HOME
ListMoto - American Board Of Commissioners For Foreign Missions


--- Advertisement ---



The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions
(ABCFM) was among the first American Christian
Christian
missionary organizations. It was created in 1810 by recent graduates of Williams College. In the 19th century it was the largest and most important of American missionary organizations and consisted of participants from Reformed traditions such as Presbyterians, Congregationalists, and German Reformed churches. After some secessions due to the slavery issue and the movement of New School Presbyterian-affiliated missionaries to the Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Board of Foreign Missions, the ABCFM was left as a Congregationalist body after 1870.[1] The American Board, as it was known continued to operate as a largely Congregationalist entity until the 1950s. In 1957, the Congregational Christian
Christian
church merged with the German Evangelical and Reformed Church to form the United Church of Christ. As a part of the organizational merger associated with this new denomination, the ABCFM ceased independent existence and merged operations with other missions entities to form the United Church Board for World Ministries, an agency of the United Church of Christ. Other organizations that draw inspiration from the ABCFM include InterVarsity Christian
Christian
Fellowship, the Conservative Congregational Christian
Christian
Conference, and the Missionary Society of the National Association of Congregational Christian
Christian
Churches.

Contents

1 Organization and Functioning

1.1 Corresponding Secretaries and other key leaders 1.2 Board Members

2 Early history

2.1 The fight against Indian removal 2.2 1830 through 1860 2.3 Missionary stations in 1855

2.3.1 Africa 2.3.2 Europe 2.3.3 Western Asia 2.3.4 Southern Asia 2.3.5 Eastern Asia 2.3.6 North Pacific Ocean 2.3.7 North American Indians

2.4 Recruitment efforts 2.5 Other North American Missions to the Indians 2.6 Work with indigenous preachers 2.7 Educational, social, and medical roles served by ABCFM missionaries

3 ABCFM in China 4 ABCFM in the Middle East 5 ABCFM-sponsored missionaries 6 Indigenous workers affiliated with the Board 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 Publications 11 External links 12 Select Annotated Bibliography

Organization and Functioning[edit] The ABCFM consisted of an annual meeting with a Prudential Committee (aka Executive Committee)[2] that took care of day-to-day business. It elected a Corresponding Secretary to produce written documents, and a Treasurer to receive donations, and had Board Members. The ABCFM held its first meeting on 5 September 1810, and elected Samuel Worcester
Samuel Worcester
corresponding secretary. Corresponding Secretaries and other key leaders[edit]

Samuel Worcester
Samuel Worcester
was the first corresponding secretary, starting in 1810. Jeremiah Evarts, corresponding secretary of the ABCFM from 1821 to 1831[3] At the 1822 Annual Meeting, Board members elected officers consisting of Evarts as Corresponding Secretary, with John Treadwell
John Treadwell
as President and Rev. Joseph Lyman
Joseph Lyman
as Vice President. The Prudential Committee consisted of William Reed, Rev. Leonard Woods, Jeremiah Evarts, Samuel Hubbard, and Rev. Warren Fay.[4] Elias Cornelius
Elias Cornelius
became corresponding secretary Dec 1831 - February 1832[5] Benjamin B. Wisner, Rufus Anderson
Rufus Anderson
(1796-1880) and David Greene (1797-1866) became "coequal" secretaries in 1832. When Wisner died (9 February 1835), William Jessup
William Jessup
Armstrong took his place.[6] Anderson, Greene, and Armstrong led as coequals from 1835 to 1846, with Anderson as foreign secretary, Armstrong as domestic secretary, and David Greene as secretary for American Indian missions and editor of the Missionary Herald[7] Rufus Anderson
Rufus Anderson
continued as foreign secretary until 1866. Armstrong died in a shipwreck between Boston and New Jersey in 1846.[8] In 1843, the Missionary Herald announced that Selah B. Treat had been elected to the Office of Recording Secretary. It also listed Rufus Anderson, Rev. David Greene, and Rev. William J. Armstrong as "Secretaries for Correspondence." (President and Vice President were listed respectively as Theodore Frelinghuysen
Theodore Frelinghuysen
LL. D. and Hon. Thomas S. Williams)[9] By 1858, the New York State Register
New York State Register
listed George Warren Wood
George Warren Wood
as sole corresponding secretary, with Rev. Mark Hopkins as President and Abolitionist William Jessup
William Jessup
as Vice-President[10] Hopkins had been the President of Williams College
Williams College
since 1836. By 1866, Rev. Nathan George Clark and Rev G. W. Wood had joined Rufus Anderson and Selah Treat as corresponding secretaries.[11] Wood, as ABCFM Secretary in New York City, held his position from 1850 to 1871. Clark assumed the position of Foreign Secretary when Anderson left in 1866 and remained Foreign Secretary until 1894.[12][13]

