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Coordinates: 37°54′19″N 22°52′49″E / 37.9053455°N 22.8801924°E / 37.9053455; 22.8801924

Corinth

Κόρινθος

700 BC–338 BC

Capital Corinth

Languages Doric Greek

Religion Greek Polytheism

Government Oligarchy

Historical era Classical Antiquity

 •  Founding 700 BC

 •  Cypselus 657–627 BC

 •  Dissolution 338 BC

Preceded by Succeeded by

Greek Dark Ages

Macedonian Empire

Corinth
Corinth
(/ˈkɔːrɪnθ/; Greek: Κόρινθος Kórinthos) was a city-state (polis) on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnese
Peloponnese
to the mainland of Greece, roughly halfway between Athens
Athens
and Sparta. The modern city of Corinth
Corinth
is located approximately 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) northeast of the ancient ruins. Since 1896, systematic archaeological investigations of the Corinth
Corinth
Excavations by the American School of Classical Studies at Athens
Athens
have revealed large parts of the ancient city, and recent excavations conducted by the Greek Ministry of Culture have brought to light important new facets of antiquity. For Christians, Corinth
Corinth
is well-known from the two letters of Saint Paul in the New Testament, First Corinthians and Second Corinthians. Corinth
Corinth
is also mentioned in the Book of Acts
Book of Acts
as part of the Apostle Paul's missionary travels. In addition, the second book of Pausanias' Description of Greece
Greece
is devoted to Corinth. Ancient Corinth
Corinth
was one of the largest and most important cities of Greece, with a population of 90,000 in 400 BC.[1] The Romans demolished Corinth
Corinth
in 146 BC, built a new city in its place in 44 BC, and later made it the provincial capital of Greece.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Prehistory and founding myths 1.2 Corinth
Corinth
under the Bacchiadae 1.3 Corinth
Corinth
under the tyrants 1.4 Archaic Corinth
Corinth
after the tyrants 1.5 Classical Corinth

1.5.1 Peloponnesian War 1.5.2 Corinthian War 1.5.3 379–323 BC

1.6 Hellenistic period 1.7 Roman era

1.7.1 Biblical Corinth

1.8 Byzantine era 1.9 Principality of Achaea 1.10 Ottoman rule 1.11 Independence

2 Modern Corinth 3 Ancient city and its environs

3.1 Acrocorinth, the acropolis 3.2 Two ports: Lechaeum
Lechaeum
and Cenchreae

4 Important monuments 5 Notable people

5.1 Ancient Greece 5.2 Medieval

6 Ancient Corinth
Corinth
in literature 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

History Prehistory and founding myths

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Neolithic
Neolithic
pottery suggests that the site of Corinth
Corinth
was occupied from at least as early as 6500 BC, and continually occupied into the Early Bronze Age,[2] when, it has been suggested, the settlement acted as a centre of trade.[3] However, there is a dramatic drop in ceramic remains during the Early Helladic II phase and only sparse ceramic remains in the EHIII and MH phases; thus, it appears that the area was very sparsely inhabited in the period immediately before the Mycenaean period. There was a settlement on the coast near Lechaion
Lechaion
which traded across the Corinthian Gulf; the site of Corinth
Corinth
itself was likely not heavily occupied again until around 900 BC, when it is believed that the Dorians
Dorians
settled there.[4] According to Hellenic myth, the city was founded by Corinthos, a descendant of the god Helios
Helios
(the Sun). However, other myths suggest that it was founded by the goddess Ephyra, a daughter of the Titan Oceanus, thus the ancient name of the city (also Ephyra). There is evidence that the city was destroyed around 2000 BC.[citation needed] Some ancient names for the place are derived from a pre-Greek "Pelasgian" language, such as Korinthos. It seems likely that Corinth was also the site of a Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Mycenaean palace-city, like Mycenae, Tiryns, or Pylos. According to myth, Sisyphus
Sisyphus
was the founder of a race of ancient kings at Corinth. It was also in Corinth
Corinth
that Jason, the leader of the Argonauts, abandoned Medea. During the Trojan War, as portrayed in the Iliad, the Corinthians participated under the leadership of Agamemnon. In a Corinthian myth recounted to Pausanias in the 2nd century AD,[5] Briareus, one of the Hecatonchires, was the arbitrator in a dispute between Poseidon
Poseidon
and Helios, between the sea and the sun. His verdict was that the Isthmus of Corinth
Corinth
belonged to Poseidon
Poseidon
and the acropolis of Corinth
Corinth
(Acrocorinth) belonged to Helios. Thus, Greeks of the Classical age accounted for the archaic cult of the sun-titan in the highest part of the site.[citation needed] The Upper Peirene spring is located within the walls of the acropolis. "The spring, which is behind the temple, they say was the gift of Asopus to Sisyphus. The latter knew, so runs the legend, that Zeus
Zeus
had ravished Aegina, the daughter of Asopus, but refused to give information to the seeker before he had a spring given him on the Acrocorinthus." (Pausanias, 2.5.1).[6] Corinth
Corinth
under the Bacchiadae Main article: Bacchiadae Corinth
Corinth
had been a backwater in 8th-century Greece.[7] The Bacchiadae (Ancient Greek: Βακχιάδαι Bakkhiadai) were a tightly-knit Doric clan and the ruling kinship group of archaic Corinth
Corinth
in the 8th and 7th centuries BC, a period of expanding Corinthian cultural power. In 747 BC (a traditional date), an aristocratic revolution ousted the Bacchiad kings, when the royal clan of Bacchiadae, numbering perhaps a couple of hundred adult males, took power from the last king Telestes.[8] They dispensed with kingship and ruled as a group, governing the city by annually electing a prytanis (who held the kingly position[9] for his brief term),[10] probably a council (though none is specifically documented in the scant literary materials), and a polemarchos to head the army. During Bacchiad rule from 747 to 650 BC, Corinth
Corinth
became a unified state. Large scale public buildings and monuments were constructed at this time. In 733 BC, Corinth
Corinth
established colonies at Corcyra
Corcyra
and Syracuse. By 730 BC, Corinth
Corinth
emerged as a highly advanced Greek city with at least 5,000 people.[11] Aristotle
Aristotle
tells the story of Philolaus of Corinth, a Bacchiad who was a lawgiver at Thebes. He became the lover of Diocles, the winner of the Olympic games. They both lived for the rest of their lives in Thebes. Their tombs were built near one another and Philolaus' tomb points toward the Corinthian country, while Diocles' faces away.[12] In 657 BC, polemarch Cypselus obtained an oracle from Delphi
Delphi
which he interpreted to mean that he should rule the city.[13] He seized power and exiled the Bacchiadae.[14] Corinth
Corinth
under the tyrants Main article: Cypselus Cypselus or Kypselos (Greek: Κύψελος) was the first tyrant of Corinth
Corinth
in the 7th century BC. From 658–628 BC, he removed the Bacchiad aristocracy from power and ruled for three decades. He built temples to Apollo
Apollo
and Poseidon
Poseidon
in 650 BC.

