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The Arab
Arab
League (Arabic: الجامعة العربية‎ al-Jāmiʻah al-ʻArabīyah), formally the League of Arab
Arab
States (Arabic: جامعة الدول العربية‎ Jāmiʻat ad-Duwal al-ʻArabīyah), is a regional organization of Arab
Arab
states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
and Arabia. It was formed in Cairo
Cairo
on 22 March 1945 with six members: Kingdom of Egypt, Kingdom of Iraq, Transjordan (renamed Jordan
Jordan
in 1949), Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Syria.[3] Yemen
Yemen
joined as a member on 5 May 1945. Currently, the League has 22 members, but Syria's participation has been suspended since November 2011, as a consequence of government repression during the Syrian Civil War.[4] The League's main goal is to "draw closer the relations between member States and co-ordinate collaboration between them, to safeguard their independence and sovereignty, and to consider in a general way the affairs and interests of the Arab
Arab
countries".[5] Through institutions, such as the Arab
Arab
League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALECSO) and the Economic and Social Council of the Arab
Arab
League's Council of Arab Economic Unity
Council of Arab Economic Unity
(CAEU), the Arab
Arab
League facilitates political, economic, cultural, scientific, and social programmes designed to promote the interests of the Arab world.[6][7] It has served as a forum for the member states to coordinate their policy positions, to deliberate on matters of common concern, to settle some Arab
Arab
disputes and to limit conflicts such as the 1958 Lebanon
Lebanon
crisis. The League has served as a platform for the drafting and conclusion of many landmark documents promoting economic integration. One example is the Joint Arab
Arab
Economic Action Charter, which outlines the principles for economic activities in the region.

Arab
Arab
League of states establishment memorial stamp. Showing flags of the 8 establishing countries: Kingdom of Egypt, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the Mutawakkilite Kingdom (North Yemen), Syrian Republic, Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq, Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, Lebanese Republic

Each member state has one vote in the League Council, and decisions are binding only for those states that have voted for them. The aims of the league in 1945 were to strengthen and coordinate the political, cultural, economic and social programs of its members and to mediate disputes among them or between them and third parties. Furthermore, the signing of an agreement on Joint Defence and Economic Cooperation on 13 April 1950 committed the signatories to coordination of military defence measures. In March 2015, the Arab
Arab
League General Secretary announced the establishment of a Joint Arab
Arab
Force with the aim of counteracting extremism and other threats to the Arab
Arab
States. The decision was reached while Operation Decisive Storm was intensifying in Yemen. Participation in the project is voluntary, and the army intervenes only at the request of one of the member states. The growing militarization of the region and the increase in violent civil wars as well as terrorist movements are the reason behind the creation of the JAF, financed by the rich Gulf countries.[8] In the early 1970s, the Economic Council of the League of Arab
Arab
States put forward a proposal to create the Joint Arab
Arab
Chambers of Commerce across the European states. That led, under the decree of the League of Arab
Arab
States no. K1175/D52/G, to the decision by the Arab governments to set up the Arab British Chamber of Commerce which was mandated to "promote, encourage and facilitate bilateral trade" between the Arab world
Arab world
and its major trading partner, the United Kingdom.

Contents

1 History 2 Geography

2.1 Member states

3 Politics and administration 4 Summits 5 Military

5.1 Emergency summits

6 Economic resources

6.1 Transport

7 Literacy
Literacy
in Arab
Arab
league countries 8 Demographics

8.1 Religion 8.2 Linguistics

9 Culture

9.1 Sports

10 See also 11 References 12 External links

History Main article: History of the Arab
Arab
League Following adoption of the Alexandria Protocol
Alexandria Protocol
in 1944, the Arab
Arab
League was founded on 22 March 1945. It aimed to be a regional organisation of Arab
Arab
states with a focus to developing the economy, resolving disputes and coordinating political aims.[9] Other countries later joined the league.[10] Each country was given one vote in the council. The first major action was the joint intervention, allegedly on behalf of the majority Arab
Arab
population being uprooted as the state of Israel emerged in 1948 (and in response to popular protest in the Arab world), but a major participant in this intervention, Transjordan, had agreed with the Israelis to divide up the Arab
Arab
Palestinian state proposed by the United Nations
United Nations
General Assembly, and Egypt
Egypt
intervened primarily to prevent its rival in Amman
Amman
from accomplishing its objective.[11] It was followed by the creation of a mutual defence treaty two years later. A common market was established in 1965.[9][12] Geography Main article: Geography of the Arab
Arab
League

Joining dates of member states; the Comoros
Comoros
(circled) joined in 1993.      1940s      1950s      1960s      1970s

