arctic
nations (Canada, Kingdom of Denmark
Kingdom of Denmark
( Greenland
Greenland
& The Faroe Islands), Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Russia, and USA) are all members of the Arctic
Arctic
Council, as are organizations representing six indigenous populations. The Council operates on consensus basis, mostly dealing with environmental treaties and not addressing boundary or resource disputes. Though Arctic
Arctic
policy priorities differ, every Arctic
Arctic
nation is concerned about sovereignty/defense, resource development, shipping routes, and environmental protection.[20] Much work remains on regulatory agreements regarding shipping, tourism, and resource development in Arctic
Arctic
waters.[21] Research in the Arctic
Arctic
has long been a collaborative international effort, evidenced by the International Polar Year. The International Arctic
Arctic
Science Committee, hundreds of scientists and specialists of the Arctic
Arctic
Council, and the Barents Euro- Arctic Council
Arctic Council
are more examples of collaborative international Arctic
Arctic
research. Territorial claims[edit] Main article: Territorial claims in the Arctic No country owns the geographic North Pole
North Pole
or the region of the Arctic Ocean
Ocean
surrounding it. The surrounding six Arctic
Arctic
states that border the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean—Canada, Kingdom of Denmark
Kingdom of Denmark
(with Greenland), Iceland, Norway, Russia, and the United States—are limited to a 200 nautical miles (370 km; 230 mi) exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off their coasts. Two Arctic
Arctic
states ( Finland
Finland
and Sweden) do not have direct access to the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean. Upon ratification of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, a country has ten years to make claims to an extended continental shelf beyond its 200 nautical mile zone.[20][22] Due to this, Norway (which ratified the convention in 1996),[23] Russia
Russia
(ratified in 1997),[23] Canada
Canada
(ratified in 2003)[23] and the Kingdom of Denmark (ratified in 2004)[23] launched projects to establish claims that certain sectors of the Arctic
Arctic
seabed should belong to their territories. On 2 August 2007, two Russian bathyscaphes, MIR-1 and MIR-2, for the first time in history descended to the Arctic
Arctic
seabed beneath the North Pole and placed there a Russian flag made of rust-proof titanium alloy. The flag-placing during Arktika 2007
Arktika 2007
generated commentary on and concern for a race for control of the Arctic's vast hydrocarbon resources.[24] Foreign ministers and other officials representing Canada, the Kingdom of Denmark, Norway, Russia, and the United States
United States
met in Ilulissat, Greenland
Greenland
on 28 May 2008 at the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
Conference and announced the Ilulissat
Ilulissat
Declaration,[25][26] blocking any "new comprehensive international legal regime to govern the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean," and pledging "the orderly settlement of any possible overlapping claims."[20][27] As of 2012, the Kingdom of Denmark
Kingdom of Denmark
is claiming the continental shelf between Greenland
Greenland
and the North Pole.[28] The Russian Federation is claiming a large swath of seabed along the Lomonosov Ridge but confined to its sector of the Arctic. In August 2015, Russia
Russia
submitted an application for the expansion of the external borders of the continental shelf in the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean, asserting that the eastern part of the Lomonosov Ridge and the Mendeleyev Ridge are an extension of the Eurasian continent. In August 2016, the UN Special
Special
Commission began to consider the application of Russia.[29] Exploration[edit] Main article: Arctic
Arctic
exploration See also: Petroleum exploration in the Arctic Since 1937, the larger portion of the Asian-side Arctic
Arctic
region has been extensively explored by Soviet and Russian manned drifting ice stations. Between 1937 and 1991, 88 international polar crews established and occupied scientific settlements on the drift ice and were carried thousands of kilometers by the ice flow.[30] Pollution[edit]

Long-range pollution pathways to the Arctic

The Arctic
Arctic
is comparatively clean, although there are certain ecologically difficult localized pollution problems that present a serious threat to people's health living around these pollution sources. Due to the prevailing worldwide sea and air currents, the Arctic
Arctic
area is the fallout region for long-range transport pollutants, and in some places the concentrations exceed the levels of densely populated urban areas. An example of this is the phenomenon of Arctic haze, which is commonly blamed on long-range pollutants. Another example is with the bioaccumulation of PCB's (polychlorinated biphenyls) in Arctic
Arctic
wildlife and people. Preservation[edit] Main article: Save the Arctic There have been many proposals to preserve the Arctic
Arctic
over the years. Most recently a group of stars at the Rio Earth
Earth
Summit, on 21 June 2012, proposed protecting the Arctic, similar to the Antarctic protection. The initial focus of the campaign will be a UN resolution creating a global sanctuary around the pole, and a ban on oil drilling and unsustainable fishing in the Arctic.[31] Global warming[edit] Main article: Global warming
Global warming
in the Arctic The effects of global warming in the Arctic
Arctic
include rising temperatures, loss of sea ice, and melting of the Greenland
Greenland
ice sheet. Potential methane release from the region, especially through the thawing of permafrost and methane clathrates, is also a concern. Because of the amplified response of the Arctic
Arctic
to global warming, it is often seen as a leading indicator of global warming. The melting of Greenland's ice sheet is linked to polar amplification.[32][33]

Arctic
Arctic
sea ice coverage as of 2007 compared to 2005 and compared to 1979–2000 average

The development of Arctic
Arctic
sea ice area as measured with satellites.[34]

