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Aphrodite
Aphrodite
(/æfrəˈdaɪti/ ( listen) af-rə-DY-tee; Greek: Ἀφροδίτη Aphrodítē) is the ancient Greek goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, and procreation. She is identified with the planet Venus, which is named after the Roman goddess Venus, with whom Aphrodite
Aphrodite
was extensively syncretized. Aphrodite's major symbols include myrtles, roses, doves, sparrows, and swans. The cult of Aphrodite
Aphrodite
was largely derived from that of the Phoenician goddess Astarte, a cognate of the East Semitic goddess Ishtar, whose cult was based on the Sumerian cult of Inanna. Aphrodite's main cult centers were Cythera, Cyprus, Corinth, and Athens. Her main festival was the Aphrodisia, which was celebrated annually in midsummer. In Laconia, Aphrodite
Aphrodite
was worshipped as a warrior goddess. She was also the patron goddess of prostitutes, an association which led early scholars to propose the concept of "sacred prostitution", an idea which is now generally seen as erroneous. In Hesiod's Theogony, Aphrodite
Aphrodite
is born off the coast of Cythera from the foam (aphros) produced by Uranus's genitals, which his son Cronus has severed and thrown into the sea. In Homer's Iliad, however, she is the daughter of Zeus
Zeus
and Dione. Plato, in his Symposium 180e, asserts that these two origins actually belong to separate entities: Aphrodite Ourania (a transcendent, "Heavenly" Aphrodite) and Aphrodite
Aphrodite
Pandemos ( Aphrodite
Aphrodite
common to "all the people"). Aphrodite
Aphrodite
had many other epithets, each emphasizing a different aspect of the same goddess, or used by a different local cult. Thus she was also known as Cytherea (Lady of Cythera) and Cypris (Lady of Cyprus), due to the fact that both locations claimed to be the place of her birth. In Greek mythology, Aphrodite
Aphrodite
was married to Hephaestus, the god of blacksmiths and metalworking. Despite this, Aphrodite
Aphrodite
was frequently unfaithful to him and had many lovers; in the Odyssey, she is caught in the act of adultery with Ares, the god of war. In the First Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite, she seduces the mortal shepherd Anchises. Aphrodite was also the surrogate mother and lover of the mortal shepherd Adonis, who was killed by a wild boar. Along with Athena
Athena
and Hera, Aphrodite was one of the three goddesses whose feud resulted in the beginning of the Trojan War
Trojan War
and she plays a major role throughout the Iliad. Aphrodite
Aphrodite
has been featured in western art as a symbol of female beauty and has appeared in numerous works of western literature. She is a major deity in modern Neopagan religions, including the Church of Aphrodite, Wicca, and Hellenismos.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Origins

2.1 Near Eastern love goddess 2.2 Indo-European dawn goddess

3 Forms and epithets 4 Worship

4.1 Classical period 4.2 Hellenistic and Roman periods

5 Mythology

5.1 Birth 5.2 Among the gods 5.3 Mortal lovers

5.3.1 Anchises 5.3.2 Adonis

5.4 Divine favoritism 5.5 Anger myths 5.6 Judgment of Paris and Trojan War

6 Consorts and children 7 Iconography

7.1 Symbols 7.2 Representations in classical art

8 Post-classical culture

8.1 Middle Ages 8.2 Art 8.3 Literature 8.4 Modern worship

9 See also 10 Notes 11 References

11.1 Bibliography

12 External links

Etymology Hesiod
Hesiod
derives Aphrodite
Aphrodite
from aphrós (ἀφρός) "sea-foam",[4] interpreting the name as "risen from the foam",[5][4] but most modern scholars regard this as a spurious folk etymology.[4][6] Early modern scholars of classical mythology attempted to argue that Aphrodite's name was of Greek or Indo-European origin,[6] but these efforts have now been mostly abandoned.[6] Aphrodite's name is generally accepted to be of non-Greek, probably Semitic, origin,[6] but its exact derivation cannot be determined.[6] Scholars in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, accepting Hesiod's "foam" etymology as genuine, analyzed the second part of Aphrodite's name as *-odítē "wanderer"[7] or *-dítē "bright".[8][9] Michael Janda, also accepting Hesiod's etymology, has argued in favor of the latter of these interpretations[10][11] and claims the story of a birth from the foam as an Indo-European mytheme.[10][11] Likewise, Witczak proposes an Indo-European compound *abʰor- "very" and *dʰei- "to shine", also referring to Eos.[12] Other scholars have argued that these hypotheses are unlikely since Aphrodite's attributes are entirely different from those of both Eos and the Vedic deity Ushas.[13][14] A number of improbable non-Greek etymologies have also been suggested. One Semitic etymology compares Aphrodite
Aphrodite
to the Assyrian barīrītu, the name of a female demon that appears in Middle Babylonian and Late Babylonian texts.[15] Hammarström[16] looks to Etruscan, comparing (e)prϑni "lord", an Etruscan honorific loaned into Greek as πρύτανις.[17][18][19] This would make the theonym in origin an honorific, "the lady".[17][18] Most scholars reject this etymology as implausible,[17][18][19] especially since Aphrodite
Aphrodite
actually appears in Etruscan in the borrowed form Apru (from Greek Aphrō, clipped form of Aphrodite).[18] The medieval Etymologicum Magnum
Etymologicum Magnum
(c. 1150) offers a highly contrived etymology, deriving Aphrodite
Aphrodite
from the compound habrodíaitos (ἁβροδίαιτος), "she who lives delicately", from habrós and díaita. The alteration from b to ph is explained as a "familiar" characteristic of Greek "obvious from the Macedonians".[20] Origins Near Eastern love goddess

Late second-millennium BC nude figurine of Ishtar
Ishtar
from Susa, showing her wearing a crown and clutching her breasts

Early fifth-century BC statue of Aphrodite
Aphrodite
from Cyprus, showing her wearing a cylinder crown and holding a dove

The cult of Aphrodite
Aphrodite
in Greece
Greece
was imported from, or at least influenced by, the cult of Astarte
Astarte
in Phoenicia,[21][22][23][24] which, in turn, was influenced by the cult of the Mesopotamian goddess known as "Ishtar" to the East Semitic peoples and as "Inanna" to the Sumerians.[25][23][24] Pausanias states that the first to establish a cult of Aphrodite
Aphrodite
were the Assyrians, after the Assyrians, the Paphians of Cyprus, and then the Phoenicians at Ascalon. The Phoenicians, in turn, taught her worship to the people of Cythera.[26] Aphrodite
Aphrodite
took on Inanna-Ishtar's associations with sexuality and procreation.[27] Furthermore, she was known as Ourania (Οὐρανία), which means "heavenly",[28] a title corresponding to Inanna's role as the Queen of Heaven.[28] Early artistic and literary portrayals of Aphrodite
Aphrodite
are extremely similar on Inanna-Ishtar.[27] Like Inanna-Ishtar, Aphrodite
Aphrodite
was also a warrior goddess;[27][22] the second-century AD Greek geographer Pausanias records that, in Sparta, Aphrodite
Aphrodite
was worshipped as Aphrodite
Aphrodite
Areia, which means "warlike".[29][30] He also mentions that Aphrodite's most ancient cult statues in Sparta
Sparta
and on Cythera showed her bearing arms.[29][30][31][27] Modern scholars note that Aphrodite's warrior-goddess aspects appear in the oldest strata of her worship[32] and see it as an indication of her Near Eastern origins.[32] Nineteenth century classical scholars had a general aversion to the idea that ancient Greek religion was at all influenced by the cultures of the Near East,[33] but, even Friedrich Gottlieb Welcker, who argued that Near Eastern influence on Greek culture was largely confined to material culture,[33] admitted that Aphrodite
Aphrodite
was clearly of Phoenician origin.[33] The significant influence of Near Eastern culture on early Greek religion in general, and on the cult of Aphrodite
Aphrodite
in particular,[34] is now widely recognized as dating to a period of orientalization during the eighth century BC,[34] when archaic Greece
Greece
was on the fringes of the Neo-Assyrian Empire.[35] Indo-European dawn goddess Some early comparative mythologists opposed to the idea of a Near Eastern origin argued that Aphrodite
Aphrodite
originated as an aspect of the Greek dawn goddess Eos[36][37] and that she was therefore ultimately derived from the Proto-Indo-European dawn goddess *Haéusōs (properly Greek Eos, Latin Aurora, Sanskrit Ushas).[36][37] Most modern scholars have now rejected the notion of a purely Indo-European Aphrodite,[6][13][14][38] but it is possible that Aphrodite, originally a Semitic deity, may have been influenced by the Indo-European dawn goddess.[38] Both Aphrodite
Aphrodite
and Eos
Eos
were known for their erotic beauty and aggressive sexuality[37] and both had relationships with mortal lovers.[37] Both goddesses were associated with the colors red, white, and gold.[37] Michael Janda etymologizes Aphrodite's name as an epithet of Eos
Eos
meaning "she who rises from the foam [of the ocean]"[11] and points to Hesiod's Theogony
Theogony
account of Aphrodite's birth as an archaic reflex of Indo-European myth.[11] Aphrodite
Aphrodite
rising out of the waters after Cronus
Cronus
defeats Uranus as a mytheme would then be directly cognate to the Rigvedic myth of Indra defeating Vrtra, liberating Ushas.[10][11] Another key similarity between Aphrodite
Aphrodite
and the Indo-European dawn goddess is her close kinship to the Greek sky deity,[38] since both of the main claimants to her paternity ( Zeus
Zeus
and Uranus) are sky deities.[39] Forms and epithets

Aphrodite
Aphrodite
Ourania, draped rather than nude, with her foot resting on a tortoise (Musée du Louvre)

Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
herm of Aphroditus, a male form of Aphrodite,[40][41][42] currently held in the Nationalmuseum
Nationalmuseum
in Stockholm

See also: Category:Epithets of Aphrodite Aphrodite's most common cultic epithet was Ourania, meaning "heavenly",[43][44] but this epithet almost never occurs in literary texts, indicating a purely cultic significance.[45] Another common name for Aphrodite
Aphrodite
was Pandemos ("For All the Folk").[46] In her role as Aphrodite
Aphrodite
Pandemos, Aphrodite
Aphrodite
was associated with Peithō (Πείθω), meaning "persuasion",[47] and could be prayed to for aid in seduction.[47] Plato, in his Symposium, argues that Aphrodite Ourania and Aphrodite Pandemos
Aphrodite Pandemos
are, in fact, separate goddesses. He asserts that Aphrodite Ourania
Aphrodite Ourania
is the celestial Aphrodite, born from the sea foam after Cronus
Cronus
castrated Uranus, and the older of the two goddesses. According to the Symposium, Aphrodite Ourania
Aphrodite Ourania
is the inspiration of male homosexual desire, specifically the ephebic eros. Aphrodite
Aphrodite
Pandemos, by contrast, is the younger of the two goddesses: the common Aphrodite, born from the union of Zeus
Zeus
and Dione, and the inspiration of heterosexual desire, the "lesser" of the two loves.[48][49] Among the Neoplatonists and, later, their Christian interpreters, Aphrodite Ourania
Aphrodite Ourania
is associated with spiritual love, and Aphrodite Pandemos with physical love (desire). A representation of Aphrodite Ourania with her foot resting on a tortoise came to be seen as emblematic of discretion in conjugal love; it was the subject of a chryselephantine sculpture by Phidias
Phidias
for Elis, known only from a parenthetical comment by the geographer Pausanias.[50] One of Aphrodite's most common literary epithets is Philommeidḗs (φιλομμειδής),[51] which means "smile-loving",[51] but is sometimes mistranslated as "laughter-loving".[51] This epithet occurs throughout both of the Homeric epics and the First Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite.[51] Hesiod
Hesiod
references it once in his Theogony
Theogony
in the context of Aphrodite's birth,[52] but interprets it as "genital-loving" rather than "smile-loving".[52] Monica Cyrino notes that the epithet may relate to the fact that, in many artistic depictions of Aphrodite, she is shown smiling.[52] Other common literary epithets are Cypris and Cythereia,[53] which derive from her associations with the islands of Cyprus
Cyprus
and Cythera respectively.[53] On Cyprus, Aphrodite
Aphrodite
was sometimes called Eleemon ("the merciful").[44] In Athens, she was known as Aphrodite
Aphrodite
en kopois (" Aphrodite
Aphrodite
of the Gardens").[44] At Cape Colias, a town along the Attic coast, she was venerated as Genetyllis ("the mother").[44] The Spartans worshipped her as Potnia ("the Mistress"), Enoplios ("the armed"), Morpho ("the shapely"), Ambologera ("she who postpones old age").[44] Across the Greek world, she was known under epithets such as Melainis ("the Black One"), Skotia ("the Dark One"), Androphonos ("the Killer of Men"), Anosia ("the Unholy"), and Tymborychos ("the gravedigger"),[42] all of which indicate her darker, more violent nature.[42] A male version of Aphrodite
Aphrodite
known as Aphroditus
Aphroditus
was worshipped in the city of Amathus
Amathus
on Cyprus.[40][41][42] Aphroditus
Aphroditus
was depicted with the figure and dress of a woman,[40][41] but had a full beard,[40][41] and was shown lifting his dress to reveal an erect phallus.[40][41] This gesture was believed to be an apotropaic symbol,[54] and was thought to convey good fortune upon the viewer.[54] Eventually, the popularity of Aphroditus
Aphroditus
waned as the mainstream, fully feminine version of Aphrodite
Aphrodite
became more popular,[41] but traces of his cult are preserved in the later legends of Hermaphroditus.[41] Worship Classical period