The Arab
Arab
League member states cover over 13,000,000 km2 (5,000,000 sq mi) and straddles two continents: Africa
Africa
and Asia. The area largely consists of arid deserts, such as the Sahara. Nevertheless, it also contains several highly fertile lands like the Nile
Nile
Valley, the Jubba Valley and Shebelle Valley in the Horn of Africa, the Atlas Mountains
Atlas Mountains
in the Maghreb, and the Fertile Crescent that stretches over Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and the Levant. The area comprises deep forests in southern Arabia
Arabia
and parts of the world's longest river, the Nile. Member states Main article: Member states of the Arab
Arab
League The Charter of the Arab
Arab
League, also known as the Pact of the League of Arab
Arab
States, is the founding treaty of the Arab
Arab
League. Adopted in 1945, it stipulates that "the League of Arab
Arab
States shall be composed of the: independent Arab
Arab
States that have signed this Pact."[13] Starting with only six members in 1945, the Arab
Arab
League now occupies an area spanning around 14 million km² and counts 22 members, and 4 observer states. The 22 members today include three of the largest African countries (Sudan, Algeria
Algeria
and Libya) and the largest country in the Middle East
Middle East
(Saudi Arabia). There was a continual increase in membership during the second half of the 20th century, with an additional 15 Arab
Arab
states being admitted. Syria
Syria
was suspended following the 2011 uprising. As of 2016, there are a total of 22 member states. The Arab
Arab
League member states are as follows:

 Algeria  Bahrain  Comoros  Djibouti  Egypt  Iraq  Jordan  Kuwait  Lebanon  Libya  Mauritania  Morocco  Oman  Palestine  Qatar  Saudi Arabia  Somalia  Sudan  Syria  Tunisia  United Arab
Arab
Emirates  Yemen

and 4 observer states :

 Brazil  Eritrea  India  Venezuela[14]  Armenia

On 22 February 2011, following the start of the Libyan Civil War and the use of military force against civilians, the Arab
Arab
League Secretary-General, Amr Moussa, stated that Libya's membership in the Arab
Arab
League had been suspended: "the organisation has decided to halt the participation of the Libyan delegations from all Arab
Arab
League sessions".[15] That makes Libya
Libya
the second country in the League's history to have a frozen membership. Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi declared that the League was illegitimate, saying: "The Arab
Arab
League is finished. There is no such thing as the Arab
Arab
League".[16][17] On 25 August 2011, Secretary-General Nabil Elaraby
Nabil Elaraby
announced it was "about time" Libya's full member status was restored. The National Transitional Council, the partially recognised interim government of Libya, sent a representative to be seated at the Arab
Arab
League meeting on 17 August to participate in a discussion as to whether to readmit Libya
Libya
to the organisation.[18] The Arab Parliament
Arab Parliament
recommended the suspension of member states Syria and Yemen
Yemen
on 20 September 2011 over persistent reports of disproportionate violence against regime opponents and activists during the Arab
Arab
Spring.[19] A vote on 12 November agreed to the formal suspension of Syria
Syria
four days after the vote, giving Assad a last chance to avoid suspension. Syria, Lebanon
Lebanon
and Yemen
Yemen
voted against the motion, and Iraq
Iraq
abstained.[20] There was a large amount of criticism as the Arab
Arab
League sent in December 2011 a commission "monitoring" violence on people protesting against the regime. The commission was headed by Mohammad Ahmed Mustafa al-Dabi, who served as head of Omar al-Bashir's military intelligence, while war crimes, including genocide, were allegedly committed on his watch.[21][22][23] On 6 March 2013, the Arab
Arab
League granted to the Syrian National Coalition Syria's seat in the Arab
Arab
League.[24] On 9 March 2014, the pan-Arab group's secretary general Nabil al-Arabi
Nabil al-Arabi
said that Syria's seat at the Arab
Arab
League would remain vacant until the opposition completes the formation of its institutions.[25] Politics and administration Main articles: Charter of the Arab
Arab
League, Politics of the Arab League, and Arab
Arab
Parliament

Headquarters of the Arab
Arab
League, Cairo.

Administrative divisions in the Arab
Arab
League.

The Arab
Arab
League is a political organization which tries to help integrate its members economically, and solve conflicts involving member states without asking for foreign assistance. It possesses elements of a state representative parliament while foreign affairs are often dealt with under UN supervision. The Charter of the Arab
Arab
League[5] endorsed the principle of an Arab homeland while respecting the sovereignty of the individual member states. The internal regulations of the Council of the League[26] and the committees[27] were agreed in October 1951. Those of the Secretariat-General were agreed in May 1953.[28] Since then, governance of the Arab
Arab
League has been based on the duality of supra-national institutions and the sovereignty of the member states. Preservation of individual statehood derived its strengths from the natural preference of ruling elites to maintain their power and independence in decision making. Moreover, the fear of the richer that the poorer may share their wealth in the name of Arab nationalism, the feuds among Arab
Arab
rulers, and the influence of external powers that might oppose Arab
Arab
unity can be seen as obstacles towards a deeper integration of the league. Mindful of their previous announcements in support of the Arabs
Arabs
of Palestine the framers of the Pact were determined to include them within the League from its inauguration.[29] This was done by means of an annex that declared:[5]

“ Even though Palestine was not able to control her own destiny, it was on the basis of the recognition of her independence that the Covenant of the League of Nations determined a system of government for her. Her existence and her independence among the nations can, therefore, no more be questioned de jure than the independence of any of the other Arab
Arab
States. [...] Therefore, the States signatory to the Pact of the Arab
Arab
League consider that in view of Palestine's special circumstances, the Council of the League should designate an Arab delegate from Palestine to participate in its work until this country enjoys actual independence ”