The Arctic
Arctic
is especially vulnerable to the effects of any climate change, as has become apparent with the reduction of sea ice in recent years. Climate models predict much greater warming in the Arctic
Arctic
than the global average,[35] resulting in significant international attention to the region. In particular, there are concerns that Arctic shrinkage, a consequence of melting glaciers and other ice in Greenland, could soon contribute to a substantial rise in sea levels worldwide.[36] The current Arctic
Arctic
warming is leading to fears of ancient carbon being released from thawing permafrost, leading to methane and carbon dioxide production by micro-organisms.[37] Release of methane and carbon dioxide stored in permafrost could cause abrupt and severe global warming,[38] as they are potent greenhouse gases. Climate change is also predicted to have a large impact on Tundra vegetation, causing an increase of shrubs,[39] and having a negative impact on bryophytes and lichens.[40] Apart from concerns regarding the detrimental effects of warming in the Arctic, some potential opportunities have gained attention. The melting of the ice is making the Northwest Passage, the shipping routes through the northernmost latitudes, more navigable, raising the possibility that the Arctic
Arctic
region will become a prime trade route.[41] One harbinger of the opening navigability of the Arctic took place in the summer of 2016 when the Crystal Serenity successfully navigated the Northwest Passage, a first for a large cruise ship.[42] In addition, it is believed that the Arctic
Arctic
seabed may contain substantial oil fields which may become accessible if the ice covering them melts.[43] These factors have led to recent international debates as to which nations can claim sovereignty or ownership over the waters of the Arctic.[44][45][46][47]

Eidsfjord in Vesterålen, Norway
Norway
is 250 km (160 mi) inside the Arctic
Arctic
Circle, but the comparatively temperate Norwegian sea gives a mean annual temperature of 4 °C (39 °F) and a three-month summer above 10°C.[48]

Arctic
Arctic
waters[edit]

Arctic
Arctic
Ocean Baffin Bay Beaufort Sea Barents Sea Bering Sea Bering Strait Chukchi Sea Davis Strait Denmark Strait East Siberian Sea Greenland
Greenland
Sea Hudson Bay Kara Sea Laptev Sea Nares Strait Norwegian Sea

Arctic
Arctic
lands[edit]

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Geographic Designation National Affiliation Designation

Alaska United States State

Aleutian Islands United States American Archipelago

Arkhangelsk Oblast Russia Federal subject

Canadian Arctic
Canadian Arctic
Archipelago Canada Canadian Archipelago

Chukotka Autonomous Okrug Russia Federal subject

Diomede Island (Big) Russia Island

Diomede Island (Little) United States Island

Finnmark Norway County

Franz Josef Land Russia Federal subject archipelago

Greenland Kingdom of Denmark Autonomous country

Grímsey Iceland Island

Jan Mayen Norway Island

Krasnoyarsk Krai Russia Federal subject

Lapland Sweden Province

Murmansk Oblast Russia Federal subject

Nenets Autonomous Okrug Russia Federal subject

New Siberian Islands Russia Archipelago

Nordland Norway County

Norrbotten Sweden Province

Northwest Territories Canada Territory

Novaya Zemlya Russia Federal subject archipelago

Nunavik Canada Northern part of Quebec

Nunavut Canada Territory

Russian Arctic
Arctic
islands Russia Islands

Sápmi Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Fennoscandia
Fennoscandia
region

Sakha Republic Russia Federal subject

Severnaya Zemlya Russia Federal subject archipelago

Siberia Russia Region

Svalbard Norway Governor of Svalbard
Svalbard
archipelago

Troms Norway County

Yukon Canada Territory

Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug Russia Federal subject

Wrangel Island Russia Zapovednik
Zapovednik
(nature reserve)

See also[edit]

Arctic
Arctic
portal Antarctica
Antarctica
portal Geography portal

List of countries by northernmost point Poverty in the Arctic Ring species Antarctic Arctic
Arctic
Cooperation and Politics

Notes[edit]

^ The word was originally pronounced without the /k/ sound, but the pronunciation with the k sound is nowadays very common. The "c" was added to the spelling for etymological reasons[1][2] and then began to be pronounced, but (as with other spelling pronunciations) at first only by less educated people.

References[edit]

