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Largest metropolitan areas Largest cities

List

1.São Paulo 2.Lima 3. Mexico
Mexico
City 4.New York City 5.Bogotá 6.Rio de Janeiro 7.Santiago 8.Los Angeles 9.Caracas 10.Buenos Aires

CIA political map of the Americas
Americas
in Lambert azimuthal equal-area projection

The Americas
Americas
(also collectively called America)[5][6][7] comprise the totality of the continents of North and South America.[8][9][10] Together, they make up most of the land in Earth's western hemisphere[11][12][13][14][15][16] and comprise the New World. Along with their associated islands, they cover 8% of Earth's total surface area and 28.4% of its land area. The topography is dominated by the American Cordillera, a long chain of mountains that runs the length of the west coast. The flatter eastern side of the Americas
Americas
is dominated by large river basins, such as the Amazon, St. Lawrence River / Great Lakes
Great Lakes
basin, Mississippi, and La Plata. Since the Americas
Americas
extend 14,000 km (8,700 mi) from north to south, the climate and ecology vary widely, from the arctic tundra of Northern Canada, Greenland, and Alaska, to the tropical rain forests in Central America
Central America
and South America. Humans first settled the Americas
Americas
from Asia
Asia
between 42,000 and 17,000 years ago. A second migration of Na-Dene speakers followed later from Asia. The subsequent migration of the Inuit
Inuit
into the neoarctic around 3500 BCE completed what is generally regarded as the settlement by the indigenous peoples of the Americas. The first known European settlement in the Americas
Americas
was by the Norse explorer Leif Ericson.[17] However, the colonization never became permanent and was later abandoned. The voyages of Christopher Columbus from 1492 to 1502 resulted in permanent contact with European (and subsequently, other Old World) powers, which led to the Columbian exchange. Diseases introduced from Europe
Europe
and West Africa
West Africa
devastated the indigenous peoples, and the European powers colonized the Americas.[18] Mass emigration from Europe, including large numbers of indentured servants, and importation of African slaves largely replaced the indigenous peoples. Decolonization of the Americas
Decolonization of the Americas
began with the American Revolution
American Revolution
in 1776 and Haitian Revolution
Haitian Revolution
in 1791. Currently, almost all of the population of the Americas
Americas
resides in independent countries; however, the legacy of the colonization and settlement by Europeans is that the Americas
Americas
share many common cultural traits, most notably Christianity and the use of Indo-European languages: primarily Spanish, English, Portuguese, French, and to a lesser extent Dutch. The population is over 1 billion, with over 65% of them living in one of the three most populous countries (the United States, Brazil, and Mexico). As of the beginning of the 2010s, the most populous urban agglomerations are Mexico City
Mexico City
(Mexico), New York (U.S.), Sao Paulo (Brazil), Los Angeles
Los Angeles
(U.S.), Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
(Argentina) and Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), all of them megacities (metropolitan areas with ten million inhabitants or more).

Contents

1 Etymology and naming 2 History

2.1 Settlement 2.2 Pre-Columbian era 2.3 European colonization

3 Geography

3.1 Extent 3.2 Geology 3.3 Topography 3.4 Climate 3.5 Hydrology 3.6 Ecology

4 Countries and territories 5 Demography

5.1 Population 5.2 Largest urban centers 5.3 Ethnology 5.4 Religion 5.5 Languages

6 Terminology

6.1 English 6.2 Spanish 6.3 Portuguese 6.4 French 6.5 Dutch

7 Multinational organizations 8 Economy 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

Etymology and naming[edit] Main article: Naming of the Americas

America is named after Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci.[19]

The name America was first recorded in 1507. Julian Wilson of Christie's
Christie's
auction house said a two-dimensional globe created by Martin Waldseemueller, the discovery of which was announced on November 7, 2017, was the earliest recorded use of the term. The Library of Congress
Library of Congress
purchased another version of the map in 2003.[20][dead link] The name was also used (together with the related term Amerigen) in the Cosmographiae Introductio, apparently written by Matthias Ringmann, in reference to South America.[21] It was applied to both North and South America
South America
by Gerardus Mercator
Gerardus Mercator
in 1538. America derives from Americus, the Latin version of Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci's first name. America accorded with the feminine names of Asia, Africa, and Europa.[22] In modern English, North and South America
South America
are generally considered separate continents, and taken together are called the Americas
Americas
in the plural, parallel to similar situations such as the Carolinas. When conceived as a unitary continent, the form is generally the continent of America in the singular. However, without a clarifying context, singular America in English commonly refers to the United States
United States
of America.[7] In some countries of the world (including France, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Romania, Greece, and the countries of Latin America), America is considered a continent encompassing the North America
North America
and South America subcontinents,[23][24] as well as Central America.[25][26][27][28][29] History[edit] Main article: History of the Americas Settlement[edit] Further information on theories of Paleo-Indian
Paleo-Indian
migration: Models of migration to the New World

Map of early human migrations based on the Out of Africa
Africa
theory.[30]

The first inhabitants migrated into the Americas
Americas
from Asia. Habitation sites are known in Alaska
Alaska
and the Yukon
Yukon
from at least 20,000 years ago, with suggested ages of up to 40,000 years.[31][32][33] Beyond that, the specifics of the Paleo-Indian
Paleo-Indian
migration to and throughout the Americas, including the dates and routes traveled, are subject to ongoing research and discussion.[34] Widespread habitation of the Americas
Americas
occurred during the late glacial maximum, from 16,000 to 13,000 years ago.[33][35]

Statue representing the Americas
Americas
at Palazzo Ferreria, in Valletta, Malta

The traditional theory has been that these early migrants moved into the Beringia
Beringia
land bridge between eastern Siberia
Siberia
and present-day Alaska
Alaska
around 40,000–17,000 years ago,[36] when sea levels were significantly lowered during the Quaternary glaciation.[34][37] These people are believed to have followed herds of now-extinct pleistocene megafauna along ice-free corridors that stretched between the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets.[38] Another route proposed is that, either on foot or using primitive boats, they migrated down the Pacific coast to South America.[39] Evidence of the latter would since have been covered by a sea level rise of hundreds of meters following the last ice age.[40] Both routes may have been taken, although the genetic evidences suggests a single founding population.[41] The micro-satellite diversity and distributions specific to South American Indigenous people indicates that certain populations have been isolated since the initial colonization of the region.[42] A second migration occurred after the initial peopling of the Americas;[43] Na Dene speakers found predominantly in North American groups at varying genetic rates with the highest frequency found among the Athabaskans at 42% derive from this second wave.[44] Linguists
Linguists
and biologists have reached a similar conclusion based on analysis of Amerindian
Amerindian
language groups and ABO blood group system distributions.[43][45][46][47] Then the people of the Arctic
Arctic
small tool tradition a broad cultural entity that developed along the Alaska Peninsula, around Bristol Bay, and on the eastern shores of the Bering Strait around 2,500 BCE (4,500 years ago) moved into North America.[48] The Arctic
Arctic
small tool tradition, a Paleo-Eskimo
Paleo-Eskimo
culture branched off into two cultural variants, including the Pre-Dorset, and the Independence traditions of Greenland.[49] The descendants of the Pre-Dorset cultural group, the Dorset culture
Dorset culture
was displaced by the final migrants from the Bering sea coast line the ancestors of modern Inuit, the Thule people
Thule people
by 1000  Common Era
Common Era
(CE).[49] Around the same time as the Inuit
Inuit
migrated into Greenland, Viking settlers began arriving in Greenland
Greenland
in 982 and Vinland
Vinland
shortly thereafter, establishing a settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows, near the northernmost tip of Newfoundland.[50] The Viking settlers quickly abandoned Vinland, and disappeared from Greenland
Greenland
by 1500.[51] Pre-Columbian era[edit] Main article: Pre-Columbian era

Parkin Site, a Mississippian site in Arkansas, circa 1539

Earth
Earth
Globe from 1602 made by Dutch cartographer Willem Blaeu

The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas
Americas
before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic
Upper Paleolithic
to European colonization during the Early Modern period. The term Pre-Columbian is used especially often in the context of the great indigenous civilizations of the Americas, such as those of Mesoamerica (the Olmec, the Toltec, the Teotihuacano, the Zapotec, the Mixtec, the Aztec, and the Maya) and the Andes
Andes
(Inca, Moche, Muisca, Cañaris). Many pre-Columbian civilizations established characteristics and hallmarks which included permanent or urban settlements, agriculture, civic and monumental architecture, and complex societal hierarchies. Some of these civilizations had long faded by the time of the first permanent European arrivals (c. late 15th–early 16th centuries), and are known only through archeological investigations. Others were contemporary with this period, and are also known from historical accounts of the time. A few, such as the Maya, had their own written records. However, most Europeans of the time viewed such texts as pagan, and much was destroyed in Christian pyres. Only a few hidden documents remain today, leaving modern historians with glimpses of ancient culture and knowledge.[52] European colonization[edit] Main article: European colonization of the Americas Although there had been previous trans-oceanic contact, large-scale European colonization of the Americas
European colonization of the Americas
began with the first voyage of Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
in 1492. The first Spanish settlement in the Americas
Americas
was La Isabela
La Isabela
in northern Hispaniola. This town was abandoned shortly after in favor of Santo Domingo
Santo Domingo
de Guzmán, founded in 1496, the oldest American city of European foundation. This was the base from which the Spanish monarchy administered its new colonies and their expansion. On the continent, Panama City
Panama City
on the Pacific coast of Central America, founded on August 5, 1519, played an important role, being the base for the Spanish conquest of South America. The spread of new diseases brought by Europeans and Africans killed many of the inhabitants of North America
North America
and South America,[53][54] with a general population crash of Native Americans occurring in the mid-16th century, often well ahead of European contact.[55] European immigrants were often part of state-sponsored attempts to found colonies in the Americas. Migration continued as people moved to the Americas
Americas
fleeing religious persecution or seeking economic opportunities. Millions of individuals were forcibly transported to the Americas
Americas
as slaves, prisoners or indentured servants.