Ruins of the temple of Aphrodite
Aphrodite
at Aphrodisias

Aphrodite's main festival, the Aphrodisia, was celebrated across Greece, but particularly in Athens
Athens
and Corinth. In Athens, the Aphrodisia was celebrated on the fourth day of the month of Hekatombaion in honor of Aphrodite's role in the unification of Attica.[55][56] During this festival, the priests of Aphrodite
Aphrodite
would purify the temple of Aphrodite Pandemos
Aphrodite Pandemos
on the southwestern slope of the Acropolis with the blood of a sacrificed dove.[57] Next, the altars would be anointed[57] and the cult statues of Aphrodite Pandemos and Peitho
Peitho
would be escorted in a magestic procession to a place where they would be ritually bathed.[58] Aphrodite
Aphrodite
was also honored in Athens
Athens
as part of the Arrhephoria festival.[59] The fourth day of every month was sacred to Aphrodite.[60] Pausanias records that, in Sparta, Aphrodite
Aphrodite
was worshipped as Aphrodite
Aphrodite
Areia, which means "warlike".[29][30] This epithet stresses Aphrodite's connections to Ares, with whom she had extramarital relations.[29][30] Pausanias also records that, in Sparta[29][30] and on Cythera, a number of extremely ancient cult statues of Aphrodite portrayed her bearing arms.[31][44] Other cult statues showed her bound in chains.[44] Aphrodite
Aphrodite
was the patron goddess of prostitutes of all varieties,[61][44] ranging from pornai (cheap street prostitutes typically owned as slaves by wealthy pimps) to hetairai (expensive, well-educated hired companions, who were usually self-employed and sometimes provided sex to their customers).[62] The city of Corinth was renowned throughout the ancient world for its many hetairai,[63] who had a widespread reputation for being among the most skilled, but also the most expensive, prostitutes in the Greek world.[63] Corinth also had a major temple to Aphrodite
Aphrodite
located on the Acrocorinth[63] and was one of the main centers of her cult.[63] Records of numerous dedications to Aphrodite
Aphrodite
made by successful courtesans have survived in poems and in pottery inscriptions.[62] References to Aphrodite
Aphrodite
in association with prostitution are found in Corinth
Corinth
as well as on the islands of Cyprus, Cythera, and Sicily.[64] Aphrodite's Mesopotamian precursor Inanna- Ishtar
Ishtar
was also closely associated with prostitution.[65][66][64] Scholars in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries believed that the cult of Aphrodite
Aphrodite
may have involved ritual prostitution,[66][64] an assumption based on ambiguous passages in certain ancient texts, particularly a fragment of a skolion by the Boeotian poet Pindar,[67] which mentions prostitutes in Corinth
Corinth
in association with Aphrodite.[67] Modern scholars now dismiss the notion of ritual prostitution in Greece
Greece
as a "historiographic myth" with no factual basis.[68] Hellenistic and Roman periods

Greek relief from Aphrodisias, depicting a Roman-influenced Aphrodite sitting on a throne holding an infant while the shepherd Anchises stands beside her. Carlos Delgado; CC-BY-SA.

During the Hellenistic Period, the Greeks
Greeks
identified Aphrodite
Aphrodite
with the ancient Egyptian goddesses Hathor
Hathor
and Isis.[69][70][71] Aphrodite was the patron goddess of the Lagid queens[72] and Queen Arsinoe II was identified as her mortal incarnation.[72] Aphrodite
Aphrodite
was worshipped in Alexandria[72] and had numerous temples in and around the city.[72] Arsinoe II
Arsinoe II
introduced the cult of Adonis
Adonis
to Alexandria
Alexandria
and many of the women there partook in it.[72] The Tessarakonteres, a gigantic catamaran galley designed by Archimedes
Archimedes
for Ptolemy IV Philopator, had a circular temple to Aphrodite
Aphrodite
on it with a marble statue of the goddess herself.[72] In the second century BC, Ptolemy VIII Physcon and his wives Cleopatra II and Cleopatra III dedicated a temple to Aphrodite
Aphrodite
Hathor
Hathor
at Philae.[72] Statuettes of Aphrodite
Aphrodite
for personal devotion became common in Egypt starting in the early Ptolemaic times and extending until long after Egypt became a Roman province.[72] The ancient Romans identified Aphrodite
Aphrodite
with their goddess Venus,[73] who was originally a goddess of agricultural fertility, vegetation, and springtime.[73] According to the Roman historian Livy, Aphrodite and Venus
Venus
were officially identified in the third century BC[74] when the cult of Venus
Venus
Erycina was introduced to Rome from the Greek sanctuary of Aphrodite
Aphrodite
on Mount Eryx
Eryx
in Sicily.[74] After this point, Romans adopted Aphrodite's iconography and myths and applied them to Venus.[74] Because Aphrodite
Aphrodite
was the mother of the Trojan hero Aeneas in Greek mythology[74] and Roman tradition claimed Aeneas
Aeneas
as the founder of Rome,[74] Venus
Venus
became venerated as Venus
Venus
Genetrix, the mother of the entire Roman nation.[74] Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
claimed to be directly descended from Aeneas's son Iulus[75] and became a strong proponent of the cult of Venus.[75] This precedent was later followed by his nephew Augustus
Augustus
and the later emperors claiming succession from him.[75] This syncretism greatly impacted Greek worship of Aphrodite.[76] During the Roman era, the cults of Aphrodite
Aphrodite
in many Greek cities began to emphasize her relationship with Troy
Troy
and Aeneas.[76] They also began to adopt distinctively Roman elements,[76] portraying Aphrodite
Aphrodite
as more maternal, more militaristic, and more concerned with administrative bureaucracy.[76] She was claimed as a divine guardian by many political magistrates.[76] Appearances of Aphrodite
Aphrodite
in Greek literature also vastly proliferated, usually showing Aphrodite
Aphrodite
in a characteristically Roman manner.[77] Mythology Birth

Early fourth-century BC Attic pottery vessel in the shape of Aphrodite inside a shell from the Phanagoria
Phanagoria
cemetery in the Taman Peninsula

Petra tou Romiou
Petra tou Romiou
("The rock of the Greek"), Aphrodite's legendary birthplace in Paphos, Cyprus

Aphrodite
Aphrodite
is usually said to have been born near her chief center of worship, Paphos, on the island of Cyprus, which is why she is sometimes called "Cyprian", especially in the poetic works of Sappho. However, other versions of her myth have her born near the island of Cythera, hence another of her names, "Cytherea".[78] Cythera was a stopping place for trade and culture between Crete
Crete
and the Peloponesus,[79] so these stories may preserve traces of the migration of Aphrodite's cult from the Middle East to mainland Greece.[80] According to the version of her birth recounted by Hesiod
Hesiod
in his Theogony,[81] Cronus
Cronus
severed Uranus' genitals and threw them behind him into the sea.[81][82][83] The foam from his genitals gave rise to Aphrodite[4] (hence her name, which Hesiod
Hesiod
interprets as "foam-arisen"),[4] while the Giants, the Erinyes
Erinyes
(furies), and the Meliae emerged from the drops of his blood.[81][82] Hesiod
Hesiod
states that the genitals "were carried over the sea a long time, and white foam arose from the immortal flesh; with it a girl grew." Hesiod's account of Aphrodite's birth following Uranus's castration is probably derived from The Song of Kumarbi,[84][85] an ancient Hittite epic poem in which the god Kumarbi overthrows his father Anu, the god of the sky, and bites off his genitals, causing him to become pregnant and give birth to Anu's children, which include Ishtar
Ishtar
and her brother Teshub, the Hittite storm god.[84][85] In the Iliad,[86] Aphrodite
Aphrodite
is described as the daughter of Zeus
Zeus
and Dione.[4] Dione's name appears to be a feminine cognate to Dios and Dion,[4] which are oblique forms of the name Zeus.[4] Zeus
Zeus
and Dione shared a cult at Dodona
Dodona
in northwestern Greece.[4] In Theogony, Hesiod describes Dione as an Oceanid.[87] Among the gods

