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1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Angoulême
Angoulême
(French pronunciation: ​[ɑ̃ɡulɛm] ( listen); Poitevin-Saintongeais: Engoulaeme; Occitan: Engoleime) is a commune, the capital of the Charente
Charente
department, in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwestern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Angoumoisins or Angoumoisines.[1] Located on a plateau overlooking a meander of the Charente
Charente
River, the city is nicknamed the "balcony of the southwest". The city proper's population is a little less than 50,000 but it is the centre of an urban area of 110,000 people extending more than fifteen kilometres (9.3 miles) from east to west. Formerly the capital of Angoumois
Angoumois
in the Ancien Régime, Angoulême was a fortified town for a long time, and was highly coveted due to its position at the centre of many roads important to communication, so therefore it suffered many sieges. From its tumultuous past, the city, perched on a rocky spur, inherited a large historical, religious, and urban heritage which attracts a lot of tourists. Nowadays, Angoulême
Angoulême
is at the centre of an agglomeration, which is one of the most industrialised regions between Loire
Loire
and Garonne
Garonne
(the paper industry was established in the 16th century, a foundry and electromechanical engineering developed more recently). It is also a commercial and administrative city with its own university of technology, and a vibrant cultural life. This life is dominated by the famous Angoulême International Comics Festival
Angoulême International Comics Festival
that contributes substantially to the international renown of the city. The commune has been awarded four flowers by the National Council of Towns and Villages in Bloom in the Competition of cities and villages in Bloom.[2]

Contents

1 Geography

1.1 Location and access 1.2 Districts 1.3 Panorama of the city 1.4 Neighbouring communes and villages[4] 1.5 Hydrography 1.6 Geology 1.7 Relief 1.8 The ramparts 1.9 Climate

2 Toponymy 3 History

3.1 Antiquity 3.2 Middle Ages 3.3 The commune charter 3.4 The Hundred Years War 3.5 The modern era 3.6 French Revolution 3.7 World War II 3.8 Postwar history 3.9 Heraldry

4 Administration

4.1 Municipality 4.2 Cantons 4.3 Intercommunality 4.4 Budget and taxation 4.5 Urban development 4.6 Movies and TV series shot in Angoulême 4.7 Twin towns – sister cities

5 Demography

5.1 Demographic classification 5.2 Demographic changes

6 Demography

6.1 Distribution of age groups

7 Economy 8 Transportation 9 Culture and heritage

9.1 Civil heritage 9.2 Religious heritage 9.3 Environmental heritage 9.4 Museums 9.5 Cartoons 9.6 Other cultural places 9.7 Schedule of festivals 9.8 City of festivals

10 Facilities and services

10.1 Education

10.1.1 Colleges 10.1.2 Schools 10.1.3 University 10.1.4 Other institutions 10.1.5 Sports 10.1.6 Health

11 Local life

11.1 Worship

11.1.1 Catholic worship

11.2 Markets

12 Military presence 13 Notable people linked to the commune 14 See also 15 Notes 16 References 17 External links

Geography[edit] Angoulême
Angoulême
is an Acropolis
Acropolis
city located on a hill overlooking a loop of the Charente
Charente
limited in area upstream by the confluence of the Touvre
Touvre
and downstream by the Anguienne and Eaux Claires. Location and access[edit] Angoulême
Angoulême
is located at the intersection of a major north-south axis: the N10 Paris-Bayonne; and the east-west axis: the N14 route Central-Europe Atlantique Limoges-Saintes. Angoulême
Angoulême
is also connected to Périgueux
Périgueux
and Saint-Jean-d'Angely
Saint-Jean-d'Angely
by the D939 and to Libourne
Libourne
by the D674.

Places adjacent to Angoulême

La Rochelle
La Rochelle
120 km Paris
Paris
435 km Poitiers
Poitiers
110 km Niort
Niort
110 km Montluçon
Montluçon
236 km Guéret
Guéret
170 km Confolens
Confolens
50 km

Cognac
Cognac
40 km Saintes 70 km Royan
Royan
100 km

Angoulême

Limoges
Limoges
100 km

Bordeaux
Bordeaux
110 km Libourne
Libourne
90 km Bergerac 110 km Périgueux
Périgueux
80 km

By train: the Paris- Bordeaux
Bordeaux
line, served mainly by TGV, passes through Angoulême
Angoulême
and the TER
TER
Limoges-Saintes provides connections. By water: although the river Charente
Charente
is currently only used for tourism, it was a communication channel, especially for freight, until the 19th century and the port of l'Houmeau was very busy.

The Angoulême- Cognac
Cognac
International Airport is at Brie-Champniers. Districts[edit]

Map of Angoulême
Angoulême
in 1914.

Old Angoulême
Angoulême
is the old part between the ramparts and the town centre with winding streets and small squares. The city centre is also located on the plateau and was portrayed by Honoré de Balzac
Honoré de Balzac
in "The Lost Illusions" as "the height of grandeur and power". There is a Castle, a town hall, a prefecture, and a cathedral with grand houses everywhere. Unlike Old Angoulême, however, the entire city centre was greatly rebuilt in the 19th century. Surrounding the city were five old faubourgs: l'Houmeau, Saint-Cybard, Saint-Martin, Saint-Ausone, and la Bussatte. The district of l'Houmeau was described by Balzac
Balzac
as "based on trade and money" because this district lived on trade, boatmen, and their scows. The port of l'Houmeau was created in 1280 on the river bank. It marked the beginning of the navigable part from Angoulême
Angoulême
to the sea. Saint-Cybard, on the bank of the Charente, was created around the Abbey of Saint-Cybard
Abbey of Saint-Cybard
then became an industrial area with papermills, especially Le Nil. Saint-Martin - Saint- Ausone
Ausone
is a district composed of two former parishes outside the ramparts. At La Bussatte the Champ de Mars esplanade is now converted into a shopping mall, and adjoins Saint-Gelais. Today the city has fifteen districts:

Centre-ville Old Angoulême Saint- Ausone
Ausone
- Saint-Martin Saint-Gelais La Bussatte - Champ de Mars L'Houmeau Saint-Cybard Victor-Hugo, Saint-Roch is notable for its military presence. Basseau is a district which was created in the 19th century with the port of Basseau, the explosives factory in 1821, the Laroche-Joubert papermill in 1842, then the bridge in 1850. Sillac - La Grande-Garenne was a private housing estate then was built up with HLM
HLM
units. Bel-Air, la Grand Font in the railway station district with housing blocks from the 1950s at Grand Font. La Madeleine which was completely rebuilt after the bombings of 1944. Ma Campagne is a district which was detached from Puymoyen
Puymoyen
commune in 1945[3] and built-up as a collective habitat from 1972. Le Petit Fresquet was also detached from Puymoyen
Puymoyen
and is semi-rural. Frégeneuil was also detached from Puymoyen
Puymoyen
and is semi-rural.

Panorama of the city[edit]

Panorama of Angoulême
Angoulême
from Saint-Martin (South). The church of Saint-Ausone, the cathedral of Saint-Pierre, and the city hall can all be seen.

Neighbouring communes and villages[4][edit]

Places adjacent to Angoulême

Saint-Yrieix-sur-Charente Gond-Pontouvre L'Isle-d'Espagnac

Fleac

Angoulême

Soyaux

Saint-Michel Vœuil-et-Giget Puymoyen

Hydrography[edit] The Port-l'Houmeau, the old port on the Charente
Charente
located in the district of l'Houmeau is in a flood zone and during floods the Besson Bey Boulevard is usually cut. Geology[edit]

Topography of Angoulême
Angoulême
city

Geologically the town belongs to the Aquitaine Basin
Aquitaine Basin
as does three quarters of the western department of Charente. The commune is located on the same limestone from the Upper Cretaceous period which occupies the southern half of the department of Charente, not far from Jurassic
Jurassic
formations beginning at Gond-Pontouvre. The earliest Cretaceous period - the Cenomanian- is in the relatively low areas (l'Houmeau, the heights of Saint-Cybard, Sillac), at an average altitude of 50m. The city was established on the Plateau
Plateau
(altitude 100m) that dominates the loop of the River Charente, a Turonian
Turonian
(also called Angoumien) formation which forms a dissected plateau of parallel valleys and a cuesta facing north that extends towards La Couronne
La Couronne
to the west and Garat to the east. This limestone plateau contains natural cavities which have been refurbished by man in the form of three or four floors of caves, some of which include antique grain silos. The valley of the Charente
Charente
is made up of old and new alluvium which provides rich soil for farming and some sandpits. These alluvial deposits were deposited successively during the Quaternary
Quaternary
period on the inside of two meanders of the river that are Basseau and Saint-Cybard. The oldest alluviums are on the plain of Basseau and reach a relative height of 25m.[5][6][7] Relief[edit] The old part of the city is built on the plateau - a rocky outcrop created by the valleys of the Anguienne and Charente
Charente
at an altitude of 102 metres (335 feet) - while on the river bank the area subject to flooding is 27 metres (89 feet) high. Angoulême
Angoulême
is characterized by the presence of ramparts on a cliff 80 metres (260 feet) high. The plateau of Ma Campagne, south of the old town, has almost the same features and peaks at 109 m in the woods of Saint-Martin. The plateau is elongated and separates the valleys of Eaux Claires, which is the southern boundary of the commune, from that of Anguienne, which is parallel. Both plateaux overlook the Charente
Charente
valley and the outlying areas such as l'Houmeau, Basseau, and Sillac at their western ends. The plateau of Angoulême
Angoulême
is the northwest extension of the Soyaux
Soyaux
plateau. L'Houmeau, the station area, and that of Grand-Font are to the north of the plateau along the small Vimière valley, also a tributary of the Charente, but further north (towards Gond-Pontouvre
Gond-Pontouvre
and L'Isle-d'Espagnac) than Anguienne is to the south. The highest point of the city of Angoulême
Angoulême
is at an altitude of 133m near Peusec located to the south-east near the border with Puymoyen. The lowest point is 27 m, located along the Charente
Charente
at Basseau.[8] The ramparts[edit] Since Roman times ramparts have surrounded the Plateau
Plateau
of Angoulême. Repeatedly destroyed and rebuilt their reconstruction was finally stopped in the 19th century. The Ramparts are classified as historical monuments[9] and the Ramparts Tour is one of the main attractions of the city.

The Ramparts of Angoulême

North Rampart

Near the covered market

The Léchelle Tower

The Rampart du midi

Climate[edit] The climate is oceanic Aquitaine and similar to that of the city of Cognac
Cognac
where the departmental weather station is located.

Comparison of local Meteorological data with other cities in France[10]

Town Sunshine

(hours/yr) Rain

(mm/yr) Snow

(days/yr) Storm

(days/yr) Fog

(days/yr)

National Average 1,973 770 14 22 40

Angoulême[11] 2,027 763 3 23 54

Paris 1,661 637 12 18 10

Nice 2,724 767 1 29 1

Strasbourg 1,693 665 29 29 56

Brest 1,605 1,211 7 12 75

Climate data for Cognac

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 9.4 (48.9) 11.0 (51.8) 14.4 (57.9) 16.9 (62.4) 20.8 (69.4) 24.3 (75.7) 26.8 (80.2) 26.7 (80.1) 23.5 (74.3) 19.0 (66.2) 13.0 (55.4) 9.8 (49.6) 18.0 (64.4)

Daily mean °C (°F) 6.1 (43) 6.9 (44.4) 9.7 (49.5) 11.9 (53.4) 15.8 (60.4) 19.0 (66.2) 21.1 (70) 20.9 (69.6) 17.9 (64.2) 14.4 (57.9) 9.3 (48.7) 6.6 (43.9) 13.3 (55.9)

Average low °C (°F) 2.8 (37) 2.8 (37) 4.9 (40.8) 6.9 (44.4) 10.6 (51.1) 13.6 (56.5) 15.3 (59.5) 15.0 (59) 12.3 (54.1) 9.9 (49.8) 5.6 (42.1) 3.3 (37.9) 8.6 (47.5)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 70.5 (2.776) 51.4 (2.024) 57.2 (2.252) 69.6 (2.74) 63.8 (2.512) 50.6 (1.992) 47.4 (1.866) 45.3 (1.783) 59.3 (2.335) 79.5 (3.13) 85.1 (3.35) 83.1 (3.272) 762.8 (30.031)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 11.6 9.2 10.1 11.2 10.5 7.4 6.9 6.5 8.0 11.2 11.5 11.6 115.7

Mean monthly sunshine hours 77.3 111.1 160.2 179.3 211.4 351.4 254.6 239.4 219.3 141.6 91.4 89.6 2,026.6

Source: Meteorological data for Cognac
Cognac
- 59m altitude, from 1981 to 2010 January 2015 (in French)

Toponymy[edit] Since Antiquity and through the Middle Ages, the name of the town has been attested in many forms in Latin
Latin
and Old French:

Iculisma[12] and Eculisna[13] from the 4th century civitas Engolismensium around 400AD[13][14] Ecolisima ( Merovingian
Merovingian
currency)[15] Ecolisina and Aquilisima in 511[13] Ecolisna in the 6th century[15] Egolisma[16] Egolisina in the 10th century Equalisma, Engolma, Egolesma, and Engolisma[17][18] Engolesme at the end of the 12th century.[13]

The absence of any convincing explanation of the origin of the name of the city has led to several attempts to fit etymological explanations unrelated to the well documented old forms and phonetically unlikely:

It came from incolumissima meaning "very safe and healthy," but there is no trace of an [n] in the most ancient forms and no trace of a [mi] either. It was an alteration of in collisnā meaning "on the hill"[19] but a toponym is never formed from the Latin
Latin
preposition in. As for the French word colline (hill), it was borrowed from the Italian collina at the time of the Renaissance
Renaissance
(attested for the first time in 1555).[20] In addition the suffix -isnā was not used to produce derivations from Latin
Latin
words and it is doubtful that it even exists. Finally, independent alterations of regular phonetic changes occur as a result of analogy or more precisely of popular etymology: that is to say analogy with other similar and frequent used names in the region or an attempt to connect the toponym to a term that makes sense. It is clear that the old forms of Angoulême
Angoulême
are mostly obscure.