Map showing the dates of independence from European powers. Black signifies areas that are dependent territories or parts of countries with a capital outside the Americas.

Decolonization of the Americas
Decolonization of the Americas
began with the American Revolution
American Revolution
and the Haitian Revolution
Haitian Revolution
in the late 1700s. This was followed by numerous Latin American wars of independence
Latin American wars of independence
in the early 1800s. Between 1811 and 1825, Paraguay, Argentina, Chile, Gran Colombia, the United Provinces of Central America, Mexico, Brazil, Peru, and Bolivia gained independence from Spain
Spain
and Portugal
Portugal
in armed revolutions. After the Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
won independence from Haiti, it was re-annexed by Spain
Spain
in 1861, but reclaimed its independence in 1865 at the conclusion of the Dominican Restoration War. The last violent episode of decolonization was the Cuban War of Independence
Cuban War of Independence
which became the Spanish–American War, which resulted in the independence of Cuba
Cuba
in 1898, and the transfer of sovereignty over Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
from Spain
Spain
to the United States. Peaceful decolonization began with the purchase by the United States of Louisiana
Louisiana
from France
France
in 1803, Florida from Spain
Spain
in 1819, of Alaska
Alaska
from Russia in 1867, and the Danish West Indies
West Indies
from Denmark
Denmark
in 1916. Canada
Canada
became independent of the United Kingdom, starting with the Balfour Declaration of 1926, Statute of Westminster 1931, and ending with the patriation of the Canadian Constitution in 1982. The Dominion of Newfoundland
Dominion of Newfoundland
similarly achieved partial independence under the Balfour Declaration and Statute of Westminster, but was re-absorbed into the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in 1934. It was subsequently confederated with Canada
Canada
in 1949. The remaining European colonies in the Caribbean
Caribbean
began to achieve peaceful independence well after World War II. Jamaica
Jamaica
and Trinidad and Tobago became independent in 1962, and Guyana
Guyana
and Barbados
Barbados
both achieved independence in 1966. In the 1970s, the Bahamas, Grenada, Dominica, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines
St. Vincent and the Grenadines
all became independent of the United Kingdom, and Suriname
Suriname
became independent of the Netherlands. Belize, Antigua and Barbuda, and Saint Kitts and Nevis achieved independence from the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in the 1980s. Geography[edit] Further information: Geography of North America
North America
and Geography of South America

Satellite photo of the Americas

Extent[edit] The northernmost point of the Americas
Americas
is Kaffeklubben Island, which is the most northerly point of land on Earth.[56] The southernmost point is the islands of Southern Thule, although they are sometimes considered part of Antarctica.[57] The mainland of the Americas
Americas
is the world's longest north-to-south landmass. The distance between its two polar extremities, the Boothia Peninsula
Boothia Peninsula
in northern Canada
Canada
and Cape Froward in Chilean Patagonia, is roughly 14,000 km (8,700 mi).[58] The mainland's most westerly point is the end of the Seward Peninsula
Seward Peninsula
in Alaska; Attu Island, further off the Alaskan coast to the west, is considered the westernmost point of the Americas. Ponta do Seixas
Ponta do Seixas
in northeastern Brazil
Brazil
forms the easternmost extremity of the mainland,[58] while Nordostrundingen, in Greenland, is the most easterly point of the continental shelf. Geology[edit] South America
South America
broke off from the west of the supercontinent Gondwana around 135 million years ago, forming its own continent.[59] Around 15 million years ago, the collision of the Caribbean
Caribbean
Plate and the Pacific Plate
Pacific Plate
resulted in the emergence of a series of volcanoes along the border that created a number of islands. The gaps in the archipelago of Central America
Central America
filled in with material eroded off North America
North America
and South America, plus new land created by continued volcanism. By three million years ago, the continents of North America
North America
and South America
South America
were linked by the Isthmus of Panama, thereby forming the single landmass of the Americas.[60] The Great American Interchange resulted in many species being spread across the Americas, such as the cougar, porcupine, opossums, armadillos and hummingbirds.[61] Topography[edit]

Aconcagua, in Argentina, is the highest peak in the Americas

The geography of the western Americas
Americas
is dominated by the American cordillera, with the Andes
Andes
running along the west coast of South America[62] and the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
and other North American Cordillera ranges running along the western side of North America.[63] The 2,300-kilometer-long (1,400 mi) Appalachian Mountains
Appalachian Mountains
run along the east coast of North America
North America
from Alabama
Alabama
to Newfoundland.[64] North of the Appalachians, the Arctic
Arctic
Cordillera runs along the eastern coast of Canada.[65] The largest mountain ranges are the Andes
Andes
and Rocky Mountains. The Sierra Nevada and the Cascade Range
Cascade Range
reach similar altitudes as the Rocky Mountains, but are significantly smaller. In North America, the greatest number of fourteeners are in the United States, and more specifically in the U.S. state of Colorado. The highest peaks of the Americas
Americas
are located in the Andes, with Aconcagua
Aconcagua
of Argentina
Argentina
being the highest; in North America
North America
Denali
Denali
(Mount McKinley) in the U.S. state of Alaska
Alaska
is the tallest. Between its coastal mountain ranges, North America
North America
has vast flat areas. The Interior Plains
Interior Plains
spread over much of the continent, with low relief.[66] The Canadian Shield
Canadian Shield
covers almost 5 million km² of North America and is generally quite flat.[67] Similarly, the north-east of South America
South America
is covered by the flat Amazon Basin.[68] The Brazilian Highlands on the east coast are fairly smooth but show some variations in landform, while farther south the Gran Chaco and Pampas
Pampas
are broad lowlands.[69] Climate[edit]

Climate zones of the Americas
Americas
in the Köppen climate classification system.

The climate of the Americas
Americas
varies significantly from region to region. Tropical rainforest climate
Tropical rainforest climate
occurs in the latitudes of the Amazon, American cloud forests, Florida and Darien Gap. In the Rocky Mountains and Andes, dry and continental climates are observed. Often the higher altitudes of these mountains are snow-capped. Southeastern North America
North America
is well known for its occurrence of tornadoes and hurricanes, of which the vast majority of tornadoes occur in the United States' Tornado Alley.[70] Often parts of the Caribbean
Caribbean
are exposed to the violent effects of hurricanes. These weather systems are formed by the collision of dry, cool air from Canada
Canada
and wet, warm air from the Atlantic. Hydrology[edit] With coastal mountains and interior plains, the Americas
Americas
have several large river basins that drain the continents. The largest river basin in North America
North America
is that of the Mississippi, covering the second largest watershed on the planet.[71] The Mississippi-Missouri river system drains most of 31 states of the U.S., most of the Great Plains, and large areas between the Rocky and Appalachian mountains. This river is the fourth longest in the world and tenth most powerful in the world. In North America, to the east of the Appalachian Mountains, there are no major rivers but rather a series of rivers and streams that flow east with their terminus in the Atlantic Ocean, such as the Hudson River, Saint John River, and Savannah River. A similar instance arises with central Canadian rivers that drain into Hudson Bay; the largest being the Churchill River. On the west coast of North America, the main rivers are the Colorado
Colorado
River, Columbia River, Yukon
Yukon
River, Fraser River, and Sacramento River. The Colorado
Colorado
River drains much of the Southern Rockies
Southern Rockies
and parts of the Great Basin
Great Basin
and Range Province. The river flows approximately 1,450 miles (2,330 km) into the Gulf of California,[72] during which over time it has carved out natural phenomena such as the Grand Canyon and created phenomena such as the Salton Sea. The Columbia is a large river, 1,243 miles (2,000 km) long, in central western North America
North America
and is the most powerful river on the West Coast of the Americas. In the far northwest of North America, the Yukon
Yukon
drains much of the Alaskan peninsula and flows 1,980 miles (3,190 km)[73] from parts of Yukon
Yukon
and the Northwest Territory to the Pacific. Draining to the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean
Ocean
of Canada, the Mackenzie River
Mackenzie River
drains waters from the Arctic
Arctic
Great Lakes
Great Lakes
of Arctic
Arctic
Canada, as opposed to the Saint-Lawrence River that drains the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
of Southern Canada into the Atlantic Ocean. The Mackenzie River
Mackenzie River
is the largest in Canada and drains 1,805,200 square kilometers (697,000 sq mi).[74] The largest river basin in South America
South America
is that of the Amazon, which has the highest volume flow of any river on Earth.[75] The second largest watershed of South America
South America
is that of the Paraná River, which covers about 2.5 million km².[76] Ecology[edit] North America
North America
and South America
South America
began to develop a shared population of flora and fauna around 2.5 million years ago, when continental drift brought the two continents into contact via the Isthmus of Panama. Initially, the exchange of biota was roughly equal, with North American genera migrating into South America
South America
in about the same proportions as South American genera migrated into North America. This exchange is known as the Great American Interchange. The exchange became lopsided after roughly a million years, with the total spread of South American genera into North America
North America
far more limited in scope than the spread on North American genera into South America.[77] Countries and territories[edit] See also: List of sovereign states and dependent territories in the Americas There are 35 sovereign states in the Americas, as well as an autonomous country of Denmark, three overseas departments of France, three overseas collectivities of France,[78] and one uninhabited territory of France, eight overseas territories of the United Kingdom, three constituent countries of the Netherlands, three public bodies of the Netherlands, two unincorporated territories of the United States, and one uninhabited territory of the United States.[79]