First-century AD Roman fresco of Mars and Venus
Venus
from Pompeii

Aphrodite
Aphrodite
is consistently portrayed as a nubile, infinitely desirable adult, having had no childhood.[88] She is often depicted nude.[89] In the Iliad, Aphrodite
Aphrodite
is the apparently unmarried consort of Ares, the god of war,[90] and the wife of Hephaestus
Hephaestus
is a different goddess named Charis.[91] Likewise, in Hesiod's Theogony, Aphrodite
Aphrodite
is unmarried and the wife of Hephaestus
Hephaestus
is Aglaea, the youngest of the three Charites.[91] In Book Eight of the Odyssey,[92] however, the blind singer Demodocus describes Aphrodite
Aphrodite
as the wife of Hephaestus[91] and tells how she committed adultery with Ares
Ares
during the Trojan War.[91][93] The sun-god Helios
Helios
saw Aphrodite
Aphrodite
and Ares
Ares
having sex in Hephaestus's bed[93] and warned Hephaestus,[93] who fashioned a net of gold.[93] The next time Ares
Ares
and Aphrodite
Aphrodite
had sex together, the net trapped them both.[93] Hephaestus
Hephaestus
brought all the gods into the bedchamber to laugh at the captured adulterers,[94] but Apollo, Hermes, and Poseidon had sympathy for Ares[95] and Poseidon
Poseidon
agreed to pay Hephaestus
Hephaestus
for Ares's release.[96] Humiliated, Aphrodite
Aphrodite
returned to Cyprus,[96] where she was attended by the Charites.[96] This narrative probably originated as a Greek folk tale, originally independent of the Odyssey.[97] Later stories were invented to explain Aphrodite's marriage to Hephaestus. In the most famous story, Zeus
Zeus
hastily married Aphrodite to Hephaestus
Hephaestus
in order to prevent the other gods from fighting over her.[98] In another version of the myth, Hephaestus
Hephaestus
gave his mother Hera
Hera
a golden throne,[99] but, when she sat on it, she became trapped and he refused to let her go until she agreed to give him Aphrodite's hand in marriage.[99] Hephaestus
Hephaestus
was overjoyed to be married to the goddess of beauty, and forged her beautiful jewelry, including a strophion known as the kestos imas,[100] a saltire-shaped undergarment (usually translated as "girdle"),[101] which accentuated her breasts[102] and made her even more irresistible to men.[101] Such strophia were commonly used in depictions of the Near Eastern goddesses Ishtar
Ishtar
and Atargatis.[101] Aphrodite
Aphrodite
is almost always accompanied by Eros, the god of lust and sexual desire.[103] In his Theogony, Hesiod
Hesiod
describes Eros
Eros
as one of the four original primeval forces born at the beginning of time,[103] but, after the birth of Aphrodite
Aphrodite
from the sea foam, he is joined by Himeros
Himeros
and, together, they become Aphrodite's constant companions.[104] In early Greek art, Eros
Eros
and Himeros
Himeros
are both shown as idealized handsome youths with wings.[105] The Greek lyric poets regarded the power of Eros
Eros
and Himeros
Himeros
as dangerous, compulsive, and impossible for anyone to resist.[106] In modern times, Eros
Eros
is often seen as Aphrodite's son,[107] but this is actually a comparatively late innovation.[108] A scholion on Theocritus's Idylls remarks that the sixth-century BC poetess Sappho
Sappho
had described Eros
Eros
as the son of Aphrodite
Aphrodite
and Uranus,[109] but the first surviving reference to Eros as Aphrodite's son comes from Apollonius of Rhodes's Argonautica, written in the third century BC, which makes him the son of Aphrodite and Ares.[110] Later, the Romans, who saw Venus
Venus
as a mother goddess, seized on this idea of Eros
Eros
as Aphrodite's son and popularized it,[110] making it the predominant portrayal in works on mythology until the present day.[110] Aphrodite's main attendants were the three Charites, whom Hesiod identifies as the daughters of Zeus
Zeus
and Eurynome and names as Aglaea ("Splendor"), Euphrosyne ("Good Cheer"), and Thalia ("Abundance").[111] The Charites
Charites
had been worshipped as goddesses in Greece
Greece
since the beginning of Greek history, long before Aphrodite
Aphrodite
was introduced to the pantheon.[91] Aphrodite's other set of attendants was the three Horae
Horae
(the "Hours"),[91] whom Hesiod
Hesiod
identifies as the daughters of Zeus
Zeus
and Themis
Themis
and names as Eunomia ("Good Order"), Dike ("Justice"), and Eirene ("Peace").[112] Aphrodite
Aphrodite
was also sometimes accompanied by Harmonia, her own daughter by Ares,[113] and Hebe, the daughter of Zeus
Zeus
and Hera.[113] The fertility god Priapus
Priapus
was usually considered to be Aphrodite's son by Dionysus,[114] but he was sometimes also described as her son by Hermes, Adonis, or even Zeus.[114] A scholion on Apollonius of Rhodes's Argonautica[115] states that, while Aphrodite
Aphrodite
was pregnant with Priapus, Hera
Hera
envied her[114] and applied an evil potion to her belly while she was sleeping to ensure that the child would be hideous.[114] When Aphrodite
Aphrodite
gave birth, she was horrified to see that the child had a massive, permanently erect penis, a potbelly, and a huge tongue.[114] Aphrodite
Aphrodite
abandoned the infant to die in the wilderness,[114] but a herdsman found him and raised him,[114] later discovering that Priapus
Priapus
could use his massive penis to aid in the growth of plants.[114] Mortal lovers Anchises

Venus
Venus
and Anchises
Anchises
(1889 or 1890) by William Blake Richmond

Main article: Anchises The First Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite
Aphrodite
(Hymn 5), which was probably composed sometime in the mid-seventh century BC,[116] describes how Zeus
Zeus
once became annoyed with Aphrodite
Aphrodite
for causing deities to fall in love with mortals,[116] so he caused her to fall in love with Anchises, a handsome mortal shepherd who lived in the foothills beneath Mount Ida
Mount Ida
near the city of Troy.[116] Aphrodite
Aphrodite
appears to Anchises
Anchises
in the form of a tall, beautiful, mortal virgin while he is alone in his home.[117] Anchises
Anchises
sees her dressed in bright clothing and gleaming jewelry, with her breasts shining with divine radiance.[118] He asks her if she is Aphrodite
Aphrodite
and promises to build her an altar on top of the mountain if she will bless him and his family.[119] Aphrodite, however, lies and tells him that she not a goddess,[119] but the daughter of one of the noble families of Phrygia.[119] She claims to be able to understand the Trojan language because she had a Trojan nurse as a child[119] and says that she found herself on the mountainside after she was snatched up by Hermes
Hermes
while dancing in a celebration in honor of Artemis, the goddess of virginity.[119] Aphrodite
Aphrodite
tells Anchises
Anchises
that she is still a virgin[119] and begs him to take her to his parents.[119] Anchises
Anchises
immediately becomes overcome with mad lust for Aphrodite
Aphrodite
and swears that he will have sex with her.[119] Anchises
Anchises
takes Aphrodite, with her eyes cast downwards, to his bed, which is covered in the furs of lions and bears.[120] He then strips her naked and makes love to her.[120] After the lovemaking is complete, Aphrodite
Aphrodite
reveals her true divine form.[121] Anchises
Anchises
is terrified,[121] but Aphrodite
Aphrodite
consoles him and promises that she will bear him a son.[121] She prophecizes that their son will be the demigod Aeneas,[122] who will be raised by the nymphs of the wilderness for five years before going to Troy
Troy
to become a nobleman like his father.[122] The story of Aeneas's conception is also mentioned in Hesiod's Theogony
Theogony
and in Book II of Homer's Iliad.[122][123] Adonis

Attic red-figure aryballos by Aison (c. 410 BC) showing Aphrodite consorting with Adonis, who is seated and playing the lyre, while Eros stands behind him

Fragment of an Attic red-figure wedding vase (c. 430-420 BC), showing women climbing ladders up to the roofs of their houses carrying "gardens of Adonis"

The Adonis
Adonis
River (now known as the Abraham River) in Lebanon
Lebanon
was said to run red with blood each year during the festival of Adonis.[124]

Main article: Adonis The myth of Aphrodite
Aphrodite
and Adonis
Adonis
is probably derived from the ancient Sumerian legend of Inanna
Inanna
and Dumuzid.[125][126][127] The Greek name Ἄδωνις (Adōnis, Greek pronunciation: [ádɔːnis]) is derived from the Canaanite word ʼadōn, meaning "lord".[128][127] The earliest known Greek reference to Adonis
Adonis
comes from a fragment of a poem by the Lesbian poetess Sappho, dating to the seventh century BC,[129] in which a chorus of young girls asks Aphrodite
Aphrodite
what they can do to mourn Adonis's death.[129] Aphrodite
Aphrodite
replies that they must beat their breasts and tear their tunics.[129] Later references flesh out the story with more details:[130] Adonis
Adonis
was the son of Myrrha, who was cursed by Aphrodite
Aphrodite
with insatiable lust for her own father, King Cinyras
Cinyras
of Cyprus,[131] after Myrrha's mother bragged that her daughter was more beautiful than the goddess.[131] Driven out after becoming pregnant, Myrrha
Myrrha
was changed into a myrrh tree, but still gave birth to Adonis.[132] Aphrodite
Aphrodite
found the baby,[124] and took him to the underworld to be fostered by Persephone.[124] She returned for him once he was grown[124] and discovered him to be strikingly handsome.[124] Persephone
Persephone
wanted to keep Adonis,[124] resulting in a custody battle between the two goddesses over which of them Adonis
Adonis
rightly belonged to.[124] Zeus
Zeus
settled the dispute by decreeing that Adonis
Adonis
would spend one third of the year with Aphrodite, one third with Persephone, and one third with whomever he chose.[124] Adonis
Adonis
chose Aphrodite, and they remained constantly together.[124] Then, one day while Adonis
Adonis
was out hunting, he was wounded by a wild boar, and bled to death in Aphrodite's arms.[124] In different versions of the story, the boar was either sent by Ares, who was jealous that Aphrodite
Aphrodite
was spending so much time with Adonis,[133] or by Artemis, who wanted revenge against Aphrodite
Aphrodite
for having killed her devoted follower Hippolytus.[133] The story also provides an etiology for Aphrodite's associations with certain flowers.[133] Reportedly, as she mourned Adonis's death, she caused anemones to grow wherever his blood fell,[124][133] and declared a festival on the anniversary of his death.[124] In one version of the story, Aphrodite
Aphrodite
injured herself on a thorn from a rose bush[133] and the rose, which had previously been white, was stained red by her blood.[133] According to Lucian's De Dea Syria,[92] each year during the festival of Adonis, the Adonis
Adonis
River in Lebanon
Lebanon
(now known as the Abraham River) ran red with blood.[124] The myth of Adonis
Adonis
is associated with the festival of the Adonia, which was celebrated by Greek women every year in midsummer.[127] The festival, which was evidently already celebrated in Lesbos
Lesbos
by Sappho's time,[127] seems to have first become popular in Athens
Athens
in the mid-fifth century BC.[127] At the start of the festival, the women would plant a "garden of Adonis",[127] a small garden planted inside a small basket or a shallow piece of broken pottery containing a variety of quick-growing plants, such as lettuce and fennel, or even quick-sprouting grains such as wheat and barley.[127] The women would then climb ladders to the roofs of their houses,[127] where they would place the gardens out under the heat of the summer sun.[127] The plants would sprout in the sunlight,[127] but wither quickly in the heat.[134] Then the women would mourn and lament loudly over the death of Adonis,[135] tearing their clothes and beating their breasts in a public display of grief.[135] Divine favoritism

Pygmalion and Galatea (1717) by Jean Raoux, showing Aphrodite
Aphrodite
bringing the statue to life

In Hesiod's Works and Days, Zeus
Zeus
orders Aphrodite
Aphrodite
to make Pandora, the first woman, physically beautiful and sexually attractive,[136] so that she may become "an evil men will love to embrace".[137] Aphrodite "spills grace" over Pandora's head[136] and equips her with "painful desire and knee-weakening anguish", thus making her the perfect vessel for evil to enter the world.[138] Aphrodite's attendants, Peitho, the Charites, and the Horae, adorn Pandora
Pandora
with gold and jewelry.[139] According to one myth, Aphrodite
Aphrodite
aided Hippomenes,[140][141] a noble youth who wished to marry Atalanta, a maiden who was renowned throughout the land for her beauty,[140][141] but who refused to marry any man unless he could outrun her in a footrace.[140][141] Atalanta was an exceedingly swift runner and she beheaded all of the men who lost to her.[140][141] Aphrodite
Aphrodite
gave Hippomenes
Hippomenes
three golden apples from the Garden of the Hesperides[140][142] and instructed him to toss them in front of Atalanta
Atalanta
as he raced her.[140][142] Hippomenes
Hippomenes
obeyed Aphrodite's order[140] and Atalanta, seeing the beautiful, golden fruits, bent down to pick up each one, allowing Hippomenes
Hippomenes
to outrun her.[140][142] In the version of the story from Ovid's Metamorphoses, Hippomenes
Hippomenes
forgets to repay Aphrodite
Aphrodite
for her aid,[143][140] so she causes the couple to become inflamed with lust while they are staying at the temple of Cybele.[140] The couple desecrate the temple by having sex in it, leading Cybele
Cybele
to turn them into lions as punishment.[143][140] The myth of Pygmalion is first mentioned by the third-century BC Greek writer Philostephanus of Cyrene,[144][145] but is first recounted in detail in Ovid's Metamorphoses.[144] According to Ovid, Pygmalion was an exceedingly handsome sculptor from the island of Cyprus, who was so sickened by the immorality of women that he refused to marry.[146] He fell madly and passionately in love with the ivory cult statue he was carving of Aphrodite
Aphrodite
and longed to marry it.[146] Because Pygmalion was extremely pious and devoted to Aphrodite,[146] the goddess brought the statue to life.[146] Pygmalion married the girl the statue became and they had a son named Paphos, after whom the capital of Cyprus received its name.[146] Pseudo-Apollodorus later mentions "Metharme, daughter of Pygmalion, king of Cyprus".[147] Anger myths

First-century AD Roman fresco from Pompeii
Pompeii
showing the virgin Hippolytus spurning the advances of his stepmother Phaedra, who Aphrodite
Aphrodite
caused to fall in love with him in order to bring about his tragic death[148]