Some hypotheses have been advanced with a stronger basis:

It is possible to recognize the suffix -isma in some of the oldest forms which represents an evolution of the Gallic suffix -isama (usually a superlative mark)[15] which is found in the name of the Gallic divinity Belisama
Belisama
and very common in toponymy in toponymic types such as Blesme, Bellême, etc. including changes in the final -esme, -ême which is similar to Angoulême.[Note 1][21] In this context the first element would be Icul- / Ecol- an unknown pre-Latin element.[15] The identification of the primitive form Eculisna then alternating the old forms -isna and -isma led Ernest Nègre to prefer the first with -isna. The first element would be Ecul-. According to him, we can neither affirm the Celticity of these two elements nor their meaning. The alteration in *Angulisma was caused by the attraction of the Germanic personal name Angelisma whose existence was confirmed by Marie-Thérèse Morlet.[13] Iculisma / Ecolisma would consist of a Gallic radical eco meaning "water", followed by the suffix -lisima meaning "relates to". Iculisma would be "well-watered".[19] Xavier Delamarre analysed the element Eco- to come from Equoranda (or Egoranda) as the origin of many names in France
France
and considers that the element ico / equo- was not Celtic.[21]

At the time of the French Revolution
French Revolution
the city was known by the transient name of Montagne-Charente.[19]

The district of Bussatte takes its name from the Low Latin
Latin
buxetta / buxettum which means "place planted with boxwood" equivalent to Boissay
Boissay
in the langue d'oïl. The district of l'Houmeau meaning "small elm" or "abalone". Actually the term is probably derived from the low Latin
Latin
ulmellum. Sillac probably comes from the low Latin
Latin
Siliacum meaning that the village was built around the property (suffix -acum) of a Gallo-Roman named Silius.[22]

History[edit] Antiquity[edit] The history of the city is not very well known before the Roman period: it is simply known that the plateau was occupied by an oppidum, traces of which were found during excavations in the Saint-Martial cemetery[23] under the name Iculisma. Its currency was Lemovice.

A Capital from the 2nd century discovered in 1888 on the Rue des Halles

The town was not located on major roads and was considered by the poet Ausonius
Ausonius
as a small town. No Roman monuments have been found but it benefited from the Pax Romana
Pax Romana
and from trade on the river. The town had a prosperous period at the end of the Roman Empire. The rocky promontory overlooking the Charente
Charente
80 metres (260 feet) high and over the Anguienne 60 metres (200 feet) high formed a strategic position. It was raised to the rank of capital of civitas (at the end of the 3rd or 4th centuries) and the first fortress dates from the end of the Roman Empire. The rampart called Bas-Empire which surrounds 27 hectares of land was maintained until the 13th century. The network of Roman roads
Roman roads
were then reorganized to link the town with the surrounding cities of Bordeaux, Saintes, Poitiers, Limoges, and Périgueux.[24] The city of Haut-Empire remained unknown for a long time. Recent excavations have provided details on the power of the Roman city. A well dug in an early era shows that the water table was very high. A large thermal spa complex was found under the courthouse which is usually related to water supply through an aqueduct.[25] The first bishop of Angoulême
Angoulême
was Saint Ausone
Ausone
of Angoulême
Angoulême
in the 3rd century. The administrative importance of the city was strengthened by the implementation of a County in the 6th century with Turpion (or Turpin) (839–863), adviser to Charles the Bald. However, the town was always attached to the various kingdoms of Aquitaine and the end of antiquity for the city was in 768, when Pepin the Short defeated Hunald II and linked it to the Frankish kingdom.[26] Middle Ages[edit]

Flag of the ancient province of Angoumois.

When held by the Visigoths, the city followed the arian version of Christianity and was besieged for the first time by Clovis in 507 after Vouillé then taken in 508;[27] "miraculously" according to Gregory of Tours
Gregory of Tours
and Ademar of Chabannes.[28] During the battle, however, Clovis was seriously wounded in the leg - probably a fracture. The fact is reported by tradition and on a wall of a tower from the 2nd century a leg is carved called the "leg of Clovis".

The Leg of Clovis

During his stay in Angoulême, after putting the garrison to the sword, Clovis pulled down the old Visigothic cathedral dedicated to Saint-Saturnin to build a new one bearing the name of Saint-Pierre. All that remains of the original building are two carved marble capitals that frame the bay of the axis in the apse of the present cathedral. In the 7th century Saint Cybard
Saint Cybard
stayed secluded in a cave beneath the extension to the north wall of Angoulême
Angoulême
called Green Garden which caused the creation of the first abbey: the Abbey of Saint-Cybard, then created the first abbey for women: the Abbey of Saint-Ausone where the tomb of the first bishop of the city is located. In 848 Angoulême
Angoulême
was sacked by the Viking
Viking
chief Hastein.[29] In 896 or 930[30] the city suffered another attack from invading Vikings but this time the Vikings faced an effective resistance. Guillaume I, third Count of Angoulême, at the head of his troops made them surrender in a decisive battle. During this engagement, he split open to the waist Stonius, the Norman chief, with a massive blow together with his helmet and breastplate. It was this feat that earned him the name Taillefer, which was borne by all his descendants until Isabella of Angoulême
Isabella of Angoulême
who was also known as Isabelle Taillefer, the wife of King John of England. The title was withdrawn from the descendants on more than one occasion by Richard Coeur-de-Lion then the title passed to King John of England
John of England
at the time of his marriage to Isabella of Angoulême, daughter of Count Aymer of Angoulême. After becoming a widow, Isabella subsequently married Hugh X of Lusignan
Hugh X of Lusignan
in 1220, and the title was passed to the Lusignan family, counts of Marche. On the death of Hugh XIII
Hugh XIII
in 1302 without issue, the County of Angoulême
Angoulême
passed his possessions to the crown of France.[31] In 1236 Jewish
Jewish
communities in Anjou
Anjou
and Poitou, particularly Bordeaux and Angoulême
Angoulême
were attacked by crusaders. 500 Jews
Jews
chose conversion and over 3000 were massacred. Pope Gregory IX, who originally had called the crusade, was outraged about this brutality and criticized the clergy for not preventing it.[32] From the 10th to the 13th centuries the counts of Angoulême, the Taillefer, then the Lusignan strengthened the defences of the city and widened it to encompass the district of Saint-Martial. In 1110, Bishop Girard II ordered the construction of the present cathedral. The commune charter[edit] On 18 May 1204 a charter was signed by King John of England
John of England
to make official the creation of the commune of Angoulême. The King "grants to residents of Angoulême
Angoulême
to keep the freedoms and customs of their fair city and defend their possessions and rights". The city celebrated their 800th anniversary throughout 2004.[33] The Hundred Years War[edit] In 1360 the city, like all of Angoumois, passed into the hands of the Plantagenet
Plantagenet
English with the Treaty of Brétigny. From 16 to 22 October 1361, John Chandos, Lieutenant of King Edward III
King Edward III
of England and the Constable of Aquitaine responsible for implementing the Treaty particularly in Angoumois, took possession of the city, its castles, and the "mostier" (monastery) of Saint-Pierre. He received oaths of allegiance to the King of England from the main personalities of the city.[34] The English were, however, expelled in 1373 by the troops of Charles V who granted the town numerous privileges.[31] The County of Angoulême was given to Louis d' Orléans
Orléans
who was the brother of King Charles VI in 1394 and it then passed to his son Jean d'Orléans
Jean d'Orléans
(1400–1467), the grandfather of Marguerite d'Angoulême
Marguerite d'Angoulême
and François I. The Good Count Jean of Angoulême
Angoulême
greatly expanded the County castle after his return from English captivity in the middle of the 15th century. The modern era[edit] Angoulême, the seat of the County of Angoumois, came into the possession of a branch of the family of Valois from which came François I, King of France
France
from 1515 to 1547 who was born in Cognac in 1494. In 1524 the Italian navigator Giovanni da Verrazzano
Giovanni da Verrazzano
returned from the Indies. He told François I
François I
he had discovered a new territory that he named New Angoulême in his honour. This area later became New Amsterdam then New York. The duchy, now crown land, thereafter was passed on within the ruling house of France. One of its holders was Charles of Valois, the "natural" (or illegitimate) son of Charles IX. The last duke of Angoulême
Angoulême
was Louis-Antoine (died 1844), eldest son of Charles X of France.[31] John Calvin, the promoter of Protestantism
Protestantism
and friend of Jean du Tillet the archdeacon of Angoulême, was forced to flee Paris
Paris
in 1533 and took refuge in Angoulême
Angoulême
in the caves of Rochecorail at Trois-Palis. He wrote some of his Institutes of the Christian Religion there which first edition was published in Latin
Latin
in Basel
Basel
in 1536.[35] Angoulême
Angoulême
was affected by the Revolt of the Pitauds
Revolt of the Pitauds
peasant revolt: in 1541, the gabelle (salt tax) was imposed on Saintonge and Angoumois. These provinces did not pay the tax on salt. The revolt broke out around Angoulême
Angoulême
and farmers from the surrounding countryside took the city in July 1548[36] During the first wars of religion the city took up arms: it was reconquered in 1563 by Montpensier. In 1565 Charles IX passed through the city during his royal tour of France
France
(1564–1566) accompanied by the court.[37] In October 1568 the city was taken by the Protestants under Coligny.[31][38] Henry III was, in his infancy, the Duke of Angoulême. He left an unflattering description: "The streets of Engolesme are twisted, houses are disordered, the walls built out of various kinds of masonry which show that it was built several times and often taken and ruined"[39] In 1588 the mayor of Angoulême, François Normand Lord of Puygrelier, was ordered by Henri III
Henri III
to arrest the Duke of Épernon, governor of Angoumois. He led the assault, was repelled, and died on 10 August 1588. In 1619 Marie de Médicis
Marie de Médicis
escaped and was received by the Duke of Épernon, governor of Angoumois. At that time the castle was the residence of the governors. French Revolution[edit] During the French Revolution
French Revolution
the city was called Mountagne-Charente. The first tree of liberty was planted on 5 July 1792.[40] World War II[edit]

The network of Tramway of Angoulême
Angoulême
served the city from 1900 to 1935. Seen here is a carriage at the Place des Halles before the First World War.