Apollo
Apollo
Temple
Temple
has been built in Doric style on the ruins of earlier temple, being a good example of peripteral temple, supported by 38 columns, only 7 of which are still in place.

Archeological site located close to Temple
Temple
of Apollo.

Archeological site of Ancient Theater first built in Corinth
Corinth
in 5th c. BC. The Theater could seat around 15000 spectators.

Aristotle
Aristotle
reports that " Cypselus of Corinth
Corinth
had made a vow that if he became master of the city, he would offer to Zeus
Zeus
the entire property of the Corinthians. Accordingly, he commanded them to make a return of their possessions."[15] The city sent forth colonists to found new settlements in the 7th century BC, under the rule of Cypselus (r. 657–627 BC) and his son Periander
Periander
(r. 627–587 BC). Those settlements were Epidamnus
Epidamnus
(modern day Durrës, Albania), Syracuse, Ambracia
Ambracia
(modern day town of Lefkas), Corcyra
Corcyra
(modern day town of Corfu), and Anactorium. Periander
Periander
also founded Apollonia in Illyria (modern day Fier, Albania) and Potidaea (in Chalcidice). Corinth
Corinth
was also one of the nine Greek sponsor-cities to found the colony of Naukratis
Naukratis
in Ancient Egypt, founded to accommodate the increasing trade volume between the Greek world and pharaonic Egypt during the reign of Pharaoh Psammetichus I
Psammetichus I
of the 26th dynasty. Greek city-states tended to overthrow their traditional hereditary priest-kings, with increased wealth and more complicated trade relations and social structures. Corinth
Corinth
led the way as the richest archaic polis.[16] The tyrants usually seized power at the head of some popular support, like the signori of late medieval and Renaissance Italy. Often the tyrants calmed the populace by upholding existing laws and customs and strict conservatism in cult practices. A cult of personality naturally substituted for the divine right of the former legitimate royal house, as it did in Renaissance Italy.

Temple
Temple
of Apollo, Ancient Corinth.

Periander
Periander
(Περίανδρος) (r. 627–587 BC).

