ANNIE LORRAIN SMITH (23 October 1854 – 7 September 1937) was a
British lichenologist whose Lichens (1921) was an essential textbook
for several decades. She was also a mycologist and founder member of
British Mycological Society , where she served as president for
Though born in
Liverpool , her family lived in rural Dumfriessshire
where her father Walter was Free Church of Scotland minister in Half
Morton parish , a few miles north of
Gretna Green . She had several
talented siblings, including the pathologist , Professor James Lorrain
After school in
Edinburgh she went abroad to study French and German,
and then worked as a governess. She moved to
London , started studying
botany in about 1888 and went to classes at the Royal College of
Science taught by D. H. Scott . He found work for her at the British
Museum , but she had to be paid from a special fund because women
could not be employed there officially. She identified and reported on
newly collected fungi, arriving from abroad as well as from the UK,
and worked in the museum's cryptogamic herbarium .
In 1905 she was one of the first women admitted to be Fellows of the
Linnaean Society after a change in the society's bye-laws.
Smith led a lichen survey of
Clare Island , which was outside Clew
Bay in Ireland, in 1910 and 1911. The
Clare Island Survey involved not
only Irish but also several European scientists who were all looking
at different aspect's of the island's natural history. The team were
creditted with the first project aimed at characterising a particular
biogeographic area. In 1921 Smith wrote the illustrated Handbook of
British Lichens which was a key to all known British lichens. In the
same year Lichens was published and was quickly established as a
She was committed to the cause of women's suffrage and women's
rights. She went on working for many years and in 1931, when she was
nearly seventy-seven, was awarded a civil list pension "in recognition
of her services to botanical science". In 1934 came an OBE : "Miss
Annie Lorrain-Smith, F. L. S. For contributions to mycology and
She died in
London in 1937. The standard author abbreviation A.L.SM.
is used to indicate this person as the author when citing a botanical
* Is Pelvetia Canaliculata a Lichen?
* ^ "Ask About Ireland - Irish Scientists - Matilda Knowles". Ask
About Ireland - Irish Scientists. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
* ^ "No. 34056". The
London Gazette . 1 June 1934. pp. 3564–3565.
* ^ IPNI . A.L.Sm.
* Mary R. S. Creese, ‘Smith, Annie Lorrain (1854–1937)’,
Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
Oxford Dictionary of National Biography ,
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press ,
2004; online edn, May 2005, accessed 15 November 2007. doi
:10.1093/ref:odnb/46420 (subscription required)
* The Scotsman archives
* The Admission of Ladies - postscript to a Linnaean Society
biography of Irene Manton by Barry Leadbetter (Blackwell 2004)
* WorldCat Identities
* VIAF : 115738002
* LCCN : n87127210
* ISNI : 0000 0000 8184 4045
* GND : 139913181
* SUDOC : 142392324
* BNF : cb123219619 (data)
BIBSYS : 90390162
* Botanist : A.L.Sm.