Country or territory Area (km²)[80] Population [note 1] Pop. density (per km²) Languages (official in bold) Capital

Anguilla
Anguilla
Anguilla
Anguilla
(United Kingdom) 7001910000000000000♠91 7004134520000000000♠13,452 7002164800000000000♠164.8 English The Valley

Antigua and Barbuda
Antigua and Barbuda
! Antigua and Barbuda 7002442000000000000♠442 7004862950000000000♠86,295 7002199100000000000♠199.1 Creole,[81] English St. John's

Argentina
Argentina
! Argentina 7006276689000000000♠2,766,890 7007426695000000000♠42,669,500 7001143000000000000♠14.3 Spanish Buenos Aires

Aruba
Aruba
Aruba
Aruba
(Netherlands) 7002180000000000000♠180 7005101484000000000♠101,484 7002594400000000000♠594.4 Papiamentu, Spanish,[82] Dutch Oranjestad

Bahamas
Bahamas
! Bahamas, The 7004139430000000000♠13,943 7005351461000000000♠351,461 7001245000000000000♠24.5 Creole,[83] English Nassau

Barbados
Barbados
! Barbados 7002430000000000000♠430 7005285000000000000♠285,000 7002595290000000000♠595.3 Bajan,[84] English Bridgetown

Belize
Belize
! Belize 7004229660000000000♠22,966 7005349728000000000♠349,728 7001134000000000000♠13.4 Spanish, Kriol, English[85] Belmopan

Bermuda
Bermuda
Bermuda
Bermuda
(United Kingdom) 7001540000000000000♠54 7004642370000000000♠64,237 7003120370000000000♠1,203.7 English Hamilton

Bolivia
Bolivia
! Bolivia 7006109858000000000♠1,098,580 7007100272540000000♠10,027,254 7000840000000000000♠8.4 Spanish and 36 indigenous languages La Paz
La Paz
and Sucre
Sucre
[86]

Bonaire
Bonaire
Bonaire
Bonaire
(Netherlands) 7002294000000000000♠294 7004120930000000000♠12,093 7001411000000000000♠41.1 Papiamentu, Spanish, Dutch[87] Kralendijk

Brazil
Brazil
! Brazil 7006851487700000000♠8,514,877 7008203106000000000♠203,106,000 7001236000000000000♠23.6 Portuguese Brasília

British Virgin Islands
British Virgin Islands
British Virgin Islands
British Virgin Islands
(United Kingdom) 7002151000000000000♠151 7004295370000000000♠29,537 7002152300000000000♠152.3 English Road Town

Canada
Canada
! Canada 7006998467000000000♠9,984,670 7007354275240000000♠35,427,524 7000340000000000000♠3.4 English, French Ottawa

Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
(United Kingdom) 7002264000000000000♠264 7004554560000000000♠55,456 7002212100000000000♠212.1 English George Town

Chile
Chile
! Chile[88] 7005756950000000000♠756,950 7007177730000000000♠17,773,000 7001220000000000000♠22 Spanish Santiago

Clipperton Island
Clipperton Island
Clipperton Island
Clipperton Island
(France) 7000600000000000000♠6[89] 5000000000000000000♠0[90] 5000000000000000000♠0.0 Uninhabited  —

Colombia
Colombia
! Colombia 7006113891000000000♠1,138,910 7007477570000000000♠47,757,000 7001400000000000000♠40 Spanish Bogotá

Costa Rica
Costa Rica
! Costa Rica 7004511000000000000♠51,100 7006466709600000000♠4,667,096 7001896000000000000♠89.6 Spanish San José

Cuba
Cuba
! Cuba 7005109886000000000♠109,886 7007111673250000000♠11,167,325 7002102000000000000♠102.0 Spanish Havana

Curacao !  Curaçao
Curaçao
(Netherlands) 7002444000000000000♠444 7005150563000000000♠150,563 7002317100000000000♠317.1 Papiamentu, Dutch[87] Willemstad

Dominica
Dominica
! Dominica 7002751000000000000♠751 7004712930000000000♠71,293 7001892000000000000♠89.2 French Patois, English[91] Roseau

Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
! Dominican Republic 7004486710000000000♠48,671 7007103782670000000♠10,378,267 7002207300000000000♠207.3 Spanish Santo Domingo

Ecuador
Ecuador
! Ecuador 7005283560000000000♠283,560 7007158194000000000♠15,819,400 7001538000000000000♠53.8 Spanish, Quechua[92] Quito

El Salvador
El Salvador
! El Salvador 7004210410000000000♠21,041 7006640124000000000♠6,401,240 7002293000000000000♠293.0 Spanish San Salvador

Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
(United Kingdom)[93] 7004121730000000000♠12,173 7003300000000000000♠3,000 6999260000000000000♠0.26 English Stanley

French Guiana
French Guiana
French Guiana
French Guiana
(France) 7004910000000000000♠91,000 7005237549000000000♠237,549 7000270000000000000♠2.7 French Cayenne

Greenland
Greenland
Greenland
Greenland
(Denmark) 7006216608600000000♠2,166,086 7004564830000000000♠56,483 6998260000000000000♠0.026 Greenlandic, Danish Nuuk
Nuuk
(Godthåb)

Grenada
Grenada
! Grenada 7002344000000000000♠344 7005103328000000000♠103,328 7002302300000000000♠302.3 English St. George's

Guadeloupe
Guadeloupe
Guadeloupe
Guadeloupe
(France) 7003162800000000000♠1,628 7005405739000000000♠405,739 7002246700000000000♠246.7 French Basse-Terre

Guatemala
Guatemala
! Guatemala 7005108889000000000♠108,889 7007158066750000000♠15,806,675 7002128800000000000♠128.8 Spanish, Garifuna and 23 Mayan languages Guatemala
Guatemala
City

Guyana
Guyana
! Guyana 7005214999000000000♠214,999 7005784894000000000♠784,894 7000350000000000000♠3.5 English Georgetown

Haiti
Haiti
! Haiti 7004277500000000000♠27,750 7007107456650000000♠10,745,665 7002361500000000000♠361.5 Creole, French Port-au-Prince

Honduras
Honduras
! Honduras 7005112492000000000♠112,492 7006855507200000000♠8,555,072 7001664000000000000♠66.4 Spanish Tegucigalpa

Jamaica
Jamaica
! Jamaica 7004109910000000000♠10,991 7006271799100000000♠2,717,991 7002247400000000000♠247.4 Patois, English Kingston

Martinique
Martinique
Martinique
Martinique
(France) 7003112800000000000♠1,128 7005392291000000000♠392,291 7002352600000000000♠352.6 Patois,[94] French Fort-de-France

Mexico
Mexico
! Mexico 7006196437500000000♠1,964,375 7008119713203000000♠119,713,203 7001571000000000000♠57.1 Spanish, 68 indigenous languages Mexico
Mexico
City

Montserrat
Montserrat
Montserrat
Montserrat
(United Kingdom) 7002102000000000000♠102 7003492200000000000♠4,922 7001588000000000000♠58.8 Creole English, English[95] Plymouth; Brades[96]

Navassa Island
Navassa Island
Navassa Island
Navassa Island
(United States) 7000500000000000000♠5[89] 5000000000000000000♠0[90] 5000000000000000000♠0.0 Uninhabited  —

Nicaragua
Nicaragua
! Nicaragua 7005130373000000000♠130,373 7006607104500000000♠6,071,045 7001441000000000000♠44.1 Spanish Managua

Panama
Panama
! Panama 7004754170000000000♠75,417 7006340581300000000♠3,405,813 7001458000000000000♠45.8 Spanish Panama
Panama
City

Paraguay
Paraguay
! Paraguay 7005406750000000000♠406,750 7006678337400000000♠6,783,374 7001156000000000000♠15.6 Guaraní, Spanish Asunción

Peru
Peru
! Peru 7006128522000000000♠1,285,220 7007308141750000000♠30,814,175 7001220000000000000♠22 Spanish, Quechua, Aymara Lima

Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
(United States) 7003887000000000000♠8,870 7006361508600000000♠3,615,086 7002448900000000000♠448.9 Spanish, English San Juan

Saba
Saba
Saba
Saba
(Netherlands) 7001130000000000000♠13 7003153700000000000♠1,537[97] 7002118200000000000♠118.2 English, Dutch The Bottom

