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The Arabian Sea, also known as Sea
Sea
of Oman, is a region of the northern Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
bounded on the north by Pakistan
Pakistan
and Iran, on the west by northeastern Somalia
Somalia
and the Arabian Peninsula, and on the east by India. Historically the sea has been known by other names including the Erythraean Sea
Sea
and the Persian Sea. Its total area is 3,862,000 km2 (1,491,000 sq mi) and its maximum depth is 4,652 metres (15,262 ft). The Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
is in the southwest, connecting the Arabian Sea
Sea
to the Red Sea
Sea
through the strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, and the Gulf of Oman
Oman
is in the northwest, connecting it to the Persian Gulf. The Arabian Sea
Sea
has been crossed by important marine trade routes since the third or second millennium BCE. Major seaports include Kandla
Kandla
Port, Okha Port, Mumbai
Mumbai
Port, Nhava Sheva Port (Navi Mumbai), Mormugão
Mormugão
Port (Goa), New Mangalore Port
New Mangalore Port
and Kochi Port
Kochi Port
in India, the Port of Karachi
Port of Karachi
and the Gwadar Port
Gwadar Port
in Pakistan, Chabahar Port
Chabahar Port
in Iran and the Port of Salalah
Port of Salalah
in Oman. The largest islands in the Arabian Sea
Sea
include Socotra
Socotra
(Yemen), Masirah Island
Masirah Island
(Oman), Lakshadweep (India) and Astola Island
Astola Island
(Pakistan).

Contents

1 Geography

1.1 Limits

2 Alternative names 3 Trade routes

3.1 Major ports

4 Islands 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links

Geography[edit]

Arabian Sea
Sea
from space

The Arabian Sea's surface area is about 3,862,000 km2 (1,491,130 sq mi).[1] The maximum width of the Sea
Sea
is approximately 2,400 km (1,490 mi), and its maximum depth is 4,652 metres (15,262 ft). The biggest river flowing into the Sea is the Indus River. The Arabian Sea
Sea
has two important branches — the Gulf of Aden in the southwest, connecting with the Red Sea
Sea
through the strait of Bab-el-Mandeb; and the Gulf of Oman
Oman
to the northwest, connecting with the Persian Gulf. There are also the gulfs of Khambhat, Kutch and, Mannar on the Indian Coast.

17th century map depicting the locations of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea

The countries with coastlines on the Arabian Sea
Sea
are Somalia, Yemen, Oman, Pakistan, India
India
and the Maldives. There are several large cities on the sea's coast including Male, Kavaratti, Cape Comorin (Kanyakumari), Colachel, Kovalam, Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam, Alappuzha, Kochi, Kozhikode, Kannur, Kasaragod, Mangalore, Bhatkal, Karwar, Vasco, Panjim, Malvan, Ratnagiri, Alibag, Mumbai, Daman, Valsad, Surat, Bharuch, Khambhat, Bhavnagar, Diu, Somnath, Mangrol, Porbandar, Dwarka, Okha, Jamnagar, Kandla, Gandhidham, Mundra, Koteshwar, Keti Bandar, Karachi, Ormara, Pasni, Gwadar, Chabahar, Muscat, Duqm, Salalah, Al Ghaydah, Aden, Bargal, and Hafun.

Marine Drive, Mumbai
Mumbai
at evening

Beach at Bekal Fort, Kerala

Ormara
Ormara
beach, west side of the city

Limits[edit] The International Hydrographic Organization
International Hydrographic Organization
defines the limits of the Arabian Sea
Sea
as follows:[2]

On the west: the eastern limit of the Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
[the meridian of Cape Guardafui
Cape Guardafui
(Ras Asir, 51°16'E)]. On the north: a line joining Ràs al Hadd, east point of the Arabian Peninsula (22°32'N) and Ràs Jiyùni (61°43'E) on the coast of Pakistan. On the south: a line running from the southern extremity of Addu Atoll in the Maldives, to the eastern extremity of Ràs Hafun
Hafun
(the easternmost point of Africa, 10°26'N). On the east: the western limit of the Laccadive Sea
Sea
a line running from Sadashivgad
Sadashivgad
on the west coast of India
India
(14°48′N 74°07′E / 14.800°N 74.117°E / 14.800; 74.117) to Cora Divh
Cora Divh
(13°42′N 72°10′E / 13.700°N 72.167°E / 13.700; 72.167) and thence down the west side of the Laccadive and Maldive archipelagos to the most southerly point of Addu Atoll
Addu Atoll
in the Maldives.

Alternative names[edit] The Arabian Sea
Sea
historically and geographically has been referred to by many different names by Muslim
Muslim
and European geographers and travellers, that include[3] Indian Sea, Persian Sea, Sindhu Sagar,[4] [5] [1] Erythraean Sea,[6] Sindh
Sindh
Sea,[citation needed] and Akhzar Sea.[citation needed] Trade routes[edit] The Arabian Sea
Sea
has been an important marine trade route since the era of the coastal sailing vessels from possibly as early as the 3rd millennium BCE, certainly the late 2nd millennium BCE through the later days known as the Age of Sail. By the time of Julius Caesar, several well-established combined land-sea trade routes depended upon water transport through the Sea
Sea
around the rough inland terrain features to its north.