Cypselus was the son of Eëtion and a disfigured woman named Labda. He was a member of the Bacchiad kin and usurped the power in archaic matriarchal right of his mother. According to Herodotus, the Bacchiadae heard two prophecies from the Delphic oracle that the son of Eëtion would overthrow their dynasty, and they planned to kill the baby once he was born. However, the newborn smiled at each of the men sent to kill him, and none of them could bear to strike the blow. Labda then hid the baby in a chest,[17] and the men could not find him once they had composed themselves and returned to kill him. (Compare the infancy of Perseus.) The ivory chest of Cypselus was richly worked and adorned with gold. It was a votive offering at Olympia, where Pausanias gave it a minute description in his 2nd century AD travel guide.[18] Cypselus grew up and fulfilled the prophecy. Corinth
Corinth
had been involved in wars with Argos
Argos
and Corcyra, and the Corinthians were unhappy with their rulers. Cypselus was polemarch at the time (around 657 BC), the archon in charge of the military, and he used his influence with the soldiers to expel the king. He also expelled his other enemies, but allowed them to set up colonies in northwestern Greece. He also increased trade with the colonies in Italy
Italy
and Sicily. He was a popular ruler and, unlike many later tyrants, he did not need a bodyguard and died a natural death. He ruled for thirty years and was succeeded as tyrant by his son Periander
Periander
in 627 BC.[19] The treasury that Cypselus built at Delphi was apparently still standing in the time of Herodotus, and the chest of Cypselus was seen by Pausanias at Olympia in the 2nd century AD. Periander
Periander
brought Corcyra
Corcyra
to order in 600 BC. Periander
Periander
was considered one of the Seven Wise Men of Greece.[20] During his reign, the first Corinthian coins were struck. He was the first to attempt to cut across the Isthmus to create a seaway between the Corinthian and the Saronic Gulfs. He abandoned the venture due to the extreme technical difficulties that he met, but he created the Diolkos
Diolkos
instead (a stone-built overland ramp). The era of the Cypselids was Corinth's golden age, and ended with Periander's nephew Psammetichus, named after the hellenophile Egyptian Pharaoh Psammetichus I
Psammetichus I
(see above). Periander
Periander
killed his wife Melissa. His son Lycopron found out and shunned him, and Periander
Periander
exiled the son to Corcyra.[21] Periander later wanted Lycopron to replace him as ruler of Corinth, and convinced him to come home to Corinth
Corinth
on the condition that Periander go to Corcyra. The Corcyreans heard about this and killed Lycophron to keep away Periander.[22][23] Archaic Corinth
Corinth
after the tyrants 581 BC: Periander's nephew and successor was assassinated, ending the dictatorship. 581 BC: the Isthmian Games
Isthmian Games
were established by leading families. 570 BC: the inhabitants started to use silver coins called 'colts' or 'foals'. 550 BC: Construction of the Temple
Temple
of Apollo
Apollo
at Corinth
Corinth
(early third quarter of the 6th century BC).[24] 550 BC: Corinth
Corinth
allied with Sparta. 525 BC: Corinth
Corinth
formed a conciliatory alliance with Sparta
Sparta
against Argos. 519 BC: Corinth
Corinth
mediated between Athens
Athens
and Thebes. Around 500 BC: Athenians and Corinthians entreated Spartans not to harm Athens
Athens
by restoring the tyrant.[25] Just before the classical period, according to Thucydides, the Corinthians developed the trireme which became the standard warship of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
until the late Roman period. Corinth
Corinth
fought the first naval battle on record against the Hellenic city of Corcyra.[26] The Corinthians were also known for their wealth due to their strategic location on the isthmus, through which all land traffic had to pass en route to the Peloponnese, including messengers and traders.[27] Classical Corinth

Corinthian stater.Obverse: Pegasus
Pegasus
with Koppa () (or Qoppa) beneath. Reverse: Athena
Athena
wearing Corinthian helmet. Koppa symbolised the archaic spelling of the city name (Ϙόρινθος).

Statues in the Archaeological Museum of Ancient Corinth.

Corinthian order
Corinthian order
columns in ancient Corinth.

In classical times, Corinth
Corinth
rivaled Athens
Athens
and Thebes in wealth, based on the Isthmian traffic and trade. Until the mid-6th century, Corinth was a major exporter of black-figure pottery to city-states around the Greek world, later losing their market to Athenian artisans. In classical times and earlier, Corinth
Corinth
had a temple of Aphrodite, the goddess of love, employing some thousand hetairas (temple prostitutes) (see also Temple
Temple
prostitution in Corinth). The city was renowned for these temple prostitutes, who served the wealthy merchants and the powerful officials who frequented the city. Lais, the most famous hetaira, was said to charge tremendous fees for her extraordinary favours. Referring to the city's exorbitant luxuries, Horace is quoted as saying: "non licet omnibus adire Corinthum" ("Not everyone is able to go to Corinth").[28] Corinth
Corinth
was also the host of the Isthmian Games. During this era, Corinthians developed the Corinthian order, the third main style of classical architecture after the Doric and the Ionic. The Corinthian order was the most complicated of the three, showing the city's wealth and the luxurious lifestyle, while the Doric order
Doric order
evoked the rigorous simplicity of the Spartans, and the Ionic was a harmonious balance between these two following the cosmopolitan philosophy of Ionians like the Athenians. The city had two main ports: to the west on the Corinthian Gulf
Corinthian Gulf
lay Lechaion, which connected the city to its western colonies (Greek: apoikiai) and Magna Graecia, while to the east on the Saronic Gulf
Saronic Gulf
the port of Kenchreai served the ships coming from Athens, Ionia, Cyprus and the Levant. Both ports had docks for the city's large navy.

Street in ancient Corinth.

In 491 BC, Corinth
Corinth
mediated between Syracuse and Gela
Gela
in Sicily. During the years 481–480 BC, the Conference at the Isthmus of Corinth
Corinth
(following conferences at Sparta) established the Hellenic League, which allied under the Spartans to fight the war against Persia. The city was a major participant in the Persian Wars, sending 400 soldiers to defend Thermopylae[29] and supplying forty warships for the Battle of Salamis
Battle of Salamis
under Adeimantos and 5,000 hoplites with their characteristic Corinthian helmets[citation needed]) in the following Battle of Plataea. The Greeks obtained the surrender of Theban collaborators with the Persians. Pausanias took them to Corinth where they were put to death.[30] Following the Battle of Thermopylae
Battle of Thermopylae
and the subsequent Battle of Artemisium, which resulted in the captures of Euboea, Boeotia, and Attica,[31] the Greco-Persian Wars
Greco-Persian Wars
were at a point where now most of mainland Greece
Greece
to the north of the Isthmus of Corinth
Corinth
had been overrun.[32]

Corinthian order.