Note: After some secessions due to the slavery issue and the movement of New School Presbyterian-affiliated missionaries to the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions, the ABCFM was left as a Congregationalist body after 1870.[14]

James Levi Barton was secretary in 1896 when N.G. Clark died,[15] and he retired in 1927.[16] The Congregational Yearbook from 1899 lists James L. Barton, Judson Smith, and Charles H. Daniels as the three Corresponding Secretaries of the ABCFM. It also lists Charles M. Lamson and D. Willis James as ABCFM president and vice president, respectively.[17] Henry H. Riggs' brother Ernest Wilson Riggs (former president of Euphrates College 1910-1921 and Near East Relif worker) joined James Levi Barton as associate secretary and corresponding secretary of the ABCFM from 1921 to 1932.[18]

Note: After 1930, the ABCFM revised its constitution to create the position of "Executive Vice-President" to provide a position that was "first among equals" amongst ABCFM secretaries.[19]

Dr. Frank Field Goodsell was the first Executive Vice-President of the ABCFM, which he led from 1930 to 1948.[20] Alford Carleton served as executive vice president of the board from 1954 to 1970.

Note: when the Evangelical and Reformed Church merged with the Congregational Christian
Christian
Church in 1957, the Congregationalist-affiliated ABCFM merged with the E&R affiliated Board of International Missions[21] to become the United Church of Christ denomination's United Church Board of World Ministries under Carleton[22] On June 29, 1961, the ABCFM formally concluded. On July 1, 2000, a UCC restructure renamed UCBWM became "Wider Church Ministries" under the UCC's covenanted ministries structure.[23]

Board Members[edit]

Timothy Dwight

In 1826, the American Board absorbed 26 members of the United Foreign Missionary Society (UFMS) into its board.[24] Early history[edit]

The Judsons, Newells, and Luther Rice
Luther Rice
set sail for India
India
from Salem, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
on the Caravan on February 19, 1812.

The founding of the ABCFM was inspired by the Second Great Awakening. In 1806, five students from Williams College
Williams College
in western Massachusetts took shelter from a thunderstorm in a haystack. At the Haystack Prayer Meeting, they came to the common conviction that "the field is the world" and inspired the creation of the ABCFM four years later. The objective of the ABCFM was to spread Christianity
Christianity
worldwide.[25] Congregationalist in origin, the ABCFM also accepted missionaries from Presbyterian
Presbyterian
(1812–70), Dutch-Reformed (1819–57) and other denominations. In 1812, the ABCFM sent its first missionaries – Adoniram and Ann Hasseltine Judson; Samuel and Roxana Peck Nott; Samuel and Harriet Atwood Newell; Gordon Hall, and Luther Rice—to British India. Between 1812 and 1840, they were followed by missionaries to the following people and places: Tennessee
Tennessee
to the Cherokee
Cherokee
Indians, India (the Bombay
Bombay
area), northern Ceylon (modern day Sri Lanka), the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii); east Asia: China, Singapore
Singapore
and Siam (Thailand); the Middle East: (Greece, Cyprus, Turkey, Syria, the Holy Land and Persia
Persia
(Iran)); and Africa: Western Africa—Cape Palmas—and Southern Africa—among the Zulus. The fight against Indian removal[edit] Jeremiah Evarts
Jeremiah Evarts
served as treasurer, 1812–20, and as corresponding secretary from 1821 until his death in 1831. Under his leadership, the board in 1821 expanded the role of women: it authorized Ellen Stetson, the first unmarried female missionary to the American Indians, and Betsey Stockton, the first unmarried female overseas missionary and the first African-American missionary.[26] Evarts led the organization's efforts to place missionaries with American Indian tribes in the Southeastern United States. He also led the ABCFM's extensive fight against Indian removal
Indian removal
policies in general and the Indian Removal Act
Indian Removal Act
of 1830 in particular.[27] 1830 through 1860[edit] By the 1830s, based on its experiences, the ABCFM prohibited unmarried people from entering the mission field. They required couples to have been engaged at least two months prior to setting sail. To help the missionaries find wives, they maintained a list of women who were "missionary-minded": "young, pious, educated, fit and reasonably good-looking."[28] The policy against sending single women as missionaries was not strictly followed and was reversed in 1868. The secretary post was offered to Elias Cornelius
Elias Cornelius
in October 1831, but he became ill and died in February 1832.[29] Rufus Anderson
Rufus Anderson
was the General Secretary of the Board from 1832 through the mid-1860s. His legacy included administrative gifts, setting of policy, visiting around the world, and chronicling the work of the ABCFM in books.