At the Cairo
Cairo
Summit of 1964, the Arab
Arab
League initiated the creation of an organisation representing the Palestinian people. The first Palestinian National Council convened in East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
on 29 May 1964. The Palestinian Liberation Organization
Palestinian Liberation Organization
was founded during this meeting on 2 June 1964. Palestine was shortly admitted in to the Arab League, represented by the PLO. Today, State of Palestine
State of Palestine
is a full member of the Arab
Arab
League. At the Beirut Summit on 28 March 2002, the league adopted the Arab Peace Initiative,[30] a Saudi-inspired peace plan for the Arab–Israeli conflict. The initiative offered full normalisation of the relations with Israel. In exchange, Israel
Israel
was required to withdraw from all occupied territories, including the Golan Heights, to recognise Palestinian independence in the West Bank
West Bank
and Gaza Strip, with East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
as its capital, as well as a "just solution" for the Palestinian refugees. The Peace Initiative was again endorsed at 2007 in the Riyadh
Riyadh
Summit. In July 2007, the Arab
Arab
League sent a mission, consisting of the Jordanian and Egyptian foreign ministers, to Israel
Israel
to promote the initiative. Following Venezuela's move to expel Israeli diplomats amid the 2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict, Kuwaiti member of parliament Waleed Al-Tabtabaie proposed moving Arab League headquarters to Caracas, Venezuela.[31] On 13 June 2010, Amr Mohammed Moussa, Secretary-General of the Arab
Arab
League, visited the Gaza Strip, the first visit by an official of the Arab
Arab
League since Hamas' armed takeover in 2007. In 2015, the Arab
Arab
League voiced support for Saudi Arabian-led military intervention in Yemen
Yemen
against the Shia Houthis and forces loyal to former President Ali Abdullah Saleh, who was deposed in the 2011 uprising.[32] Summits

2013 Arab
Arab
League Summit Logo

No. Date Host Country Host City

1 13–17 January 1964  Egypt Cairo

2 5–11 September 1964  Egypt Alexandria

3 13–17 September 1965  Morocco Casablanca

4 29 August 1967  Sudan Khartoum

5 21–23 December 1969  Morocco Rabat

6 26–28 November.1973  Algeria Algiers

7 29 October 1974  Morocco Rabat

8 25–26 October 1976  Egypt Cairo

9 2–5 November.1978  Iraq Baghdad

10 20–22 November 1979  Tunisia Tunis

11 21–22 November 1980  Jordan Amman

12 6–9 September 1982  Morocco Fes

13 1985  Morocco Casablanca

14 1987  Jordan Amman

15 June 1988  Algeria Algiers

16 1989  Morocco Casablanca

17 1990  Iraq Baghdad

18 1996  Egypt Cairo

19 27–28 March 2001  Jordan Amman

20 27–28 March 2002  Lebanon Beirut

21 1 March 2003  Egypt Sharm el-Sheikh

22 22–23 May 2004  Tunisia Tunis

23 22–23 March 2005  Algeria Algiers

24 28–30 March 2006  Sudan Khartoum

25 27–28 March 2007  Saudi Arabia Riyadh

26 29–30 March 2008  Syria Damascus

27 28–30 March 2009  Qatar Doha

28 27–28 March 2010  Libya Sirte

29 27–29 March 2012  Iraq Baghdad

30 21–27 March 2013  Qatar Doha[33]

31 25–26 March 2014  Kuwait Kuwait
Kuwait
City[34]

32 28–29 March 2015  Egypt Sharm El Sheikh[35]

33 20 July 2016  Mauritania Nouakchott

34 23–29 March 2017  Jordan Amman[36]

Military Main article: Military of the Arab
Arab
League The Joint Defence Council of the Arab League
Council of the Arab League
is one of the Institutions of the Arab
Arab
League.[37] It was established under the terms of the Joint Defence and Economic Co-operation Treaty
Joint Defence and Economic Co-operation Treaty
of 1950 to coordinate the joint defence of the Arab
Arab
League member states.[38] The Arab
Arab
League as an Organization has no military Force, like the UN or EU, but at the 2007 summit, the Leaders decided to reactivate their joint defense and establish a peacekeeping force to deploy in South Lebanon, Darfur, Iraq, and other hot spots. At a 2015 summit in Egypt, member nations agreed in principle to form a joint military force.[39] Emergency summits

No. Date Host Country Host City

1 21–27 September 1970  Egypt Cairo

2 17–28 October 1976  Saudi Arabia Riyadh

3 7–9 September 1985  Morocco Casablanca

4 8–12 November 1987  Jordan Amman

5 7–9 June 1988  Algeria Algiers

6 23–26 June 1989  Morocco Casablanca

7 28–30 March 1990  Iraq Baghdad

8 9–10 August 1990  Egypt Cairo

9 22–23 June 1996  Egypt Cairo

10 21–22 October 2000  Egypt Cairo

11 7 January 2016  Saudi Arabia Riyadh

Two summits are not added to the system of Arab
Arab
League summits:

Anshas, Egypt: 28–29 May 1946. Beirut, Lebanon: 13 – 15 November 1958.

Summit 14 in Fes, Morocco, occurred in two stages:

On 25 November 1981: the 5-hour meeting ended without an agreement on document. On 6–9 September 1982.