The city was also the terminus of a metre-gaugelight railway called the Chemins de fer économiques des Charentes to Chalais which ran from 1910 to 1948

. On 24 June 1940, the 2nd Verfügungstruppe division (special intervention troops) Das Reich supported by other units of the Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
arrived in Angoulême. These troops took prisoners and neutralized the many refugee French soldiers in the city. Their number is estimated between 10 and 20 thousand. They were released in the following days. The Das Reich division, which became tragically famous in 1944 during the Battle of Normandy, continued their "lightning war" by quickly moving to the Spanish border to quickly set the line of demarkation to cut France
France
in two.[41] Angoulême
Angoulême
was located in the occupied zone under German authority and was the seat of the Feld Kommandatur. The border with the free zone, colloquially called the zone nono (non-occupied) passed about 20 kilometres (12 miles) east of Angoulême
Angoulême
through the Forest of Braconne and split the department in two. On 20 August 1940 a convoy of Spanish Republicans were sent from Angoulême: convoy 927. This was the first convoy of the history of Deportation
Deportation
in Europe.[42] Men over the age of 13 were sent to the Mauthausen camp where very few survived; women and children were sent to Franco. These refugees were gathered in camps of "Combe aux Loups" at Ruelle-sur- Touvre
Touvre
and "Alliers" in Angoulême. It also served as a concentration camp for Gypsies until June 1946. On 21 October 1941 the young Gontran Labrégère, who tried with his friend Jean Pierre Rivière to set fire to a train carrying straw and munitions in Angoulême
Angoulême
railway station, was shot by the occupiers. This was the first of a long list of 98 resistance fighters or hostages from Charente. In 1942 Mayor Guillon was dismissed and accused of belonging to an organisation outlawed by the Vichy regime. He was replaced by a notable industrialist, Pallas. On 8 October 1942 387 people of Jewish
Jewish
origin were arrested and deported to Auschwitz. Only eight of them ever returned. On 19 March 1944 allied bombing caused widespread damage and one casualty at the National Explosives factory. On 15 June and 14 August 1944, the railway station was the target of American Flying Fortresses that dumped a carpet of bombs with little damage to the Germans but killing 242 civilians, destroying 400 houses, and caused 5,000 disaster victims in l'Éperon, l'Houmeau, Madeleine, and Grand-Font districts. At the end of August 1944 the Elster column, which was composed of the remains of various German units and the Indische Legion, passed through the city without incident and withdrew. Various units of FFI from the department and reinforcements from Dordogne
Dordogne
then began the encirclement of the city. On the evening of 31 August an attack was launched, putting to flight the remnants of the German garrison. They fortunately did not have an opportunity to reorganize the defence of the city using the numerous and formidable fortifications erected for this purpose. On the night of 31 August to 1 September the city was liberated and a Liberation Committee with a new prefect was installed. This attack, however, resulted in 51 casualties among the different units involved: Maquis de Bir Hacheim, Groupe Soleil, SSS ( Special
Special
Section for Sabotage), etc. A museum in the commune is devoted to the Resistance and the deportations of Jewish
Jewish
and political prisoners. A statue near the station commemorates the deportations to the concentration camps. The survivors of Operation Frankton, notable for their daring raid by canoe on the German U-boat
U-boat
base at Bordeaux, made their escape across country to a safe house at Ruffec just north of Angoulême. This is now the site of a shop featuring British goods. The Monument to the Resistance is in Chasseneuil
Chasseneuil
to the east. Postwar history[edit] After the war, the city underwent a major expansion of its suburbs. First Grand Font and Bel-Air, following the MRU reconstruction program for war damage of the area around the station which was bombed in 1944. Then in the 1960s the districts of Basseau (ZAC) and the Grande-Garenne were built and then there was the creation of Priority Urban Zones (ZUPs) at Ma Campagne in the 1970s. Gradually industries moved into more spacious industrial zones created in the peripheral communes between 1959 and 1975:[3]

Sillac-Rabion (1959) les Agriers (1964) ZI No. 3: Gond-Pontouvre
Gond-Pontouvre
and L'Isle-d'Espagnac
L'Isle-d'Espagnac
(1967) Nersac
Nersac
(early 1970s) Combe at Saint-Yrieix (1980)

Urbanisation also affected the peripheral communes with housing estates at Soyaux
Soyaux
and Ruelle-sur- Touvre
Touvre
and the agglomeration became one of the largest cities in the south-west.[43] In 1972, the city signed a "pilot city" contract with the State (DATAR, represented by Albin Chalandon),[3][44] which allowed the city to make large scale public works - e.g. the small ring road (bridge and Rue Saint-Antoine, Boulevard Bretagne, Tunnel of Gâtine) penetrating Ma Campagne and called the way to Europe, the ZUPs at Ma Campagne, the Saint-Martial town centre, underground parking at Bouillaud and Saint-Martial, Montauzier indoor swimming pools at Ma Campagne, a pedestrianized street, a one-way traffic plan with computerized management of traffic lights ( Angoulême
Angoulême
is one of the first cities in France
France
with Bordeaux
Bordeaux
which has the Gertrude computerized system called Philibert in Angoulême[3]), STGA urban transport (ten routes with flexible buses), development of Bouillaud square, Conservatory of Music.[45] In 1989 after defeat in the municipal elections, the PS deputy mayor, Jean-Michel Boucheron left a hole of 164 million francs in the finances of the city and a debt of 1.2 billion francs. This deficit has burdened the finances of the city and long served as justification for the non-involvement in the completion of public works. The small ring road (the southwest quarter - i.e. the Aquitaine Boulevard, a second bridge over the Charente, and the connection to the way of Europe) was completed in 1995. Following the construction of the Nautilis swimming complex at Saint-Yrieix by the urban community, the town of Angoulême
Angoulême
closed three swimming pools in 2001 (Montauzier, Ma Campagne and the Bourgines summer pool).[46] Heraldry[edit]

Accompanying the devise: "FORTITUDO MEA CIVIUM FIDES" meaning "My strength is in the loyalty of my citizens" (The same device as Périgueux). Blazon: Azure, a castle with open arch flanked by two towers all of argent masoned and windowed in sable surmounted by a fleur-de-lis of Or, also surmounted by a marquis coronet the same.

Development of the coat of arms

The first known blazon was: Azure Semé-de-lis of Or, a city gate with two towers of argent debruised by the whole. Under Philip V in 1317: The Two Towers became three. Under Charles VI in 1381 are: Azure Semé-de-lis of Or, a bend compony of Argent and Or debruised by the whole for brisure. The door at tower three encloses an outdoor ornament. Under Charles VII in 1452 the brisure changes for: a label of three points, with the middle pointed. In the 16th century, the door with two towers reappears surmounted by a fleur de lys of gold. In 1850 a star replaced the fleur de lys which reappeared in 1855. At an unknown date the crown was added.

Administration[edit]

City Hall

Municipality[edit]

List of mayors of Angoulême
Angoulême
under the Ancien Régime[47]

From To Name Party Position

1212

Barthélémy du Puy

1215

Pierre Guillaume

1218

Hélie d'Aurifont

1381 1382 Jehan Teinturier

1390 1392 Jehan Prevost

1393

Brugier

1396 1399 Bernard de Jambes

1397

Cumon

1399

Mangot Prevost

1400

Jehan Prevost

1402

Hélie Martin

1410

Gentil

1415

Baron

1420

Pelletan

1429

de Lage

1431

Seguin

1435

Fourreau

1437

Jehan Musnier

1438

Arnauld Mat

1439

de Lisee

1443 1444 Pierre Dormois

1445 1446 Arnauld Mat

1446 1447 Jehan Pelletan

1453

Faure

1457

Héliot Martin

1458

Jehan du Mayne

1460

Pierre du Sou

1461

Guillaume Prevost

1462

Perrinet de la Combe

1463

Jehan Maqueau

1464

Penot de la Combe

1465

Perrinet de la Combe

1466

Penot Seguin

1467

Penot de la Combe

1468

Hélie Martin

1469

Perrinet de la Combe

1470

Penot de la Combe

1471

Guillaume Prevost

1472

Penot Seguin

1473

Perrinet du Sou

1474

Penot de la Combe

1475

Perrinet de la Combe

1476

Jehan du Mayne

1477

Pierre du Sou

1478

Penot de la Combe

1479

Jacques Bareau

1480 1481 Philippe de la Combe

1482

Penot de la Combe

1482 1483 Michel Montgeon

1483

Jacques Bareau

1484 1485 Guillaume Brugier

1486 1487 Jacques Bareau

1488

Philippe de la Combe

1489

Jehan Fourreau

1490

Hélie Debresme

1491

Bernard Seguyn

1491 1492 Jehan du Mayne

1492

Jehan de Lousmelet

1493 1494 André de Bar

1495 1498 Hélie Seguin

1498 1499 Penot du Mayne

1499 1500 Georges Cimitiere

1500

Anthoyne Gentilz

1501

Regnault Caluau

1502 1503 Hélie du Tillet

1504

Hélie de Lagear

1505

Cibard Couillard

1506 1507 Pierre de La Place

1509 1510 Guillaume Caluau

1511

Cibard Couillard

1512

Pierre de La Combe

1513

Charles Odeau

1514 1515 Charles de Lousmellet

1516

Etienne Rousseau

1517 1518 Caluau

1519

Pierre Boessot

1520 1522 Bernard de Marcilhac

1523

Jehan de Paris

1524

Laurent Journault

1528

Jacques de Lesmerie

1529

Martial Lizee

1530

Guillaume Caluau

1533

Pierre Pascauld

1534

Guillaume Ruspide

1535

Loys Estivalle

1536

Jean Montgeon

1537

Georges Ruspide

1538

François Rouhault

1539

Simon Moreau

1540

François de Couillault

1541

Ythier Jullien

1543

Jean Blanchard

1544

Jean de Paris

1545

Guillaume Ruffier

1546

Jean Blanchard

1547

Aymar Le Coq

1548

Poirier

1549

Simon Moreau

1550

Guillaume de La Combe

1551 1552 François de Couillard

1553

François Terrasson

1554 1555 Guillaume Rousseau

1556 1557 Jean Desmoulins

1558

Jean Ruffier

1559 1560 Hélie Dexmier

1561

Hélie de La Place

1562

Jean Paulte

1563

Hélie Baiol

1563

François de La Combe

1564

Michel Constantin

1565

François de La Combe

1566

Michel Constantin

1567

François de La Combe

1568

Jean Girard

1569

Etienne Pontenier

1570

Jean Paulte

1571

Nicolas Ythier

1572

François de Voyon

1573

Mathurin Martin

1574 1577 Jean Pommaret

1578

François Redond

1579

Pierre Gandillaud

1580

Pierre Terrasson

1581 1582 Pierre Bouton

1583

Louis de Lesmerie

1585

Hélie Laisne

1586

Denys Chappiteau

1587

Guymarc Bourgoing

1588

François Normand de Puygrelier

1589

Etienne Villoutreys

1590

Hélie Laisne

1591

Jacques Lemercier

1592 1593 François Le Meusnier

1594

Cybard Laisne

1595

Jean Nesmond

1596

Pierre Terrasson

1597

Jean Pommaret

1598 1599 Jacques Le Mercier

1600

François Le Meusnier

1601

Antoine Moreau

1602

Jean du Fosse

1603

Jacques de Villoutreys

1604

Jean de Paris

1605

Charles Raoul

1606

François Desruaux

1607 1608 François Ruffier

1609 1610 Jacques Le Meusnier

1611

Jean Nesmond

1612

Guillaume Guez de Balzac

1613

François Desruaux

1614 1616 Jacques Le Meusnier

1617 1619 Jean Guerin

1620

Jean de Paris

1621

François Desruaux

1622

Jacques Le Meusnier

1623

Antoine Gandillaud

1624

Pierre Desforges

1625 1626 Guillaume Lambert

1627

François Dufosse

1628

Pierre Bareau

1629

Jean de Paris

1630

Jean Guerin

1631

Abraham Jameu

1632 1633 Paul Thomas

1634 1635 Jean Souchet

1636 1637 Hélie Levequot

1638

Hélie Houlier

1639 1640 Philippe Arnold

1641 1642 Jean Boisson

1643 1644 Antoine Racault

1645 1646 François Normand de Puygrelier

1647

François Pommet

1648 1649 Jean Lambert

1650 1651 Jean Guymard

1652

Pierre Briant

1653 1654 François Normand de Puygrelier

1655

Philippe Arnaud

1656

Jean Preverauld

1657 1658 Jean Gilibert

1659

Samuel Paquet

1660

Abraham de La Farge

1662

Jean du Thiers

1664 1666 Jean de l'Etoile

1667 1669 Jacques Morin

1670

François Castin

1673

François Abraham de Guips

1676

Louis de Chazeau

1679

François Nadaud

1682 1683 Jean Arnauld

1686

Jean Cadiot de Pontenier

1689

Jean Louis Guitton

1692

Jean Fe

1693

Etienne Cherade

1708

Mesnard de Laumont

1718

Jean Gervais

1721

Pierre Arnauld

1723

Henri Rambaud

1724

François Arnauld

1728

Jean Mesnard

1731

Louis Cosson

1738

Jean Valteau

1741

Elie-Philippe Maulde

1744

Pierre de Sarlande

1747

Léonard du Tillet

1754

Pierre de Labatud

1757

Claude Tremeau

1760

Noël Limousin

1765

Dassier

1766

Dumas

1768

François Bourdage

1771

Chaigneau de La Graviere

1773

Pierre Marchais de La Berge

1790

Jean Valleteau de Chabrefy

1790

Perier de Gurat

(Not all data is known)