^ a b American Heritage Dictionary ^ Harper, Douglas. "Antarctic". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 16 November 2011.  ^ a b Serreze, Mc; Holland, Mm; Stroeve, J (Mar 2007). "Perspectives on the Arctic's shrinking sea-ice cover". Science. 315 (5818): 1533–6. Bibcode:2007Sci...315.1533S. doi:10.1126/science.1139426. PMID 17363664.  ^ "Global Sea Ice Extent and Concentration: What sensors on satellites are telling us about sea ice." National Snow and Ice Data Center. Retrieved 1 May 2009. ^ Christopher Krembs and Jody Deming. "Organisms that thrive in Arctic sea ice." National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 18 November 2006. ^ Liddell, Henry George and Scott, Robert. "Arktikos." A Greek-English Lexicon. Perseus Digital Library. ^ Liddell, Henry George and Scott, Robert. "Arktos." A Greek-English Lexicon. Perseus Digital Library. ^ "The Great Bear
Bear
Constellation
Constellation
Ursa Major". Archived from the original on 30 November 2010. Retrieved 10 November 2010.  ^ "arctic." Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc. Retrieved 2 May 2009. ^ Addison, Kenneth (2002). Fundamentals of the physical environment. Routledge. p. 482. ISBN 0-415-23293-7.  ^ Hansen, Jim (19 October 2006). "The Planet in Peril – Part I". Yale Center for the Study of Globalization. Archived from the original on 15 October 2009.  ^ "A palaeontologist's Alaskan adventure". New Scientist. 9 June 2012.  ^ Hoffecker, John F. (2005). A prehistory of the north: human settlement of the higher latitudes. Rutgers University Press. p. 130. ISBN 0-8135-3469-0.  ^ Gibbon, pp. 28–31 ^ Gibbon, pp. 216–217 ^ McGhee, Robert (2005). The last imaginary place: a human history of the Arctic
Arctic
world (Digitized 7 October 2008 ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 55. ISBN 0-19-518368-1.  ^ Gibbon, p. 218 ^ "First Nations Culture Areas Index". the Canadian Museum of Civilization.  ^ " Arctic
Arctic
Peoples". British Museum.  ^ a b c Buixadé Farré, Albert; Stephenson, Scott R.; Chen, Linling; Czub, Michael; Dai, Ying; Demchev, Denis; Efimov, Yaroslav; Graczyk, Piotr; Grythe, Henrik; Keil, Kathrin; Kivekäs, Niku; Kumar, Naresh; Liu, Nengye; Matelenok, Igor; Myksvoll, Mari; O'Leary, Derek; Olsen, Julia; Pavithran .A.P., Sachin; Petersen, Edward; Raspotnik, Andreas; Ryzhov, Ivan; Solski, Jan; Suo, Lingling; Troein, Caroline; Valeeva, Vilena; van Rijckevorsel, Jaap; Wighting, Jonathan (16 October 2014). "Commercial Arctic
Arctic
shipping through the Northeast Passage: Routes, resources, governance, technology, and infrastructure" (PDF). Polar Geography. 37 (4): 298. doi:10.1080/1088937X.2014.965769 . Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 December 2015.  ^ Berkman, Paul (23 June 2014). "Stability and Peace in the Arctic Ocean
Ocean
through Science Diplomacy". Science & Diplomacy. 3 (2).  ^ " United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
(Annex 2, Article 4)". Archived from the original on 16 July 2007. Retrieved 26 July 2007.  ^ a b c d "Chronological lists of ratifications of, accessions and successions to the Convention and the related Agreements". United Nations Division for Ocean
Ocean
Affairs and the Law of the Sea. 22 April 2009. Archived from the original on 14 April 2009. Retrieved 30 April 2009.  ^ Yenikeyeff, S. M. and Fenton Krysiek, Timothy (August 2007). The Battle for the Next Energy Frontier: The Russian Polar Expedition and the Future of Arctic
Arctic
Hydrocarbons. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies. ^ "Conference in Ilulissat, Greenland: Landmark political declaration on the future of the Arctic". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark. 28 May 2008. Retrieved 30 April 2009. [dead link] ^ "The Ilulissat
Ilulissat
Declaration" (PDF). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark. 28 May 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 June 2008. Retrieved 6 June 2008.  ^ Boswell, Randy (28 May 2008). "Conference could mark start of Arctic power struggle". canada.com. Archived from the original on 4 March 2009. Retrieved 6 June 2008.  ^ "Dansker vil dokumentere territorialkrav i Arktis" (in Norwegian). NRK. 28 July 2012. Retrieved 15 June 2015.  ^ http://www.maritimeherald.com/2017/russia-claims-the-application-for-expansion-of-danish-borders-in-the-arctic-shelf/ ^ " North Pole
North Pole
drifting stations (1930s–1980s)". Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Retrieved 30 April 2009.  ^ Stars launch campaign to save the Arctic. Greenpeace
Greenpeace
(21 June 2012). ^ Study links 2015 melting Greenland
Greenland
ice to faster Arctic
Arctic
warming 9 June 2016 University of Georgia ^ " Arctic
Arctic
cut-off high drives the poleward shift of a new Greenland melting record". Nature Communications. 7: 11723. Bibcode:2016NatCo...711723T. doi:10.1038/ncomms11723.  ^ Fetterer, F., K. Knowles, W. Meier, and M. Savoie. 2002, updated 2009. Sea Ice Index. Boulder, Colorado USA: National Snow and Ice Data Center. Digital media. ^ "Impacts of a warming Arctic: Arctic
Arctic
Climate Impact Assessment". Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. February 2005. doi:10.2277/0521617782 (inactive 2017-01-31). ISBN 0-521-61778-2.  ^ Grinberg, Emanuella (17 December 2008). "Ice melting across globe at accelerating rate, NASA says." CNN. ^ Lenton, T. M.; Held, H.; Kriegler, E.; Hall, J. W.; Lucht, W.; Rahmstorf, S.; Schellnhuber, H. J. (2008). "Inaugural Article: Tipping elements in the Earth's climate system". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 105 (6): 1786. Bibcode:2008PNAS..105.1786L. doi:10.1073/pnas.0705414105.  ^ "Abrupt Climate Change Focus Of U.S. National Laboratories". Science Daily. 23 September 2008.  ^ Myers-Smith, Isla H.; Forbes, Bruce C.; Wilmking, Martin; Hallinger, Martin; Lantz, Trevor; Blok, Daan; Tape, Ken D.; Macias-Fauria, Marc; Sass-Klaassen, Ute (2011-01-01). "Shrub expansion in tundra ecosystems: dynamics, impacts and research priorities". Environmental Research Letters. 6 (4): 045509. Bibcode:2011ERL.....6d5509M. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/6/4/045509. ISSN 1748-9326.  ^ Alatalo, Juha M.; Jägerbrand, Annika K.; Molau, Ulf (2015-11-01). "Testing reliability of short-term responses to predict longer-term responses of bryophytes and lichens to environmental change". Ecological Indicators. 58: 77–85. doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2015.05.050.  ^ "Will ice melt open fabled Northwest Passage?" Archived 9 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine. CNN. 29 August 2002. ^ "Largest Cruise Ship Ever To Sail Northwest Passage
Northwest Passage
Docks In NYC". Retrieved 2016-09-24.  ^ Demos, Telis. "The great Arctic Circle
Arctic Circle
oil rush." CNN. 8 August 2007. ^ Shaw, Rob. "New patrol ships will reassert northern sovereignty: PM". Victoria Times Colonist. 9 July 2007. ^ Halpin, Tony. " Russia
Russia
stakes its claim on North Pole
North Pole
in underwater search for oil". The Times. 28 July 2007. ^ " Arctic
Arctic
melt stuns scientists". CBS News. 9 October 2007. [permanent dead link] ^ "Conference could mark start of Arctic
Arctic
power struggle". Canada.com. 28 May 2008. Archived from the original on 4 March 2009.  ^ Stokmarknes in Vesterålen
Vesterålen
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Bibliography[edit]

Gibbon, Guy E.; Kenneth M. Ames (1998). Archaeology of prehistoric native America: an encyclopedia. Volume 1537 of Garland reference library of the humanities. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-8153-0725-X. 