Economic resources

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Main article: Economy of the Arab
Arab
League See also: List of countries by GDP (PPP)
List of countries by GDP (PPP)
and List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita The Arab
Arab
League is rich in resources, such as enormous oil and natural gas resources in certain member states. Another industry that is growing steadily in the Arab
Arab
League is telecommunications. Within less than a decade, local companies such as Orascom
Orascom
and Etisalat
Etisalat
have managed to compete internationally.[citation needed] Economic achievements initiated by the League amongst member states have been less impressive than those achieved by smaller Arab organisations such as the Gulf Cooperation Council
Gulf Cooperation Council
(GCC).[40] Among them is the Arab
Arab
Gas Pipeline, that will transport Egyptian and Iraqi gas to Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, and Turkey. As of 2013, a significant difference in economic conditions exist between the developed oil states of Algeria, Qatar, Kuwait
Kuwait
and the UAE, and developing countries like Comoros, Djibouti, Mauritania, Somalia, Sudan
Sudan
and Yemen.

OAPEC Members

The Arab
Arab
League also includes great fertile lands in the southern part of Sudan. It is referred to as the food basket of the Arab
Arab
World, the region's instability including the independence of South Sudan
Sudan
has not affected its tourism industry, that is considered the fastest growing industry in the region, with Egypt, UAE, Lebanon, Tunisia, and Jordan leading the way. Another industry that is growing steadily in the Arab League is telecommunications. Economical achievements within members have been low in the league's history, other smaller Arab
Arab
Organizations have achieved more than the league has, such as the GCC, but lately several major economic projects that are promising are to be completed, the Arab
Arab
Gas Pipeline is to end by the year 2010, Connecting Egyptian and Iraqi Gas to Jordan, Syria
Syria
and Lebanon, and then to Turkey
Turkey
thus Europe, a free trade Agreement (GAFTA) is to be completed by 1 January 2008, making 95% of all Arab
Arab
Products tax free of customs. Transport Main article: Transport in the Arab
Arab
League The Arab
Arab
League is divided into five parts when it comes to transport, with the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
and the Near East
Near East
being entirely connected by air, sea, roads and railways. Another part of the League is the Nile
Nile
Valley, made up of Egypt
Egypt
and Sudan. These two member states have started to improve the River Nile's navigation system to improve accessibility and thus foster trading. A new railway system is also set to connect the southern Egyptian city of Abu Simbel
Abu Simbel
with the northern Sudanese
Sudanese
city of Wadi Halfa
Wadi Halfa
and then to Khartoum
Khartoum
and Port Sudan. The third division of the League is the Maghreb, where a 3,000 km stretch of railway runs from the southern cities of Morocco
Morocco
to Tripoli
Tripoli
in Western Libya. The fourth division of the League is the Horn of Africa, whose member states include Djibouti
Djibouti
and Somalia. These two Arab
Arab
League states are separated by only ten nautical miles from the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
by the Bab el Mandeb
Bab el Mandeb
and this is quickly changing as Tarik bin Laden, the brother of Osama bin Laden, has initiated the construction of the ambitious Bridge of the Horns project, which ultimately aims to connect the Horn of Africa with the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
via a massive bridge. The project is intended to facilitate and accelerate the already centuries-old trade and commerce between the two regions. The last division of the League is the isolated island of Comoros, which is not physically connected to any other Arab
Arab
state, but still trades with other League members. Literacy
Literacy
in Arab
Arab
league countries Main article: List of countries by literacy rate

Literacy
Literacy
rate in Arab
Arab
World.

In collecting literacy data, many countries estimate the number of literate people based on self-reported data. Some use educational attainment data as a proxy, but measures of school attendance or grade completion may differ. Because definitions and data collection methods vary across countries, literacy estimates should be used with caution. United Nations
United Nations
Development Programme, Human Development Report
Human Development Report
2010. It is also important to note that the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
region has had an oil boom, enabling more schools and universities to be set up.

Rank Country Literacy
Literacy
rate

1  Qatar 97.3[41]

2  Palestine 96.5[41]

3  Kuwait 96.3[41]

4  Bahrain 95.7[41]

5  Jordan 95.4[41]

6  Saudi Arabia 94.4[41]

7  Lebanon 93.9[41]

8  United Arab
Arab
Emirates 93.8[41]

9  Oman 91.1[41]

10  Libya 91[41]

11  Syria 86.4[41]

12  Iraq 85.7[41]

13  Tunisia 81.8[41]

14  Comoros 81.8[41]

15  Algeria 80.2[41]

16  Sudan 75.9[41]

17  Egypt 73.8[41]

18  Yemen 70.1[41]

19  Djibouti 70.0[42]

20  Morocco 68.5[41]

21  Mauritania 52.1[41]

22  Somalia 44–72[43]

Demographics Main article: Demographics of the Arab
Arab
League The Arab
Arab
League is a culturally and ethnically one association of 22 member states, with the overwhelming majority of the League's population identified as Arab
Arab
(on a cultural ethnoracial basis). As of July 1, 2013, about 359 million people live in the states of the Arab League. Its population grows faster than in most other global regions. The most populous member state is Egypt, with a population of about 91 million.[44] The least populated is the Comoros, with over 0.6 million inhabitants.