Herodotus, who was believed to dislike the Corinthians, mentions that they were considered the second best fighters after the Athenians.[33] In 458 BC, Corinth
Corinth
was defeated by Athens
Athens
at Megara. Peloponnesian War In 435 BC, Corinth
Corinth
and its colony Corcyra
Corcyra
went to war over Epidamnus.[34] In 433 BC, Athens
Athens
allied with Corcyra
Corcyra
against Corinth.[35] The Corinthian war against the Corcyrans was the largest naval battle between Greek city states until that time.[36] In 431 BC, one of the factors leading to the Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War
was the dispute between Corinth
Corinth
and Athens
Athens
over Corcyra, which probably stemmed from the traditional trade rivalry between the two cities. Three Syracusan generals went to Corinth
Corinth
seeking allies against Athenian invasion.[37] The Corinthians "voted at once to aid [the Syracusans] heart and soul". They also sent a group to Lacedaemon to rouse Spartan assistance. After a convincing speech from the Athenian renegade Alcibiades, the Spartans agreed to send troops to aid the Sicilians.[38] In 404 BC, Sparta
Sparta
refused to destroy Athens, angering the Corinthians. Corinth
Corinth
joined Argos, Boeotia, and Athens
Athens
against Sparta
Sparta
in the Corinthian War.[citation needed][clarification needed] Demosthenes
Demosthenes
later used this history in a plea for magnanimous statecraft, noting that the Athenians of yesteryear had had good reason to hate the Corinthians and Thebans for their conduct during the Peloponnesian War,[39] yet they bore no malice whatever.[40] Corinthian War In 395 BC, after the end of the Peloponnesian War, Corinth
Corinth
and Thebes, dissatisfied with the hegemony of their Spartan allies, moved to support Athens
Athens
against Sparta
Sparta
in the Corinthian War.[41][42] As an example of facing danger with knowledge, Aristotle
Aristotle
used the example of the Argives who were forced to confront the Spartans in the battle at the Long Walls
Long Walls
of Corinth
Corinth
in 392 BC.[43] 379–323 BC In 379 BC, Corinth, switching back to the Peloponnesian League, joined Sparta
Sparta
in an attempt to defeat Thebes and eventually take over Athens.[citation needed][clarification needed] In 366 BC, the Athenian Assembly
Athenian Assembly
ordered Chares to occupy the Athenian ally and install a democratic government. This failed when Corinth, Phlius and Epidaurus allied with Boeotia. Demosthenes
Demosthenes
recounts how Athens
Athens
had fought the Spartans in a great battle near Corinth. The city decided not to harbor the defeated Athenian troops, but instead sent heralds to the Spartans. But the Corinthian heralds opened their gates to the defeated Athenians and saved them. Demosthenes
Demosthenes
notes that they “chose along with you, who had been engaged in battle, to suffer whatever might betide, rather than without you to enjoy a safety that involved no danger.”[44] These conflicts further weakened the city-states of the Peloponnese and set the stage for the conquests of Philip II of Macedon. Demosthenes
Demosthenes
warned that Philip’s military force exceeded that of Athens
Athens
and thus they must develop a tactical advantage. He noted the importance of a citizen army as opposed to a mercenary force, citing the mercenaries of Corinth
Corinth
who fought alongside citizens and defeated the Spartans.[45] In 338 BC, after having defeated Athens
Athens
and its allies, Philip II created the League of Corinth
Corinth
to unite the Greeks, including Corinth, in a war against Persia. Philip was named hegemon of the League. In the spring of 337 BC, the Second congress of Corinth
Corinth
established the Common Peace. Hellenistic period By 332 BC, Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
was in control of Greece, as hegemon. During the Hellenistic period, Corinth, like many other Greece
Greece
cities, never quite had autonomy. Under the successors of Alexander the Great, Greece
Greece
was contested ground, and Corinth
Corinth
was occasionally the battleground for contests between the Antigonids, based in Macedonia, and other Hellenistic powers. In 308 BC, the city was captured from the Antigonids by Ptolemy
Ptolemy
I, who claimed to come as a liberator of Greece
Greece
from the Antigonids. However, the city was recaptured by Demetrius in 304 BC.[46] Corinth
Corinth
remained under Antigonid control for half a century. After 280 BC, it was ruled by the faithful governor Craterus; but, in 253/2 BC, his son Alexander of Corinth, moved by Ptolemaic subsidies, resolved to challenge the Macedonian supremacy and seek independence as a tyrant. He was probably poisoned in 247 BC; after his death, the Macedonian king Antigonus II Gonatas
Antigonus II Gonatas
retook the city in the winter of 245/44 BC. The Macedonian rule was short-lived. In 243 BC, Aratus of Sicyon, using a surprise attack, captured the fortress of Acrocorinth
Acrocorinth
and convinced the citizenship to join the Achaean League. Thanks to an alliance agreement with Aratus, the Macedonians recovered Corinth
Corinth
once again in 224 BC; but, after the Roman intervention in 197 BC, the city was permanently brought into the Achaean League. Under the leadership of Philopoemen, the Achaeans went on to take control of the entire Peloponnesus and made Corinth
Corinth
the capital of their confederation.[47] Roman era Further information: Roman Greece

Pirene fountain

Ancient Roman statue in the Archaeological Museum of Ancient Corinth.