List of mayors of Angoulême
Angoulême
from the French Revolution
French Revolution
to 1944[47]

From To Name Party Position

1791

Louis Desbrandes

1792

André Resnier

1793

Henry

1793

Michel Marvaud-Baudet

1793

Louis Desbrandes

1794

Michel Marvaud-Baudet

1795

Louis Desbrandes

1795

Louis Joseph Trion Montalembert

1795

Abraham François Robin Puynege

1795

Michel Marvaud-Baudet

1796

Jean Auguste Dervaud

1797

Pierre Mallet

1797

François Blandeau

1800

Etienne Souchet

1804

Descravayat de Belat

1813

Pierre Lambert des Andreaux

1815

Jean-Baptiste Marchadier

1816

Pierre Lambert des Andreaux

1816

Pierre Jean Thevet

1825

Eutrope Alexis de Chasteignier

1830

Ganivet

1830

Laurent Sazerac de Forge

1830

Philippe Pierre de Lambert

1833

Henri Bellamy

1835

Alexis Gellibert

1837

Paul Joseph Normand de La Tranchade

1841

Pierre Vallier

1843

Zadig Rivaud

1848

Antony Cheneuzac

1849

Paul Joseph Normand de La Tranchade

1855

Edmond Thomas

1855

François Léon Bourrut-Duvivier

1864

Laurent Paul Sazerac de Forge

1870

Jean Marrot

1874

Pierre Eugène Decescaud

1875

Jean Hippolyte Broquisse

1879

Jean Marrot

1881

Henri Bellamy

1888

Jean Marrot

1894

Auguste Mullac

1896

Jean Donzole

1900

Auguste Mulac

1919

Jean Texier

1925

Gustave Guillon

1941 1944 Ariste Pallas

(Not all data is known)

List of Successive Mayors since 1944[47]

From To Name Party Position

1944 1945 Antoine Rougerie

1945 1947 Antonin Denis

1947 1955 Roger Baudrin

1955 1958 Henri Thébault CNI MP for Charente

1958 1959 Raoul Boucheron

1959 1970 Henri Thébault CNI

1970 1977 Roland Chiron CNI Lawyer

1977 1989 Jean-Michel Boucheron PS Professor, MP

1989 1997 Georges Chavanes UDF Industrialist, MP, Minister

1997 2008 Philippe Mottet UMP University Professor, Regional Councillor

2008 2014 Philippe Lavaud PS Professor

2014 2020 Xavier Bonnefont UMP

(Not all data is known) Cantons[edit] Angoulême
Angoulême
is divided over three cantons:

Angoulême-1, which comprises the commune of Fléac
Fléac
and part of Angoulême Angoulême-2, which comprises the commune of L'Isle-d'Espagnac
L'Isle-d'Espagnac
and part of Angoulême Angoulême-3, which comprises the commune of Soyaux
Soyaux
and part of Angoulême

Intercommunality[edit] The Urban Community of Greater Angoulême
Angoulême
or Grand Angoulême
Angoulême
includes 16 communes: Angoulême, Fleac, Gond-Pontouvre, La Couronne, Linars, L'Isle-d'Espagnac, Magnac-sur-Touvre, Mornac, Nersac, Puymoyen, Ruelle-sur-Touvre, Saint-Michel, Saint-Saturnin, Saint-Yrieix-sur-Charente, Soyaux, and Touvre. The population of the conurbation was 103,501 inhabitants in 2006 (102,368 in 1999[48]). Budget and taxation[edit] Taxation is at a rate of 40.20% on buildings, 71.94% on undeveloped land, and 18.43% for the housing tax (2007 figures). The urban community levies 19.20% business tax. Urban development[edit] The Champ de Mars is the central square of the city and has had an underground shopping arcade since September 2007. The eastern ring road was opened in 2004 (2010 for the final section) which opened up several districts. The deviation of the N10 which has bypassed the city since 1973[49] has formed a western ring road since 2004 when the initial Fléac- Linars
Linars
project was abandoned. Rehabilitation operations for collective housing are underway as part of the government Operation for Urban Renewal. The districts of Grande Garenne, Basseau and Ma Campagne were combined in a program of urban regeneration.

The historic centre with the city hall and the market

Pedestrian shopping area in the centre

The port of l'Houmeau and, in the background, the town centre of Angoulême.

District of Grande-Garenne

District of Grand-Font

Les Halles

The Bardines Hotel

Movies and TV series shot in Angoulême[edit]

Blanche and Marie by Jacques Renard with Miou-Miou
Miou-Miou
and Sandrine Bonnaire, shot in Angoulême
Angoulême
and Rouillac, released in 1985 The Child of the Dawn with Thierry Lhermitte
Thierry Lhermitte
filmed at Angoulême
Angoulême
and Cognac SOS 18 shot in and around Angoulême Father and Mayor filmed in the communes of Angoulême
Angoulême
and Magnac-sur- Touvre
Touvre
(in the series, Angoulême
Angoulême
is called Ville-Grand) My son anyway by Williams Crépin with Clémentine Célarié
Clémentine Célarié
in 2004. And you About Love? by Lola Doillon, 2007 Mammuth
Mammuth
by Benoit Delépine
Benoit Delépine
and Gustave Kervern To the four winds by Jacques Doillon Dying of love by Josée Dayan, with Muriel Robin At the bottom of the ladder by Arnaud Mercadier with Vincent Elbaz, Claude Brasseur, Bernadette Lafont, and Helena Noguerra Victoire Bonnot with Valerie Damidot
Valerie Damidot
and Shirley Bousquet filmed at the Saint-Paul Secondary School The Lies by Fabrice Cazeneuve with Hippolyte Girardot
Hippolyte Girardot
and Marilyne Canto, filmed in Angoulême
Angoulême
and Puymoyen, released in 2010 Code Lyoko Evolution, filmed mid-2012 at the Lycée Guez de Balzac Le Grand Soir filmed at Angoulême
Angoulême
and the ZAC at Montagnes by Benoit Delépine and Gustave Kervern
Gustave Kervern
with Albert Dupontel
Albert Dupontel
and Benoît Poelvoorde 2012. Indiscretions by Josée Dayan with Muriel Robin, filmed during the summer of 2013 in Angoulême, Saint-Même-les-Carrières
Saint-Même-les-Carrières
and Bassac, released in November 2013.

Twin towns – sister cities[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France Angoulême
Angoulême
is twinned with ten other cities around the world:[50]

Hildesheim, Germany
Germany
since 1965. Chicoutimi
Chicoutimi
(Saguenay, Quebec), Canada
Canada
since 1969. Vitoria Gasteiz, Spain
Spain
since 1967. Hoffman Estates, United States
United States
since 1996. Skopje, Macedonia since 2002.

Ségou, Mali
Mali
since 1985. Bury, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
since 1959. Gelendzhik, Russia
Russia
since 1977. Hanoi, Vietnam
Vietnam
since 2001. Turda, Romania
Romania
since 1994.

Demography[edit] Demographic classification[edit]

Population of the Urban Area of d'Angoulême ( INSEE Censuses of 1999 and 2007)

Zones Population Area (km2) Density (/km2) change 1999-2007

Urban Area of Angoulême

Angoulême 42,669 22 1,940 - 1.16%

Urban Unit 109,009 202 540 + 2.39%

Urban Area 161,282 1234 131 + 4.90%

Demography of Charente

Charente 349,535 5,956 59 + 2.9%

By population the city of Angoulême
Angoulême
is by far the largest city in Charente
Charente
with 42,242 inhabitants on 1 January 2009. With a communal area of 2,185 hectares, the density of population is 1,940 inhabitants per km2, making it the most densely populated city in Charente
Charente
and the third most densely populated city in Nouvelle-Aquitaine
Nouvelle-Aquitaine
after La Rochelle
La Rochelle
and Poitiers. In 2008, the Urban Unit of Angoulême, which includes eighteen communes[Note 2] totaled 109,553 inhabitants[51] and its Urban Area, which includes 80 suburban communes in the impact zone of the city, totaled 174,482 inhabitants.[52] It brings together nearly 106,000 inhabitants within an urban conurbation which extends over fifteen kilometres (9.3 miles) from north to south. Angoulême
Angoulême
is the most populous commune in the department of Charente
Charente
and is the third largest Urban Unit in Nouvelle-Aquitaine, ranking just after Poitiers
Poitiers
and La Rochelle
La Rochelle
and ahead of Niort. Its Urban Area has 178,650 inhabitants and is composed of 108 communes.[53] The different data show that Angoulême
Angoulême
is the largest urban agglomeration in Charente. Demographic changes[edit] In 2009 Angoulême
Angoulême
had 42,242 inhabitants (down 2% compared to 1999). The commune was 160th in size at the national level, while it was at 145th in 1999, and 1st at the departmental level out of 404 communes. Demography[edit] The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known through the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year.[Note 3] Population change (See database)

1793 1800 1806 1821 1831 1836 1841 1846 1851

11,500 13,000 15,011 15,025 15,186 - 18,622 20,085 21,155

1856 1861 1866 1872 1876 1881 1886 1891 1896

22,811 24,961 25,116 25,928 30,513 32,567 34,647 36,690 38,068

1901 1906 1911 1921 1926 1931 1936 1946 1954

37,650 37,507 38,211 34,895 35,994 36,699 38,915 44,244 43,170

1962 1968 1975 1982 1990 1999 2006 2009 -

48,190 47,822 47,221 46,197 42,876 43,171 41,500 42,242 -

Sources : Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 (population without double counting and municipal population from 2006)

Population of Angoulême

Distribution of age groups[edit] Percentage Distribution of Age Groups in Angoulême
Angoulême
and Charente Department in 2009

Angoulême Angoulême Charente Charente

Age Range Men Women Men Women

0 to 14 Years 17.1 15.1 17.3 15.5

15 to 29 Years 25.6 20.7 16.4 14.4

30 to 44 Years 20.8 18.6 19.2 18.5

45 to 59 Years 17.5 18.5 22.2 21.5

60 to 74 Years 11.6 13.8 15.8 16.2

75 to 89 Years 7.0 12.0 8.6 12.3

90 Years+ 0.4 1.3 0.5 1.6

Sources:

Evolution and Structure of the population of the Commune in 2009, INSEE. Evolution and Structure of the population of the Department in 2009, INSEE.

Economy[edit] Angoulême
Angoulême
is a centre of the paper-making and printing industry, with which the town has been connected since the 14th century.[31] Papermaking is favoured because of the uniform temperature and volume of the water year-round, partly due to the Touvre
Touvre
River, which joins the Charente
Charente
at Angoulême. The Touvre
Touvre
is the second largest river with an underground source in France
France
after the River Sorgue (Fontaine-de-Vaucluse).

Former pumping station to bring up water from the Touvre.

The Touvre
Touvre
emerges as a full-blown river from the head of the valley at Ruelle. A trout fishery is located at the source and a pumping station supplies the drinking water needs of Angoulême.[citation needed] Most of the paper mills are situated on the banks of watercourses in the neighbourhood of the town.[31] Cardboard for packaging, as well as fine vellum for correspondence, have been produced in quantity. The best known export is Rizla+
Rizla+
cigarette roll-up paper, a combination of riz (rice paper) and LaCroix, after Monsieur LaCroix the founder. Le Nil is another local brand of roll-up paper, named not after the Nile in Egypt but after a small tributary of the Charente. The Le Nil paper-mill is now the Paper Museum.[54] Paper-making in the town has been in decline. The economy of the modern town also is supplemented by annual tourist events and festivals. For example, the printers and paper-makers, whose industry relied on intricate machinery, became skilled mechanics and among the first to become fascinated with the motor car in the late 19th century. Motor trials were held regularly, starting on the long straight road through Puymoyen, now a suburb. Monsieur LaCroix (of RIZLA+) was a celebrated motorcycle racer. The Paris-Madrid road race of 1903, notorious for its cancellation due to numerous deaths, passed through Angoulême. Marcel, one of the brothers Renault, was one of the victims. The place of his death is marked by a memorial on road RN10 to Poitiers. The town has been closely associated with motor trials and racing. The Circuit des Remparts
Circuit des Remparts
(see below) is held annually, one of the last such street-racing course in France, together with Pau (and Monaco). In addition to local heroes, internationally known racing drivers, such as Juan Manuel Fangio, José Froilán González, Jean-Pierre Wimille, Pierre Veyron and Maurice Trintignant, have been regular participants. The famous cars which they drove frequently are presented at the modern event. The hotel and restaurant trade receives a considerable boost from the races. Subsidiary industries, such as the manufacture of machinery, electric motors and wire fabric, are of considerable importance. Angoulême
Angoulême
is the most inland navigable port on the Charente
Charente
River. The traditional river boat is the Gabare. Iron and copper founding, brewing and tanning also continue. The manufacture of gunpowder, confectionery, heavy iron goods, gloves, boots and shoes (including the traditional pantoufle carpet slippers) and cotton goods are also important.[31] There is wholesale and retail trade in wine, cognac and building-stone. Transportation[edit]

Angoulême
Angoulême
in 1914.