Saint Barthelemy !  Saint Barthélemy
Saint Barthélemy
(France) 7001210000000000000♠21[89] 7003893800000000000♠8,938[90] 7002354700000000000♠354.7 French Gustavia

Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Kitts and Nevis
! Saint Kitts and Nevis 7002261000000000000♠261 7004550000000000000♠55,000 7002199200000000000♠199.2 English Basseterre

Saint Lucia
Saint Lucia
! Saint Lucia 7002539000000000000♠539 7005180000000000000♠180,000 7002319100000000000♠319.1 English, French Creole Castries

Saint Martin ! Saint Martin (France) 7001540000000000000♠54[89] 7004369790000000000♠36,979 7002552200000000000♠552.2 French Marigot

Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
! Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
(France) 7002242000000000000♠242 7003608100000000000♠6,081 7001248000000000000♠24.8 French Saint-Pierre

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
! Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 7002389000000000000♠389 7005109000000000000♠109,000 7002280200000000000♠280.2 English Kingstown

Sint Eustatius
Sint Eustatius
Sint Eustatius
Sint Eustatius
(Netherlands) 7001210000000000000♠21 7003273900000000000♠2,739[97] 7002130400000000000♠130.4 Dutch, English Oranjestad

Sint Maarten
Sint Maarten
Sint Maarten
Sint Maarten
(Netherlands) 7001340000000000000♠34 7004374290000000000♠37,429 7003117670000000000♠1,176.7 English, Spanish, Dutch Philipsburg

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
! South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands (UK)[98] 7003309300000000000♠3,093 7001200000000000000♠20 6998100000000000000♠0.01 English Grytviken

Suriname
Suriname
! Suriname 7005163270000000000♠163,270 7005534189000000000♠534,189 7000300000000000000♠3 Dutch and others[99] Paramaribo

Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
! Trinidad and Tobago 7003513000000000000♠5,130 7006132801900000000♠1,328,019 7002261000000000000♠261.0 English Port of Spain

Turks and Caicos Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
(UK) 7002948000000000000♠948 7004314580000000000♠31,458 7001348009999900000♠34.8 Creole English, English[100] Cockburn Town

United States
United States
! United States[note 2] 7006962909100000000♠9,629,091 7008320206000000000♠320,206,000 7001342000000000000♠34.2 English, Spanish Washington, D.C.

U.S. Virgin Islands ! U.S. Virgin Islands (United States) 7002347000000000000♠347 7005106405000000000♠106,405 7002317000000000000♠317.0 English, Spanish Charlotte Amalie

Uruguay
Uruguay
! Uruguay 7005176220000000000♠176,220 7006328631400000000♠3,286,314 7001194009999900000♠19.4 Spanish Montevideo

Venezuela
Venezuela
! Venezuela 7005916445000000000♠916,445 7007302063070000000♠30,206,307 7001302000000000000♠30.2 Spanish and 40 indigenous languages Caracas

Total 7007423209850000000♠42,320,985 7008973186925000000♠973,186,925 7001219000000000000♠21.9

Demography[edit] Population[edit] Further information: List of countries in the Americas
Americas
by population The total population of the Americas
Americas
is about 951 million people and is divided as follows:[citation needed]

North America: 565 million (includes Central America
Central America
and the Caribbean) South America: 386 million

Largest urban centers[edit] See also: Largest cities in the Americas
Largest cities in the Americas
and List of metropolitan areas in the Americas
Americas
by population There are three urban centers that each hold titles for being the largest population area based on the three main demographic concepts:[101]

City proper

A city proper is the locality with legally fixed boundaries and an administratively recognized urban status that is usually characterized by some form of local government.[102][103][104][105][106]

Urban area

An urban area is characterized by higher population density and vast human features in comparison to areas surrounding it. Urban areas may be cities, towns or conurbations, but the term is not commonly extended to rural settlements such as villages and hamlets. Urban areas are created and further developed by the process of urbanization and do not include large swaths of rural land, as do metropolitan areas.

Metropolitan area

Unlike an urban area, a metropolitan area includes not only the urban area, but also satellite cities plus intervening rural land that is socio-economically connected to the urban core city, typically by employment ties through commuting, with the urban core city being the primary labor market.

In accordance with these definitions, the three largest population centers in the Americas
Americas
are: Mexico
Mexico
City, anchor to the largest metropolitan area in the Americas; New York City, anchor to the largest urban area in the Americas; and São Paulo, the largest city proper in the Americas. All three cities maintain Alpha classification and large scale influence. Mexico City
Mexico City
is the largest city in the Americas
Americas
and the Western Hemisphere
Western Hemisphere
and Northern Hemisphere.

Urban centers within the Americas

Mexico City
Mexico City
– The largest metropolitan area in the Americas, with a population of 22,300,000 in 2017.

São Paulo
São Paulo
– Largest city with a population of 12,038,175(city) in 2016.

New York City
New York City
– Largest urban area in the Americas, with a population of 18,351,295 in 2010.

Country City City Population Metro Area Population

 Mexico Mexico
Mexico
City 8,864,000[107] 22,300,000[108]

 Brazil São Paulo 12,038,175[109] 21,742, 939[110]

 United States New York City 8,405,837[111] 19,949,502[112]

 Argentina Buenos Aires 2,776,138[113] 15,024,000[114]

 United States Los Angeles 3,928,864[115] 13,131,431[116]

Ethnology[edit]

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The population of the Americas
Americas
is made up of the descendants of four large ethnic groups and their combinations.

The Indigenous peoples of the Americas, being Amerindians, Inuit, and Aleuts. Those of European ancestry, mainly Spanish, British and Irish, Portuguese, German, Italian, French, Polish, Dutch, Russians and Scandinavians. Those of African ancestry, mainly of West African descent. Asians, that is, those of Eastern, South, and Southeast Asian ancestry. Mestizos ( Metis people in Canada), those of mixed European and Amerindian
Amerindian
ancestry. Mulattoes, people of mixed African and European ancestry. Zambos (Spanish) or Cafusos (Portuguese), those of mixed African and Amerindian
Amerindian
ancestry.

The majority of the population live in Latin America, named for its predominant cultures, rooted in Latin Europe
Europe
(including the two dominant languages, Spanish and Portuguese, both Romance languages), more specifically in the Iberian nations of Portugal
Portugal
and Spain
Spain
(hence the use of the term Ibero-America
Ibero-America
as a synonym). Latin America
Latin America
is typically contrasted with Anglo-America, where English, a Germanic language, is prevalent, and which comprises Canada
Canada
(with the exception of francophone Canada
Canada
rooted in Latin Europe
Europe
[France]—see Québec and Acadia) and the United States. Both countries are located in North America, with cultures deriving predominantly from Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
and other Germanic roots. Religion[edit] Further information: Religion in Latin America, Religion in North America, Christianity
Christianity
in the Americas, and Islam in the Americas The most prevalent faiths in the Americas
Americas
are as follows:

Christianity
Christianity
(86 percent)[117]

Roman Catholicism: Practiced by 69 percent[118] of the Latin American population, 81 percent[118] in Mexico
Mexico
and 61 percent[118] in Brazil whose Roman Catholic
Catholic
population of 123 million is the greatest of any nation's; approximately 24 percent of the United States' population[119] and about 39 percent of Canada's.[120] Protestantism: Practiced mostly in the United States, where half of the population are Protestant, Canada, with slightly more than a quarter of the population, and Greenland; there is a growing contingent of Evangelical and Pentecostal
Pentecostal
movements in predominantly Catholic
Catholic
Latin America.[121] Eastern Orthodoxy: Found mostly in the United States
United States
(1 percent) and Canada; this Christian group is growing faster than many other Christian groups in Canada
Canada
and now represents roughly 3 percent of the Canadian population.[120] Non-denominational Christians
Christians
and other Christians
Christians
(some 1,000 different Christian denominations and sects practiced in the Americas).

Irreligion: About 12 percent, including atheists and agnostics, as well as those who profess some form of spirituality but do not identify themselves as members of any organized religion) Islam: Together, Muslims constitute about 1 percent of the North American population and 0.3 percent of all Latin Americans. It is practiced by 3 percent [120] of Canadians and 0.6 percent of the U.S. population.[119] Argentina
Argentina
has the largest Muslim population in Latin America with up to 600,000 persons, or 1.9 percent of the population.[122] Judaism (practiced by 2 percent of North Americans—approximately 2.5 percent of the U.S. population and 1.2 percent of Canadians[123]—and 0.23 percent of Latin Americans— Argentina
Argentina
has the largest Jewish population in Latin America
Latin America
with 200,000 members)[124]

Other faiths include Buddhism; Hinduism; Sikhism; Bahá'í Faith; a wide variety of indigenous religions, many of which can be categorized as animistic; new age religions and many African and African-derived religions. Syncretic faiths can also be found throughout the Americas.