Further reading[edit]

Brian W. Coad, James D. Reist. (2017). Marine Fishes of Arctic
Arctic
Canada. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-1442647107 "Global Security, Climate Change, and the Arctic" – 24-page special journal issue (fall 2009), Swords and Ploughshares, Program in Arms Control, Disarmament, and International Security (ACDIS), University of Illinois GLOBIO Human Impact maps Report on human impacts on the Arctic Krupnik, Igor, Michael A. Lang, and Scott E. Miller, eds. Smithsonian at the Poles: Contributions to International Polar Year
International Polar Year
Science. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, 2009. Konyshev, Valery & Sergunin, Alexander: The Arctic
Arctic
at the Crossroads of Geopolitical Interests Russian Politics and Law, 2012, Vol.50, No.2, pp. 34–54 Käpylä, Juha & Mikkola, Harri: The Global Arctic: The Growing Arctic
Arctic
Interests of Russia, China, the United States
United States
and the European Union FIIA Briefing Paper 133, August 2013, The Finnish Institute of International Affairs. Konyshev, Valery & Sergunin, Alexander. The Arctic
Arctic
at the crossroads of geopolitical interests // Russian Politics and Law, 2012. — Vol. 50, — № 2. — P. 34-54 Konyshev, Valery & Sergunin, Alexander: Is Russia
Russia
a revisionist military power in the Arctic? Defense & Security Analysis, September 2014. Konyshev, Valery & Sergunin, Alexander. Russia
Russia
in search of its Arctic
Arctic
strategy: between hard and soft power? Polar Journal, April 2014. O'Rourke, Ronald (14 October 2016). Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress (PDF). Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 20 October 2016.  Sperry, Armstrong (1957). All About the Arctic
Arctic
and Antarctic. Random House. LCCN 57007518.  http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/energy/great-energy-challenge/arctic/

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issues, maps, photos, animals and more. From NOAA. Toxoplasma gondii in the Subarctic
Subarctic
and Arctic Protecting U.S. Sovereignty: Coast Guard Operations in the Arctic: Hearing before the Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation of the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, House of Representatives, One Hundred Twelfth Congress, First Session, 1 December 2011

Maps

Arctic
Arctic
Environmental Atlas Circum- Arctic
Arctic
interactive map, with multiple layers of information Interactive Satellite Map with daily update (true color/infrared)

Media

The Emerging Arctic
Arctic
An Infoguide from the Council on Foreign Relations "Global Security, Climate Change, and the Arctic" – streaming video of November 2009 symposium at the University of Illinois Implications of an Ice-Free Arctic
Arctic
for Global Security – November 2009 radio interview with Professor Klaus Dodds (Royal Holloway, University of London) The Canadian Museum of Civilization – The Story of the Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Expedition of 1913–1918 UNEP/GRID-Arendal Maps and Graphics library Information resources from the UN Environment programme Arctic
Arctic
Institute of North America
North America
Digital Library Over 8000 photographs dating from the late 19th century through the 20th century. euroarctic.com News service from the Barents region provided by Norwegian Broadcasting Corp (NRK), Swedish Radio (SR) and STBC Murman. arcticfocus.com Independent News service covering Arctic
Arctic
region with daily updates on environment, Arctic
Arctic
disputes and business Vital Arctic
Arctic
Graphics Overview and case studies of the Arctic environment and the Arctic
Arctic
Indigenous Peoples. Arctic
Arctic
and Taiga Canadian Atlas Scientific Facts on Arctic
Arctic
Climate Change PolarTREC PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating Arctic
Arctic
Change: Information on the present state of Arctic
Arctic
ecosystems and climate, presented in historical context (from NOAA, updated regularly) Monthly Sea Ice Outlook UN Environment Programme Key Polar Centre at UNEP/GRID-Arendal Arctic
Arctic
Geobotanical Atlas, University of Alaska
Alaska
Fairbanks Polar Discovery Arctic
Arctic
Transform Transatlantic Policy Options for Supporting Adaptation in the Marine Arctic ArcticStat Circumpolar Database

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Regions of the world

v t e

Regions of Africa

Central Africa

Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Cape Lopez Mayombe Igboland

Mbaise

Maputaland Pool Malebo Congo Basin Chad Basin Congolese rainforests Ouaddaï highlands Ennedi Plateau

East Africa

African Great Lakes

Albertine Rift East African Rift Great Rift Valley Gregory Rift Rift Valley lakes Swahili coast Virunga Mountains Zanj

Horn of Africa

Afar Triangle Al-Habash Barbara Danakil Alps Danakil Desert Ethiopian Highlands Gulf of Aden Gulf of Tadjoura

Indian Ocean
Ocean
islands

Comoros Islands

North Africa

Maghreb

Barbary Coast Bashmur Ancient Libya Atlas Mountains

Nile Valley

Cataracts of the Nile Darfur Gulf of Aqaba Lower Egypt Lower Nubia Middle Egypt Nile Delta Nuba Mountains Nubia The Sudans Upper Egypt

Western Sahara

West Africa

Pepper Coast Gold Coast Slave Coast Ivory Coast Cape Palmas Cape Mesurado Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Niger Basin Guinean Forests of West Africa Niger Delta Inner Niger Delta

Southern Africa

Madagascar

Central Highlands (Madagascar) Northern Highlands

Rhodesia

North South

Thembuland Succulent Karoo Nama Karoo Bushveld Highveld Fynbos Cape Floristic Region Kalahari Desert Okavango Delta False Bay Hydra Bay

Macro-regions

Aethiopia Arab world Commonwealth realm East African montane forests Eastern Desert Equatorial Africa Françafrique Gibraltar Arc Greater Middle East Islands of Africa List of countries where Arabic is an official language Mediterranean Basin MENA MENASA Middle East Mittelafrika Negroland Northeast Africa Portuguese-speaking African countries Sahara Sahel Sub-Saharan Africa Sudan (region) Sudanian Savanna Tibesti Mountains Tropical Africa