The Gare d'Angoulême
Gare d'Angoulême
railway station offers connections to Paris, Bordeaux, Tours, Limoges
Limoges
and several regional destinations. The main line of the Paris
Paris
Bordeaux
Bordeaux
railway passes through a tunnel beneath the town[31] and is due for large-scale refurbishment to improve travel time. The new high-speed link between Tours
Tours
and Bordeaux
Bordeaux
has been approved and will bypass the town centre to the west, but with a link to Angoulême
Angoulême
station from both the north and south. It is due to open in 2017. Angoulême
Angoulême
- Brie - Champniers Airport, newly named Angoulême-Cognac airport, is situated 9.5 km (5.9 mi) NE of the city centre in Champniers, just off the N10. The runway can accommodate the Boeing 737, and a new restaurant and shops were added in 2008.[55] However Ryanair stopped its Angoulême-Stansted service in 2010. Air France used to operate a service to Lyon. There are currently no regular flights to/from Angoulême
Angoulême
airport. Local Buses – The city bus system is run by STGA. Culture and heritage[edit]

Angoulême

Angoulême
Angoulême
and Angoumois
Angoumois
country together are classified as a City of Art and History. In place of its ancient fortifications, Angoulême
Angoulême
is encircled by boulevards above the old city walls, known as the Remparts, from which fine views may be obtained in all directions. Within the town the streets are often narrow. Apart from the cathedral and the City Hall, the architecture is of little interest to purists.[31] However, the "old town" has been preserved, maintained and largely reserved for pedestrians. It has a cobbled restaurant quarter, with several galleries and boutiques. Angoulême
Angoulême
contains a very large number of buildings and structures which are registered as historical monuments. For a complete list including links to descriptions (in French) click here. Below are listed some of the most interesting sites. Civil heritage[edit]

the approaches to the city hall with elegant green spaces

The Town Hall (13th century)[56] was designed by Paul Abadie
Paul Abadie
and is a handsome 19th-century structure. It has preserved and incorporated two 13th-century towers, Lusignan and Valois, from the Castle of the Counts of Angoulême
Counts of Angoulême
on the site on which it was built. It contains museums of paintings and archaeology.[31][57] The Ramparts (4th century).[9][58][58] The ramparts form a balcony overlooking the Charente. The Market building (1886)[59] is made of architectural glass and iron of Baltard type. The Palace of Justice was built on an old convent at the end of the 19th century by Paul Abadie's father. The Municipal Theatre has a superb façade. The College Jules Verne, a former deanery, it has preserved the old chapel with beautiful stained glass and carved woodwork in the music room and a vaulted chapel with stone keystones and stained glass - visible from the Rue de Beaulieu - which has become the CDI. The Guez de Balzac
Guez de Balzac
School built by Paul Abadie
Paul Abadie
father and son.

There are very many old houses:

The Maison Saint-Simon in Rue de la Cloche-Verte (16th century)[60] built in the Renaissance
Renaissance
style.[61] The Hotel de Bardines at 79 Rue de Beaulieu (18th century)[62] is attributed to the Angoulême
Angoulême
architect Jean-Baptiste Michel Vallin de la Mothe. The building is impressive in size.[63] The Hotel Montalembert[64] The House called Archers[65] The Hôtel Mousnier-Longpré at 24 Rue Friedland (12th century)[66] was rebuilt in the 15th century. It has remarkable façades on the Rue de l’Évêché, Rue de Friedland, and the courtyard. A Hotel Particular described in Illusions perdues
Illusions perdues
(Lost Illusions) by Honoré de Balzac
Honoré de Balzac
as that of Madame de Bargeton. An Ancient Portal
Portal
at 59 Rue du Minage (17th century)[67] An Ancient Portal
Portal
at 61 Rue du Minage (16th century)[68]

Places (Squares) in Old Angoulême[69]

The Place du Palet

The Place du Minage with its fountain from the Second Empire and its benches has a Mediterranean flair in the heart of the old town. In the 14th and the 19th centuries there was intense commercial activity. The Place Henri Dunant. Named after the founder of the Red Cross, it now borders the Gabriel Fauré conservatory, formerly the Saint-Louis College then a Police Station. The Place New-York. This square, formerly called the Park, was installed in the 18th century in the first real town planning project. It has remained a promenade and a venue for various events. In 1956 the square changed its name again. The City Council decided to call it the Place New York, in memory of the journey by Giovanni da Verrazano in the service of François I
François I
who, in 1524, named the site of the present New York: New Angoulême. The 'Place Beaulieu. Located at the western end of the plateau and the old city, it offers a vast panorama to passers-by and has long been a pleasant place to walk. It borders the imposing Guez de Balzac
Guez de Balzac
School on the site of an ancient abbey. The Place Bouillaud and the Place de l'Hotel de Ville. In addition to the City Hall there is also (in front of the entrance to the City Hall) a beautiful art nouveau façade. The Place Francis Louvel. Formerly called du mûrier, it was and remains one of the busiest places in the old town. Formerly the garden of a convent until the 16th century, it was embellished in the 18th and 19th centuries with new buildings and a fountain. The Palace of Justice is there. The place changed its name in 1946 to take the name of Francis Louvel - a resistance fighter shot by the Germans in 1944. The Place du Palet. This site occupies a vast space which, in the past, was in front of the main gate of the old city and for three centuries housed an imposing hall. The site was redeveloped in the 1980s. The Place du Général Resnier.

Tours
Tours
of the town include the murs peints, various walls painted in street-art cartoon style, a feature of Angoulême
Angoulême
and related to its association with the bande dessinée, the comic strip. A statue has been erected to Hergé, creator of The Adventures of Tintin. The attractive covered market Les Halles, on the site of the old jail, was restored and refurbished in 2004 and is a central part of city life. In 2009 the National Council of Cities and Villages in Bloom of France[70] awarded four flowers to the commune in the competition for cities and villages in bloom.

Gallery

Watchtower in the old Épernon wall

City Hall

The Pedestrian shopping area in 1992

The 19th-century gate on the Hotel Montalembert

The Palace of Justice

The Municipal Theatre

Entrance to the Guez de Balzac
Guez de Balzac
school

Religious heritage[edit]

Angoulême
Angoulême
Cathedral
Cathedral
(12th century)[71] is dedicated to Saint Peter and is a church in the Romanesque style. It has undergone frequent restoration since the 12th century. It was partly rebuilt in the latter half of the 19th century by architect Paul Abadie. The façade, flanked by two towers with cupolas, is decorated with arcades featuring statuary and sculpture with the whole representing the "Last Judgment". The crossing is surmounted by a dome. The north transept is topped by a fine square tower over 160 ft (49 m) high. The Cathedral
Cathedral
contains a very large number of items that are registered as historical objects.[31][72] The remains of the Abbey of Saint-Cybard
Abbey of Saint-Cybard
(13th century)[73] at the International City of Cartoons and Images (CNBDI) The Church of Saint-André at Rue Taillefer (12th century)[74] has been rebuilt several times. The church contains a large number of items that are registered as historical objects. For a complete list with links to descriptions (in French) click here. A Lantern of the Dead in the cemetery of the Church of Saint André (12th century)[75] is actually a hearth - a remnant of the old Taillefer Palace. The old Bishop's Palace at Rue Friedland (15th century)[76] is today the Museum of Fine Arts of Angoulême. The bishop's house contains a number of items that are registered as historical objects:

A Sarcophagus
Sarcophagus
(6th century)[77] A Crozier: The Annunciation (13th century)[78] 2 Croziers: The Virgin (13th century)[79][80] A Crozier: Tau (12th century)[81]

The Hospital Chapel[82] was the old Chapel of the Cordeliers
Cordeliers
Convent where Guez de Balzac
Guez de Balzac
is buried. The chapel contains several items that are registered as historical objects:

A Tapestry: Pagan Sacrifice to an Idol (18th century)[83] A Tapestry: Rest after the Harvest (17th century)[84] A Chest of Drawers (18th century)[85] A Painting: The Virgin and Saint Antoine of Padua (18th century)[86] A Painting: The Dead Christ (18th century)[87] A Painting: The Descent from the Cross (18th century)[88] A Painting: Virgin and child (17th century)[89] A Commemorative Plaque (1654)[90] A Bronze Bowl (16th century)[91]

The Church of Saint-Jacques de Lhoumeau (1840)[92] The church contains a Gallery Organ (18th century) which is registered as an historical object.[93][94][95] The Church of Saint-Martial (1849)[96] in Neo-Romanesque style by Paul Abadie. The church contains a large number of items that are registered as historical objects. For a complete list with links to descriptions (in French) click here. The Church of Saint Ausone
Ausone
from the same period and architect. The church contains a Statue of Saint Ausone
Ausone
(17th century) which is registered as an historical object.[97] The Chapel Notre-Dame d'Obézine (or Bézines)(1895)[98] The Hôtel-Dieu The old Carmelite
Carmelite
convent

Picture Gallery

Angoulême
Angoulême
Cathedral

An Aureola
Aureola
on the Cathedral

Church of Obézine

Chapel Saint-Roch

Church of the Sacred Heart

Church of Saint-Jacques de l'Houmeau

Church Saint-Ausone

Chapel Saint-Cybard

Chapel of Cordeliers

"Lantern of the dead" near the Church of Saint-André

Environmental heritage[edit] The valley of the Charente
Charente
upstream from Angoulême
Angoulême
is a Natura 2000 zone with remarkable species: 64 species of birds.[99] Among them are species for marshland and wetland; and at Angoulême
Angoulême
it is common to see diving and swimming birds, swans (mute swan), grebes (black-necked grebe, little grebe, horned grebe, great crested grebe), geese (greylag goose), ducks (gadwall, pintail, wigeon, shoveler), teal (garganey, teal) and scaup (pochard, tufted duck) on the Charente. It is more rare to see waders. Terns, gulls (laughing gull), great cormorants, return during periods of storms from far upstream on the river. Marquet island and the Forest of la Pudrerie have been finally cleared and will be provided to the population. Hiking trails and an old haulage road have become part of the green corridor which allows walks along the river. Museums[edit]

Museum of Angoulême Museum of Paper[100] Museum of the Archaeological and Historical Society of Charente Museum of Resistance and Deportation Museum of Cartoons (CIBDI) Decentralized branch of the Regional Contemporary Art Fund of Poitou-Charentes

Cartoons[edit] In 1983 the Regional School of Fine Arts in Angoulême
Angoulême
(EESI) was created with the first cartoon section in France. Angoulême
Angoulême
is home to the International City of Cartoons and Images which registers all the comics published in France. There is also at la Cité the ENJMIN which is the first state-funded school in Europe for the key subjects of video games and interactive media.