Aphrodite
Aphrodite
generously rewarded those who honored her, but also punished those who disrespected her, often quite brutally.[149] A myth described in Apollonius of Rhodes's Argonautica
Argonautica
and later summarized in the Bibliotheca of Pseudo-Apollodorus tells how, when the women of the island of Lemnos
Lemnos
refused to sacrifice to Aphrodite, the goddess cursed them to stink horribly so that their husbands would never have sex with them.[150] Instead, their husbands started having sex with their Thracian slave-girls.[150] In anger, the women of Lemnos murdered the entire male population of the island, as well as all the Thracian slaves.[150] When Jason
Jason
and his crew of Argonauts
Argonauts
arrived on Lemnos, they mated with the sex-starved women under Aphrodite's approval and repopulated the island.[150] From then on, the women of Lemnos
Lemnos
never disrespected Aphrodite
Aphrodite
again.[150] In Euripides's tragedy Hippolytus, which was first performed at the City Dionysia
Dionysia
in 428 BC, Theseus's son Hippolytus worships only Artemis, the goddess of virginity, and refuses to engage in any form of sexual contact.[150] Aphrodite
Aphrodite
is infuriated by his prideful behavior[151] and, in the prologue to the play, she declares that, by honoring only Artemis
Artemis
and refusing to venerate her, Hippolytus has directly challenged her authority.[152] Aphrodite
Aphrodite
therefore causes Hippolytus's stepmother, Phaedra, to fall in love with him, knowing Hippolytus will reject her.[153] After being rejected, Phaedra commits suicide and leaves a suicide note to Theseus
Theseus
telling him that she killed herself because Hippolytus attempted to rape her.[153] Theseus prays to Poseidon
Poseidon
to kill Hippolytus for his transgression.[154] Poseidon
Poseidon
sends a wild bull to scare Hippolytus's horses as he is riding by the sea in his chariot,[154] causing the horses to bolt and smash the chariot against the cliffs, dragging Hippolytus to a bloody death across the rocky shoreline.[154] The play concludes with Artemis vowing to kill Aphrodite's own mortal beloved (presumably Adonis) in revenge.[155] Glaucus
Glaucus
of Corinth
Corinth
angered Aphrodite
Aphrodite
by refusing to let his horses for chariot racing mate, since doing so would hinder their speed.[156] During the chariot race at the funeral games of King Pelias, Aphrodite drove his horses mad and they tore him apart.[157] Polyphonte was a young woman who chose a virginal life with Artemis
Artemis
instead of marriage and children, as favoured by Aphrodite. Aphrodite
Aphrodite
cursed her, causing her to have children by a bear. The resulting offspring, Agrius and Oreius, were wild cannibals who incurred the hatred of Zeus. Ultimately, he transformed all the members of the family into birds of ill omen.[158] Judgment of Paris and Trojan War

Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
mosaic from Antioch
Antioch
dating to the second century AD, depicting the Judgement of Paris

Main articles: Judgement of Paris
Judgement of Paris
and Trojan War The myth of the Judgement of Paris
Judgement of Paris
is mentioned briefly in the Iliad,[159] but is described in depth in an epitome of the Cypria, a lost poem of the Epic Cycle,[160] which records that all the gods and goddesses as well as various mortals were invited to the marriage of Peleus
Peleus
and Thetis
Thetis
(the eventual parents of Achilles).[159] Only Eris, goddess of discord, was not invited.[160] She was annoyed at this, so she arrived with a golden apple inscribed with the word καλλίστῃ (kallistēi, "for the fairest"), which she threw among the goddesses.[161] Aphrodite, Hera, and Athena
Athena
all claimed to be the fairest, and thus the rightful owner of the apple.[161] The goddesses chose to place the matter before Zeus, who, not wanting to favor one of the goddesses, put the choice into the hands of Paris, a Trojan prince.[161] After bathing in the spring of Mount Ida
Mount Ida
where Troy
Troy
was situated, the goddesses appeared before Paris for his decision.[161] In the extant ancient depictions of the Judgement of Paris, Aphrodite
Aphrodite
is only occasionally represented nude, and Athena
Athena
and Hera
Hera
are always fully clothed.[162] Since the Renaissance, however, western paintings have typically portrayed all three goddesses as completely naked.[162] All three goddesses were ideally beautiful and Paris could not decide between them, so they resorted to bribes.[161] Hera
Hera
tried to bribe Paris with power over all Asia
Asia
and Europe,[161] and Athena
Athena
offered wisdom, fame and glory in battle,[161] but Aphrodite
Aphrodite
promised Paris that, if he were to choose her as the fairest, she would let him marry the most beautiful woman on earth.[163] This woman was Helen, who was already married to King Menelaus
Menelaus
of Sparta.[163] Paris selected Aphrodite
Aphrodite
and awarded her the apple.[163] The other two goddesses were enraged and, as a direct result, sided with the Greeks
Greeks
in the Trojan War.[163] Aphrodite
Aphrodite
plays an important and active role throughout the entirety of Homer's Iliad.[164] In Book III, she rescues Paris from Menelaus after he foolishly challenges him to a one-on-one duel.[165] She then appears to Helen in the form of an old woman and attempts to persuade her to have sex with Paris,[166] reminding her of his physical beauty and athletic prowess.[167] Helen immediately recognizes Aphrodite
Aphrodite
by her beautiful neck, perfect breasts, and flashing eyes[168] and chides the goddess, addressing her as her equal.[169] Aphrodite
Aphrodite
sharply rebukes Helen, reminding her that, if she vexes her, she will punish her just as much as she has favored her already.[170] Helen demurely obeys Aphrodite's command.[170] In Book V, Aphrodite
Aphrodite
charges into battle to rescue her son Aeneas
Aeneas
from the Greek hero Diomedes.[171] Diomedes
Diomedes
recognizes Aphrodite
Aphrodite
as a "weakling" goddess[171] and, thrusting his spear, nicks her wrist through her "ambrosial robe".[172] Aphrodite
Aphrodite
borrows Ares's chariot to ride back to Mount Olympus.[173] Zeus
Zeus
chides her for putting herself in danger,[173] reminding her that "her specialty is love, not war."[173] In Book XIV, during the Dios Apate episode, Aphrodite
Aphrodite
lends her kestos himas to Hera
Hera
for the purpose of seducing Zeus
Zeus
and distracting him from the combat while Poseidon
Poseidon
aids the Greek forces on the beach.[174] In the Theomachia in Book XXI, Aphrodite
Aphrodite
again enters the battlefield to carry Ares
Ares
away after he is wounded.[173][175] Consorts and children

The so-called " Venus
Venus
in a bikini", from the house of Julia Felix, Pompeii, Italy actually depicts her Greek counterpart Aphrodite
Aphrodite
as she is about to untie her sandal, with a small Eros
Eros
squatting beneath her left arm, 1st-century AD[Notes 1]

Hephaestus[91][98][176] Ares[91][176]

Phobos[176] Deimos[176] Harmonia[113][176] Adrestia The Erotes, viz.[176]

Eros
Eros
(originally a primordial being; only later became Aphrodite's son)[1][104][176] Anteros[176] Himeros
Himeros
(originally born from the sea alongside Aphrodite; only later became her son)[104][176] Pothos[176]

Poseidon

Rhodos[177]

Hermes

Hermaphroditos[178] Priapus
Priapus
(rarely)[114]

Dionysus[114]

Priapus
Priapus
(usually)[114]

Zeus

Priapus
Priapus
(very rarely)[114]

Adonis[124][133]

Beroe Golgos[179] Priapus
Priapus
(rarely)[114]

Phaethon
Phaethon
(son of Eos)[180][181]

Astynoos[182]

Anchises[183][184]

Aeneas[183][185]

Butes[186][187]

Eryx[188] Meligounis + several more unnamed daughters[189]

Iconography Symbols

“ Rich-throned immortal Aphrodite, scheming daughter of Zeus, I pray you, with pain and sickness, Queen, crush not my heart, but come, if ever in the past you heard my voice from afar and hearkened, and left your father's halls and came, with gold chariot yoked; and pretty sparrows brought you swiftly across the dark earth fluttering wings from heaven through the air. ”

— Sappho, " Ode to Aphrodite", lines 1-10, translated by M. L. West[190]

Aphrodite's most prominent avian symbol was the dove,[191] which was originally an important symbol of her Near Eastern precursor Inanna-Ishtar.[192][193] (In fact, the ancient Greek word for "dove" was peristerá, derived from the Semitic phrase peraḥ Ištar, meaning "bird of Ishtar".[192][193]) Aphrodite
Aphrodite
frequently appears with doves in ancient Greek pottery[191] and the temple of Aphrodite Pandemos on the southwest slope of the Athenian Acropolis
Athenian Acropolis
was decorated with relief sculptures of doves with knotted fillets in their beaks.[194] Votive offerings of small, white, marble doves were also discovered in the temple of Aphrodite
Aphrodite
at Daphni.[194] In addition to her associations with doves, Aphrodite
Aphrodite
was also closely linked with sparrows[191] and she is described riding in a chariot pulled by sparrows in Sappho's " Ode to Aphrodite".[194] Because of her connections to the sea, Aphrodite
Aphrodite
was associated with a number of different types of water fowl,[195] including swans, geese, and ducks.[195] Aphrodite's other symbols included the sea, conch shells, and roses.[196] The rose and myrtle flowers were both sacred to Aphrodite.[197] Her most important fruit emblem was the apple,[198] but she was also associated with pomegranates,[199] possibly because the red seeds suggested sexuality[200] or because Greek women sometimes used pomegranates as a method of birth control.[200] In Greek art, Aphrodite
Aphrodite
is often also accompanied by dolphins and Nereids.[201] Representations in classical art

Wall painting
Wall painting
from Pompeii
Pompeii
of Venus
Venus
rising from the sea on a scallop shell, believed to be a copy of the Aphrodite
Aphrodite
Anadyomene by Apelles of Kos

Phryne
Phryne
at the Poseidonia in Eleusis
Eleusis
(c. 1889) by Henryk Siemiradzki, showing the scene of the courtesan Phryne
Phryne
stripping naked at Eleusis, which allegedly inspired both Apelles's painting and the Aphrodite
Aphrodite
of Knidos
Knidos
by Praxiteles[202][203]

A scene of Aphrodite
Aphrodite
rising from the sea appears on the back of the Ludovisi Throne
Ludovisi Throne
(c. 460 BC),[204] which was probably originally part of a massive altar that was constructed as part of the Ionic temple to Aphrodite
Aphrodite
in the Greek polis of Locri
Locri
Epizephyrii in Magna Graecia
Magna Graecia
in southern Italy.[204] The throne shows Aphrodite
Aphrodite
rising from the sea, clad in a diaphanous garment, which is drenched with seawater and clinging to her body, revealing her upturned breasts and the outline of her navel.[205] Her hair hangs dripping as she reaches to two attendants standing barefoot on the rocky shore on either side of her, lifting her out of the water.[205] Scenes with Aphrodite
Aphrodite
appear in works of classical Greek pottery,[206] including a famous white-ground kylix by the Pistoxenos Painter
Pistoxenos Painter
dating the between c. 470 and 460 BC, showing her riding on a swan or goose.[206] In c. 364/361 BC, the Athenian sculptor Praxiteles
Praxiteles
carved the marble statue Aphrodite
Aphrodite
of Knidos,[207][203] which Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
later praised as the greatest sculpture ever made.[207] The statue showed a nude Aphrodite
Aphrodite
modestly covering her pubic region while resting against a water pot with her robe draped over it for support.[208][209] The Aphrodite of Knidos
Aphrodite of Knidos
was the first ever full-sized statue to depict Aphrodite
Aphrodite
completely naked[210] and one of the first sculptures that was intended to be viewed from all sides.[211][210] The statue was purchased by the people of Knidos
Knidos
in around 350 BC[210] and proved to be tremendously influential on later depictions of Aphrodite.[211] The original sculpture has been lost,[207][209] but written descriptions of it as well several depictions of it on coins are still extant[212][207][209] and over sixty copies, small-scale models, and fragments of it have been identified.[212] The Greek painter Apelles of Kos, a contemporary of Praxiteles, produced the panel painting Aphrodite
Aphrodite
Anadyomene ( Aphrodite
Aphrodite
Rising from the Sea).[202] According to Athenaeus, Apelles was inspired to paint the painting after watching the courtesan Phryne
Phryne
take off her clothes, untie her hair, and bathe naked in the sea at Eleusis.[202] The painting was displayed in the Asclepeion
Asclepeion
on the island of Kos.[202] The Aphrodite
Aphrodite
Anadyomene went unnoticed for centuries,[202] but Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
records that, in his own time, it was regarded as Apelles's most famous work.[202] During the Hellenistic and Roman periods, statues depicting Aphrodite proliferated;[213] many of these statues were modeled at least to some extent on Praxiteles's Aphrodite
Aphrodite
of Knidos.[213] Some statues show Aphrodite
Aphrodite
crouching naked;[214] others show her wringing water out of her hair as she rises from the sea.[214] Another common type of statue is known as Aphrodite
Aphrodite
Kallipygos, the name of which is Greek for " Aphrodite
Aphrodite
of the Beautiful Buttocks";[214] this type of sculpture shows Aphrodite
Aphrodite
lifting her peplos to display her buttocks to the viewer while looking back at them from over her shoulder.[214] The ancient Romans produced massive numbers of copies of Greek sculptures of Aphrodite[213] and more sculptures of Aphrodite
Aphrodite
have survived from antiquity than of any other deity.[214]

The Ludovisi Throne
Ludovisi Throne
(possibly c. 460 BC) is believed to be a classical Greek bas-relief, although it has also been alleged to be a 19th-century forgery.