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Regions of Asia

Central

Greater Middle East Aral Sea

Aralkum Desert Caspian Sea Dead Sea Sea of Galilee

Transoxiana

Turan

Greater Khorasan Ariana Khwarezm Sistan Kazakhstania Eurasian Steppe

Asian Steppe Kazakh Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe

Mongolian-Manchurian grassland Wild Fields

Yedisan Muravsky Trail

Ural

Ural Mountains

Volga region Idel-Ural Kolyma Transbaikal Pryazovia Bjarmaland Kuban Zalesye Ingria Novorossiya Gornaya Shoriya Tulgas Iranian Plateau Altai Mountains Pamir Mountains Tian Shan Badakhshan Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Mount Imeon Mongolian Plateau Western Regions Taklamakan Desert Karakoram

Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract

Siachen Glacier

North

Inner Asia Northeast Far East

Russian Far East Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

Extreme North Siberia

Baikalia
Baikalia
(Lake Baikal) Transbaikal Khatanga Gulf Baraba steppe

Kamchatka Peninsula Amur Basin Yenisei Gulf Yenisei Basin Beringia Sikhote-Alin

East

Japanese archipelago

Northeastern Japan Arc Sakhalin Island Arc

Korean Peninsula Gobi Desert Taklamakan Desert Greater Khingan Mongolian Plateau Inner Asia Inner Mongolia Outer Mongolia China proper Manchuria

Outer Manchuria Inner Manchuria Northeast China Plain Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

North China Plain

Yan Mountains

Kunlun Mountains Liaodong Peninsula Himalayas Tibetan Plateau

Tibet

Tarim Basin Northern Silk Road Hexi Corridor Nanzhong Lingnan Liangguang Jiangnan Jianghuai Guanzhong Huizhou Wu Jiaozhou Zhongyuan Shaannan Ordos Loop

Loess Plateau Shaanbei

Hamgyong Mountains Central Mountain Range Japanese Alps Suzuka Mountains Leizhou Peninsula Gulf of Tonkin Yangtze River Delta Pearl River Delta Yenisei Basin Altai Mountains Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass

West

Greater Middle East

MENA MENASA Middle East

Red Sea Caspian Sea Mediterranean Sea Zagros Mountains Persian Gulf

Pirate Coast Strait of Hormuz Greater and Lesser Tunbs

Al-Faw Peninsula Gulf of Oman Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Aden Balochistan Arabian Peninsula

Najd Hejaz Tihamah Eastern Arabia South Arabia

Hadhramaut Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
coastal fog desert

Tigris–Euphrates Mesopotamia

Upper Mesopotamia Lower Mesopotamia Sawad Nineveh plains Akkad (region) Babylonia

Canaan Aram Eber-Nari Suhum Eastern Mediterranean Mashriq Kurdistan Levant

Southern Levant Transjordan Jordan Rift Valley

Israel Levantine Sea Golan Heights Hula Valley Galilee Gilead Judea Samaria Arabah Anti-Lebanon Mountains Sinai Peninsula Arabian Desert Syrian Desert Fertile Crescent Azerbaijan Syria Palestine Iranian Plateau Armenian Highlands Caucasus

Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains

Greater Caucasus Lesser Caucasus

North Caucasus South Caucasus

Kur-Araz Lowland Lankaran Lowland Alborz Absheron Peninsula

Anatolia Cilicia Cappadocia Alpide belt

South

Greater India Indian subcontinent Himalayas Hindu Kush Western Ghats Eastern Ghats Ganges Basin Ganges Delta Pashtunistan Punjab Balochistan Kashmir

Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley Pir Panjal Range

Thar Desert Indus Valley Indus River
Indus River
Delta Indus Valley Desert Indo-Gangetic Plain Eastern coastal plains Western Coastal Plains Meghalaya subtropical forests MENASA Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Doab Bagar tract Great Rann of Kutch Little Rann of Kutch Deccan Plateau Coromandel Coast Konkan False Divi Point Hindi Belt Ladakh Aksai Chin Gilgit-Baltistan

Baltistan Shigar Valley

Karakoram

Saltoro Mountains

Siachen Glacier Bay of Bengal Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Mannar Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Lakshadweep Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Andaman Islands Nicobar Islands

Maldive Islands Alpide belt

Southeast

Mainland

Indochina Malay Peninsula

Maritime

Peninsular Malaysia Sunda Islands Greater Sunda Islands Lesser Sunda Islands

Indonesian Archipelago Timor New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

Philippine Archipelago

Luzon Visayas Mindanao

Leyte Gulf Gulf of Thailand East Indies Nanyang Alpide belt

Asia-Pacific Tropical Asia Ring of Fire

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Regions of Europe

North

Nordic Northwestern Scandinavia Scandinavian Peninsula Fennoscandia Baltoscandia Sápmi West Nordic Baltic Baltic Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Iceland Faroe Islands

East

Danubian countries Prussia Galicia Volhynia Donbass Sloboda Ukraine Sambia Peninsula

Amber Coast

Curonian Spit Izyum Trail Lithuania Minor Nemunas Delta Baltic Baltic Sea Vyborg Bay Karelia

East Karelia Karelian Isthmus

Lokhaniemi Southeastern

Balkans Aegean Islands Gulf of Chania North Caucasus Greater Caucasus Kabardia European Russia

Southern Russia

Central

Baltic Baltic Sea Alpine states Alpide belt Mitteleuropa Visegrád Group

West

Benelux Low Countries Northwest British Isles English Channel Channel Islands Cotentin Peninsula Normandy Brittany Gulf of Lion Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Pyrenees Alpide belt

South

Italian Peninsula Insular Italy Tuscan Archipelago Aegadian Islands Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Gibraltar Arc Southeastern Mediterranean Crimea Alpide belt

Germanic Celtic Slavic countries Uralic European Plain Eurasian Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe Wild Fields Pannonian Basin