Rank Country Population Density (/km2) Density (sq mi) Notes

1  Egypt 92,519,544 99 256 [45]

2  Algeria 37,100,000 16 41 [46]

3  Iraq 37,056,169 79 205 [47]

4  Morocco 32,064,173 71 184 [46]

5  Sudan 30,894,000 16 41 [48]

6  Saudi Arabia 28,146,658 12 31 [46]

7  Yemen 23,580,000 45 117 [46]

8  Syria* 21,906,000 118 306 [46]

9  Tunisia 10,673,800 65 168 [49]

10  Somalia 11,400,000 18 47 [46]

11  United Arab
Arab
Emirates 8,264,070 99 256 [50]

12  Libya 6,733,620 3.8 9.8 [46][51]

13  Jordan 6,332,000 71 184 [46]

14  Palestine 4,550,368 756 1,958 [52]

15  Lebanon 4,224,000 404 1,046 [46]

16  Kuwait 3,566,437 200 518 [46]

17  Mauritania 3,291,000 3.2 8.3 [46]

18  Oman 2,845,000 9.2 24 [46]

19  Qatar 1,699,435 154 399 [46]

20  Bahrain 1,234,596 1,646 4,263 [53]

21  Djibouti 864,000 37 96 [46]

22  Comoros 691,000 309 800 [46]

Total   Arab
Arab
League 356,398,918 30.4 78.7

Syrian demographics are before the Syrian civil war.

Religion Almost all of the Arab
Arab
League's citizens adhere to Islam, with Christianity
Christianity
being the second largest religion. At least 15 million Christians combined live in Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, Sudan
Sudan
and Syria. In addition, there are smaller but significant numbers of Druze, Yazidis, Shabaks
Shabaks
and Mandaeans. Numbers for nonreligious Arabs
Arabs
are generally not available, but research by the Pew Forum
Pew Forum
suggests around 1% of people in the MENA region are "unaffiliated".[54] Linguistics The official language of the Arab
Arab
League is Literary Arabic, based on Classical Arabic. However, several Arab
Arab
League member states have other co-official or national languages, such as Somali, Berber, Kurdish, Assyrian, and Nubian. Additionally, various different Arabic dialects are spoken, such as Egyptian Arabic, Levantine Arabic
Arabic
and Moroccan Arabic. Culture

Part of a series on

Arab
Arab
culture

Architecture

Styles

Architecture of ancient Yemen Nabataean architecture Umayyad architecture Abbasid architecture Fatimid architecture Moorish architecture Mamluk architecture

Features

Ablaq Hypostyle Mashrabiya Iwan Liwan Riwaq Qadad Moroccan riad Sahn Tadelakt Vaulting Voussoir Multifoil arch Horseshoe arch Arabic
Arabic
dome Alfiz Arabesque Banna'i Girih Islamic calligraphy Islamic geometric patterns Islamic interlace patterns Mocárabe Muqarnas Nagash painting Socarrat Yeseria Zellige Reflecting pool Howz Mosaic Windcatcher Gardens

Types

Madrasa Maqam Mazar Mosque Tekyeh Zawiya Sebil Shadirvan Bazaar Caravanserai Dar al-Shifa Kasbah Medina quarter Souq Hammam Well house Albarrana tower Alcazaba Alcázar Bab Qalat Ribat

art

Styles

Art of ancient Yemen Nabataean art Umayyad art Abbasid art Moorish art Fatimid art Mamluk art

Types

Arabic
Arabic
calligraphy Arabic
Arabic
miniature Arabic
Arabic
pottery Arabic
Arabic
embroidery Arabic
Arabic
hardstone carving Arabic
Arabic
ivory carving Arabic
Arabic
Metalwork Palestinian wood carving Arabic
Arabic
garden Arabic
Arabic
glass Arab
Arab
carpet Arabic
Arabic
graffiti

Features

Arabic
Arabic
geometric patterns Arabic
Arabic
interlace patterns Arabesque Girih
Girih
tiles Pseudo-Arabic Damask Kiswah Banna'i Zellige Mocárabe Muqarnas Damascus
Damascus
steel Hedwig glass

Gastronomy

Khalij (Arabian Peninsula) Mashriq
Mashriq
(Levant) Arab
Arab
Mawsit (Egypt) Arab
Arab
Maghrib (North Africa)

Dress

Headwear

Keffiyeh Agal Taqiyah Tarboush (fez) Turban Litham Tantour Battoulah Madhalla Haik

Clothing

Thawb Bisht Jellabiya Abaya Bedlah Sirwal Kaftan Djellaba Takchita Burnous Izaar Fouta towel Macawis Robe of honour Durra'ah Tiraz

Music

Theory

Arabic
Arabic
maqam Arab
Arab
tone system Rhythm in Arabian music Taqsim Jins Lazma Teslim Quarter tone Algerian scale Arabic
Arabic
musical instruments Arabic
Arabic
music theorists Great Book of Music

Genres

Arabic
Arabic
pop Arabic
Arabic
hip hop Arabic
Arabic
rock Arabic
Arabic
jazz Classical Arab
Arab
music Opera Al Jeel Khaliji Raï