In 146 BC, Rome declared war on the Achaean League
Achaean League
and, after victories over league forces in the summer of that year, the Romans under Lucius Mummius besieged and captured Corinth. When he entered the city, Mummius killed all the men and sold the women and children into slavery before burning the city, for which he was given the cognomen Achaicus as the conqueror of the Achaean League.[48] There is archeological evidence of some minimal habitation in the years afterwards, but Corinth
Corinth
remained largely deserted until Julius Caesar refounded the city as Colonia Laus Iulia Corinthiensis (‘colony of Corinth
Corinth
in honour of Julius’) in 44 BC, shortly before his assassination. At this time, an amphitheatre was built. (37°54′35″N 22°53′31″E / 37.909824°N 22.892078°E / 37.909824; 22.892078 ( Corinth
Corinth
(Corinth)) ) Under the Romans, Corinth
Corinth
was rebuilt as a major city in Southern Greece
Greece
or Achaia. It had a large[49] mixed population of Romans, Greeks, and Jews. The city was an important locus for activities of the imperial cult, and both Temple
Temple
E[50] and the Julian Basilica[51] have been suggested as locations of imperial cult activity. Biblical Corinth See also: Early centers of Christianity
Christianity
§ Greece Corinth
Corinth
is mentioned many times in the New Testament, largely in connection with Paul the Apostle's mission there, testifying to the success of Caesar's refounding of the city. Traditionally, the Church of Corinth
Corinth
is believed to have been founded by Paul, making it an Apostolic See. The apostle Paul first visited the city in AD 49 or 50, when Gallio, the brother of Seneca, was proconsul of Achaia.[52] Paul resided here for eighteen months (see Acts 18:1–18). Here he first became acquainted with Priscilla and Aquila
Priscilla and Aquila
with whom he later traveled. They worked here together as tentmakers (from which is derived the modern Christian concept of tentmaking), and regularly attended the synagogue. In AD 51/52, Gallio
Gallio
presided over the trial of the Apostle Paul in Corinth. This event provides a secure date for the book of the Acts of the Apostles
Acts of the Apostles
within the Bible. Silas
Silas
and Timothy rejoined Paul here, having last seen him in Berea (Acts 18:5). Acts 18:6 suggests that Jewish refusal to accept his preaching here led Paul to resolve no longer to speak in the synagogues where he travelled: 'From now on I will go to the Gentiles'.[53] However, on his arrival in Ephesus (Acts 18:19), the narrative records that Paul went to the synagogue to preach. Paul wrote at least two epistles to the Christian church, the First Epistle to the Corinthians (written from Ephesus) and the Second Epistle to the Corinthians (written from Macedonia). The first Epistle occasionally reflects the conflict between the thriving Christian church and the surrounding community. Some scholars believe that Paul visited Corinth
Corinth
for an intermediate "painful visit" (see 2 Corinthians 2:1) between the first and second epistles. After writing the second epistle, he stayed in Corinth
Corinth
for about three months[Acts 20:3] in the late winter, and there wrote his Epistle to the Romans.[54] Based on clues within the Corinthian epistles themselves, some scholars have concluded that Paul wrote possibly as many as four epistles to the church at Corinth.[55] Only two are contained within the Christian canon (First and Second Epistles to the Corinthians); the other two letters are lost. (The lost letters would probably represent the very first letter that Paul wrote to the Corinthians and the third one, and so the First and Second Letters of the canon would be the second and the fourth if four were written.) Many scholars think that the third one (known as the "letter of the tears"; see 2 Cor 2:4) is included inside the canonical Second Epistle to the Corinthians (it would be chapters 10–13). This letter is not to be confused with the so-called "Third Epistle to the Corinthians", which is a pseudepigraphical letter written many years after the death of Paul. There are speculations from Bruce Winter that the Jewish access to their own food in Corinth
Corinth
was disallowed after Paul's departure. By this theory, Paul had instructed Christian Gentiles to maintain Jewish access to food according to their dietary laws. This speculation is contested by Rudolph who argues that there is no evidence to support this theory. He instead argues that Paul had desired the Gentile Christians to remain assimilated within their Gentile communities and not adopt Jewish dietary procedures.[56] Byzantine era Further information: Byzantine Greece
Greece
and Peloponnese
Peloponnese
(theme)

The walled gates of Acrocorinth.