Great Hungarian Plain Little Hungarian Plain Eastern Slovak Lowland

v t e

Regions of North America

Northern

Eastern Canada Western Canada Canadian Prairies Central Canada Northern Canada Atlantic Canada The Maritimes French Canada English Canada Acadia

Acadian Peninsula

Quebec
Quebec
City–Windsor Corridor Peace River Country Cypress Hills Palliser's Triangle Canadian Shield Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Newfoundland (island) Vancouver Island Gulf Islands Strait of Georgia Canadian Arctic
Canadian Arctic
Archipelago Labrador
Labrador
Peninsula Gaspé Peninsula Avalon Peninsula

Bay de Verde Peninsula

Brodeur Peninsula Melville Peninsula Bruce Peninsula Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) Cook Peninsula Gulf of Boothia Georgian Bay Hudson Bay James Bay Greenland Pacific Northwest Inland Northwest Northeast

New England Mid-Atlantic Commonwealth

West

Midwest Upper Midwest Mountain States Intermountain West Basin and Range Province

Oregon Trail Mormon Corridor Calumet Region Southwest

Old Southwest

Llano Estacado Central United States

Tallgrass prairie

South

South Central Deep South Upland South

Four Corners East Coast West Coast Gulf Coast Third Coast Coastal states Eastern United States

Appalachia

Trans-Mississippi Great North Woods Great Plains Interior Plains Great Lakes Great Basin

Great Basin
Great Basin
Desert

Acadia Ozarks Ark-La-Tex Waxhaws Siouxland Twin Tiers Driftless Area Palouse Piedmont Atlantic coastal plain Outer Lands Black Dirt Region Blackstone Valley Piney Woods Rocky Mountains Mojave Desert The Dakotas The Carolinas Shawnee Hills San Fernando Valley Tornado Alley North Coast Lost Coast Emerald Triangle San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area

San Francisco Bay North Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) East Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) Silicon Valley

Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Gulf of Mexico Lower Colorado River Valley Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta Colville Delta Arkansas Delta Mobile–Tensaw River Delta Mississippi Delta Mississippi River Delta Columbia River Estuary Great Basin High Desert Monterey Peninsula Upper Peninsula of Michigan Lower Peninsula of Michigan Virginia Peninsula Keweenaw Peninsula Middle Peninsula Delmarva Peninsula Alaska
Alaska
Peninsula Kenai Peninsula Niagara Peninsula Beringia Belt regions

Bible Belt Black Belt Corn Belt Cotton Belt Frost Belt Rice Belt Rust Belt Sun Belt Snow Belt

Latin

Northern Mexico Baja California Peninsula Gulf of California

Colorado River Delta

Gulf of Mexico Soconusco Tierra Caliente La Mixteca La Huasteca Bajío Valley of Mexico Mezquital Valley Sierra Madre de Oaxaca Yucatán Peninsula Basin and Range Province Western Caribbean Zone Isthmus of Panama Gulf of Panama

Pearl Islands

Azuero Peninsula Mosquito Coast West Indies Antilles

Greater Antilles Lesser Antilles

Leeward Leeward Antilles Windward

Lucayan Archipelago Southern Caribbean

Aridoamerica Mesoamerica Oasisamerica Northern Middle Anglo Latin

French Hispanic

American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

v t e

Regions of Oceania

Australasia

Gulf of Carpentaria New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

New Zealand

South Island North Island

Coromandel Peninsula

Zealandia New Caledonia Solomon Islands (archipelago) Vanuatu

Kula Gulf

Australia Capital Country Eastern Australia Lake Eyre basin Murray–Darling basin Northern Australia Nullarbor Plain Outback Southern Australia

Maralinga

Sunraysia Great Victoria Desert Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf St Vincent Lefevre Peninsula Fleurieu Peninsula Yorke Peninsula Eyre Peninsula Mornington Peninsula Bellarine Peninsula Mount Henry Peninsula

Melanesia

Islands Region

Bismarck Archipelago Solomon Islands Archipelago

Fiji New Caledonia Papua New Guinea Vanuatu

Micronesia

Caroline Islands

Federated States of Micronesia Palau

Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island

Polynesia

Easter Island Hawaiian Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia

Austral Islands Gambier Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotu

Kermadec Islands Mangareva Islands Samoa Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu

Ring of Fire

v t e

Regions of South America

East

Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado

North

Caribbean South America West Indies Los Llanos The Guianas Amazon basin

Amazon rainforest

Gulf of Paria Paria Peninsula Paraguaná Peninsula Orinoco Delta

South

Tierra del Fuego Patagonia Pampas Pantanal Gran Chaco Chiquitano dry forests Valdes Peninsula

West

Andes

Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range

Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

v t e

Polar regions

Antarctic

Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula East Antarctica West Antarctica Eklund Islands Ecozone Extreme points Islands

Arctic

Arctic
Arctic
Alaska British Arctic
Arctic
Territories Canadian Arctic
Canadian Arctic
Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic

v t e

Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic
Arctic
Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago
Archipelago
Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador
Labrador
Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea of Åland Sea of Azov Sea of Crete Sea of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor
Timor
Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

  Book   Category

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World
World
deserts

Desert Desertification List of deserts List of deserts by area

Africa

Algerian Bayuda Blue Chalbi Danakil Djurab Eastern Ferlo Farafra (White) Kalahari Libyan Moçâmedes Namib Nubian Nyiri Owami Richtersveld Sahara Tanezrouft Ténéré Western

Asia

Ad-Dahna Akshi Arabian Aral Karakum Aralkum Badain Jaran Betpak-Dala Cholistan Dasht-e Kavir Dasht-e Khash Dasht-e Leili Dasht-e Loot Dasht-e Margo Dasht-e Naomid Gurbantünggüt Gobi Hami Indus Valley Judaean Karakum Katpana Kharan Kumtag Kyzylkum Lop Maranjab Muyunkum Nefud Negev Polond Ordos Qaidam Ramlat al-Sab'atayn Rub' al Khali Russian Arctic Registan Saryesik-Atyrau Syrian Taklamakan Tengger Thal Thar Ustyurt Plateau Wahiba Sands