Attic white-ground red-figured kylix of Aphrodite
Aphrodite
riding a swan (c. 46-470) found at Kameiros (Rhodes)

Red-figure
Red-figure
vase painting of Aphrodite
Aphrodite
and Phaon
Phaon
(c. 420-400 BC)

Apuleian vase painting of Zeus
Zeus
plotting with Aphrodite
Aphrodite
to seduce Leda while Eros
Eros
sits on her arm (c. 330 BC)

Aphrodite
Aphrodite
Leaning Against a Pillar (third century BC)

Aphrodite
Aphrodite
Kallipygos (" Aphrodite
Aphrodite
of the Beautiful Buttocks")

Aphrodite
Aphrodite
Binding Her Hair (second century BC)

Aphrodite Heyl
Aphrodite Heyl
(second century BC)

Greek sculpture group of Aphrodite, Eros, and Pan (c. 100 BC)

Aphrodite of Milos
Aphrodite of Milos
(c. 100 BC), Louvre

Aphrodite of Menophantos
Aphrodite of Menophantos
(first century BC)

The Ludovisi Aphrodite
Aphrodite
of Knidos

The Lely Venus
Venus
(c. second century AD)

Post-classical culture

Fifteenth century manuscript illumination of Venus, sitting on a rainbow, with her devotees offering her their hearts

Middle Ages Early Christians frequently adapted pagan iconography to suit Christian purposes.[215][216][217][Notes 2] In the Early Middle Ages, Christians adapted elements of Aphrodite/Venus's iconography and applied them to Eve
Eve
and prostitutes,[216] but also female saints and even the Virgin Mary.[216] Christians in the east reinterpreted the story of Aphrodite's birth as a metaphor for baptism;[218] in a Coptic stele from the sixth century AD, a female orant is shown wearing Aphrodite's conch shell as a sign that she is newly baptized.[218] Throughout the Middle Ages, villages and communities across Europe still maintained folk tales and traditions about Aphrodite/Venus[219] and travelers reported a wide variety of stories.[219] Numerous Roman mosaics of Venus
Venus
survived in Britain, preserving memory of the pagan past.[196] In North Africa in the late fifth century AD, Fulgentius of Ruspe encountered mosaics of Aphrodite[196] and reinterpreted her as a symbol of the sin of Lust,[196] arguing that she was shown naked because "the sin of lust is never cloaked"[196] and that she was often shown "swimming" because "all lust suffers shipwreck of its affairs."[196] He also argued that she was associated with doves and conchs because these are symbols of copulation,[196] and that she was associated with roses because "as the rose gives pleasure, but is swept away by the swift movement of the seasons, so lust is pleasant for a moment, but is swept away forever."[196] While Fulgentius had appropriated Aphrodite
Aphrodite
as a symbol of Lust,[220] Isidore of Seville
Isidore of Seville
(c. 560–636) interpreted her as a symbol of marital procreative sex[220] and declared that the moral of the story of Aphrodite's birth is that sex can only be holy in the presence of semen, blood, and heat, which he regarded as all being necessary for procreation.[220] Meanwhile, Isidore denigrated Aphrodite/Venus's son Eros/Cupid as a "demon of fornication" (daemon fornicationis).[220] Aphrodite/ Venus
Venus
was best known to Western European scholars through her appearances in Virgil's Aeneid
Aeneid
and Ovid's Metamorphoses.[221] Venus
Venus
is mentioned in the Latin poem Pervigilium Veneris
Pervigilium Veneris
("The Eve
Eve
of Saint Venus"), written in the third or fourth century AD,[222] and in Giovanni Boccaccio's Genealogia Deorum Gentilium.[223] Art Aphrodite
Aphrodite
is the central figure in Sandro Botticelli's painting Primavera, which has been described as "one of the most written about, and most controversial paintings in the world",[224] and "one of the most popular paintings in Western art".[225] The story of Aphrodite's birth from the foam was a popular subject matter for painters during the Italian Renaissance,[226] who were attempting to consciously reconstruct Apelles of Kos's lost masterpiece Aphrodite
Aphrodite
Anadyomene based on the literary ekphrasis of it preserved by Cicero
Cicero
and Pliny the Elder.[227] Artists also drew inspiration from Ovid's description of the birth of Venus
Venus
in his Metamorphoses.[227] Sandro Botticelli's The Birth of Venus
Venus
(c. 1485) was also partially inspired by a description by Poliziano
Poliziano
of a relief on the subject.[227] Later Italian renditions of the same scene include Titian's Venus
Venus
Anadyomene (c. 1525)[227] and Raphael's painting in the Stufetta del cardinal Bibbiena (1516).[227] Titian's biographer Giorgio Vasari
Giorgio Vasari
identified all of Titian's paintings of naked women as paintings of "Venus",[228] including an erotic painting from c. 1534, which he called the Venus of Urbino, even though the painting does not contain any of Aphrodite/Venus's traditional iconography and the woman in it is clearly shown in a contemporary setting, not a classical one.[228]

Primavera (late 1470s or early 1480s) by Sandro Botticelli

Venus
Venus
Anadyomene (c. 1525) by Titian

Venus
Venus
of Urbino (c. 1534) by Titian

Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time
Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time
(c. 1545) by Bronzino

Venus
Venus
and Adonis
Adonis
(1554) by Titian

Venus
Venus
with a Mirror
Mirror
(c. 1555) by Titian

Venus, Adonis
Adonis
and Cupid (c. 1595) by Annibale Carracci

The Toilet of Venus
Venus
(c. 1612-1615) by Peter Paul Rubens

The Death of Adonis
Adonis
(c. 1614) by Peter Paul Rubens

Rokeby Venus
Venus
(c. 1647–51) by Diego Velázquez

Venus
Venus
and Cupid Lamenting the Dead Adonis
Adonis
(1656) by Cornelis Holsteyn

The Birth of Venus
Venus
(c. 1485) by Sandro Botticelli[229]

The Birth of Venus
Venus
(1863) by Alexandre Cabanel

Jacques-Louis David's final work was his 1824 magnum opus, Mars Being Disarmed by Venus,[230] which combines elements of classical, Renaissance, traditional French art, and contemporary artistic styles.[230] While he was working on the painting, David described it, saying, "This is the last picture I want to paint, but I want to surpass myself in it. I will put the date of my seventy-five years on it and afterwards I will never again pick up my brush."[231] The painting was exhibited first in Brussels and then in Paris, where over 10,000 people came to see it.[231] Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres's painting Venus
Venus
Anadyomene was one of his major works.[232] Louis Geofroy described it as a "dream of youth realized with the power of maturity, a happiness that few obtain, artists or others."[232] Théophile Gautier
Théophile Gautier
declared: "Nothing remains of the marvelous painting of the Greeks, but surely if anything could give the idea of antique painting as it was conceived following the statues of Phidias and the poems of Homer, it is M. Ingres's painting: the Venus Anadyomene of Apelles has been found."[232] Other critics dismissed it as a piece of unimaginative, sentimental kitsch,[232] but Ingres himself considered it to be among his greatest works and used the same figure as the model for his later 1856 painting La Source.[232] Paintings of Venus
Venus
were favorites of the late nineteenth-century Academic artists in France.[233][234] In 1863, Alexandre Cabanel
Alexandre Cabanel
won widespread critical acclaim at the Paris Salon for his painting The Birth of Venus, which the French emperor Napoleon III
Napoleon III
immediately purchased for his own personal art collection.[235] Édouard Manet's 1865 painting Olympia parodied the nude Venuses of the Academic painters, particularly Cabanel's Birth of Venus.[236] In 1867, the English Academic painter Frederic Leighton
Frederic Leighton
displayed his Venus Disrobing for the Bath at the Academy.[237] The art critic J. B. Atkinson praised it, declaring that "Mr Leighton, instead of adopting corrupt Roman notions regarding Venus
Venus
such as Rubens embodied, has wisely reverted to the Greek idea of Aphrodite, a goddess worshipped, and by artists painted, as the perfection of female grace and beauty."[238] A year later, the English painter Dante Gabriel Rossetti, a founding member of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, painted Venus
Venus
Verticordia (Latin for "Aphrodite, the Changer of Hearts"), showing Aphrodite
Aphrodite
as a nude red-headed woman in a garden of roses.[237] Though he was reproached for his outré subject matter,[237] Rossetti refused to alter the painting and it was soon purchased by J. Mitchell of Bradford.[238] In 1879, William Adolphe Bouguereau exhibited at the Paris Salon his own Birth of Venus,[235] which imitated the classical tradition of contrapposto and was met with widespread critical acclaim, rivalling the popularity of Cabanel's version from nearly two decades prior.[235]

Venus
Venus
and Adonis
Adonis
(1729) by François Lemoyne

Mars Being Disarmed by Venus
Venus
(1824) by Jacques-Louis David

Mars and Venus
Venus
Surprised by Vulcan (1827) by Alexandre Charles Guillemot

Venus
Venus
Anadyomene (1848) by Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres

Venus
Venus
Disrobing for the Bath (1867) by Frederic Leighton

Venus
Venus
Verticordia (1868) by Dante Gabriel Rossetti

The Birth of Venus
Venus
(c. 1879) by William-Adolphe Bouguereau

Literature

Illustration by Édouard Zier for Pierre Louÿs's 1896 erotic novel Aphrodite: mœurs antiques