Names, routes and locations of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea

These routes usually began in the Far East
Far East
or down river from Madhya Pradesh with transshipment via historic Bharuch
Bharuch
(Bharakuccha), traversed past the inhospitable coast of today's Iran
Iran
then split around Hadhramaut
Hadhramaut
into two streams north into the Gulf of Aden
Gulf of Aden
and thence into the Levant, or south into Alexandria
Alexandria
via Red Sea
Sea
ports such as Axum. Each major route involved transhipping to pack animal caravan, travel through desert country and risk of bandits and extortionate tolls by local potentates. This southern coastal route past the rough country in the southern Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
( Yemen
Yemen
and Oman
Oman
today) was significant, and the Egyptian Pharaohs built several shallow canals to service the trade, one more or less along the route of today's Suez canal, and another from the Red Sea
Sea
to the Nile River, both shallow works that were swallowed up by huge sand storms in antiquity. Later the kingdom of Axum
Axum
arose in Ethiopia
Ethiopia
to rule a mercantile empire rooted in the trade with Europe via Alexandria. Major ports[edit]

The Kochi Port
Kochi Port
located on the south-west coast of India
India
is the nearest Indian port to the international shipping routes, as well as one of the largest and busiest ports serving the Arabian Sea. Seen here is the International Container Transshipment
Transshipment
Terminal, the only such facility in India.

The Port of Karachi
Port of Karachi
is Pakistan's largest and busiest seaport. It is located between the Karachi
Karachi
towns of Kiamari
Kiamari
and Saddar. The Gwadar Port
Gwadar Port
is a warm-water, deep-sea port situated at Gwadar
Gwadar
in Balochistan, Pakistan
Pakistan
at the apex of the Arabian Sea
Sea
and at the entrance of the Persian Gulf, about 460 km west of Karachi
Karachi
and approximately 75 km (47 mi) east of Pakistan's border with Iran. The port is located on the eastern bay of a natural hammerhead-shaped peninsula jutting out into the Arabian Sea
Sea
from the coastline. Port of Salalah
Port of Salalah
in Salalah, Oman
Oman
is also a major port in the area. The International Task Force often uses the port as a base. There is a significant number of warships of all nations coming in and out of the port, which makes it a very safe bubble. The port handled just under 3.5m teu (twenty-foot equivalent unit, a measure used for capacity in container transportation) in 2009.[7] Jawaharlal Nehru Port
Jawaharlal Nehru Port
in Mumbai
Mumbai
is the largest port in the Arabian Sea, and the largest container port in India. Major Indian ports in the Arabian Sea
Sea
are Mundra
Mundra
Port, Kandla
Kandla
Port, Nava Sheva, Kochi
Kochi
Port, Mumbai
Mumbai
Port, and Mormugão.[8][9] Islands[edit] There are several islands in the Arabian Sea, with the most important ones being Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
Islands (India), Socotra
Socotra
(Yemen), Masirah (Oman) and, Astola Island
Astola Island
(Pakistan). The Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
Islands (formerly known as the Laccadive, Minicoy, and Aminidivi Islands) is a group of islands in the Laccadive Sea
Sea
region of Arabian Sea, 200 to 440 km (120 to 270 mi) off the south western coast of India. The archipelago is a Union Territory and is governed by the Union Government of India. Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
comes from Lakshadwipa, which means "one hundred thousand islands" in Sanskrit. The islands form the smallest Union Territory of India: their total surface area is just 32 km2 (12 sq mi). The lagoon area covers about 4,200 km2 (1,600 sq mi), the territorial waters area 20,000 km2 (7,700 sq mi) and the exclusive economic zone area 400,000 km2 (150,000 sq mi).The islands are the northernmost of the Lakshadweep-Maldives-Chagos group of islands. Astola Island, also known as Jezira Haft Talar in Balochi, or 'Island of the Seven Hills', is a small, uninhabited island in the northern tip of the Arabian Sea
Sea
in Pakistan's territorial waters.

Landsat view over Socotra, a Yemeni island.

Socotra
Socotra
also spelled Soqotra is the largest island, being part of a small archipelago of four islands. It lies some 240 kilometres (150 mi) east of the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
and 380 kilometres (240 mi) south of the Arabian Peninsula. Masirah
Masirah
is an island off the East coast of Oman. See also[edit]

Erythraean Sea North Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
tropical cyclone Piracy off the coast of Somalia

Notes[edit]

^ Arabian Sea, Encyclopædia Britannica ^ "Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition" (PDF). International Hydrographic Organization. 1953. Retrieved 7 February 2010.  ^ "The Voyage around the Erythraean Sea". washington.edu.  ^ "Kamat's Potpourri: The Arabian Sea". kamat.com.  ^ "Why is the Arabian Sea
Sea
called 'Arabian Sea'? - Quora". www.quora.com. Retrieved 2018-02-22.  ^ The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea:Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean
Ocean
by a Merchant of the First Century ^ Salalah’s versatility beats the slump Archived October 25, 2012, at the Wayback Machine., Port of Salalah ^ "TRAFFIC HANDLED AT MAJOR PORTS (LAST 7 YEARS)" (PDF). shipping.gov.in.  ^ "WORLD PORT RANKINGS" (PDF). aapa.files.cms-plus.com. 2009. 

References[edit]  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Arabian Sea". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Arabian Sea.

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Sea
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