Australia

Gibson Great Sandy Great Victoria Little Sandy Nullarbor Plain Painted Pedirka Simpson Strzelecki Sturt's Stony Tanami Tirari

Europe

Accona Bardenas Reales Błędów Cabo de Gata Deliblatska Peščara Hálendi Monegros Oleshky Oltenian Sahara Ryn Stranja Tabernas

North America

Alvord Amargosa Baja California Black Rock Carcross Carson Channeled scablands Chihuahuan Colorado Escalante Forty Mile Gran Desierto de Altar Great Basin Great Salt Lake Great Sandy Jornada del Muerto Kaʻū Lechuguilla Mojave North American Arctic Owyhee Painted Desert Red Desert Sevier Smoke Creek Sonoran Tonopah Desert Tule (Arizona) Tule (Nevada) Yp Yuha Yuma

South America

Atacama La Guajira Los Médanos de Coro Monte Patagonian Sechura Tatacoa

Zealandia

Rangipo Desert

Polar Regions

Antarctica Arctic Greenland North American Arctic Russian Arctic

Project Category Commons

v t e

Arctic
Arctic
topics

History

Arctic
Arctic
research Exploration of the Arctic History of whaling

Government

Arctic
Arctic
Council Arctic
Arctic
cooperation and politics Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
Conference Chief Directorate of the Northern Sea Route Ilulissat
Ilulissat
Declaration Inuit
Inuit
Circumpolar Council Saami Council Territorial claims in the Arctic United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

Geography

Arctic
Arctic
Circle Arctic
Arctic
ecology Arctic
Arctic
Ocean Arctic
Arctic
Cyclone Arctic
Arctic
geography terminology Greenland
Greenland
ice sheet Impact craters of the Arctic Nordicity North Pole Populated places in the Arctic Tundra

Regions

Arctic
Arctic
Alaska British Arctic
Arctic
Territories Canadian Arctic
Canadian Arctic
Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic

Climate

Arctic
Arctic
Climate Impact Assessment Arctic
Arctic
dipole anomaly Arctic
Arctic
oscillation Arctic
Arctic
sea ice

decline ecology and history

Climate change in the Arctic Climate of Alaska Effects of global warming on marine mammals Polar climate Polar amplification Polar vortex

Fauna

Arctic
Arctic
fox Beluga whale Bowhead whale Lemming Muskox Narwhal Polar bear Reindeer Seal

bearded harp hooded ribbon ringed

Snowy owl Walrus

Flora

Arctic
Arctic
ecology Arctic
Arctic
vegetation Tundra

Culture

Arctic
Arctic
peoples Subarctic
Subarctic
peoples Chukchi Chukotka Evenks Inuit Gwich'in Khanty Koryaks Nenets Northern indigenous Russian peoples Sami Selkup Yakuts Yukaghir Arctic
Arctic
Winter Games Tsagaan Sar
Tsagaan Sar
(New Year's Day)

Economy

Natural resources Petroleum exploration

Arctic
Arctic
Refuge drilling controversy

Protected areas Transportation

Transport

Arctic
Arctic
Bridge Arctic
Arctic
shipping routes Northeast Passage Northwest Passage Northern Sea Route Polar air route Transpolar Sea Route Search and rescue

Category Portal WikiProject

v t e

Polar exploration

Arctic

Ocean History Expeditions Research stations

Farthest North North Pole

Barentsz Hudson Marmaduke Carolus Parry North Magnetic Pole

J. Ross J. C. Ross Abernethy Kane Hayes

Polaris

Polaris C. F. Hall

British Arctic
Arctic
Expedition

HMS Alert Nares HMS Discovery Stephenson Markham

Lady Franklin Bay Expedition

Greely Lockwood Brainard

1st Fram
Fram
expedition

Fram Nansen Johansen Sverdrup

Jason

Amedeo

F. Cook Peary Sedov Byrd Airship Norge

Amundsen Nobile Wisting Riiser-Larsen Ellsworth

Airship Italia Nautilus

Wilkins

ANT-25

Chkalov Baydukov Belyakov

"North Pole" manned drifting ice stations NP-1

Papanin Shirshov E. Fyodorov Krenkel

NP-36 NP-37 Sedov

Badygin Wiese

USS Nautilus USS Skate Plaisted Herbert NS Arktika Barneo Arktika 2007

Mir submersibles Sagalevich Chilingarov

Iceland Greenland

Pytheas Brendan Papar Vikings Naddodd Svavarsson Arnarson Norse colonization of the Americas Ulfsson Galti Erik the Red Christian IV's expeditions

J. Hall Cunningham Lindenov C. Richardson

Danish colonization

Egede

Scoresby Jason

Nansen Sverdrup

Peary Rasmussen

Northwest Passage Northern Canada

Cabot G. Corte-Real M. Corte-Real Frobisher Gilbert Davis Hudson Discovery

Bylot Baffin

Munk I. Fyodorov Gvozdev HMS Resolution

J. Cook

HMS Discovery

Clerke

Mackenzie Kotzebue J. Ross HMS Griper

Parry

HMS Hecla

Lyon

HMS Fury

Hoppner

Crozier J. C. Ross Coppermine Expedition Franklin Back Dease Simpson HMS Blossom

Beechey

Franklin's lost expedition

HMS Erebus HMS Terror

Collinson Rae–Richardson Expedition

Rae J. Richardson

Austin McClure Expedition

HMS Investigator McClure HMS Resolute Kellett

Belcher Kennedy Bellot Isabel

Inglefield

2nd Grinnell Expedition

USS Advance Kane

Fox

McClintock

HMS Pandora

Young

Fram

Sverdrup

Gjøa

Amundsen

Rasmussen Karluk

Stefansson Bartlett

St. Roch

H. Larsen

Cowper

North East Passage Russian Arctic

Pomors Koch boats Willoughby Chancellor Barentsz Mangazeya Hudson Poole Siberian Cossacks Perfilyev Stadukhin Dezhnev Popov Ivanov Vagin Permyakov Great Northern Expedition