Religious Demographics According to 2010 censuses/estimates in each country

Country Christians Catholics Protestants None/Atheists/Agnostics Others

 Argentina[125] 86.2% 76.5% 09.7% 11.3% 02.5%

 Bolivia 95.3% 73.7% 21.6% 03.7% 01.0%

 Brazil[126] 86.8% 64.6% 22.2% 08.4% 04.8%

 Canada[120] 62.6% 38.7% 23.9% 28.5% 08.9%

 Chile[127] 76.0% 60.0% 16.0% 21.0% 03.0%

 Colombia[128] 93.9% 80.3% 13.6% 05.2% 01.7%

 Costa Rica[129] 84.3% 70.5% 13.8% 11.3% 04.3%

 Dominican Republic[130] 87.1% 68.3% 18.8% 10.6% 02.2%

 Ecuador[131] 95.6% 87.8% 07.7% 03.5% 01.0%

 El Salvador[132] 75.5% 45.8% 29.7% 24.3% 01.2%

 Guatemala[133] 79.3% 47.6% 31.7% 18.3% 02.4%

 Honduras[134] 83.0% 47.9% 35.1% 14.3% 02.7%

 Mexico[135] 92.2% 82.7% 08.7% 04.9% 02.9%

 Nicaragua[136] 81.1% 54.3% 26.8% 16.8% 02.1%

 Panama 90.0% 75.0% 15.0% 07.0% 03.0%

 Paraguay 96.8% 90.4% 06.4% 01.4% 01.8%

 Peru[137] 96.7% 81.3% 12.5% 01.9% 01.4%

 Uruguay[138] 58.2% 47.1% 11.1% 40.4% 1.5%

 United States[139] 79.9% 25.9% 54.0% 15.2% 05.0%

 Venezuela[140] 89.0% 72.0% 17.0% 08.0% 03.0%

Languages[edit] Main articles: Indigenous languages of the Americas, Languages of North America, and Languages of South America

Languages spoken in the Americas

Various languages are spoken in the Americas. Some are of European origin, others are spoken by indigenous peoples or are the mixture of various idioms like the different creoles. The most widely spoken language in the Americas
Americas
is Spanish.[141] The dominant language of Latin America
Latin America
is Spanish, though the most populous nation in Latin America, Brazil, speaks Portuguese. Small enclaves of French-, Dutch- and English-speaking regions also exist in Latin America, notably in French Guiana, Suriname, and Belize
Belize
and Guyana
Guyana
respectively. Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
is dominant in the nation of Haiti, where French is also spoken. Native languages are more prominent in Latin America
Latin America
than in Anglo-America, with Nahuatl, Quechua, Aymara and Guaraní as the most common. Various other native languages are spoken with less frequency across both Anglo-America
Anglo-America
and Latin America. Creole languages other than Haitian Creole
Haitian Creole
are also spoken in parts of Latin America. The dominant language of Anglo-America
Anglo-America
is English. French is also official in Canada, where it is the predominant language in Quebec
Quebec
and an official language in New Brunswick
New Brunswick
along with English. It is also an important language in Louisiana, and in parts of New Hampshire, Maine, and Vermont. Spanish has kept an ongoing presence in the Southwestern United States, which formed part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, especially in California and New Mexico, where a distinct variety of Spanish spoken since the 17th century has survived. It has more recently become widely spoken in other parts of the United States because of heavy immigration from Latin America. High levels of immigration in general have brought great linguistic diversity to Anglo-America, with over 300 languages known to be spoken in the United States
United States
alone, but most languages are spoken only in small enclaves and by relatively small immigrant groups. The nations of Guyana, Suriname, and Belize
Belize
are generally considered[by whom?] not to fall into either Anglo-America
Anglo-America
or Latin America because of their language differences from Latin America, geographic differences from Anglo-America, and cultural and historical differences from both regions; English is the primary language of Guyana
Guyana
and Belize, and Dutch is the primary language of Suriname. Most of the non-native languages have, to different degrees, evolved differently from the mother country, but are usually still mutually intelligible. Some have combined, however, which has even resulted in completely new languages, such as Papiamento, which is a combination of Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch (representing the respective colonizers), native Arawak, various African languages, and, more recently English. The lingua franca Portuñol, a mixture of Portuguese and Spanish, is spoken in the border regions of Brazil
Brazil
and neighboring Spanish-speaking countries.[142] More specifically, Riverense Portuñol
Portuñol
is spoken by around 100,000 people in the border regions of Brazil
Brazil
and Uruguay. Because of immigration, there are many communities where other languages are spoken from all parts of the world, especially in the United States, Brazil, Argentina, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica
Costa Rica
and Uruguay—very important destinations for immigrants.[143][144][145] Terminology[edit]

Subdivisions of the Americas

Map Legend

   North America
North America
(NA)    South America
South America
(SA)   May be included in        either NA or SA

   North America
North America
(NA)   May be included in NA   Central America   Caribbean   South America

   North America
North America
(NA)   May be included in NA        Northern America   Middle America (MA)    Caribbean
Caribbean
(may be         included in MA)    South America
South America
(SA)   May be included         in MA or SA

   Anglo-America
Anglo-America
(A-A)   May be included in A-A    Latin America
Latin America
(LA)   May be included in LA

Further information: Americas
Americas
(terminology) English[edit] Main article: American (word) Speakers of English generally refer to the landmasses of North America and South America
South America
as the Americas, the Western Hemisphere, or the New World.[146] The adjective American may be used to indicate something pertains to the Americas,[3] but this term is primarily used in English to indicate something pertaining to the United States.[3][147][148] Some non-ambiguous alternatives exist, such as the adjective Pan-American,[149] or New Worlder as a demonym for a resident of the closely related New World.[4] Use of America in the hemispherical sense is sometimes retained, or can occur when translated from other languages.[150] For example, the Association of National Olympic Committees (ANOC) in Paris maintains a single continental association for "America", represented by one of the five Olympic rings.[151] American linguist H.L. Mencken
H.L. Mencken
said, " The Latin-Americans use Norteamericano in formal writing, but, save in Panama, prefer nicknames in colloquial speech."[152] To avoid "American" one can use constructed terms in their languages derived from "United States" or even "North America".[148][153][154] In Canada, its southern neighbor is often referred to as "the United States", "the U.S.A.", or (informally) "the States", while U.S. citizens are generally referred to as "Americans".[148] Most Canadians resent being referred to as "Americans".[148] Spanish[edit] In Spanish, América is a single continent composed of the subcontinents of América del Sur and América del Norte, the land bridge of América Central, and the islands of the Antillas. Americano or americana in Spanish refers to a person from América in a similar way that europeo or europea refers to a person from Europa. The terms sudamericano/a, centroamericano/a, antillano/a and norteamericano/a can be used to more specifically refer to the location where a person may live. Citizens of the United States
United States
of America are normally referred to by the term estadounidense (rough literal translation: "United Statesian") instead of americano or americana which is discouraged,[155][156] and the country's name itself is officially translated as Estados Unidos de América ( United States
United States
of America), commonly abbreviated as Estados Unidos (EEUU).[156] Also, the term norteamericano (North American) may refer to a citizen of the United States. This term is primarily used to refer to citizens of the United States, and less commonly to those of other North American countries.[155] Portuguese[edit] In Portuguese, América[157] is a single continent composed of América do Sul (South America), América Central (Central America) and América do Norte (North America).[158] It can be ambiguous, as América can be used to refer to the United States
United States
of America, but is avoided in print and formal environments.[159][160] French[edit] In French the word américain may be used for things relating to the Americas; however, similar to English, it is most often used for things relating to the United States. Panaméricain may be used as an adjective to refer to the Americas
Americas
without ambiguity.[161] French speakers may use the noun Amérique to refer to the whole landmass as one continent, or two continents, Amérique du Nord and Amérique du Sud. In French, Amérique is also used to refer to the United States, making the term ambiguous. Similar to English usage, les Amériques or des Amériques is used to refer unambiguously to the Americas. Dutch[edit] In Dutch, the word Amerika mostly refers to the United States.[citation needed] Although the United States
United States
is equally often referred to as de Verenigde Staten ("the United States") or de VS ("the US"), Amerika relatively rarely refers to the Americas, but it is the only commonly used Dutch word for the Americas. This often leads to ambiguity; and to stress that something concerns the Americas as a whole, Dutch uses a combination, namely Noord- en Zuid-Amerika (North and South America). Latin America
Latin America
is generally referred to as Latijns Amerika or Midden-Amerika for Central America. The adjective Amerikaans is most often used for things or people relating to the United States. There are no alternative words to distinguish between things relating to the United States
United States
or to the Americas. Dutch uses the local alternative for things relating to elsewhere in the Americas, such as Argentijns for Argentine, etc. Multinational organizations[edit] The following is a list of multinational organizations in the Americas.