Art music

Taqsim Andalusian classical music Muwashshah Andalusi nubah Malhun Qudud Halabiya Maqam al-iraqi Qasidah Dulab Sama'i Bashraf Tahmilah Dawr Layali Mawwal Waslah

Folk

Ataaba Zajal Mawwal Fijiri Chaabi (Algeria) Chaabi (Morocco) Gnawa Mezwed Baladi Shaabi Raï Fann at-Tanbura Samri Bedouin Liwa Sawt

Dance

Belly dance Dabke Raqs Sharqi Baladi Almeh Khaleegy Ouled Nail Shamadan Deheyeh Hagallah Schikhatt Guedra Yowla Ardah Al Ayala Samri Tahtib Mizmar Liwa Tanoura Zār

Literature

Language

Old Classical Modern

Prose

Epic literature Saj (ryhmed prose) Maqama Love in Arabic
Arabic
literature Arabic
Arabic
erotic literature Arabic
Arabic
Grimoires Literary_criticism Arabic
Arabic
short story Tabaqat Tezkire Rihla Mirrors for princes

Islamic

Quran Tafsir Hadith Sīra Fiqh Aqidah

Poetry

Anthologies Poets

Genres

Madih Hija Rithā' Waṣf Ghazal Khamriyyah Tardiyyah Khawal Fakhr Hamasa

Forms

Diwan Qasida Muwashshah Urjūza Mathnawi Rubaʿi Nasīb Riddles Kharja Zajal Mawwal Nabati Ghinnawa Humayni Modern Arabic
Arabic
poetry

Arabic
Arabic
prosody

Beit Ṭawīl Madīd Basīṭ Kamil Wāfir Hazaj Rajaz Ramal Munsariħ Khafīf Muqtaḍab Mujtathth Muḍāriʿ Sarīʿ Mutaqārib Mutadārik

Science

Arabic
Arabic
chemistry Arabic
Arabic
astrology Arabic
Arabic
astronomy Arabic
Arabic
geography Arabic
Arabic
Golden Age Arabic
Arabic
mathematics Arabic
Arabic
medicine Arabic
Arabic
psychology Arabic
Arabic
technology

Philosophy

Early Arabic
Arabic
Philosophy Islamic Aristotelianism Islamic Platonism Islamic Logic Kalam Sufi philosophy Farabism Avicennism Averroism Identityism Theoretical mysticism

Concepts

Al-aql al-faal Aql bi-l-fi'l Al-Insān al-Kāmil Dhati Peace Arcs of Descent and Ascent Asabiyyah Haal Irfan Nafs Qadar Qalb Wahdat al-mawjud

Texts

Liber de Causis The Theology of Aristotle Al-isharat The Book of the Apple Encyclopedia of the Brethren of Purity The Incoherence of the Philosophers The Incoherence of the Incoherence Hayy ibn Yaqdhan Theologus Autodidactus On the Harmony of Religions and Philosophy Muqaddimah Sicilian Questions Fusus al-Hikam

Mythology

Jinn Ifrit Marid Ghoul Nasnas Qareen Hinn Qutrub Dandan Roc Karkadann Ababil Buraq Bahamut Falak Shadhavar Atlantis of the Sands Iram of the Pillars Shaddad Kujata Magic carpet Wāḳwāḳ Mount Qaf Luqman Zulfiqar Houri Beast of the Earth She-Camel of God Zarqa al Yamama Shams al-Ma'arif Book of Idols Book of Wonders One Thousand and One Nights

Fictional Arab
Arab
people

Ra's al Ghul Aladdin Sindbad Abdul Alhazred Ali Baba Battal Gazi Hayy ibn Yaqdhan Altaïr Ibn-La'Ahad Othello Princess Jasmine Layla and Majnun King Marsile Kara Ben Nemsi Palamedes Talia al Ghul

Spirituality

North Arabian deities

Al-‘Uzzá Al-Lat Manāt Dushara Chaabou Manaf Nuha Al-Kutbay Asira Awal Azizos Bajir Quzah Manāt Manāt A'ra Abgal Aglibol Allah Al-Qaum Atarsamain Baalshamin Bēl Hubal Suwa' Theandrios Wadd Malakbel Orotalt Ruda Sa'd Yarhibol Isāf and Nā'ila

South Arabian deities

Almaqah Amm Anbay Athtar Salman Dhat-Badan Haubas Ta'lab Qaynan Basamum Dhul Khalasa Haukim Nasr Sīn Ya'uq Yaghūth Yatha

v t e

Sports Main article: Sport policies of the Arab
Arab
League The Pan Arab Games
Pan Arab Games
are considered the biggest Arab
Arab
sporting event, which brings together athletes from all the Arab
Arab
countries to participate in a variety of different sports. The Union of Arab
Arab
Football Associations organises the Arab
Arab
Nations Cup (for national teams) and the UAFA Club Championship
UAFA Club Championship
(for clubs). Arab sport federations also exist for several games, include basketball, volleyball, handball, table tennis, tennis, squash and swimming.[citation needed] See also