Bering Chirikov Malygin Ovtsyn Minin V. Pronchishchev M. Pronchishcheva Chelyuskin Kh. Laptev D. Laptev

Chichagov Lyakhov Billings Sannikov Gedenschtrom Wrangel Matyushkin Anjou Litke Lavrov Pakhtusov Tsivolko Middendorff Austro-Hungarian Expedition

Weyprecht Payer

Vega Expedition

A. E. Nordenskiöld Palander

USS Jeannette

De Long

Yermak

Makarov

Zarya

Toll Kolomeitsev Matisen Kolchak

Sedov Rusanov Kuchin Brusilov Expedition

Sv. Anna Brusilov Albanov Konrad

Wiese Nagórski Taymyr / Vaygach

Vilkitsky

Maud

Amundsen

AARI

Samoylovich

Begichev Urvantsev Sadko

Ushakov

Glavsevmorput

Schmidt

Aviaarktika

Shevelev

Sibiryakov

Voronin

Chelyuskin Krassin Gakkel Nuclear-powered icebreakers

NS Lenin Arktika class

Antarctic

Continent History Expeditions

Southern Ocean

Roché Bouvet Kerguelen HMS Resolution

J. Cook

HMS Adventure

Furneaux

Smith San Telmo Vostok

Bellingshausen

Mirny

Lazarev

Bransfield Palmer Davis Weddell Morrell Astrolabe

Dumont d'Urville

United States
United States
Exploring Expedition

USS Vincennes Wilkes

USS Porpoise

Ringgold

Ross expedition

HMS Erebus (J. C. Ross Abernethy) HMS Terror (Crozier)

Cooper Challenger expedition

HMS Challenger Nares Murray

Jason

C. A. Larsen

"Heroic Age"

Belgian Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

Belgica de Gerlache Lecointe Amundsen Cook Arctowski Racoviță Dobrowolski

Southern Cross

Southern Cross Borchgrevink

Discovery

Discovery Discovery Hut

Gauss

Gauss Drygalski

Swedish Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

Antarctic O. Nordenskjöld C. A. Larsen

Scottish Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

Bruce Scotia

Orcadas Base Nimrod Expedition

Nimrod

French Antarctic
Antarctic
Expeditions

Pourquoi-Pas Charcot

Japanese Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

Shirase

Amundsen's South Pole
South Pole
expedition

Fram Amundsen Framheim Polheim

Terra Nova

Terra Nova Scott Wilson E. R. Evans Crean Lashly

Filchner Australasian Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

SY Aurora Mawson

Far Eastern Party Imperial Trans- Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

Endurance Ernest Shackleton Wild

James Caird Ross Sea
Ross Sea
party

Mackintosh

Shackleton–Rowett Expedition

Quest

IPY · IGY Modern research

Christensen Byrd BANZARE BGLE

Rymill

New Swabia

Ritscher

Operation Tabarin

Marr

Operation Highjump Captain Arturo Prat Base British Antarctic
Antarctic
Survey Operation Windmill

Ketchum

Ronne Expedition

F. Ronne E. Ronne Schlossbach

Operation Deep Freeze McMurdo Station Commonwealth Trans- Antarctic
Antarctic
Expedition

Hillary V. Fuchs

Soviet Antarctic
Antarctic
Expeditions

1st

Somov Klenova Mirny

2nd

Tryoshnikov

3rd

Tolstikov

Antarctic
Antarctic
Treaty System Transglobe Expedition

Fiennes Burton

Lake Vostok Kapitsa

Farthest South South Pole

HMS Resolution

J. Cook

HMS Adventure

Furneaux

Weddell HMS Erebus

J. C. Ross

HMS Terror

Crozier

Southern Cross

Borchgrevink

Discovery

Barne

Nimrod

Shackleton Wild Marshall Adams

South Magnetic Pole

Mawson David Mackay

Amundsen's South Pole
South Pole
expedition

Fram Amundsen Bjaaland Helmer Hassel Wisting Polheim

Terra Nova

Scott E. Evans Oates Wilson Bowers

Byrd Balchen McKinley Dufek Amundsen–Scott South Pole
South Pole
Station Hillary V. Fuchs Pole of Cold

Vostok Station

Pole of inaccessibility

Pole of Inaccessibility Station Tolstikov

Crary A. Fuchs Messner

v t e

Regions of the United States

Administrative (political)

Units

U.S. state District of Columbia Insular area Minor Outlying Island Maritime territory

Time zones

Hawaii–Aleutian Alaska Pacific Mountain Central Eastern

Census

West

Pacific Mountain

Midwest

E N Central W N Central

Northeast

New England Middle Atlantic

South

S Atlantic E S Central W S Central

Courts of appeals

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th

Physical

Physiographic

Pacific Mountain Intermontane Plateaus Rocky Mountain Superior Upland Interior Plains Interior Highlands Appalachian Atlantic Plain

Coastal

Arctic West Great Lakes Gulf East

Historical

Acquisitions

Thirteen Colonies Northwest Territory Southwest Territory Louisiana Purchase Gadsden Purchase Texas annexation Oregon Treaty Mexican Cession Alaska
Alaska
Purchase Newlands Resolution

Civil War

Union

Border states

Confederacy

Old South Dixie

Slave and free states

Theaters Pacific Western Trans-Mississippi Lower Seaboard Eastern

Divided

Pacific Northwest Atlantic Northeast Prairie Pothole Columbia Oregon

Other

Appalachia Border states Red states and blue states Central Eastern Four Corners Great Plains High Plains Intermountain Interior Northern Northwest South Central Southern

Deep New Upland

Southeast Southwest

List Category

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 247151

.