William Shakespeare's erotic narrative poem Venus
Venus
and Adonis
Adonis
(1593), a retelling of the courtship of Aphrodite
Aphrodite
and Adonis
Adonis
from Ovid's Metamorphoses,[239][240] was the most popular of all his works published within his own lifetime.[241][242] Six editions of it were published before Shakespeare's death (more than any of his other works)[242] and it enjoyed particularly strong popularity among young adults.[241] In 1605, Richard Barnfield lauded it,[242] declaring that the poem had placed Shakespeare's name "in fames immortall Booke".[242] Despite this, the poem has received mixed reception from modern critics;[241] Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
defended it,[241] but Samuel Butler complained that it bored him[241] and C. S. Lewis described an attempted reading of it as "suffocating".[241] Aphrodite
Aphrodite
appears in Richard Garnett's short story collection The Twilight of the Gods and Other Tales (1888),[243] in which the gods' temples have been destroyed by Christians.[244] Stories revolving around sculptures of Aphrodite
Aphrodite
were common in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.[245] Examples of such works of literature include the novel The Tinted Venus: A Farcical Romance (1885) by Thomas Anstey Guthrie
Thomas Anstey Guthrie
and the short story The Venus
Venus
of Ille (1887) by Prosper Mérimée,[246] both of which are about statues of Aphrodite that come to life.[246] Another noteworthy example is Aphrodite
Aphrodite
in Aulis by the Anglo-Irish writer George Moore,[247] which revolves around an ancient Greek family who moves to Aulis.[248] The French writer Pierre Louÿs
Pierre Louÿs
titled his erotic historical novel Aphrodite: mœurs antiques (1896) after the Greek goddess.[249] The novel enjoyed widespread commercial success,[249] but scandalized French audiences due to its sensuality and its decadent portrayal of Greek society.[249] In the early twentieth century, stories of Aphrodite
Aphrodite
were used by feminist poets,[250] such as Amy Lowell
Amy Lowell
and Alicia Ostriker.[251] Many of these poems dealt with Aphrodite's legendary birth from the foam of the sea.[250] Other feminist writers, including Claude Cahun, Thit Jensen, and Anaïs Nin
Anaïs Nin
also made use of the myth of Aphrodite
Aphrodite
in their writings.[252] Ever since the publication of Isabel Allende's book Aphrodite: A Memoir of the Senses in 1998, the name "Aphrodite" has been used as a title for dozens of books dealing with all topics even superficially connected to her domain.[253] Frequently these books do not even mention Aphrodite,[253] or mention her only briefly, but make use of her name as a selling point.[254] Modern worship In 1938, Gleb Botkin, a Russian immigrant to the United States, founded the Church of Aphrodite, a Neopagan religion centered around the worship of a Mother Goddess, whom its practitioners identified as Aphrodite.[255][256] The Church of Aphrodite's theology was laid out in the book In Search of Reality, published in 1969, two years before Botkin's death.[257] The book portrayed Aphrodite
Aphrodite
in a drastically different light than the one in which the Greeks
Greeks
envisioned her,[257] instead casting her as "the sole Goddess of a somewhat Neoplatonic Pagan monotheism".[257] It claimed that the worship of Aphrodite
Aphrodite
had been brought to Greece
Greece
by the mystic teacher Orpheus,[257] but that the Greeks
Greeks
had misunderstood Orpheus's teachings and had not realized the importance of worshipping Aphrodite
Aphrodite
alone.[257] Aphrodite
Aphrodite
is a major deity in Wicca,[258][259] a contemporary nature-based syncretic Neopagan religion.[260] Wiccans regard Aphrodite
Aphrodite
as one aspect of the Goddess[259] and she is frequently invoked by name during enchantments dealing with love and romance.[261][262] Wiccans regard Aphrodite
Aphrodite
as the ruler of human emotions, erotic spirituality, creativity, and art.[263] As one of the twelve Olympians, Aphrodite
Aphrodite
is a major deity within Hellenismos (Hellenic Polytheistic Reconstructionism),[264][265] a Neopagan religion which seeks to authentically revive and recreate the religion of ancient Greece
Greece
in the modern world.[266] Unlike Wiccans, Hellenists are usually strictly polytheistic or pantheistic.[267] Hellenists venerate Aphrodite
Aphrodite
primarily as the goddess of romantic love,[265] but also as a goddess of sexuality, the sea, and war.[265] Her many epithets include "Sea Born", "Killer of Men", "She upon the Graves", "Fair Sailing", and "Ally in War".[265] See also

Hellenismos
Hellenismos
portal Greek mythology
Greek mythology
portal

Hellenismos

Notes

^ Museo Archeologico Nazionale (Napoli). "so-called Venus
Venus
in a bikini." Cir.campania.beniculturali.it. Accessed 3 October 2016.

"The statuette portrays Aphrodite
Aphrodite
on the point of untying the laces of the sandal on her left foot, under which a small Eros
Eros
squats, touching the sole of her shoe with his right hand. The Goddess is leaning with her left arm (the hand is missing) against a figure of Priapus standing, naked and bearded, positioned on a small cylindrical altar while, next to her left thigh, there is a tree trunk over which the garment of the Goddess is folded. Aphrodite, almost completely naked, wears only a sort of costume, consisting of a corset held up by two pairs of straps and two short sleeves on the upper part of her arm, from which a long chain leads to her hips and forms a star-shaped motif at the level of her navel. The 'bikini', for which the statuette is famous, is obtained by the masterly use of the technique of gilding, also employed on her groin, in the pendant necklace and in the armilla on Aphrodite’s right wrist, as well as on Priapus’ phallus. Traces of the red paint are evident on the tree trunk, on the short curly hair gathered back in a bun and on the lips of the Goddess, as well as on the heads of Priapus
Priapus
and the Eros. Aphrodite’s eyes are made of glass paste, while the presence of holes at the level of the ear-lobes suggest the existence of precious metal ear-rings which have since been lost. An interesting insight into the female ornaments of Roman times, the statuette, probably imported from the area of Alexandria, reproduces with a few modifications the statuary type of Aphrodite
Aphrodite
untying her sandal, known from copies in bronze and terracotta."

For extensive research and a bibliography on the subject, see: de Franciscis 1963, p. 78, tav. XCI; Kraus 1973, nn. 270-271, pp. 194-195; Pompei 1973, n. 132; Pompeji 1973, n. 199, pp. 142 e 144; Pompeji 1974, n. 281, pp. 148-149; Pompeii
Pompeii
A.D. 79 1976, p. 83 e n. 218; Pompeii
Pompeii
A.D. 79 1978, I, n. 208, pp. 64-65, II, n. 208, p. 189; Döhl, Zanker 1979, p. 202, tav. Va; Pompeii
Pompeii
A.D. 79 1980, p. 79 e n. 198; Pompeya 1981, n. 198, p. 107; Pompeii
Pompeii
lives 1984, fig. 10, p. 46; Collezioni Museo 1989, I, 2, n. 254, pp. 146-147; PPM II, 1990, n. 7, p. 532; Armitt 1993, p. 240; Vésuve 1995, n. 53, pp. 162-163; Vulkan 1995, n. 53, pp. 162-163; LIMC VIII, 1, 1997, p. 210, s.v. Venus, n. 182; LIMC VIII, 2, 1997, p. 144; LIMC VIII, 1, 1997, p. 1031, s.v. Priapos, n. 15; LIMC VIII, 2, 1997, p. 680; Romana Pictura 1998, n. 153, p. 317 e tav. a p. 245; Cantarella 1999, p. 128; De Caro 1999, pp. 100-101; De Caro 2000, p. 46 e tav. a p. 62; Pompeii
Pompeii
2000, n. 1, p. 62. ^ This does not in any way indicate that Christianity itself was derived from paganism, only that early Christians made use of the pre-existing symbols that were readily available in their society.Taylor 1993, pp. 96–97