Alliance for Progress American Capital of Culture Andean Community of Nations Association of Caribbean
Caribbean
States Bank of the South Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas Caribbean
Caribbean
Community CARICOM Single Market and Economy Central American Common Market Central American Parliament Community of Latin American and Caribbean
Caribbean
States Contadora Group Free Trade Area of the Americas Latin American Free Trade Agreement Latin American Parliament
Latin American Parliament
or (Parlatino) List of Parliamentary Speakers in the Americas
Americas
in 1984 Mercosur
Mercosur
or Mercosul North American Free Trade Agreement North Atlantic Treaty Organization Organization of American States Organisation of Eastern Caribbean
Caribbean
States Organization of Ibero-American States Pan American Sports Organization Regional Security System Rio Group School of the Americas Summit of the Americas Union of South American Nations YOA Orchestra of the Americas

Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of North America Main article: Economy of South America See also: List of North American countries by GDP (nominal) and List of North American countries by GDP (PPP) See also: List of Latin American and Caribbean
Caribbean
countries by GDP (PPP)

Rank Country GDP (nominal, Peak Year) millions of USD [162] Peak Year

1  United States 19,362,129 2017

2  Brazil 2,614,027 2011

3  Canada 1,842,627 2013

4  Mexico 1,298,466 2014

5  Argentina 631,621 2015

6  Colombia 380,170 2013

7  Venezuela 334,069 2011

8  Chile 278,340 2013

9  Peru 210,013 2017

10  Puerto Rico 105,035 2016

Rank Country GDP (PPP, Peak Year) millions of USD Peak Year

1  United States 19,362,129 2017

2  Brazil 3,306,709 2014

3  Mexico 2,406,087 2017

4  Canada 1,763,785 2017

5  Argentina 911,466 2017

6  Colombia 712,543 2017

7  Venezuela 554,247 2013

8  Chile 452,095 2017

9  Peru 424,639 2017

10  Cuba 254,865 2015

The U.S. has the fastest-growing economy in the Americas
Americas
according to a 2016 study conducted by the International Monetary Fund (IMF),[163][164] and has the highest GDP per capita in the Americas
Americas
as well.[164][163] Countries in the northern part of the Americas
Americas
tend to have healthier and stronger economies than countries in the southern part of the Americas.[164][163] In 2016, five to seven countries in the southern part of the Americas had weakening economies in decline, compared to only three countries in the northern part of the Americas.[164][163] Haiti
Haiti
has the lowest GDP per capita in the Americas, although its economy was growing slightly as of 2016.[164][163] See also[edit]

Geography portal North America
North America
portal South America
South America
portal

Amerrique Mountains British North America Columbia (name) Conquistadors Ethnic groups in Central America French America La Merika List of conflicts in the Americas List of former sovereign states List of the oldest churches in the Americas Middle America (Americas) Monarchies in the Americas New Sweden Northern America Pan-Americanism Southern Cone

Notes[edit]

^ See List of countries by population
List of countries by population
for references. ^ Includes the US state of Hawaii, which is distant from the North American landmass in the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
and therefore more commonly associated with the other territories of Oceania.

References[edit]

^ "United Nations Statistics Division - National Accounts". unstats.un.org.  ^ "Continental Comparison of Human Development Index (HDI)" (PDF). International Journal of Humanities, Social Sciences and Education. 4. 2017. doi:10.20431/2349-0381.0401002.  ^ a b c "American". Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
(3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) ^ a b "New Worlder". Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
(3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) ^ See for example: america – Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved on January 27, 2008; "dictionary.reference.com america". Dictionary.com. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Accessed: January 27, 2008. ^ Marjorie Fee and Janice MacAlpine, Oxford Guide to Canadian English Usage (2008) page 36 says "In Canada, American is used almost exclusively in reference to the United States
United States
and its citizens." Others, including The New Zealand
New Zealand
Oxford Dictionary, The Canadian Oxford Dictionary, The Australian Oxford Dictionary and The Concise Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
all specify both the Americas
Americas
and the United States in their definition of "American". ^ a b "America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language (ISBN 0-19-214183-X). McArthur, Tom, ed., 1992. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 33: "[16c: from the feminine of Americus, the Latinized first name of the explorer Amerigo Vespucci
Amerigo Vespucci
(1454–1512). The name America first appeared on a map in 1507 by the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller, referring to the area now called Brazil]. Since the 16c, a name of the western hemisphere, often in the plural Americas
Americas
and more or less synonymous with the New World. Since the 18c, a name of the United States
United States
of America. The second sense is now primary in English: ... However, the term is open to uncertainties: ..." ^ Webster's New World
New World
College Dictionary, 2010 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio. ^ Merriam Webster dictionary. Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. 2013. Retrieved March 23, 2016.  ^ "continent n. 5. a." (1989) Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition. Oxford University Press ; "continent1 n." (2006) The Concise Oxford English Dictionary, 11th edition revised. (Ed.) Catherine Soanes and Angus Stevenson. Oxford University Press; "continent1 n." (2005) The New Oxford American Dictionary, 2nd edition. (Ed.) Erin McKean. Oxford University Press; "continent [2, n] 4 a" (1996) Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. ProQuest Information and Learning ; "continent" (2007) Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved January 14, 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online. ^ "Western Hemisphere", Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary (3rd ed.), Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, 2001, p. 1294, The part of the Earth
Earth
comprising North and South America
South America
and surrounding waters; longitudes 20°W and 160°E are often considered its boundaries  ^ O'Neal, Mary, ed. (2011). The Chambers Dictionary (12 ed.). London: Chambers Harrap Publishers, Ltd. p. 1780. ISBN 978-0-550-10237-9. This dictionary was written with the British speaker of English in mind. ... The Western Hemisphere
Western Hemisphere
is the half of the world that includes North America
North America
and South America  ^ The World Book
Book
Dictionary. Chicago: World Book, Inc. 2003. p. 2377. ISBN 0-7166-0299-7. Western Hemisphere, the half of the world that includes North and South America.  ^ The American Heritage College Dictionary (Fourth ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2010. p. 1557. ISBN 978-0-618-83595-9. Western Hemisphere
Western Hemisphere
The half of the earth comprising North America, Central America, and South America  ^ Stevenson, Angus; Lindberg, Christine A., eds. (2010). New Oxford American Dictionary (Third ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 1963. The Half of the earth that contains the Americas  ^ Webster's New World
New World
College Dictionary (Fifth ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2014. ISBN 978-0-544-16606-6. Western Hemisphere that half of the earth which includes North & South America  ^ "Leif Erikson (11th century)". BBC. Retrieved November 20, 2011.  ^ Taylor, Alan (2001). American Colonies. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 9780142002100.  ^ "Cartographer Put 'America' on the Map 500 years Ago". USA Today. Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
Associated Press. April 24, 2007. Retrieved November 30, 2008.  ^ Lawless, Jill (November 7, 2017). "Oldest map to use word 'America' up for sale". News and Record. Associated Press. Retrieved November 30, 2017.  ^ John R. Hebert, "The Map That Named America: Library Acquires 1507 Waldseemüller Map of the World" ([1]), Information Bulletin, Library of Congress ^ Toby Lester, "Putting America on the Map", Smithsonian, 40:9 (December 2009) ^ "The Continents of the World". nationsonline.org. Retrieved September 2, 2016. Africa, the Americas, Antarctica, Asia, Australia together with Oceania, and Europe
Europe
are considered to be Continents.  ^ "Map And Details Of All 7 Continents". worldatlas.com. Retrieved September 2, 2016. In some parts of the world students are taught that there are only six continents, as they combine North America
North America
and South America into one continent called the Americas.  ^ "CENTRAL AMERICA". central-america.org. Retrieved September 18, 2016. Central America
Central America
is not a continent but a subcontinent since it lies within the continent America.  ^ "Six or Seven Continents on Earth". Retrieved December 18, 2016.  "In Europe
Europe
and other parts of the world, many students are taught of six continents, where North and South America
South America
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Argentina
Arrives in Israel". Ujc.org. Archived from the original on February 1, 2008. Retrieved October 5, 2010.  ^ Primera Encuesta sobre Creencias y Actitudes Religiosas en Argentina ^ "Cor ou Raça" (PDF). Censo Demográfico 2010: Características gerais da população, religião e pessoas com deficiência. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. 2010. Retrieved October 5, 2013.  ^ "Encuesta - 2015" (PDF) (in Spanish). Plaza Publica Cadem.  ^ "Colombia". Vanderbilt.edu. Retrieved 17 January 2015.  ^ "Las religiones en tiempos del Papa Francisco" (in Spanish). Latinobarómetro. April 2014. p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 10, 2015. Retrieved April 4, 2015.  ^ "2010 Report on International Religious Freedom – Dominican Republic". UNHCR. 17 November 2010. Retrieved 30 March 2011.  ^ (in Spanish) El 80% de ecuatorianos es católico ^ CID Gallup Poll Latinoamerica Archived 2016-03-07 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Public Opinion Polls on Religious Affiliation in Guatemala. ^ Religion in Honduras
Honduras
- CID Gallup Poll 2007 US. State ^ inegi.org.mx Religiones 2010.pdf Archived October 21, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "CONELA/PRLADES - 2010 - Nicaragua" (PDF).  ^ Dirección Técnica de Demografía y Estudios Sociales y Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo del INEI (original dead link: http://www.inei.gob.pe/Anexos/libro.pdf) ^ "Encuesta Nacional de Hogares Amplidada - 2006" (PDF). National Institute of Statistics (in Spanish). INHA. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 7 September 2013.  ^ Carolyn Stewart, ACSD. "Religion - Publications - US Census Bureau". Archived from the original on May 8, 1999.  ^ "Informe sociográfico sobre la religión en Venezuela" (PDF).  ^ nationsonline.org, klaus kästle -. "Official Languages of the Americas
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Association; p. 45. ^ The Olympic symbols. Archived July 31, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. International Olympic Committee. 2002. Lausanne: Olympic Museum and Studies Centre. The five rings of the Olympic flag represent the five inhabited, participating continents: (Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania
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Archived July 31, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.)."Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on August 22, 2011. Retrieved February 4, 2009.  ^ Mencken, H. L. (December 1947). "Names for Americans". American Speech. American Speech. 22 (4): 241–256. doi:10.2307/486658. JSTOR 486658.  quote at p 243. ^ "American." The Oxford Companion to the English Language (ISBN 0-19-214183-X); McArthur, Tom, ed., 1992. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 35. ^ "Estados Unidos". Diccionario panhispánico de dudas (in Spanish). Real Academia Española. October 2005. Retrieved November 30, 2010.  ^ a b Diccionario panhispánico de dudas:Norteamérica. Real Academia Española. 2005.  ^ a b Diccionario panhispánico de dudas: Estados Unidos. Real Academia Española. 2005.  "debe evitarse el empleo de americano para referirse exclusivamente a los habitantes de los Estados Unidos" ("the use of the term americano referring exclusively to the United States inhabitants must be avoided") ^ "Países da América". Brasil Escola. Retrieved March 29, 2014.  ^ "América". Mundo Educação. Retrieved March 29, 2014.  ^ "Estados Unidos". Itamaraty. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved March 29, 2014.  ^ "Estados Unidos". ESPN. Archived from the original on March 30, 2014. Retrieved March 29, 2014.  ^ "panaméricain". Office québéqois de la langue français. 1978. Retrieved November 22, 2013.  ^ 2017 October WEO database ^ a b c d e International Monetary Fund
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Further reading[edit]