Arab
Arab
Charter on Human Rights Arab
Arab
Cold War Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development
Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development
(AFESD) Arab
Arab
leaders Arab
Arab
League and the Arab–Israeli conflict Arab
Arab
League boycott of Israel Arab
Arab
Maghreb
Maghreb
Union (UMA) Arab
Arab
Monetary Fund Arab
Arab
Organization for Industrialization Arab
Arab
Parliament Arab
Arab
Union Bloudan Conference (1937) Council of Arab Economic Unity
Council of Arab Economic Unity
(CAEU) Flag of the Arab
Arab
League General Arab
Arab
Insurance Federation General Union of Chambers of Commerce, Industry and Agriculture for Arab
Arab
Countries Gulf Cooperation Council
Gulf Cooperation Council
(GCC) International Association of Arabic
Arabic
Dialectology (AIDA) International Confederation of Arab
Arab
Trade Unions List of conflicts in the Arab
Arab
League List of country groupings List of largest cities in the Arab
Arab
world List of multilateral free-trade agreements List of tallest buildings in the Arab
Arab
League Lists of the Arab
Arab
League Model Arab
Arab
League Orange card system – motor insurance scheme of the Arab
Arab
League Organisation of Islamic Cooperation Organization of Arab
Arab
Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC) Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Pan Arab
Arab
Games Pan-Arabism Summit of South American- Arab
Arab
Countries United Arab
Arab
Command Arab
Arab
Standardization and Metrology Organization

References

^ Syria
Syria
suspended from Arab
Arab
League, The Guardian ^ total population 450 million, CIA Factbook
CIA Factbook
estimates an Arab population of 533 million, see article text. ^ " Arab
Arab
League". The Columbia Encyclopedia. 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013.  – via Questia (subscription required) ^ Sly, Liz (12 November 2011). " Syria
Syria
suspended from Arab
Arab
League". Washington Post.  ^ a b c "Pact of the League of Arab
Arab
States, 22 March 1945". The Avalon Project. Yale Law School. 1998. Archived from the original on 25 July 2008. Retrieved 15 July 2012.  ^ "The Arab
Arab
League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALESCO)".  ^ Ashish K. Vaidya, Globalization (ABC-CLIO: 2006), p. 525. ^ Fanack. "The Joint Arab
Arab
Force—Will It Ever Work?". Fanack.com. Retrieved 13 July 2015.  ^ a b Arab
Arab
League formed — History.com This Day in History — 3/22/1945. History.com. Retrieved on 2014-04-28. ^ HowStuffWorks " Arab
Arab
League". History.howstuffworks.com (2008-02-27). Retrieved on 2014-04-28. ^ Avi Shlaim, Collusion Across the Jordan: King Abdullah, the Zionist Movement and the Partition of Palestine. Oxford, U.K., Clarendon Press, 1988; Uri Bar-Joseph, Uri, The Best of Enemies: Israel
Israel
and Transjordan in the War of 1948. London, Frank Cass, 1987; Joseph Nevo, King Abdullah and Palestine: A Territorial Ambition (London: Macmillan Press; New York: St. Martin's Press, 1996. ^ Robert W. MacDonald, The League of Arab
Arab
States: A Study in Regional Organization. Princeton, New Jersey, United States, Princeton University Press, 1965. ^ "Pact of the League of Arab
Arab
States, March 22, 1945". Yale Law School. Retrieved 9 July 2016.  ^ Library, C. N. N. " Arab
Arab
League Fast Facts". CNN.  ^ Libya
Libya
suspended from Arab
Arab
League sessions – Israel
Israel
News, Ynetnews. Ynetnews.com (1995-06-20). Retrieved on 2014-04-28. ^ Souhail Karam – Tom Heneghan – Michael Roddy (16 March 2011). "Gaddafi taunts critics, dares them to get him". Reuters. Retrieved 20 March 2011.  ^ Kat Higgins (16 March 2011). "Libya: Clashes Continue As World Powers Stall". Sky News. Retrieved 20 March 2011.  ^ " Arab
Arab
League Recognizes Libyan Rebel Council". RTT News. 25 August 2011. Archived from the original on 8 December 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2011.  ^ " Arab
Arab
League parliament urges Syria
Syria
suspension". Al Jazeera. 20 September 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2011.  ^ " Arab
Arab
League Votes to Suspend Syria
Syria
Over Crackdown". New York Times. 12 November 2011. Retrieved 12 November 2011.  ^ Kenner, D. (27 December 2011). "The World's Worst Human Rights Observer". Foreign Policy.  As Arab
Arab
League monitors work to expose President Bashar al-Assad's crackdown, the head of the mission is a Sudanese
Sudanese
general accused of creating the fearsome "Janjaweed," which was responsible for the worst atrocities during the Darfur genocide. ^ Syrian activists slam Arab
Arab
League mission head CNN, 28 December 2011. ^ "Violence in second Syrian city ahead of Arab
Arab
League monitors' visit". The Guardian. 28 December 2011.  ^ Ian Black. "Syrian opposition takes Arab
Arab
League seat". the Guardian. Retrieved 20 November 2014.  ^ " Syria
Syria
opposition 'not yet ready for Arab
Arab
League seat'". The Daily Star Newspaper – Lebanon. Retrieved 20 November 2014.  ^ "Internal Regulations of the Council of the League of Arab
Arab
States". Model League of Arab
Arab
States. Ed Haynes, Winthrop University. 6 April 1998. Archived from the original on 6 April 2008. Retrieved 9 July 2008.  ^ "Internal Regulations of the Committees of the League of Arab States". Model League of Arab
Arab
States. Ed Haynes, Winthrop University. 6 April 1998. Archived from the original on 6 April 2008. Retrieved 9 July 2008.  ^ "Internal Regulations of the Secretariat-General of the League". Model League of Arab
Arab
States. Ed Haynes, Winthrop University. 6 April 1998. Archived from the original on 6 April 2008. Retrieved 9 July 2008.  ^ Geddes, 1991, p. 208. ^ Council of Arab
Arab
States (1 October 2005). "The Arab
Arab
Peace Initiative, 2002". al bab. Archived from the original on 4 June 2009. Retrieved 9 July 2008.  ^ "Kuwaiti MP calls to move Arab
Arab
league to Venezuela". AFP, via CaribbeanNetNews. 15 January 2009. Archived from the original on 4 March 2009. Retrieved 16 January 2009.  ^ Boyle, Christina; al-Alayaa, Zaid (29 March 2015). " Arab
Arab
League's joint military force is a 'defining moment' for region". Los Angeles Times.  ^ Arab
Arab
League Summit 2013. Qatarconferences.org (2013-03-27). Retrieved on 2014-04-28. ^ Arab
Arab
League summit hit by new rifts - Features. Al Jazeera
Al Jazeera
English. Retrieved on 2014-04-28. ^ Opposition fail to get Syria
Syria
Arab
Arab
League seat - Middle East. Al Jazeera English. Retrieved on 2014-04-28. ^ "الأردن يستضيف القمة العربية في مارس". www.alarabiya.net.  ^ "Arab-Israeli Wars: 60 Years of Conflict". ABC-CLIO. Retrieved 30 June 2014.  ^ Osmańczyk, Edmund Jan (2003). "League of Arab
Arab
States". In Mango, Anthony. Encyclopedia of the United Nations
United Nations
and international agreements. 2 (3 ed.). New York: Routledge. p. 1290.  ^ " Arab
Arab
summit agrees on unified military force for crises". Reuters. 29 Mar 2015.  ^ "Reuters.com". Reuters. Retrieved 20 November 2014.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t The World Factbook. Cia.gov. Retrieved on 2014-04-28. ^ DK Publishing (2012). Compact Atlas of the World. Penguin. p. 138. ISBN 0756698596.  ^ "Family Ties: Remittances and Livelihoods Support in Puntland and Somaliland" (PDF). FSNAU. Retrieved 11 December 2016.  ^ "Central Agency for Public Mobilization And Statistics". Archived from the original on 26 April 2011.  ^ Official Egyptian Population clock Archived 30 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "World Population Prospects, Table A.1" (PDF). 2008 revision. United Nations
United Nations
Department of Economic and Social Affairs. 2009: 17. Retrieved 22 September 2010.  ^ "Site institutionnel du Haut-Commissariat au Plan du Royaume du Maroc". Site institutionnel du Haut-Commissariat au Plan du Royaume du Maroc.  ^ "الجهاز المركزي للإحصاء". www.cbs.gov.sd.  ^ "National Statistics Institute of Tunisia". Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2014.  ^ "المركز الوطني للإحصاء: المواطنون 947.9 ألفاً - جريدة الاتحاد". Alittihad.ae. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2011.  ^ "The World Factbook". cia.gov.  ^ "Estimated Population in the Palestinian Territory Mid-Year by Governorate,1997-2016". Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. State of Palestine. Archived from the original on 8 June 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2014.  ^ Bahraini Census 2010 - تعداد السكــان العام للبحريــن 2010. Census2010.gov.bh. Retrieved on 2014-04-28. ^ "Religious Diversity Around The World – Pew Research Center". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 4 April 2014. 