The city was largely destroyed in the earthquakes of 365 A.D. and 375 A.D., followed by Alaric's invasion in 396. The city was rebuilt after these disasters on a monumental scale, but covered a much smaller area than previously. Four churches were located in the city proper, another on the citadel of the Acrocorinth, and a monumental basilica at the port of Lechaion.[57] During the reign of Emperor Justinian I
Justinian I
(527–565), a large stone wall was erected from the Saronic to the Corinthian gulfs, protecting the city and the Peloponnese
Peloponnese
peninsula from the barbarian invasions from the north. The stone wall was about six miles (10 km) long and was named Hexamilion ("six-miles"). Corinth
Corinth
declined from the 6th century on, and may even have fallen to barbarian invaders in the early 7th century. The main settlement moved from the lower city to the Acrocorinth. Despite its becoming the capital of the theme of Hellas and, after ca. 800, of the theme of the Peloponnese, it was not until the 9th century that the city began to recover, reaching its apogee in the 11th and 12th centuries, when it was the site of a flourishing silk industry.[57] In November 856, an earthquake in Corinth
Corinth
killed an estimated 45,000.[58] The wealth of the city attracted the attention of the Sicilian Normans under Roger of Sicily, who plundered it in 1147, carrying off many captives, most notably silk weavers. The city never fully recovered from the Norman sack.[57] Principality of Achaea Following the sack of Constantinople
Constantinople
by the Fourth Crusade, a group of Crusaders under the French knights William of Champlitte
William of Champlitte
and Geoffrey of Villehardouin carried out the conquest of the Peloponnese. The Corinthians resisted the Frankish conquest from their stronghold in Acrocorinth, under the command of Leo Sgouros, from 1205 until 1210. In 1208 Leo Sgouros
Leo Sgouros
killed himself by riding off the top of Acrocorinth, but resistance continued for two more years. Finally, in 1210 the fortress fell to the Crusaders, and Corinth
Corinth
became a full part of the Principality of Achaea, governed by the Villehardouins from their capital in Andravida
Andravida
in Elis. Corinth
Corinth
was the last significant town of Achaea on its northern borders with another crusader state, the Duchy of Athens. The Ottomans captured the city in 1395. The Byzantines of the Despotate of the Morea
Despotate of the Morea
recaptured it in 1403, and the Despot Theodore II Palaiologos, restored the Hexamilion wall across the Isthmus of Corinth
Corinth
in 1415. Ottoman rule In 1458, five years after the final Fall of Constantinople, the Turks of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
conquered the city and its mighty castle. The Ottomans renamed it Gördes and made it a sanjak (district) centre within the Rumelia Eyalet. The Venetians captured the city in 1687 during the Morean War, and it remained under Venetian control until the Ottomans retook the city in 1715. Corinth
Corinth
was the capital of the Mora Eyalet
Mora Eyalet
in 1715–1731 and then again a sanjak capital until 1821. Independence

" Corinth
Corinth
with Acrocorinth" by Carl Anton Joseph Rottmann, 1847

During the Greek War of Independence, 1821–1830 the city was destroyed by the Ottoman forces.[citation needed] The city was officially liberated in 1832 after the Treaty of London. In 1833, the site was considered among the candidates for the new capital city of the recently founded Kingdom of Greece, due to its historical significance and strategic position. Nafplio
Nafplio
was chosen initially then Athens. Modern Corinth Main article: Corinth In 1858, the village surrounding the ruins of Ancient Corinth
Corinth
was destroyed by an earthquake, leading to the establishment of New Corinth
Corinth
3 km (1.9 mi) NE of the ancient city. Ancient city and its environs Acrocorinth, the acropolis Main article: Acrocorinth Acrocorinthis, the acropolis of ancient Corinth, is a monolithic rock that was continuously occupied from archaic times to the early 19th century. The city's archaic acropolis, already an easily defensible position due to its geomorphology, was further heavily fortified during the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
as it became the seat of the strategos of the Thema of Hellas. Later it was a fortress of the Franks after the Fourth Crusade, the Venetians and the Ottoman Turks. With its secure water supply, Acrocorinth's fortress was used as the last line of defense in southern Greece
Greece
because it commanded the isthmus of Corinth, repelling foes from entry into the Peloponnesian peninsula. Three circuit walls formed the man-made defense of the hill. The highest peak on the site was home to a temple to Aphrodite
Aphrodite
which was Christianized as a church, and then became a mosque. The American School began excavations on it in 1929. Currently, Acrocorinth
Acrocorinth
is one of the most important medieval castle sites of Greece. Two ports: Lechaeum
Lechaeum
and Cenchreae Corinth
Corinth
had two harbours: Lechaeum
Lechaeum
on the Corinthian Gulf
Corinthian Gulf
and Cenchreae
Cenchreae
on the Saronic Gulf. Lechaeum
Lechaeum
was the principal port, connected to the city with a set of long walls of about 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) length, and was the main trading station for Italy
Italy
and Sicily, where there were many Corinthian colonies, while Cenchreae served the commerce with the Eastern Mediterranean. Ships could be transported between the two harbours by means of the diolkos constructed by the tyrant Periander. Important monuments

Temple
Temple
of Apollo Fountain of Glauke Sacred Spring Peirene Asklepieion South Stoa Odeion Bema (later Church of Apostle Paul) Temple
Temple
E Julian Basilica Acrocorinth
Acrocorinth
Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore Castle of Acrocorinth

Notable people Ancient Greece

Achaicus (1st century AD), Christian Adrian of Corinth
Corinth
(3rd century AD), Christian saint and martyr Archias (8th century BC), founder of Syracuse Desmon (8th century BC), athlete Dinarchus (4th century BC), orator and logographer Diocles (8th century BC), athlete Diogenes of Sinope, 4th century BC, one of the world's best known cynics Eumelus (8th century BC), poet Euphranor (4th century BC), sculptor and painter Paul, the Apostle
Paul, the Apostle
1st century AD, Christian evangelist Periander
Periander
(7th century BC), listed as one of the Seven Sages of Greece Quadratus (4th century AD), Christian saint and martyr Timoleon
Timoleon
(4th century BC), statesman and general Xeniades (5th century BC), philosopher Xenophon
Xenophon
(5th century BC), athlete

Medieval

Cyriacus the Anchorite
Cyriacus the Anchorite
(5th century), Christian saint William of Moerbeke (13th century), first translator of Aristotle's works into Latin.

