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An amino acid neurotransmitter is an amino acid which is able to transmit a nerve message across a synapse. Neurotransmitters (chemicals) are packaged into vesicles that cluster beneath the axon terminal membrane on the presynaptic side of a synapse in a process called endocytosis.[1] Amino acid neurotransmitter release (exocytosis) is dependent upon calcium Ca2+ and is a presynaptic response. There are inhibitory amino acids (IAA) or excitatory amino acids (EAA). Some EAA are L-Glutamate, L-Aspartate, L-Cysteine, and L-Homocysteine.[2] These neurotransmitter systems will activate post-synaptic cells.[3] Some IAA include GABA, Glycine, β-Alanine, and Taurine.[2] The IAA depress the activity of post-synaptic cells.[3] See also[edit]

Amino acid non-protein functions Monoamine neurotransmitter

References[edit]

^ "Axon Terminal : on Medical Dictionary Online". Archived from the original on 14 January 2009. Retrieved 2008-12-25.  ^ a b Foye, William O.; Lemke, Thomas L. (2007). Foye's Principles of Medicinal Chemistry. David A. Williams. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 446. ISBN 978-0-7817-6879-5.  ^ a b D'haenen, Hugo; den Boer, Johan A. (2002). Biological Psychiatry (digitised online by Google books). Paul Willner. John Wiley and Sons. p. 415. ISBN 978-0-471-49198-9. Retrieved 2008-12-26. 

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The encoded amino acid

General topics

Protein Peptide Genetic code

By properties

Aliphatic

Branched-chain amino acids (Valine Isoleucine Leucine) Methionine Alanine Proline Glycine

Aromatic

Phenylalanine Tyrosine Tryptophan Histidine

Polar, uncharged

Asparagine Glutamine Serine Threonine

Positive charge (pKa)

Lysine (≈10.8) Arginine (≈12.5) Histidine (≈6.1)

Negative charge (pKa)

Aspartic acid (≈3.9) Glutamic acid (≈4.1) Cysteine (≈8.3) Tyrosine (≈10.1)

Amino acids types: Encoded (proteins) Essential Non-proteinogenic Ketogenic Glucogenic Imino acids D-amino acids Dehydroamino acids

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Cell signaling / Signal transduction

Signaling pathways

GPCR

Wnt RTK

TGF beta MAPK/ERK

Notch JAK-STAT Akt/PKB Fas apoptosis Hippo PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway Integrin receptors

Agents

Receptor ligands

Hormones Neurotransmitters/Neuropeptides/Neurohormones Cytokines Growth factors Signaling molecules

Receptors

Cell surface Intracellular Co-receptor

Second messenger

cAMP-dependent pathway Ca2+ signaling Lipid signaling

Assistants:

Signal transducing adaptor protein Scaffold protein

Transcription factors

General Transcription preinitiation complex TFIID TFIIH

By distance

Juxtacrine Autocrine / Paracrine Endocrine

Other concepts

Intracrine action Neurocrine signaling

Synaptic transmission Chemical synapse

Neuroendocrine signaling Exocrine signalling

Pheromones

Mechanotransduction Phototransduction Ion channel gating Gap junction

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Neurotransmitter systems

Acetylcholine

Nucleus basalis of Meynert → Neocortex

Septal nuclei (Medial septal nucleus) → Fornix → Hippocampus

Striatum

BA/M

Dopaminergic pathways

Mesocortical pathway: Ventral tegmental area → Prefrontal cortices

Mesolimbic pathway: Ventral tegmental area → Nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle

Nigrostriatal pathway: Substantia nigra pars compacta → Caudate nucleus and putamen

Tuberoinfundibular pathway: Hypothalamus (Infundibular nucleus) → Pituitary gland (Median eminence)

Norepinephrine

Locus coeruleus Lateral tegmental field

Serotonin pathways

Raphe nuclei Anterior raphespinal tract Lateral raphespinal tract

AA

Aspartate

Climbing fibers

GABA

Globus pallidus Rostromedial tegmental nucleus

Glycine

Renshaw cells

Glutamate

Thalamus Subthalamic nucle

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