External links

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Arab
Arab
League Pact

Wikimedia Commons has media related to League of Arab
Arab
States.

(in Arabic) The League of Arab
Arab
States (official site). (in English) League of Arab
Arab
States Office in Washington D.C. – USA The League of Arab
Arab
States at Al-Bab.com The Arab
Arab
League at Council on Foreign Relations Profile: Arab
Arab
League, BBC News, updated 9 August 2011 Arab
Arab
League at Jewish Virtual Library Arab
Arab
League at WorldStatesmen.org Arab League Summit 2013
Arab League Summit 2013
in Qatar
Qatar
(in English) Arab
Arab
Turk Conference and Expo at Bursa

Arab
Arab
League collected news and commentary at The Jerusalem Post " Arab
Arab
League collected news and commentary". The New York Times. 

v t e

Arab
Arab
League

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Arab
League Lists Portal
Portal
Arab
Arab
world

Politics

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Arab
Union

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v t e

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v t e

Countries and languages lists

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Arab
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(Portuguese) Países Africanos de Língua Oficial Portuguesa (Portuguese) Latin Union (Romance) Hispanidad
Hispanidad
(Spanish) Turkic Council (Turkic) International Organization of Turkic Culture (Turkic)

See also

Lists of languages Category:Languages

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 3763102 LCCN: n80002390 ISNI: 0000 0001 2118 3051 GND: 1005782-1 SUDOC: 027475778 BNF: cb11880367f (data) NLA: 3529

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