Angoulême, known as the "City of the Image" or "Capital of Cartoons", is known for its "Painted walls" of cartoons "that punctuate the city centre.[101]

Other cultural places[edit]

The National Theatre[102] The Espace Carat' (Exhibition and Convention Centre of Grand Angoulême
Angoulême
- events, concerts)[103] La Nef (Concert Hall)[104] Gabriel Faure conservatory which has an auditorium and a library[105] The Alpha, a library currently under construction (opening scheduled for March 2014)

Schedule of festivals[edit] End of January: Angoulême International Comics Festival
Angoulême International Comics Festival
Late May: Musiques Métisses (Mixed Music) Late August: Festival of Francophone Films September: Circuit des Remparts
Circuit des Remparts
(Car Race) Late October: Piano en Valois Late November: Gastronomades Early November: The Grand Dance Festival City of festivals[edit] Angoulême, along with paper and printing, has long been associated with animation, illustration and the graphic arts. The Cité internationale de la Bande Dessinée et de l'Image[106] includes an exhibition space and cinema in a converted brewery down by the river. A new museum dedicated to the motion picture opened in 2007 at the newly restored chais on opposite side of the river at Saint Cybard. The architect was Jean-François Bodin. The Angoulême
Angoulême
International Comics
Comics
Festival takes place for a week every year in January and attracts nearly a quarter of a million international visitors. Another festival, small yet influential, is FITA, held each December. FITA stands for Forum International des Technologies de l’Animation, International Forum for Animation Technologies. The event was started in 1998. Some 250 to 300 French professionals from animation, effects, post-production and game development studios: SFX supervisors, head of studios, animators, technical directors, meet to share information and hear internationally renowned speakers on the latest advances and new ideas in entertainment technology. The Circuit des Remparts
Circuit des Remparts
motor racing event, with its street circuit around the ramparts and past the Cathedral, is held the Sunday of the middle weekend in September. It is also the occasion of the world's largest gathering of pre-war Bugatti
Bugatti
race cars,[citation needed] usually around 30 cars, many being examples of the legendary T35, the Ferraris of their day. British vintage and classic cars are also in attendance, most having been driven to the event. The Saturday of the "Remparts" weekend includes a tourist rally (as opposed to a speed event) for classic and sporting cars, around the Cognac
Cognac
area. In another international sports event, Angoulême
Angoulême
was the site of the finish of Stages 18 and 19 (ITT) in the 2007 Tour de France. Angoulême
Angoulême
also hosts the Gastronomades festival at Christmas, Music Metisse in May and Piano en Valois in October. A new exhibition centre (Le Parc Des Expos) and a new shopping mall at the Champ de Mars in the town centre (opening Sept/Oct 2007) are the latest additions to the town. Angoulême
Angoulême
is the seat of a bishop, a prefect, and an assize court. Its public institutions include tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a council of trade-arbitrators, a chamber of commerce and a branch of the Bank of France. It has several lycées (including the Lycee de l'Image et du Son d' Angoulême
Angoulême
(LISA – High School of Image and Sound)), training colleges, a school of artillery, a library and several learned societies.[31] Facilities and services[edit] Education[edit] Colleges[edit]

Marguerite de Valois College Anatole France
France
College Pierre Bodet College Jules Michelet
Jules Michelet
College Jules Verne
Jules Verne
College Michèle Pallet College

Schools[edit]

Lycée Guez-de-Balzac : general education school hosting literary CPGEs School of Image and Sound of Angoulême
Angoulême
(LISA): a general education high school (options cinema, theatre), BTS audiovisual and visual communication Marguerite de Valois High School  : general and technological lycée, Charles de Coulomb
Charles de Coulomb
High School: a general and technological education and vocational high school (industrial education) Sillac High School: building trades vocational school Jean Rostand School: vocational school for the fashion industry and services, Jean-Albert Grégoire School: vocational school for careers in transport and logistics ( Soyaux
Soyaux
commune) Oisellerie High School: agricultural college ( La Couronne
La Couronne
commune) Saint Paul High School: A private school grouping (elementary school, middle school, and general and technological high school) Sainte-Marthe-Chavagnes School: a private school grouping (from kindergarten to BTS, general education, technological and professional)

University[edit]

The Faculty of Law at La Couronne

The University Centre of Charente
Charente
is administratively attached to the University of Poitiers. It includes:

a Faculty of Law and Social Sciences a Faculty of Sport Sciences CEPE (European Centre for children's products) University Institutes of Technology
University Institutes of Technology
(IUT) a departmental site of the Graduate School of Teaching and Education from the University of Poitiers

Other institutions[edit]

Gabriel Fauré Conservatory directed by Jacques Pesi. 56 teachers, 40 disciplines, and 1,015 students in 2010[107] Isfac: a training centre offering 8 BTS courses alternately as well as training for business CNAM: a branch of the National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts EMCA: School for film animation EGC: School of Management and Business CIFOP: Vocational Training Centre for the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Angoulême
Angoulême
( L'Isle-d'Espagnac
L'Isle-d'Espagnac
commune) EIA: Engineering school by apprenticeship - CESI ENJMIN: National School game and interactive digital media EESI: Higher European School of Imaging CREADOC: documentary of design

Sports[edit]

Sailing school, based by Éric Tabarly
Éric Tabarly
at the lake of Saint-Yrieix The women's handball team was in division 1 for the 2008-2009 season. The Angoulême CFC
Angoulême CFC
(ACFC) is the football club who played in the National (3rd division) in the 2003-2004 season. TTGF is the Table Tennis Club who played in National 1 (3rd division championship of France) for the 2009-2010 season. The SC Angoulême
Angoulême
Rugby Club The ACA ( Angoulême
Angoulême
Rowing Club)

Health[edit] All medical and paramedical specialties are present.

The Centre hospitalier d'Angoulême, also called the Hospital of Girac, is in the commune of Saint-Michel.[108] The Saint-Joseph clinic is the only remaining clinic in the commune of Angoulême. Other clinics (Victor Hugo, Sainte-Marie, Saint-Cybard, etc.) are combined on one site: the clinical centre of Soyaux.

Local life[edit] Worship[edit] Catholic worship[edit]

Saint-Pierre Cathedral Saint-André Church Church of Our Lady of Obézine Church of St. Ausone Saint-Jacques Church of l'Houmeau Church Saint-Martial Church of Saint-Bernadette Parish church of Saint-John the Baptist: the church is located on the Rue Pierre Aumaître Church of Saint-Cybard Church of the Sacred Heart

Markets[edit]

The market of Halles, or Covered Market. With its large roof and its late 19th-century architecture, it has been registered as an historical monument since 1993.[109] The Victor Hugo market The market of Saint-Cybard The districts of Basseau and Ma Campagne also have their markets.

Military presence[edit] Two regiments of the French armed forces are currently garrisoned in the City:

1st Marine Infantry Regiment The 515th régiment du train.

Several other military formations have been previously garrisoned in the city, including:

The 107th Infantry Regiment, from before 1906 for an unknown period of time and then from in 1939 to 1940 The 21st Artillery Regiment, 1906 The 34th Artillery Regiment, 1906 The 41st Divisional Artillery Regiment, 1939–1940 The 502nd Tank Regiment, 1939–1940.

Notable people linked to the commune[edit]

Angoulême
Angoulême
City Hall

Born in Angoulême

Isabelle Taillefer (1186–1246), known as Isabelle of Angoulême. The last descendant of the line of the counts Taillefer of Angoulême, she became Queen of England in 1200 through her marriage to King John of England. Jean d'Orléans
Jean d'Orléans
(1400–1467), the "good Count Jean of Angoulême". Grandson of King Charles V of France, son of Duke Louis of Orléans and of Valentina Visconti, brother of the famous poet Charles d' Orléans
Orléans
and grandfather of King François I. Count Jean left memories of a wise man, educated and very religious. After 32 years of captivity in England, he settled in his county in Angoulême
Angoulême
then at Cognac. At the end of the Hundred Years War
Hundred Years War
he began works of reconstruction on his land. His popularity was immense hence the adjective "good count". He has been buried in Saint-Pierre d' Angoulême
Angoulême
Cathedral
Cathedral
for 540 years. Mellin de Saint-Gelais, born about 1491 in Angoulême
Angoulême
and died in October 1558, he was a French poet of the Renaissance
Renaissance
who was favoured by François I. Marguerite d'Angoulême, the eldest sister of François I, born in Angoulême
Angoulême
and known locally under the name of "Marguerite de Valois" by birth or "Marguerite de Navarre" by her marriage. Hélie du Tillet, Mayor of Angoulême
Angoulême
in 1502, father of the historian Jean du Tillet. André Thévet
André Thévet
(1516–1592): explorer and writer, reported from Brazil: "angoumoisine grass" or tobacco, later introduced at the court of France
France
by Jean Nicot. François Ravaillac
François Ravaillac
(1578–1610): notorious for having murdered King Henry IV. François Garasse (1585–1631), author of The Doctrice curious wits of that time - or alleged so. Jean-Louis Guez de Balzac
Guez de Balzac
(1597–1654): writer. Jean Nestor de Chancel, General, guillotined during the Terror. Marc-René de Montalembert
Marc-René de Montalembert
(1714–1800): military man and diplomat, creator of the Foundry
Foundry
of Ruelle in 1753. Jean-Baptiste Vallin de la Mothe
Jean-Baptiste Vallin de la Mothe
(1728–1799): one of the favourite architects of the Empress Catherine II of Russia, Saint- Catherine's Church, the Little Hermitage (now the Hermitage Museum) and the Imperial Academy of Arts
Imperial Academy of Arts
of Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
are among his masterpieces. André Guillaume Resnier de Goué (1729–1811): French general and one of the pioneers of aviation and gliding. Charles de Coulomb
Charles de Coulomb
(1736–1806), French physicist, gave his name to the unit of electric charge. Cybard Florimond Gouguet (1752–1831), general of the armies of the Republic and the Empire. Jean Chemineau (1771–1852), born at Grelet, general of the armies of the Republic and the Empire. Besson Bey J.V. (real name J.V. Besson) (1782–1837) was, among others, an Admiral for Muhammad Ali, viceroy of Egypt. Octave Callandreau (1852–1904), French astronomer, native of Angoulême. Paul Iribe
Paul Iribe
(1883–1935): designer and decorator French. He is considered one of the forerunners of "Art Deco". Robert Couturier, (1905–2008), sculptor. Paul Cognasse, (1914–1993), painter, glazier, and sculptor. Jacques Mitterrand, General of the Air Force and company director, born in Angoulême
Angoulême
in 1918. René Chabasse, born 9 April 1921, killed on 21 February 1944 in Angoulême
Angoulême
by a German soldier, a French resistance fighter. Dominique Bagouet, (1951–1992), French dancer and choreographer of contemporary dance. Maurice Duverger, lawyer, political scientist and professor of French law, constitutional law scholar. Bruno Maïorana, designer of comics, born in Angoulême
Angoulême
on 23 December 1966 Claude Arpi, born in 1949, writer, journalist, historian and French tibetologist. Claire Désert, born in 1967, pianist, professor at the Paris Conservatory (CNSM). Amandine Bourgeois, born in 1979, singer Laurence Arné, born in 1982, comedian Curt John Ducasse (1881–1969) philosopher Charles Gaudichaud-Beaupré
Charles Gaudichaud-Beaupré
(1789–1854), botanist Ben Bassaw, athlete Jean-Cedric Maspimby, footballer Pierre-Jean Rémy (born Jean-Pierre Angremy 1937), writer, member of the Académie française. Clothilde Goujard (born in 1992), journalist Adrien Silva, footballer

Linked to Angoulême

Column of the Duchess of Angoulême
Angoulême
(1815), sister of Louis XVI

Saint Cybard
Saint Cybard
(early 6th century – 581): "deacon and recluse" in his own words, he died in the odour of sanctity at Angoulême. Ausone
Ausone
d' Angoulême
Angoulême
or Saint Ausone: first Bishop of Angoulême. Girard II (12th century): Bishop founder of the Saint-Pierre Angoulême
Angoulême
Cathedral, was declared schismatic. Buried in the cathedral. François I
François I
(+1547), Count of Angoulême
Count of Angoulême
before his accession to the throne. Jean Louis de Nogaret de La Valette, Duke of Épernon: Governor of Angoumois, pet of King Henri III
Henri III
of France. Paul Abadie: built the churches of Saint-Martial, St. Ausone, the school chapel, restored the old castle and turned it into the City Hall, and Angoulême
Angoulême
Cathedral Zulma Carraud, writer, whose husband, Commandant Carraud, was appointed inspector of the Explosive Works of Angoulême
Angoulême
after the July Revolution
July Revolution
of 1830. The couple had a property near Angoulême where he lived until 1834 frequently hosting the author of La Comédie humaine. It was there that Balzac
Balzac
wrote La Grenadière in one night.[110] The district of L'Houmeau, is also the birthplace of one of the most famous characters in Balzac: Lucien Chardon, who became Lucien de Rubempré in Illusions perdues
Illusions perdues
(Lost Illusions) and in Splendeurs et misères des courtisanes
Splendeurs et misères des courtisanes
(Splendours and Miseries of Courtesans). Paul Valéry
Paul Valéry
(1871–1945), writer and scholar, visited the ramparts where there is a plaque: "Paul VALERY stopped here on 9 December 1931 AAC O reward after a thought, a long look at the calm of the gods[111] Lucien Loizeau (1879–1978), General, Military Governor of Metz, Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour. Lindsay Anderson
Lindsay Anderson
(1923–1994), British film director, author of the film if.... (1969) which won the Palme d'Or
Palme d'Or
at Cannes, died at Angoulême. François Mitterrand, President of the French Republic from 1981 to 1995, born 26 October 1916 in Jarnac
Jarnac
(Charente) completed his secondary education at Saint-Paul's College of Angoulême. René Olry (1880–1944) commanded the Army of the Alps during the French campaign from 5 December 1939 to 25 June 1940, the date of the Franco-Italian armistice; died in Angoulême. Prince Eudes, Duke of Angoulême, born in 1968. Clair-Marie Fourcade, sport fishing champion of France, lives in Angoulême. Alain Renaud, musician, lives in Paris.