Ancient Corinth
Corinth
in literature

Alcmaeon in Corinth, a play by Greek dramatist Euripides, premiered in 405 BC The Queen of Corinth, a play by English dramatist John Fletcher, published in 1647

See also

Corinthian helmet Corinthian bronze Isthmian Games Temple
Temple
of Isthmia

References

^ Dillon, Matthew; Garland, Lynda (2000). Ancient Greece: Social and Historical Documents from Archaic Times to the Death of Socrates (c.800-399 B.C.). Psychology Press. p. 352. ISBN 978-0-415-21755-2.  ^ Lavezzi, J. C. (2003). " Corinth
Corinth
before the Myceneans". Corinth. 20: 63–74.  ^ Blegen, C. W. (1920). " Corinth
Corinth
in Prehistoric Times". American Journal of Archaeology. 24 (1): 1–13. JSTOR 497547.  ^ Dunbabin, T. J. (1948). "The Early History of Corinth". Journal of Hellenic Studies. 68: 59–69. doi:10.2307/626300. JSTOR 626300.  ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece
Greece
ii. 1.6 and 4.7. ^ http://www.theoi.com/Text/Pausanias2A.html ^ Édouard Will, Korinthiaka: recherches sur l'histoire et la civilisation de Corinth
Corinth
des origines aux guerres médiques (Paris: Boccard) 1955. ^ Telestes was murdered by Arieus and Perantas, who were themselves Bacchiads. (Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. I p. 450). It has been debated what extent this early history is a genealogical myth. ^ Perhaps the designation "king" was retained for cultic reasons, as a king was normally an essential intercessor with the gods. (Stewart Irvin Oost, " Cypselus the Bacchiad" Classical Philology 67.1 (January 1972, pp. 10–30) p. 10f.) See: rex sacrorum. ^ Diodorus Siculus, 7.9.6; Pausanias 2.4.4. ^ Storey, Glenn (2006). Urbanism in the Preindustrial World: Cross-Cultural Approaches. University of Alabama Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-8173-5246-2.  ^ Politics, 1274a ^ Histories, Herodotus, Book 5.92 E ^ His mother had been of the Bacchiadae, but she was lame and married outside the clan. ^ Economics, Book 2. 1346a, Aristotle ^ Salmon, J. B. (1984). Wealthy Corinth. A History of the City to 338 B.C. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-814833-X.  ^ An etiological myth-element to account for the name Cypselus (cypsele, "chest") ^ Pausanias, 5.18.7. ^ Histories, Herodotus, Book 5.92F ^ Diogenes Laertius, i. 13. ^ Histories, Herodotus, Book 3.52 ^ Histories, Herodotus, Book 3.53 ^ Herodotus
Herodotus
relates that Arion
Arion
the harpist was sailing home on a Corinthian vessel when the crew decided to rob and kill him. He begged them to let him sing a last song before killing him. He threw himself overboard and escaped to Taernarus on the back of a dolphin. He presented himself to Periander, who then condemned the sailors ( Herodotus
Herodotus
Histories Book 1.24). ^ Bookidis N., "Corinthian Terracotta Sculpture and the Temple
Temple
of Apollo," Hesperia 69, 4, 2000, p. 386 ^ Histories, Herodotus, Book 5.93 ^ Thucydides
Thucydides
1:13 ^ Thucydides, Book 1:13 ^ Stone, Jon R. (2004). The Routledge Dictionary of Latin
Latin
Quotations. p. 76. ISBN 0-415-96909-3.  ^ Histories, Herodotus, Book 7:202 ^ Histories, Book 9:88, Herodotus ^ Lazenby, John Francis (1993). The Defence of Greece, 490-479 B.C. Aris & Phillips. pp. 248–253. ISBN 978-0-85668-591-0.  ^ Carey, Brian Todd; Allfree, Joshua; Cairns, John (2006). Warfare in the Ancient World. Pen and Sword. p. 32. ISBN 978-1-84884-630-2.  ^ Histories, Herodotus, Book 9:105 ^ The Peloponnesian War, Thucydides, Book 1:29 ^ The Peloponnesian War, Thucydides, Book 1:45 ^ Thucycdides, Book 1, "The dispute over Corcyra", 50 ^ Thucydides, Book 6:73 ^ Thucydides, Book 6:88 ^ especially the latter part, the Decelan War ^ On The Crown Book 18.96 ^ On the Peace, Isocrates, Speech 68, section 68 ^ Hellenica, Books 3–7, Xenophon ^ Nicomachean Ethics, Book 3.8 ^ Demosthenes
Demosthenes
Against Leptines 20.52–20.53 ^ Philippic I, Book 4.24 ^ Shipley, G. 2000. The Greek World After Alexander 323–30 BC. London: Routledge (pp. 121–122). ^ Shipley, G. 2000. The Greek World After Alexander 323-30BC. London: Routledge (pp. 137–138). ^ Shipley, G. 2000. The Greek World After Alexander 323–30 BC. London: Routledge (pp. 384–385). ^ Josiah Russell, in "Late Ancient and Medieval Population", estimates 50,000 people in Roman Corinth. ^ Walbank, Mary (1989). "Pausanias, Octavia and Temple
Temple
E at Corinth". The Annual of the British School at Athens. 84: 385–386.  ^ Scotton, Paul; Vanderpool, Catherine; Roncaglia, Carolynn (2014). Actas VIII Congreso Internacional Arqueología Clásica. p. 1629. ISBN 978846067949-3.  ^ Acts 18:12 ^ Paul and Barnabas had said the same thing to the Jews of Antioch
Antioch
in Acts 13:46 ^ Bryant, T. A. (1982). Today's Dictionary of the Bible. Bethany House Publishers, NY.  ^ Orr, William F. and James Arthur Walther (1976). 1 Corinthians: A New Translation (Anchor Bible). Doubleday, p. 120. ^ David J. Rudolph (21 October 2016). A Jew to the Jews: Jewish Contours of Pauline Flexibility in 1 Corinthians 9:19–23. Second Edition. Wipf and Stock Publishers. pp. 100–. ISBN 978-1-4982-9616-8.  ^ a b c Gregory, Timothy E. (1991). "Corinth". In Kazhdan, Alexander. Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. London and New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 531–533. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6.  ^ Gunn, Angus Macleod (2007). Encyclopedia of Disasters: Environmental Catastrophes and Human Tragedies. p. 32. 