References

^ a b Eros
Eros
is usually mentioned as the son of Aphrodite
Aphrodite
but in other versions he is born out of Chaos ^ Homer, Iliad
Iliad
5.370. ^ Hesiod, Theogony, 188 ^ a b c d e f g h i Cyrino 2010, p. 14. ^ Hesiod, Theogony, 190-197. ^ a b c d e f West 2000, pp. 134–138. ^ Paul Kretschmer, “Zum pamphylischen Dialekt”, Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung auf dem Gebiet der Indogermanischen Sprachen 33 (1895): 267. ^ Ernst Maaß, “ Aphrodite
Aphrodite
und die hl. Pelagia”, Neue Jahrbücher für das klassische Altertum 27 (1911): 457-468. ^ Vittore Pisani, “Akmon e Dieus”, Archivio glottologico italiano 24 (1930): 65-73. ^ a b c Janda 2005, pp. 349–360. ^ a b c d e Janda 2010, p. 65. ^ Witczak 1993, pp. 115–123. ^ a b Penglase 1997, p. 164. ^ a b Boedeker 1974, pp. 15–16. ^ Chicago Assyrian Dictionary, vol. 2, p. 111. ^ M. Hammarström, “Griechisch-etruskische Wortgleichungen”, Glotta: Zeitschrift für griechische und lateinische Sprache 11 (1921): 215-6. ^ a b c Frisk 1960, p. 196 f.. ^ a b c d Beekes 2010, p. 179. ^ a b West 2000, p. 134. ^ Etymologicum Magnum, Ἀφροδίτη. ^ Breitenberger 2007, pp. 8–12. ^ a b Cyrino 2012, pp. 49–52. ^ a b Puhvel 1987, p. 27. ^ a b Marcovich 1996, pp. 43–59. ^ Burkert 1985, pp. 152–153. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, I. XIV.7 ^ a b c d Breitenberger 2007, p. 8. ^ a b Breitenberger 2007, pp. 10–11. ^ a b c d e Cyrino 2012, pp. 51–52. ^ a b c d e Budin 2010, pp. 85–86, 96, 100, 102–103, 112, 123, 125. ^ a b Graz 1984, p. 250. ^ a b Iossif & Lorber 2007, p. 77. ^ a b c Konaris 2016, p. 169. ^ a b Burkert 1998, pp. 1–6. ^ Burkert 1998, pp. 1–41. ^ a b Dumézil 1934. ^ a b c d e Cyrino 2010, p. 24. ^ a b c Cyrino 2010, pp. 24–25. ^ Cyrino 2010, p. 25. ^ a b c d e Bullough & Bullough 1993, p. 29. ^ a b c d e f g Clark 2015, p. 381. ^ a b c d Kerényi 1951, p. 81. ^ Cyrino 2010, p. 28. ^ a b c d e f g h Kerényi 1951, p. 80. ^ Cyrino 2010, pp. 28–29. ^ Cyrino 2010, p. 35. ^ a b Cyrino 2010, pp. 35–38. ^ Plato, Symposium 181a-d. ^ Richard L. Hunter, Plato's Symposium, Oxford University Press: 2004, p. 44 ^ Pausanias, Periegesis vi.25.1; Aphrodite Pandemos
Aphrodite Pandemos
was represented in the same temple riding on a goat, symbol of purely carnal rut: "The meaning of the tortoise and of the he-goat I leave to those who care to guess," Pausanias remarks. The image was taken up again after the Renaissance: see Andrea Alciato, Emblemata / Les emblemes (1584). ^ a b c d Cyrino 2010, p. 39. ^ a b c Cyrino 2010, pp. 39–40. ^ a b Cyrino 2010, p. 27. ^ a b Koloski-Ostrow & Lyons 2000, pp. 230–231. ^ Rosenzweig 2003, pp. 16–17. ^ Simon 1983, pp. 49–50. ^ a b Simon 1983, p. 48. ^ Simon 1983, pp. 48–49. ^ Simon 1983, pp. 47–48. ^ Simon 1983, p. 49. ^ Cyrino 2010, p. 40. ^ a b Cyrino 2010, pp. 40–41. ^ a b c d Cyrino 2010, pp. 41–42. ^ a b c Marcovich 1996, p. 49. ^ Black & Green 1992, p. 109. ^ a b Burkert 1985, p. 153. ^ a b Cyrino 2010, pp. 41–43. ^ Cyrino 2010, p. 43. ^ Witt 1997, p. 125. ^ Dunand 2007, p. 258. ^ Larousse Desk Reference Encyclopedia, The Book People, Haydock, 1995, p. 215. ^ a b c d e f g h Dunand 2007, p. 257. ^ a b Cyrino 2010, pp. 127–128. ^ a b c d e f Cyrino 2010, p. 128. ^ a b c Cyrino 2010, pp. 128–129. ^ a b c d e Cyrino 2010, p. 130. ^ Cyrino 2010, pp. 130–131. ^ Homer, Odyssey
Odyssey
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Iliad
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Theogony
lines 1008-10; Iliad
Iliad
II.819-21 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Kerényi 1951, p. 76. ^ West 1997, p. 57. ^ Kerényi 1951, p. 67. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Cyrino 2010, p. 97. ^ Burkert 1985, pp. 176–177. ^ a b c West 1997, pp. 530–531. ^ Cyrino 2010, p. 95. ^ a b Kerényi 1951, p. 75. ^ Kerényi 1951, pp. 75=76. ^ a b c d e f g Cyrino 2010, p. 96. ^ Cyrino 2010, pp. 97–98. ^ a b Cyrino 2010, p. 98. ^ a b Cyrino 2010, p. 81. ^ Cyrino 2010, p. 80. ^ Cyrino 2010, pp. 81–82. ^ Cyrino 2010, pp. 82–83. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Ruck & Staples 2001, pp. 64–70. ^ a b c d McKinley 2001, p. 43. ^ a b c Wasson 1968, p. 128. ^ a b McKinley 2001, pp. 43–44. ^ a b Clark 2015, pp. 90–91. ^ Clement, Exhortation to the Greeks, 4 ^ a b c d e Clark 2015, p. 91. ^ Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheke, iii.14.3. ^ Cyrino 2010, pp. 98–103. ^ Cyrino 2010, pp. 98–99. ^ a b c d e f Cyrino 2010, p. 99. ^ Cyrino 2010, p. 100. ^ Cyrino 2010, pp. 100–101. ^ a b Cyrino 2010, p. 101. ^ a b c Cyrino 2010, p. 102. ^ Cyrino 2010, pp. 102–103. ^ Vergil, Georgics 3.266–288, with Servius's note to line 268; Hand, The Routledge Handbook of Greek Mythology, pp. 432, 663. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 250.3, 273.11; Pausanias, Guide to Greece
Greece
6.20.19 ^ Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses, 21 ^ a b Walcot 1977, p. 31. ^ a b Walcot 1977, pp. 31–32. ^ a b c d e f g Walcot 1977, p. 32. ^ a b Bull 2005, pp. 346–347. ^ a b c d Walcot 1977, pp. 32–33. ^ Cyrino 2010, p. 85. ^ Cyrino 2010, pp. 85–86. ^ Cyrino 2010, pp. 35–36, 86–87. ^ Cyrino 2010, pp. 36, 86–87. ^ Cyrino 2010, p. 87. ^ Cyrino 2010, pp. 87–88. ^ a b Cyrino 2010, p. 88. ^ a b Cyrino 2010, p. 49. ^ Cyrino 2010, pp. 49–50. ^ a b c d Cyrino 2010, p. 50. ^ Cyrino 2010, p. 36. ^ Homer, Iliad
Iliad
XXI.416-17 ^ a b c d e f g h i j Kerényi 1951, p. 71. ^ Pindar, Olympian 7.14 makes her the daughter of Aphrodite, but does not mention any father. Herodorus, fr. 62 Fowler (Fowler 2001, p. 253), apud schol. Pindar
Pindar
Olympian 7.24–5; Fowler 2013, p. 591 make her the daughter of Aphrodite
Aphrodite
and Poseidon. ^ Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 4. 6. 5 "... Hermaphroditus, as he has been called, who was born of Hermes
Hermes
and Aphrodite
Aphrodite
and received a name which is a combination of those of both his parents." ^ Graves, Robert (1960). The Greek Myths. London: Penguin Books. p. 70. ISBN 9780140171990.  ^ Hesiod, Theogony, 986 - 990 ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1. 3. 1 (using the name "Hemera" for Eos) ^ Pseudo-Apollodorus. Bibliotheca, Book 3. 14. 3 ^ a b Cyrino 2010, pp. 89–93. ^ Kerényi 1951, pp. 77–79. ^ Kerényi 1951, p. 79. ^ Bibliotheca 1. 9. 25 ^ Servius
Servius
on Aeneid, 1. 574, 5. 24 ^ Diodorus Siculus, Library of History, 4. 23. 2 ^ Hesychius of Alexandria
Alexandria
s. v. Μελιγουνίς: "Meligounis: this is what the island Lipara
Lipara
was called. Also one of the daughters of Aphrodite." ^ West 2008, p. 36. ^ a b c Cyrino 2010, pp. 121–122. ^ a b Lewis & Llewellyn-Jones 2018, p. 335. ^ a b Botterweck & Ringgren 1990, p. 35. ^ a b c Cyrino 2010, p. 122. ^ a b Cyrino 2010, pp. 120–123. ^ a b c d e f g h Tinkle 1996, p. 81. ^ Cyrino 2010, pp. 63, 96. ^ Cyrino 2010, p. 64. ^ Cyrino 2010, p. 63. ^ a b Cyrino 2010, pp. 63–64. ^ Cyrino 2010, pp. 123–124. ^ a b c d e f Havelock 2007, p. 86. ^ a b Cyrino 2010, pp. 76–77. ^ a b Cyrino 2010, p. 106. ^ a b Cyrino 2010, pp. 106–107. ^ a b Cyrino 2010, p. 124. ^ a b c d Grant 1989, p. 224. ^ Grant 1989, p. 225. ^ a b c Cyrino 2010, p. 77. ^ a b c Cyrino 2010, p. 76. ^ a b Grant 1989, pp. 224–225. ^ a b Palagia & Pollitt 1996, p. 98. ^ a b c Cyrino 2010, pp. 77–78. ^ a b c d e Cyrino 2010, p. 78. ^ Taylor 1993, pp. 96–97. ^ a b c Tinkle 1996, p. 80. ^ Link 1995, pp. 43–45. ^ a b Taylor 1993, p. 97. ^ a b Tinkle 1996, pp. 80–81. ^ a b c d Tinkle 1996, p. 82. ^ Tinkle 1996, pp. 106–108. ^ Tinkle 1996, pp. 107–108. ^ Tinkle 1996, p. 108. ^ Fossi 1998, p. 5. ^ Cunningham & Reich 2009, p. 282. ^ Ames-Lewis 2000, pp. 193–195. ^ a b c d e Ames-Lewis 2000, p. 193. ^ a b Tinagli 1997, p. 148. ^ Ames-Lewis 2000, p. 194. ^ a b Bordes 2005, p. 189. ^ a b Hill 2007, p. 155. ^ a b c d e Tinterow 1999, p. 358. ^ McPhee 1986, pp. 66–67. ^ Gay 1998, p. 128. ^ a b c McPhee 1986, p. 66. ^ Gay 1998, p. 129. ^ a b c Smith 1996, pp. 145–146. ^ a b Smith 1996, p. 146. ^ Lákta 2017, pp. 56–58. ^ Cyrino 2010, p. 131. ^ a b c d e f Lákta 2017, p. 58. ^ a b c d Hiscock 2017, p. unpaginated. ^ Clark 2015, pp. 354–355. ^ Clark 2015, p. 355. ^ Clark 2015, p. 364. ^ a b Clark 2015, pp. 361–362. ^ Clark 2015, p. 363. ^ Clark 2015, pp. 363–364. ^ a b c Brooks & Alden 1980, pp. 836–844. ^ a b Clark 2015, p. 369. ^ Clark 2015, pp. 369–371. ^ Clark 2015, pp. 372–374. ^ a b Cyrino 2010, pp. 134–135. ^ Cyrino 2010, p. 135. ^ Clifton 2006, p. 139. ^ Pizza & Lewis 2009, pp. 327–328. ^ a b c d e Clifton 2006, p. 141. ^ Gallaher 2005, pp. 109–110. ^ a b Sabin 2010, p. 125. ^ Sabin 2010, pp. 3–4. ^ Gallagher 2005, p. 110. ^ Sabin 2010, p. 124. ^ Gallagher 2005, pp. 109–110. ^ World, Matthew Brunwasser PRI's The; Olympus, Mount. "The Greeks
Greeks
who worship the ancient gods".  ^ a b c d Alexander 2007, p. 23. ^ Alexander 2007, p. 9. ^ Alexander 2007, pp. 22–23.

Library resources about Aphrodite

Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

Bibliography

Ames-Lewis, Francis (2000), The Intellectual Life of the Early Renaissance
Renaissance
Artist, New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-09295-4  Alexander, Timothy Jay (2007), Hellenismos
Hellenismos
Today (First ed.), Lulu Press, Inc., ISBN 978-1-4303-1427-1  Anderson, Graham (2000), Fairytale in the Ancient World, London, England: Routledge, pp. 131–132, ISBN 978-0-415-23702-4  Arscott, Caroline; Scott, Katie, eds. (2000), Manifestations of Venus: Art and Sexuality, Critical Perspectives in Art History, Manchester, England: Manchester University Press, ISBN 978-0719055225  Black, Jeremy; Green, Anthony (1992), Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia: An Illustrated Dictionary, London, England: The British Museum Press, ISBN 0-7141-1705-6  Boedeker, Deborah (1974), Aphrodite's Entry into Greek Epic, Leiden, Germany: Brill, pp. 15–6  Beekes, Robert S. P. (2009), Etymological Dictionary of Greek, 1, Leiden and Boston: Brill  Bonner, Campbell (1949), "KESTOS IMAS and the Saltire of Aphrodite", The American Journal of Philology, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 70 (1): 1–6, doi:10.2307/290961, JSTOR 290961  Bordes, Philippe (2005), Jacques-Louis David: Empire to Exile, New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University, ISBN 0-300-10447-2  Botterweck, G. Johannes; Ringgren, Helmer (1990), Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, VI, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., ISBN 0-8028-2330-0  Breitenberger, Barbara (2007), Aphrodite
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Renaissance
Artists Rediscovered the Pagan Gods, Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-521923-6  Bullough, Vern L.; Bullough, Bonnie (1993), Cross Dressing, Sex, and Gender (reprint ed.), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press, p. 29, ISBN 9780812214314  Budin, Stephanie L. (2010), " Aphrodite
Aphrodite
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External links

Look up Ἀφροδίτη in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Aphrodite.

Theoi Project, Aphrodite
Aphrodite
information from classical literature, Greek and Roman art The Glory which Was Greece
Greece
from a Female Perspective Sappho's Hymn to Aphrodite, with a brief explanation`

v t e

Greek deities series

Primordial deities Titan deities Aquatic deities Chthonic
Chthonic
deities Mycenaean deities

Twelve Olympians

Aphrodite Apollo Ares Artemis Athena Demeter Dionysus Hephaestus Hera Hermes Hestia Poseidon Zeus

v t e

Ancient Greek religion
Ancient Greek religion
and mythology

Classical religious forms

Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
religion Gnosticism Paleo-Balkan mythology Proto-Indo-European religion Hellenistic religion Alchemy Orphism Pythagoreanism Mycenaean deities

Mystery religions and sacred mysteries

Dionysian Mysteries Eleusinian Mysteries Imbrian Mysteries Mithraism Samotracian Mysteries

Main beliefs

Apotheosis Euhemerism Greek Heroic Age Monism Mythology Nympholepsy Paganism Paradoxography Polytheism Theism

Texts/ Epic poems/ Ode

Aretalogy Argonautica Bibliotheca Cyranides Derveni papyrus Ehoiai Greek Magical Papyri Homeric Hymns Iliad Odyssey Papyrus Graecus Holmiensis Telegony The golden verses of Pythagoras Theogony Works and Days Epic Cycle Theban Cycle

Rites and practices

Amphictyonic League Amphidromia Animal sacrifice Apotheosis Baptes Curse tablet Daduchos Delphinion Funeral and burial practices Hymns Hero cult Heroon Hierophany Hierophant Hierophylakes Hieros gamos Hypsistarians Iatromantis Interpretatio graeca Libations Mystagogue Nekyia Necromancy Necromanteion Nymphaeum Panegyris Pharmakos Prayers Orgia Sacrifices Temenos Temples Votive offerings

Sacred places

Athenian sacred ships Cave of Zeus Cretea Delphi Delos Dodona Eleusis Hiera Orgas Olympia Olympus Psychro Cave Sacred Way

Mythical beings

Dragons in Greek mythology Greek mythological creatures Greek mythological figures List of minor Greek mythological figures

Deities

Primordial deities

Aether Aion Ananke Chaos Chronos Erebus Eros Gaia Hemera Nyx Phanes Pontus Thalassa Tartarus Uranus

Titans

First generation

Coeus Crius Cronus Hyperion Iapetus Mnemosyne Oceanus Phoebe Rhea Tethys Theia Themis

Second generation

Asteria Astraeus Atlas Eos Epimetheus Helios Leto Menoetius Metis Pallas Perses Prometheus Selene

Third generation

Hecate Hesperus Phosphorus

Twelve Olympians

Aphrodite Apollo Ares Artemis Athena Demeter Dionysus Hephaestus Hera Hermes Hestia Poseidon Zeus

Aquatic deities

Amphitrite Alpheus Ceto Glaucus The Naiads The Nereids Nereus The Oceanids Phorcys Poseidon The Potamoi Potamides Proteus Scamander Thaumas Thetis Triton