See also[edit]

Angoulême
Angoulême
International Comics
Comics
Festival Counts and dukes of Angoulême Angoumois Bishopric of Angoulême Poitou-Charentes Communes of the Charente
Charente
department Nouvelle-Angoulême Angolemi

Notes[edit]

^ Xavier Delamarre also cited Uxisama "very high" giving Exmes, Huismes, etc. and *Lētisamā "very grey" giving Louesme
Louesme
(Côte-d'Or, Leesma in 1101), Lesme
Lesme
(Saône-et-loire) ^ According to the new delimitation defined by INSEE in 2010 ^ At the beginning of the 21st century, the methods of identification have been modified by law No. 2002-276 of 27 February 2002 [1] Archived 6 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine., the so-called "law of local democracy" and in particular Title V "census operations" which allow, after a transitional period running from 2004 to 2008, the annual publication of the legal population of the different French administrative districts. For communes with a population greater than 10,000 inhabitants, a sample survey is conducted annually, the entire territory of these communes is taken into account at the end of the period of five years. The first "legal population" after 1999 under this new law came into force on 1 January 2009 and was based on the census of 2006.

References[edit]

^ Inhabitants of Charente
Charente
(in French) ^ Angoulême
Angoulême
in the Competition for Towns and Villages in Bloom Archived 10 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine. (in French) ^ a b c d Pierre Dubourg-Noves (dir.), History of Angoulême
Angoulême
and its surroundings, Toulouse, Éditions Privat, coll. "Univers de la France et des pays francophones", 1990, 319 p. (ISBN 2-7089-8246-X, notice BnF no FRBNF350724243), p. 295-296 (in French) ^ Google Maps ^ BRGM geological map on Géoportail
Géoportail
(in French) ^ INfoterre Visualiser Archived 23 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine., BRGM website (in French) ^ Paper Notice for Angoulême, BRGM, 1973, Infoterre website, consulted on 17 November 2011 (in French) ^ IGN Map on Géoportail
Géoportail
(in French) ^ a b Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00104228 Ramparts (in French) ^ Paris, Nice, Strasbourg, Brest ^ Data from the Station at Cognac
Cognac
from 1981 to 2010 (in French) ^ Letter of Ausone, Louis Maurin in: Jean Combes (dir.) and Michel Luc (dir.), Charente
Charente
from prehistory to modern times (collective work), St-Jean-d'Y, Imprimerie Bordessoules, coll. "History by documentrs", 1986, 429 p. (ISBN 2-903504-21-0, notice BnF no FRBNF34901024q), p. 56,69,70 (in French) ^ a b c d e Ernest Nègre, Toponymy General of France, Librairie Droz, Genève, volume 1: Pre-Celtic, Celtic, and Roman formations, 1990, 704 pages, p. 53, Read online, consulted on 31 December 2012 (in French) ^ Notitia provinciarum et civitatum Galliae, Aquitaine seconde, 4th century (in French) ^ a b c d Etymological Dictionary of place names in France, Librairie Guénégaud, Albert Dauzat and Charles Rostaing, 1979, Paris, ISBN 2-85023-076-6, p. 19a (in French) ^ History of the Franks, Grégoire de Tours
Grégoire de Tours
(in French) ^ Jean Nanglard, Cartulary of the Church of Angoulême, Vol. IX, Bulletins and memoirs of the Archaeological and Historical Society of Charente, imprimerie G.Chasseignac, 1899 (1st edition 1880), 296 p. (Read online), p. 229 ^ Pierre Dubourg-Noves (dir.), History of Angoulême
Angoulême
and its surroundings, Toulouse, Éditions Privat, coll. "Univers de la France et des pays francophones", 1990, 319 p. (ISBN 2-7089-8246-X, notice BnF no FRBNF350724243), p. 20 (in French) ^ a b c Jean-Marie Cassagne and Stéphane Seguin, Origin of names of towns and villages of Charente, Jean-Michel Bordessoules, 1998, 311 pages, p. 15 and 16, ISBN 2-913471-06-4 (in French) ^ cnrtl website: Etymology of "colline" (in French) ^ a b Xavier Delamarre, Dictionary of the Gallic language, éditions Errance, Paris, 2001, p. 199,329, ISBN 978-2-87772-198-1 (in French). Article uxellos and -leto ^ Jean-Marie Cassagne and Stéphane Seguin, Origin of the names of towns and villages of Charente, Jean-Michel Bordessoules, 1998, 311 pages, p. 59, 151, and 273, ISBN 2-913471-06-4 (in French) ^ José Gomez de Soto in Jean Combes (dir.), History of Poitou
Poitou
and charentais country: Deux-Sèvres, Vienne, Charente, Charente-Maritime, Clermont-Ferrand, éditions Gérard Tisserand, 2001, 334 p. (ISBN 2-84494-084-6, Read online), p. 61 (in French) ^ Jean-François Buisson in Jean Combes (dir.), History of Poitou
Poitou
and charentais country: Deux-Sèvres, Vienne, Charente, Charente-Maritime, Clermont-Ferrand, éditions Gérard Tisserand, 2001, 334 p. (ISBN 2-84494-084-6,Read online), p. 99-100 (in French) ^ Antique Towns and urban areas of South-West Gaul, by Louis Maurin, 1992: Angoulême, Iculisma, Ecolisna (in French) ^ Robert Favreau (historian), p. 121 (in French) ^ Robert Favreau (historian) in Jean Combes (dir.), History of Poitou and charentais country: Deux-Sèvres, Vienne, Charente, Charente-Maritime, Clermont-Ferrand, éditions Gérard Tisserand, 2001, 334 p. (ISBN 2-84494-084-6, Read online), p. 120 (in French) ^ Quénot, Statistics of Charente, Études locales, February 1921 (in French) ^ Michel Dillange, The Counts of Poitou, Dukes of Aquitaine: 778-1204, Mougon, Geste éd., coll. "History", 1995, ill., cov. illustrated in colour; 24cm, 303 p. (ISBN 2-910919-09-9, ISSN 1269-9454, notice BnF no FRBNF35804152x), p. 56 (in French) ^ The dates vary between Vigier de la Pile and François Corlieu in History of the Angoumois, Paris, Derache (1846, Laffite reprint 2002), 1576, 1760, 160 p. (ISBN 2-86276-384-5, Read online) ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Angoulême". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 41–42.  ^ A Short Review of a Troubled History, Fritz Voll ^ «  Angoulême
Angoulême
magazine No. 45 (in French) ^ Process-verbal delivered to Jean Chandos, Commissary of the King of England and of abandoned French areas by the Treaty of Brétigny, Manuscript from the British Museum - A. Bardonnet - Niort
Niort
- 1867 Histoirepassion website (in French) ^ Getting to know Charente, Louis Desgraves, éditions Sud Ouest, p. 23 (in French) ^ Suzanne Citron, The National myth: the history of France
France
in question, Paris : coédition Les Éditions ouvrières/Édition and documentation internationale, 1991. ISBN 2-85139-100-3, ISBN 2-7082-2875-7, p. 229 (in French) ^ Pierre Miquel, The Wars of Religion, Paris, Club France
France
Loisirs, 1980 (ISBN 2-7242-0785-8), p. 258 (in French) ^ A biography of Agrippa of Aubigné. Online (in French) ^ Louis Suire, Images of the West Country, la Rose des vents, 1970, no ISBN ^ Robert Petit, The Trees of liberty at Poitiers
Poitiers
and in Vienne, Poitiers : Éditions CLEF 89/Fédération des œuvres laïques, 1989, p. 28 (in French) ^ Guy Hontarrède, Friend, do you hear?, 1987 (in French) ^ Bartolomé Bennassar, The Spanish War and its consequences, Perrin, coll. Temps (in French) ^ Angoulême, Jean-Marie Berland, éd. Saep (Colmar), 1973, p. 94 (in French) ^ Le Courrier du Parlement No. 420, 1975, p. 3-7 (in French) ^ Municipal Bulletins Informations d'Angoulême, 1973-77 (in French) ^ Sud Ouest éd. Charente
Charente
5 December 2001 (in French) ^ a b c List of Mayors of France ^ INSEE, RP 1999 (in French) ^ Report of the Economic and Social Development Funding Council (Ministry of the Economy and Finance), 1972, p. 253 (in French) ^ "National Commission for Decentralised cooperation". Délégation pour l’Action Extérieure des Collectivités Territoriales (Ministère des Affaires étrangères) (in French). Retrieved 2014-11-07.  ^ INSEE Census (in French) ^ INSEE (in French) ^ The very large Angoulême, by Olivier Sarazin, Sud-Ouest, 25 October 2011 (in French) ^ "Le Musée du Papier d'Angoulême", Official Website (in French) ^ "Angoulême", Official Website ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00104211 Town Hall (in French) ^ City Hall ^ a b Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00104229 Ramparts of the Duke of Epernon (in French) ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00125672 Market buildings (in French) ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00104222 Maison Saint-Simon (in French) ^ Old Angoulême
Angoulême
website - St. Simon (in French) ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00104212 Hotel de Bardines (in French) ^ Old Angoulême
Angoulême
website - Bardines (in French) ^ Old Angoulême
Angoulême
website - Mantalambert (in French) ^ Old Angoulême
Angoulême
website - Archers (in French) ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00104210 Hôtel Mousnier-Longpré (in French) ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00104224 Ancient Portal
Portal
at 59 Rue du Minage (in French) ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00104225 Ancient Portal
Portal
at 61 Rue du Minage (in French) ^ Old Angoulême
Angoulême
website - Places (in French) ^ Towns and Villages in Bloom website (in French) ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00104203 Angoulême
Angoulême
Cathedral
Cathedral
(in French) ^ For a complete list including links to descriptions (in French) click here. ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA16000038 Abbey of Saint-Cybard
Abbey of Saint-Cybard
(in French) ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00104207 Church of Saint-André (in French) ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00104220 Lantern of the Dead (in French) ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00104208 Bishop's Palace (in French) ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM16000027 Sarcophagus
Sarcophagus
(in French) ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM16000026 Crozier: The Annunciation (in French) ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM16000025 Crozier: The Virgin (in French) ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM16000024 Crozier: The Virgin (in French) ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM16000023 Crozier: Tau (in French) ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA00104209 Hospital Chapel (in French) ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM16000336 Tapestry: Pagan Sacrifice to an Idol (in French) ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM16000033 Tapestry: Rest after the Harvest (in French) ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM16000032 Chest of Drawers (in French) ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM16000031 Painting: The Virgin and Saint Antoine of Padua (in French) ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM16000030 Painting: The Dead Christ (in French) ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM16000029 Painting: The Descent from the Cross (in French) ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM16000028 Painting: Virgin and child (in French) ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM16000022 Commemorative Plaque (in French) ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM16000021 Bronze Bowl (in French) ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA16000017 Church of Saint-Jacques de Lhoumeau (in French) ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM16000418 Gallery Organ: Instrumental part (in French) ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM16000417 Gallery Organ (in French) ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM16000020 Gallery Organ: Cabinet part (in French) ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA16000018 Church of Saint-Martial (in French) ^ Ministry of Culture, Palissy PM16000019 Statue: Saint Ausone
Ausone
(in French) ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA16000019 Chapel Notre-Dame d'Obézine (in French) ^ Natura 2000
Natura 2000
website (in French) ^ Ministry of Culture, Mérimée PA16000049 Old Paper Mill (in French) ^ The painted walls of Angoulême
Angoulême
(in French) ^ Angoulême
Angoulême
Theatre website (in French) ^ Espace Carat website (in French) ^ La Nef website (in French) ^ Gabriel Fauré conservatory ^ "La Cité internationale de la Bande Dessinée et de l'Image", Official Website (in French) ^ Article in the journal Sud Ouest of 11 September 2010 (Read online) (in French) ^ Centre Hospitalier d' Angoulême
Angoulême
website, CHA Service Informatique, Inovagora, consulted on 24 May 2009 (in French) ^ French Ministry of Culture Notice PA00125672 Covered Market (in French) ^ Notice by Samuel S de Sacy. in the collection: Les Secrets de la princesse de Cadignan. Classic Folio, Gallimard. (in French) ^ Paul VALERY s'est arrêté ici le 9 décembre 1931 AAC "O récompense après une pensée, qu'un long regard sur le calme des dieux"

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Angoulême.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Angoulême.