"Americas". The Columbia Gazetteer of the World Online. 2006. New York: Columbia University Press. "Americas". Encyclopædia Britannica, 15th ed. 1986. (ISBN 0-85229-434-4) Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Burchfield, R. W. 2004. Fowler's Modern English Usage. ISBN 0-19-861021-1 Oxford University Press. Churchill, Ward A Little Matter of Genocide 1997 City Lights Books ISBN 0-87286-323-9 Fee, Margery and McAlpine, J. 1997. Oxford Guide to Canadian English Usage. (ISBN 0-19-541619-8) Toronto: Oxford University Press. Kane, Katie Nits Make Lice: Drogheda, Sand Creek, and the Poetics of Colonial Extermination Cultural Critique, No. 42 (Spring, 1999), pp. 81–103 doi:10.2307/1354592 Pearsall, Judy and Trumble, Bill., ed. 2002. Oxford English Reference Dictionary, 2nd ed. (rev.) (ISBN 0-19-860652-4) Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. What's the difference between North, Latin, Central, Middle, South, Spanish and Anglo America? Geography at about.com.

External links[edit]

Look up americas in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to America.

United Nations population data by latest available Census: 2008–2009 Organization of American States Council on Hemispheric Affairs  Gannett, Henry; Ingersoll, Ernest; Winship, George Parker (1905). "America and others". New International Encyclopedia. 

Coordinates: 19°N 96°W / 19°N 96°W / 19; -96

Americas

v t e

Countries and dependencies of North America

Sovereign states

Entire

Antigua and Barbuda Bahamas Barbados Belize Canada Costa Rica Cuba Dominica Dominican Republic El Salvador Grenada Guatemala Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama St. Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Trinidad and Tobago United States

In part

Colombia

San Andrés and Providencia

France

Guadeloupe Martinique

Caribbean
Caribbean
Netherlands

Bonaire Saba Sint Eustatius

Dependencies

Denmark

Greenland

France

Clipperton Island St. Barthélemy St. Martin St. Pierre and Miquelon

Netherlands

Aruba Curaçao Sint Maarten

United Kingdom

Anguilla Bermuda British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Montserrat Turks and Caicos Islands

United States

Navassa Island Puerto Rico United States
United States
Virgin Islands

Venezuela

Federal Dependencies Nueva Esparta

v t e

Countries and dependencies of South America

Sovereign states

Entire

Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Guyana Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay Venezuela

In part

France

French Guiana

Dependencies

Falkland Islands / South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

UK

v t e

History of the Americas

History

North America Mesoamerica Central America Caribbean Latin America South America Andean South America Genetics

Settlement

Indigenous peoples Indigenous population Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact
Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact
theories Discovery Exploration European colonization Spanish colonization French colonization Portuguese colonization British colonization Columbian Exchange Decolonization

Societies

Paleo-Indians Pre-Columbian era Aztec Maya Muisca Inca

Related

Maps Culture Geography Indigenous languages Epidemics Slavery

Lists

Pre-Columbian cultures Indigenous peoples Oldest churches Population Conflicts

North America South America

Chronology

Archaeology
Archaeology
of the Americas North America
North America
by period North American timelines Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
by period Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
timeline

Era: By period By region Three-age system Ancient history Pre-Columbian era Classical Antiquity Middle Ages Modern history Future

v t e

Regions of the world

v t e

Regions of Africa

Central Africa

Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Cape Lopez Mayombe Igboland

Mbaise

Maputaland Pool Malebo Congo Basin Chad Basin Congolese rainforests Ouaddaï highlands Ennedi Plateau

East Africa

African Great Lakes

Albertine Rift East African Rift Great Rift Valley Gregory Rift Rift Valley lakes Swahili coast Virunga Mountains Zanj

Horn of Africa

Afar Triangle Al-Habash Barbara Danakil Alps Danakil Desert Ethiopian Highlands Gulf of Aden Gulf of Tadjoura

Indian Ocean
Ocean
islands

Comoros Islands

North Africa

Maghreb

Barbary Coast Bashmur Ancient Libya Atlas Mountains

Nile Valley

Cataracts of the Nile Darfur Gulf of Aqaba Lower Egypt Lower Nubia Middle Egypt Nile Delta Nuba Mountains Nubia The Sudans Upper Egypt

Western Sahara

West Africa

Pepper Coast Gold Coast Slave
Slave
Coast Ivory Coast Cape Palmas Cape Mesurado Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Niger Basin Guinean Forests of West Africa Niger Delta Inner Niger Delta

Southern Africa

Madagascar

Central Highlands (Madagascar) Northern Highlands

Rhodesia

North South

Thembuland Succulent Karoo Nama Karoo Bushveld Highveld Fynbos Cape Floristic Region Kalahari Desert Okavango Delta False Bay Hydra Bay

Macro-regions

Aethiopia Arab world Commonwealth realm East African montane forests Eastern Desert Equatorial Africa Françafrique Gibraltar Arc Greater Middle East Islands of Africa List of countries where Arabic is an official language Mediterranean Basin MENA MENASA Middle East Mittelafrika Negroland Northeast Africa Portuguese-speaking African countries Sahara Sahel Sub-Saharan Africa Sudan (region) Sudanian Savanna Tibesti Mountains Tropical Africa

v t e

Regions of Asia

Central

Greater Middle East Aral Sea

Aralkum Desert Caspian Sea Dead Sea Sea of Galilee

Transoxiana

Turan

Greater Khorasan Ariana Khwarezm Sistan Kazakhstania Eurasian Steppe

Asian Steppe Kazakh Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe

Mongolian-Manchurian grassland Wild Fields

Yedisan Muravsky Trail

Ural

Ural Mountains

Volga region Idel-Ural Kolyma Transbaikal Pryazovia Bjarmaland Kuban Zalesye Ingria Novorossiya Gornaya Shoriya Tulgas Iranian Plateau Altai Mountains Pamir Mountains Tian Shan Badakhshan Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Mount Imeon Mongolian Plateau Western Regions Taklamakan Desert Karakoram

Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract

Siachen Glacier

North

Inner Asia Northeast Far East

Russian Far East Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

Extreme North Siberia

Baikalia
Baikalia
(Lake Baikal) Transbaikal Khatanga Gulf Baraba steppe

Kamchatka Peninsula Amur Basin Yenisei Gulf Yenisei Basin Beringia Sikhote-Alin

East

Japanese archipelago

Northeastern Japan Arc Sakhalin Island Arc

Korean Peninsula Gobi Desert Taklamakan Desert Greater Khingan Mongolian Plateau Inner Asia Inner Mongolia Outer Mongolia China proper Manchuria

Outer Manchuria Inner Manchuria Northeast China Plain Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

North China Plain

Yan Mountains

Kunlun Mountains Liaodong Peninsula Himalayas Tibetan Plateau

Tibet

Tarim Basin Northern Silk Road Hexi Corridor Nanzhong Lingnan Liangguang Jiangnan Jianghuai Guanzhong Huizhou Wu Jiaozhou Zhongyuan Shaannan Ordos Loop

Loess Plateau Shaanbei

Hamgyong Mountains Central Mountain Range Japanese Alps Suzuka Mountains Leizhou Peninsula Gulf of Tonkin Yangtze River Delta Pearl River Delta Yenisei Basin Altai Mountains Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass

West

Greater Middle East

MENA MENASA Middle East

Red Sea Caspian Sea Mediterranean Sea Zagros Mountains Persian Gulf

Pirate Coast Strait of Hormuz Greater and Lesser Tunbs

Al-Faw Peninsula Gulf of Oman Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Aden Balochistan Arabian Peninsula