Library resources about Ancient Corinth

Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

Further reading

Adkins, Lesley and Roy A. Adkins. Handbook to Life in Ancient Greece. New York: Facts on File. 1997. Alcock, Susan E. and Robin Osborne (ed.s). Classical Archaeology Malden: Blackwell Publishing. 2007. Del Chiaro, Mario A (ed). Corinthiaca: Studies in Honor of Darrell A. Amyx. Columbia: University of Missouri Press. 1986. Dixon, M. Late Classical and Early Hellenistic Corinth: 338–196 BC. London: Routledge. 2014. Friesen, Steven J., Daniel N. Schowalter, James C. Walters (ed.), Corinth
Corinth
in Context: Comparative Studies on Religion and Society. Supplements to Novum Testamentum, 134. Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2010. Gebhard, Elizabeth R. and Timothy E. Gregory (ed.), Bridge of the Untiring Sea: The Corinthian Isthmus from Prehistory to Late Antiquity. Hesperia Supplement, 48. Princeton, NJ: American School of Classical Studies at Athens, 2015. Grant, Michael. The Rise of the Greeks. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. 1987. Hammond, A History of Greece. Oxford University Press. 1967. History of Greece, including Corinth
Corinth
from the early civilizations (6000–850) to the splitting of the empire and Antipater's occupation of Greece (323–321). Kagan, Donald. The Fall of the Athenian Empire. New York: Cornell University Press. 1987. Romano, David Gilman. Athletics and Mathematics in Archaic Corinth: the Origins of the Greek Stadion. Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 206. 1993. Salmon, J. B. Wealthy Corinth: A History of the City to 338 BC. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1984. Scahill, David. The Origins of the Corinthian Capital. In Structure, Image, Ornament: Architectural Sculpture in the Greek World. Edited by Peter Schultz and Ralf von den Hoff, 40–53. Oxford: Oxbow. 2009. Tartaron, Thomas F., Daniel J. Pullen, Timothy E. Gregory, Jay S. Noller, Richard M. Rothaus, William R. Caraher, Joseph L. Rife, David K. Pettegrew, Lisa Tzortzopoulou-Gregory, Dimitri Nakassis, and Robert Schon. "The Eastern Korinthia Archaeological Survey: Integrated Methods for a Dynamic Landscape." Hesperia 75:453–523, 2006. Will, E. Korinthiaka. Recherches sur l'histoire et la civilisation de Corinthe des origines aux guerres médiques. Paris : de Boccard, 1955. British Admiralty charts: BA1085, BA1093, BA1600 Results of the American School of Classical Studies Corinth Excavations published in Corinth
Corinth
Volumes I to XX, Princeton. Excavation reports and articles in Hesperia, Princeton. Partial text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ancient Corinth.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1879 American Cyclopædia
American Cyclopædia
article Corinth.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of a 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article about Corinth.

Video Lecture on the Archaeological Findings at Corinth The Significance of the Geography of Ancient Corinth Ancient Corinth
Corinth
– The Complete Guide Hellenic Ministry of Culture: Fortress
Fortress
of Acrocorinth Excavations at Ancient Corinth
Corinth
(American School of Classical Studies at Athens) Online database of the Corinth
Corinth
Excavations (American School of Classical Studies at Athens) History timeline Coins of Ancient Corinth
Corinth
(Greek) Coins of Ancient Corinth
Corinth
under the Romans

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Second Journey of Paul the Apostle

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Mysia
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v t e

Third Journey of Paul the Apostle

1. Galatia 2. Phrygia 3. Ephesus 4. Macedonia 5. Corinth 6. Cenchreae 7. Macedonia (again) 8. Troas 9. Assos 10. Mytilene 11. Chios 12. Samos 13. Miletus 14. Cos 15. Rhodes 16. Patara 17. Tyre 18. Ptolemais 19. Caesarea 20. Jerusalem

v t e

Subdivisions of the municipality of Corinth

Municipal unit of Assos-Lechaio

Assos Kato Assos Lechaio Perigiali

Municipal unit of Corinth

Ancient Corinth Corinth Examilia Solomos Xylokeriza

Municipal unit of Saronikos

Agios Ioannis Athikia Galataki Katakali

Municipal unit of Solygeia

Angelokastro Korfos Sofiko

Municipal unit of Tenea

Agionori Agios Vasileios Chiliomodi Kleni

.

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