Official Web site (in French) Visiting Angoulême Picture of the Cathedral Circuit des remparts (in French)(in English) Angoulême
Angoulême
Cricket club (in French)(in English) Angoulême
Angoulême
on Lion1906 Angoulême
Angoulême
on Google Maps Angoulême
Angoulême
on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute (IGN) website (in French) Angoulesme on the 1750 Cassini Map Angoulême
Angoulême
on the INSEE website (in French) INSEE (in French)  "Angoulême". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2 (9th ed.). 1878. p. 45–46. 

v t e

Prefectures of departments of France

Bourg-en-Bresse
Bourg-en-Bresse
(Ain) Laon
Laon
(Aisne) Moulins (Allier) Digne-les-Bains
Digne-les-Bains
(Alpes-de-Haute-Provence) Gap (Hautes-Alpes) Nice
Nice
(Alpes-Maritimes) Privas
Privas
(Ardèche) Charleville-Mézières
Charleville-Mézières
(Ardennes) Foix
Foix
(Ariège) Troyes
Troyes
(Aube) Carcassonne
Carcassonne
(Aude) Rodez
Rodez
(Aveyron) Marseille
Marseille
(Bouches-du-Rhône) Caen
Caen
(Calvados) Aurillac
Aurillac
(Cantal) Angoulême
Angoulême
(Charente) La Rochelle
La Rochelle
(Charente-Maritime) Bourges
Bourges
(Cher) Tulle
Tulle
(Corrèze) Ajaccio
Ajaccio
(Corse-du-Sud) Bastia
Bastia
(Haute-Corse) Dijon
Dijon
(Côte-d'Or) Saint-Brieuc
Saint-Brieuc
(Côtes-d'Armor) Guéret
Guéret
(Creuse) Périgueux
Périgueux
(Dordogne) Besançon
Besançon
(Doubs) Valence (Drôme) Évreux
Évreux
(Eure) Chartres
Chartres
(Eure-et-Loir) Quimper
Quimper
(Finistère) Nîmes
Nîmes
(Gard) Toulouse
Toulouse
(Haute-Garonne) Auch
Auch
(Gers) Bordeaux
Bordeaux
(Gironde) Montpellier
Montpellier
(Hérault) Rennes
Rennes
(Ille-et-Vilaine) Châteauroux
Châteauroux
(Indre) Tours
Tours
(Indre-et-Loire) Grenoble
Grenoble
(Isère) Lons-le-Saunier
Lons-le-Saunier
(Jura) Mont-de-Marsan
Mont-de-Marsan
(Landes) Blois
Blois
(Loir-et-Cher) Saint-Étienne
Saint-Étienne
(Loire) Le Puy-en-Velay
Le Puy-en-Velay
(Haute-Loire) Nantes
Nantes
(Loire-Atlantique) Orléans
Orléans
(Loiret) Cahors
Cahors
(Lot) Agen
Agen
(Lot-et-Garonne) Mende (Lozère) Angers
Angers
(Maine-et-Loire) Saint-Lô
Saint-Lô
(Manche) Châlons-en-Champagne
Châlons-en-Champagne
(Marne) Chaumont (Haute-Marne) Laval (Mayenne) Nancy (Meurthe-et-Moselle) Bar-le-Duc
Bar-le-Duc
(Meuse) Vannes
Vannes
(Morbihan) Metz
Metz
(Moselle) Nevers
Nevers
(Nièvre) Lille
Lille
(Nord) Beauvais
Beauvais
(Oise) Alençon
Alençon
(Orne) Arras
Arras
(Pas-de-Calais) Clermont-Ferrand
Clermont-Ferrand
(Puy-de-Dôme) Pau (Pyrénées-Atlantiques) Tarbes
Tarbes
(Hautes-Pyrénées) Perpignan
Perpignan
(Pyrénées-Orientales) Strasbourg
Strasbourg
(Bas-Rhin) Colmar
Colmar
(Haut-Rhin) Lyon
Lyon
(Rhône) Vesoul
Vesoul
(Haute-Saône) Mâcon
Mâcon
(Saône-et-Loire) Le Mans
Le Mans
(Sarthe) Chambéry
Chambéry
(Savoie) Annecy
Annecy
(Haute-Savoie) Paris
Paris
(Paris) Rouen
Rouen
(Seine-Maritime) Melun
Melun
(Seine-et-Marne) Versailles (Yvelines) Niort
Niort
(Deux-Sèvres) Amiens
Amiens
(Somme) Albi
Albi
(Tarn) Montauban
Montauban
(Tarn-et-Garonne) Toulon
Toulon
(Var) Avignon
Avignon
(Vaucluse) La Roche-sur-Yon
La Roche-sur-Yon
(Vendée) Poitiers
Poitiers
(Vienne) Limoges
Limoges
(Haute-Vienne) Épinal
Épinal
(Vosges) Auxerre
Auxerre
(Yonne) Belfort
Belfort
(Territoire de Belfort) Évry (Essonne) Nanterre
Nanterre
(Hauts-de-Seine) Bobigny
Bobigny
(Seine-Saint-Denis) Créteil
Créteil
(Val-de-Marne) Cergy, Pontoise
Pontoise
(Val-d'Oise)

Overseas departments

Basse-Terre
Basse-Terre
(Guadeloupe) Fort-de- France
France
(Martinique) Cayenne
Cayenne
(French Guiana) Saint-Denis (Réunion) Mamoudzou
Mamoudzou
(Mayotte)

v t e

Communes of the Charente
Charente
department

Abzac Les Adjots Agris Aigre Alloue Ambérac Ambernac Ambleville Anais Angeac-Champagne Angeac-Charente Angeduc Angoulême Ansac-sur-Vienne Anville Ars Asnières-sur-Nouère Aubeterre-sur-Dronne Auge-Saint-Médard Aunac-sur-Charente Aussac-Vadalle Baignes-Sainte-Radegonde Balzac Barbezières Barbezieux-Saint-Hilaire Bardenac Barret Barro Bassac Bazac Beaulieu-sur-Sonnette Bécheresse Bellevigne Bellon Benest Bernac Berneuil Bessac Bessé Bioussac Birac Blanzaguet-Saint-Cybard Boisbreteau Boisné-la-Tude Bonnes Bonneuil Bonneville Bors-de-Baignes Bors-de-Montmoreau Le Bouchage Bouëx Bourg-Charente Bouteville Boutiers-Saint-Trojan Brettes Bréville Brie Brie-sous-Barbezieux Brie-sous-Chalais Brigueuil Brillac Brossac Bunzac Cellefrouin Cellettes Chabanais Chabrac Chadurie Chalais Challignac Champagne-Mouton Champagne-Vigny Champmillon Champniers Chantillac La Chapelle Charmé Charras Chasseneuil-sur-Bonnieure Chassenon Chassiecq Chassors Châteaubernard Châteauneuf-sur-Charente Châtignac Chazelles Chenon Cherves-Châtelars Cherves-Richemont La Chèvrerie Chillac Chirac Claix Cognac Combiers Condac Condéon Confolens Coteaux du Blanzacais Coulgens Coulonges Courbillac Courcôme Courgeac Courlac La Couronne Couture Criteuil-la-Magdeleine Curac Deviat Dignac Dirac Douzat Ébréon Échallat Écuras Édon Empuré Épenède Les Essards Esse Étagnac Étriac Exideuil Eymouthiers La Faye Feuillade Fléac Fleurac Fontclaireau Fontenille La Forêt-de-Tessé Fouquebrune Fouqueure Foussignac Garat Gardes-le-Pontaroux Genac-Bignac Genouillac Gensac-la-Pallue Genté Gimeux Gondeville Gond-Pontouvre Les Gours Gourville Le Grand-Madieu Grassac Graves-Saint-Amant Guimps Guizengeard Gurat Hiersac Hiesse Houlette L'Isle-d'Espagnac Jarnac Jauldes Javrezac Juignac Juillac-le-Coq Juillé Julienne Lachaise Ladiville Lagarde-sur-le-Né Laprade Lésignac-Durand Lessac Lesterps Lichères Ligné Lignières-Sonneville Linars Le Lindois Londigny Longré Lonnes Louzac-Saint-André Lupsault Lussac Luxé La Magdeleine Magnac-Lavalette-Villars Magnac-sur-Touvre Maine-de-Boixe Mainxe Mainzac Manot Mansle Marcillac-Lanville Mareuil Marillac-le-Franc Marsac Marthon Massignac Mazerolles Mazières Médillac Mérignac Merpins Mesnac Les Métairies Mons Montboyer Montbron Montembœuf Montignac-Charente Montignac-le-Coq Montigné Montjean Montmérac Montmoreau Montrollet Mornac Mosnac Moulidars Mouthiers-sur-Boëme Mouton Moutonneau Mouzon Nabinaud Nanclars Nanteuil-en-Vallée Nercillac Nersac Nieuil Nonac Oradour Oradour-Fanais Orgedeuil Oriolles Orival Paizay-Naudouin-Embourie Palluaud Parzac Passirac Pérignac La Péruse Pillac Les Pins Plassac-Rouffiac Pleuville Poullignac Poursac Pranzac Pressignac Puymoyen Puyréaux Raix Rancogne Ranville-Breuillaud Reignac Réparsac Rioux-Martin Rivières La Rochefoucauld La Rochette Ronsenac Rouffiac Rougnac Rouillac Roullet-Saint-Estèphe Roumazières-Loubert Roussines Rouzède Ruelle-sur-Touvre Ruffec Saint-Adjutory Saint-Amant-de-Boixe Saint-Amant-de-Bonnieure Saint-Amant-de-Nouère Saint-Angeau Saint-Aulais-la-Chapelle Saint-Avit Saint-Bonnet Saint-Brice Saint-Christophe Saint-Ciers-sur-Bonnieure Saint-Claud Saint-Coutant Saint-Cybardeaux Sainte-Colombe Sainte-Sévère Sainte-Souline Saint-Félix Saint-Fort-sur-le-Né Saint-Fraigne Saint-Front Saint-Genis-d'Hiersac Saint-Georges Saint-Germain-de-Montbron Saint-Gourson Saint-Groux Saint-Laurent-de-Céris Saint-Laurent-de-Cognac Saint-Laurent-des-Combes Saint-Léger Saint-Martial Saint-Martin-du-Clocher Saint-Mary Saint-Maurice-des-Lions Saint-Médard Saint-Même-les-Carrières Saint-Michel Saint-Palais-du-Né Saint-Preuil Saint-Projet-Saint-Constant Saint-Quentin-de-Chalais Saint-Quentin-sur-Charente Saint-Romain Saint-Saturnin Saint-Séverin Saint-Simeux Saint-Simon Saint-Sornin Saint-Sulpice-de-Cognac Saint-Sulpice-de-Ruffec Saint-Vallier Saint-Yrieix-sur-Charente Salles-d'Angles Salles-de-Barbezieux Salles-de-Villefagnan Salles-Lavalette Saulgond Sauvagnac Sauvignac Segonzac Sers Sigogne Sireuil Souffrignac Souvigné Soyaux Suaux Suris La Tâche Taizé-Aizie Taponnat-Fleurignac Le Tâtre Theil-Rabier Torsac Tourriers Touvérac Touvre Triac-Lautrait Trois-Palis Turgon Tusson Tuzie Val-des-Vignes Valence Vars Vaux-Lavalette Vaux-Rouillac Ventouse Verdille Verneuil Verrières Verteuil-sur-Charente Vervant Vibrac Le Vieux-Cérier Vieux-Ruffec Vignolles Vilhonneur Villebois-Lavalette Villefagnan Villegats Villejésus Villejoubert Villiers-le-Roux Villognon Vindelle Vitrac-Saint-Vincent Vœuil-et-Giget Vouharte Voulgézac Vouthon Vouzan Xambes Yviers Yvrac-et-Malleyrand

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 137216647 LCCN: n81071978 GND: 4079784-3 SUDOC: 02839593X BNF:

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