Najd Hejaz Tihamah Eastern Arabia South Arabia

Hadhramaut Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
coastal fog desert

Tigris–Euphrates Mesopotamia

Upper Mesopotamia Lower Mesopotamia Sawad Nineveh plains Akkad (region) Babylonia

Canaan Aram Eber-Nari Suhum Eastern Mediterranean Mashriq Kurdistan Levant

Southern Levant Transjordan Jordan Rift Valley

Israel Levantine Sea Golan Heights Hula Valley Galilee Gilead Judea Samaria Arabah Anti-Lebanon Mountains Sinai Peninsula Arabian Desert Syrian Desert Fertile Crescent Azerbaijan Syria Palestine Iranian Plateau Armenian Highlands Caucasus

Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains

Greater Caucasus Lesser Caucasus

North Caucasus South Caucasus

Kur-Araz Lowland Lankaran Lowland Alborz Absheron Peninsula

Anatolia Cilicia Cappadocia Alpide belt

South

Greater India Indian subcontinent Himalayas Hindu Kush Western Ghats Eastern Ghats Ganges Basin Ganges Delta Pashtunistan Punjab Balochistan Kashmir

Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley Pir Panjal Range

Thar Desert Indus Valley Indus River
Indus River
Delta Indus Valley Desert Indo-Gangetic Plain Eastern coastal plains Western Coastal Plains Meghalaya subtropical forests MENASA Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Doab Bagar tract Great Rann of Kutch Little Rann of Kutch Deccan Plateau Coromandel Coast Konkan False Divi Point Hindi Belt Ladakh Aksai Chin Gilgit-Baltistan

Baltistan Shigar Valley

Karakoram

Saltoro Mountains

Siachen Glacier Bay of Bengal Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Mannar Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Lakshadweep Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Andaman Islands Nicobar Islands

Maldive Islands Alpide belt

Southeast

Mainland

Indochina Malay Peninsula

Maritime

Peninsular Malaysia Sunda Islands Greater Sunda Islands Lesser Sunda Islands

Indonesian Archipelago Timor New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

Philippine Archipelago

Luzon Visayas Mindanao

Leyte Gulf Gulf of Thailand East Indies Nanyang Alpide belt

Asia-Pacific Tropical Asia Ring of Fire

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Regions of Europe

North

Nordic Northwestern Scandinavia Scandinavian Peninsula Fennoscandia Baltoscandia Sápmi West Nordic Baltic Baltic Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Iceland Faroe Islands

East

Danubian countries Prussia Galicia Volhynia Donbass Sloboda Ukraine Sambia Peninsula

Amber Coast

Curonian Spit Izyum Trail Lithuania Minor Nemunas Delta Baltic Baltic Sea Vyborg Bay Karelia

East Karelia Karelian Isthmus

Lokhaniemi Southeastern

Balkans Aegean Islands Gulf of Chania North Caucasus Greater Caucasus Kabardia European Russia

Southern Russia

Central

Baltic Baltic Sea Alpine states Alpide belt Mitteleuropa Visegrád Group

West

Benelux Low Countries Northwest British Isles English Channel Channel Islands Cotentin Peninsula Normandy Brittany Gulf of Lion Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Pyrenees Alpide belt

South

Italian Peninsula Insular Italy Tuscan Archipelago Aegadian Islands Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Gibraltar Arc Southeastern Mediterranean Crimea Alpide belt

Germanic Celtic Slavic countries Uralic European Plain Eurasian Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe Wild Fields Pannonian Basin

Great Hungarian Plain Little Hungarian Plain Eastern Slovak Lowland

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Regions of North America

Northern

Eastern Canada Western Canada Canadian Prairies Central Canada Northern Canada Atlantic Canada The Maritimes French Canada English Canada Acadia

Acadian Peninsula

Quebec
Quebec
City–Windsor Corridor Peace River Country Cypress Hills Palliser's Triangle Canadian Shield Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Newfoundland (island) Vancouver Island Gulf Islands Strait of Georgia Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Labrador Peninsula Gaspé Peninsula Avalon Peninsula

Bay de Verde Peninsula

Brodeur Peninsula Melville Peninsula Bruce Peninsula Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) Cook Peninsula Gulf of Boothia Georgian Bay Hudson Bay James Bay Greenland Pacific Northwest Inland Northwest Northeast

New England Mid-Atlantic Commonwealth

West

Midwest Upper Midwest Mountain States Intermountain West Basin and Range Province

Oregon Trail Mormon Corridor Calumet Region Southwest

Old Southwest

Llano Estacado Central United States

Tallgrass prairie

South

South Central Deep South Upland South

Four Corners East Coast West Coast Gulf Coast Third Coast Coastal states Eastern United States

Appalachia

Trans-Mississippi Great North Woods Great Plains Interior Plains Great Lakes Great Basin

Great Basin
Great Basin
Desert

Acadia Ozarks Ark-La-Tex Waxhaws Siouxland Twin Tiers Driftless Area Palouse Piedmont Atlantic coastal plain Outer Lands Black Dirt Region Blackstone Valley Piney Woods Rocky Mountains Mojave Desert The Dakotas The Carolinas Shawnee Hills San Fernando Valley Tornado Alley North Coast Lost Coast Emerald Triangle San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area

San Francisco Bay North Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) East Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) Silicon Valley

Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Gulf of Mexico Lower Colorado
Colorado
River Valley Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta Colville Delta Arkansas Delta Mobile–Tensaw River Delta Mississippi Delta Mississippi River
Mississippi River
Delta Columbia River
Columbia River
Estuary Great Basin High Desert Monterey Peninsula Upper Peninsula of Michigan Lower Peninsula of Michigan Virginia Peninsula Keweenaw Peninsula Middle Peninsula Delmarva Peninsula Alaska
Alaska
Peninsula Kenai Peninsula Niagara Peninsula Beringia Belt regions

Bible Belt Black Belt Corn Belt Cotton Belt Frost Belt Rice Belt Rust Belt Sun Belt Snow Belt

Latin

Northern Mexico Baja California Peninsula Gulf of California

Colorado
Colorado
River Delta

Gulf of Mexico Soconusco Tierra Caliente La Mixteca La Huasteca Bajío Valley of Mexico Mezquital Valley Sierra Madre de Oaxaca Yucatán Peninsula Basin and Range Province Western Caribbean
Caribbean
Zone Isthmus of Panama Gulf of Panama

Pearl Islands

Azuero Peninsula Mosquito Coast West Indies Antilles

Greater Antilles Lesser Antilles

Leeward Leeward Antilles Windward

Lucayan Archipelago Southern Caribbean

Aridoamerica Mesoamerica Oasisamerica Northern Middle Anglo Latin

French Hispanic

American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Regions of Oceania

Australasia

Gulf of Carpentaria New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

New Zealand

South Island North Island

Coromandel Peninsula

Zealandia New Caledonia Solomon Islands (archipelago) Vanuatu

Kula Gulf

Australia Capital Country Eastern Australia Lake Eyre basin Murray–Darling basin Northern Australia Nullarbor Plain Outback Southern Australia

Maralinga

Sunraysia Great Victoria Desert Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf St Vincent Lefevre Peninsula Fleurieu Peninsula Yorke Peninsula Eyre Peninsula Mornington Peninsula Bellarine Peninsula Mount Henry Peninsula

Melanesia

Islands Region

Bismarck Archipelago Solomon Islands Archipelago

Fiji New Caledonia Papua New Guinea Vanuatu

Micronesia

Caroline Islands

Federated States of Micronesia Palau

Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island

Polynesia

Easter Island Hawaiian Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia

Austral Islands Gambier Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotu

Kermadec Islands Mangareva Islands Samoa Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu

Ring of Fire

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Regions of South America

East

Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado

North

Caribbean
Caribbean
South America West Indies Los Llanos The Guianas Amazon basin

Amazon rainforest

Gulf of Paria Paria Peninsula Paraguaná Peninsula Orinoco Delta

South

Tierra del Fuego Patagonia Pampas Pantanal Gran Chaco Chiquitano dry forests Valdes Peninsula

West

Andes

Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range

Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Polar regions

Antarctic

Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula East Antarctica West Antarctica Eklund Islands Ecozone Extreme points Islands

Arctic

Arctic
Arctic
Alaska British Arctic
Arctic
Territories Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic

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Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic
Arctic
Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea of Åland Sea of Azov Sea of Crete Sea of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor
Timor
Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

  Book   Category

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Continents of the world

   

Africa

Antarctica

Asia

Australia

Europe

North America

South America

   

Afro-Eurasia

America

Eurasia

Oceania

   

Former supercontinents Gondwana Laurasia Pangaea Pannotia Rodinia Columbia Kenorland Nena Sclavia Ur Vaalbara

Historical continents Amazonia Arctica Asiamerica Atlantica Avalonia Baltica Cimmeria Congo craton Euramerica Kalaharia Kazakhstania Laurentia North China Siberia South China East Antarctica India

   

Submerged continents Kerguelen Plateau Zealandia

Possible future supercontinents Pangaea
Pangaea
Ultima Amasia Novopangaea

Mythical and hypothesised continents Atlantis Kumari Kandam Lemuria Meropis Mu Hyperborea Terra Australis

See also Regions of the world Continental fragment

Book Category

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 236775925 LCCN: sh85004220 GND: 40016

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