Love
Love
deities

Erotes

Anteros Eros Hedylogos Hermaphroditus Himeros Hymen/Hymenaeus Pothos

Aphrodite Aphroditus Philotes Peitho

War deities

Adrestia Alala Alke Amphillogiai Androktasiai Ares Athena Bia Deimos Enyalius Enyo Eris Gynaecothoenas Homados Hysminai Ioke Keres Kratos Kydoimos Ma Makhai Nike Palioxis Pallas Perses Phobos Phonoi Polemos Proioxis

Chthonic
Chthonic
deities

Psychopomps

Hermanubis Hermes Thanatos

Achlys Angelos Hades
Hades
/ Pluto Hecate Hypnos Keres Lampad Macaria Melinoe Persephone

Health deities

Aceso Aegle Artemis Apollo Asclepius Chiron Eileithyia Epione Hebe Hygieia Iaso Paean Panacea Telesphorus

Sleep deities

Empusa Epiales Hypnos Morpheus Pasithea Phantasos Phobetor Oneiroi

Messenger deities

Angelia Arke Hermes Iris

Trickster deities

Apate Dolos Hermes Momus

Magic deities

Circe Hecate Hermes
Hermes
Trismegistus Triple deity

Other major deities

Azone The Erinyes Harmonia The Muses Nemesis Pan Unknown God Zelus

Heroes/Heroines

Abderus Achilles Actaeon Aeneas Argonauts Ajax the Great Ajax the Lesser Akademos Amphiaraus Amphitryon Antilochus Atalanta Autolycus Bellerophon Bouzyges Cadmus Chrysippus Cyamites Daedalus Diomedes Dioscuri
Dioscuri
(Castor and Pollux) Echetlus Eleusis Erechtheus Eunostus Ganymede Hector Heracles Icarus Iolaus Jason Meleager Odysseus Oedipus Orpheus Pandion Peleus Pelops Penthesilea Perseus Theseus Triptolemus

Mythical tribes

Amazons Anthropophage Atlantians Bebryces Curetes Dactyls Gargareans Halizones Korybantes Lapiths Lotus-eaters Myrmidons Pygmies Telchines

Oracles/Seers

Aesacus Aleuas Amphiaraus Amphilochus Ampyx Anius Asbolus Bakis Branchus Calchas Carnus Carya Cassandra Delphic Sibyl Elatus Ennomus Halitherses Helenus Iamus Idmon Manto Melampus Mopsus Munichus Phineus Polyeidos Polypheides Pythia Sibyl Telemus Theiodamas Theoclymenus Tiresias

Magic

Apotropaic magic Greek Magical Papyri Philia

Mythical realms

Aethiopia Atlantis Hyperborea Libya Nysa Panchaia Scythia Themiscyra

Underworld

Entrances to the underworld

Rivers

Acheron Cocytus Eridanos Lethe Phlegethon Styx

Lakes/ Swamps

Acherusia Avernus Lake Lerna
Lerna
Lake

Caves

Cave at Cape Matapan Cave Charonium Cave at Lake Avernus Cave at Heraclea Pontica

Ploutonion

Pluto's Gate

Places

Elysium Erebus Fields of Asphodel Fields of Punishment Isles of the Blessed Tartarus

Judges of the underworld

Aeacus Minos Rhadamanthus

Guards

Cerberus

Ferryman

Charon Charon's obol

Symbols-Objects

Bident Cap of invisibility

Animals-Daemons/Spirits

Ascalaphus Ceuthonymus Eurynomos Hade's cattle

Mythological wars

Amazonomachy Attic War Centauromachy Gigantomachy Cranes-Pygmies war Theomachy Titanomachy Trojan War

Mythological and religious objects

Adamant Aegis Ambrosia Apple of Discord Ara Baetylus Caduceus Cornucopia Dragon's teeth Diipetes Galatea Golden apple Golden Fleece Gorgoneion Greek terracotta figurines Harpe Ichor Lotus tree Minoan sealstone Moly Necklace of Harmonia Omphalos Orichalcum Palladium Panacea Pandora's box Petasos
Petasos
(Winged helmet) Philosopher's stone Ring of Gyges Rod of Asclepius Sacrificial tripod Sceptre Shield of Achilles Shirt of Nessus Sword of Damocles Talaria Thunderbolt Thymiaterion Thyrsus Trident Trojan Horse Winnowing Oar Wheel of Fortune Wheel of fire Xoanon

Symbols

Arkalochori Axe Labrys Ouroboros Owl of Athena

Mythological powers

Anthropomorphism Divination Eternal youth Evocation Fortune-telling Immortality Language of the birds Nympholepsy Magic Ornithomancy Shamanism Shapeshifting Weather modification

Storage containers/ Cups

Amphora Calathus Chalice Ciborium Cotyla Hydria Hydriske Kalpis Kylix Kantharos Lebes Lekythos Loutrophoros Oenochoe Pelike Pithos Skyphos Stamnos

Musical Instruments

Aulos Barbiton Chelys Cithara Cochilia Crotalum
Crotalum
(Castanets) Epigonion Kollops Lyre Pan flute Pandura Phorminx Psaltery Salpinx Sistrum Tambourine Trigonon Tympanum Water organ

Games

Panhellenic Games

Olympic Games Pythian Games Nemean Games Isthmian Games

Agon Panathenaic Games Rhieia

Festivals/Feasts

Actia Adonia Agrionia Amphidromia Anthesteria Apellai Apaturia Aphrodisia Arrhephoria Ascolia Bendidia Boedromia Brauronia Buphonia Chalceia Diasia Delphinia Dionysia Ecdysia Elaphebolia Gamelia Haloa Heracleia Hermaea Hieromenia Iolaia Kronia Lenaia Lykaia Metageitnia Munichia Oschophoria Pamboeotia Pandia Plynteria Pyanopsia Skira Synoikia Soteria Tauropolia Thargelia Theseia Thesmophoria

Vessels

Argo Phaeacian ships

Modern offshoot religions

Discordianism Gaianism Hellenismos Decline of Greco-Roman polytheism

Modern popular culture

Greek mythology
Greek mythology
in popular culture

v t e

Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
deities by affiliation

Primordial deities

Achlys Aether Aion/Chronos Ananke Chaos Erebus Eros/Phanes Gaia Hemera Nyx The Ourea Pontus/Thalassa Tartarus Uranus Fates

Atropos Clotho Lachesis

Titan deities

Titanes (male)

Coeus Crius Cronus Hyperion Iapetus Oceanus Ophion

Titanides (female)

Dione Eurybia Mnemosyne Phoebe Rhea Tethys Theia Themis

Hyperionides

Eos Helios Selene

Koionides

Asteria Leto

Krionides

Astraeus Pallas Perses

Iapetionides

Atlas Epimetheus Menoetius Prometheus

Mousai (Muses)

Aoide Arche Melete Mneme

Olympian deities

Dodekatheon

Aphrodite Apollo Ares Artemis Athena Demeter Dionysus Hephaestus Hera Hermes Hestia Poseidon Zeus

Theoi Olympioi

Asclepius Deimos Ganymede Eileithyia Enyo Eris Iris Harmonia Hebe Heracles Paean Pan Phobos

Mousai (Muses)

Daughters of Zeus

Calliope Clio Euterpe Erato Melpomene Polyhymnia Terpsichore Thalia Urania

Daughters of Apollo

Apollonis Borysthenis Cephisso

Muses
Muses
of the Lyre

Hypate Mese Nete

Muses
Muses
at Sicyon

Polymatheia

Charites
Charites
(Graces)

Aglaea Antheia Euphrosyne Hegemone Pasithea Thalia

Horae
Horae
(Hours)

Dike Eirene Eunomia

Styktides

Bia Kratos Nike Zelos

Aquatic deities

Theoi Halioi

Amphitrite Benthesikyme Brizo Calypso Ceto Glaucus The Ichthyocentaurs Kymopoleia Leucothea Melicertes Nereus Nerites The Nesoi Oceanus Phorcys Pontus/Thalassa Poseidon Proteus Rhodos Tethys Thaumas Thetis Triton

Oceanids

Acaste Admete Adrasteia Amalthea Asia Callirrhoe Ceto Clytie Dione Dodone Doris Electra Eurynome Idyia Melia Metis Nemesis Perse Pleione Plouto Styx Telesto Zeuxo

Nereides

Amphitrite Arethusa Dynamene Galatea Galene Psamathe Thetis

Potamoi

Achelous Almo Alpheus Anapos Asopus Asterion Axius Caanthus Cebren Cephissus Clitumnus Enipeus Kladeos Meander Nilus Numicus Phyllis Peneus Rivers of the Underworld

Cocytus Eridanos Lethe Phlegethon Styx

Sangarius Scamander Simoeis Strymon

Naiads

Aegina Achiroe Aganippe The Anigrides Argyra Bistonis Bolbe Caliadne Cassotis Castalia Cleocharia Creusa Daphne Drosera Harpina The Ionides Ismenis Larunda Lilaea Liriope Melite Metope Minthe Moria Nana Nicaea Orseis Pallas Pirene Salmacis Stilbe The Thriae

Corycia Kleodora Melaina

Tiasa

Chthonic deities

Theoi Chthonioi

Angelos Demeter Gaia Hades Hecate The Lampads Macaria Melinoë Persephone Zagreus

Erinyes
Erinyes
(Furies)

Alecto Megaera Tisiphone

Earthborn

Cyclopes Gigantes Hecatonchires Kouretes Meliae Telchines Typhon

Apotheothenai

Trophonius Triptolemus Orpheus Aeacus Minos Rhadamanthus

Personifications

Children of Nyx

Achlys Apate Dolos Eleos Elpis Epiphron Eris Geras Hesperides Hybris Hypnos Ker The Keres The Moirai

Aisa Clotho Lachesis

Momus Moros Oizys The Oneiroi

Epiales Morpheus Phantasos Phobetor

Nemesis Philotes Sophrosyne Thanatos

Children of Eris

Algos Amphillogiai Ate The Androktasiai Dysnomia Horkos Hysminai Lethe Limos Machai Phonoi Ponos Neikea Pseudea Logoi

Children of other gods

Aergia Aidos Alala Aletheia Angelia Arete Bia Caerus The Younger Charites

Eucleia Eupheme Euthenia Philophrosyne

Corus Deimos The Erotes

Anteros Eros Hedylogos Hermaphroditus Hymen

Eupraxia Hedone Homonoia Iacchus Kratos The Litae Homonoia Nike Peitho Phobos Tyche Zelos

Others

Adephagia Alala Alke Amechania Anaideia Alastor Apheleia Aporia The Arae Dikaiosyne Dyssebeia Ekecheiria Eulabeia Eusebeia Gelos Heimarmene Homados Horme Ioke Kakia Kalokagathia Koalemos Kydoimos Lyssa The Maniae Methe Nomos Palioxis Peitharchia Penia Penthus Pepromene Pheme Philotes Phrike Phthonus Pistis Poine Polemos Poros Praxidike Proioxis Prophasis Roma Soter Soteria Techne Thrasos

Other deities

Sky deities

The Anemoi The Astra Planeti

Stilbon Eosphorus Hesperus Pyroeis Phaethon Phaenon

Aura Chione The Hesperides The Hyades Nephele The Pleiades

Alcyone Sterope Celaeno Electra Maia Merope Taygete

Agricultural deities

Aphaea Ariadne Carmanor Demeter Despoina Eunostus Philomelus Plutus

Health deities

Asclepius Aceso Epione Iaso Hygieia Panacea Telesphorus

Rustic deities

Aetna The Alseids The Auloniads Amphictyonis The Anthousai Aristaeus Attis Britomartis The Cabeiri Comus The Dryades

Erato Eurydice The Hamadryades

Chrysopeleia

The Epimeliades Hecaterus Leuce Ma The Maenades The Meliae The Napaeae The Nymphai Hyperboreioi The Oreads

Adrasteia Echo Helike Iynx Nomia Oenone Pitys

The Pegasides Priapus Rhapso Silenus Telete

Others

Acratopotes Adrasteia Agdistis Alexiares and Anicetus Aphroditus Astraea Circe Eiresione Enyalius Harpocrates Ichnaea Palaestra

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 37709888 LCCN: no2014047558 GND: 118649809 SUDOC: 027219550 BNF:

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