Rufus Anderson
Rufus Anderson
(1796–1880)

Between 1810 and 1840, the ABCFM sought firstly to proclaim the Gospel of Jesus Christ. At home and abroad, the Board and its supporters undertook every effort to exhort the evangelical community, to train a cadre of agents, and to send forth laborers into the mission field. As a leader in the United Front and early federal American voluntary associations, the Board influenced the nineteenth-century mission movement.[30] Missionary stations in 1855[edit] By 1850, the American Board had sent 157 ordained, male missionaries to foreign posts.[31] The January 1855 issue of the Missionary Herald[32] listed the Current missions of the Board as follow: Africa[edit]

Mission to Gaboon (Baraka station, Olandebenk station, Negenenge station, one outstation at Nomba) Mission to Zulus ( Mapumulo
Mapumulo
station, Umvoti station, Esidumbini station, Umsunduzi
Umsunduzi
station, Itafamasi station, Table Mountain
Table Mountain
station, Inanda station, Umlazi
Umlazi
station, Ifumi station, Amahlongwa station, Ifafa station, Umtwalumi station)

Europe[edit]

Mission to Greece
Greece
( Athens
Athens
station) Mission to Jews (Constantinople, Smyrna, Thessalonica)

Western Asia[edit]

Mission to Armenians (Bebek (Constantinople) station, Pera (Constantinople) station, Hass-keuy(Constantinople) station, Koom-kapoo (Constantinople) station, Smyrna
Smyrna
station, Marash
Marash
station, Aintab
Aintab
station, Cesarea
Cesarea
station, Sivas
Sivas
station, Tokat
Tokat
station, Marsovan
Marsovan
station, Trebizond station, Ezroom station, and Arabkir station) Mission to Syria
Syria
( Beirut
Beirut
station, Abeih
Abeih
station, Hasbeiya
Hasbeiya
station, Tripoli
Tripoli
station, Aleppo
Aleppo
station, and outstations at B'hamdun, Kefr-Shima, Rush-aiya, Ibel, and Khizem) Mission to Assyria
Assyria
( Mosul
Mosul
station, Diarbekir
Diarbekir
station, and an out-station at Hainee) Mission to Nestorians
Nestorians
(Oroomaih station, Seir station, Gawar station, and outstations at Geog Tapa, Ardeshai, Supergan, and Dizza Takha)

Southern Asia[edit]

Mission to Bombay
Bombay
( Bombay
Bombay
station) Mission to Ahmednuggur
Ahmednuggur
( Ahmednuggur
Ahmednuggur
station, Bhingar
Bhingar
station, Seroor station, and outstations at Wudualey, Newasse, and Dedgaum) Mission to Satara (Satara station and Mahabulishwar
Mahabulishwar
station) Mission to Kolapoor
Kolapoor
( Kolapoor
Kolapoor
station) Mission to Madras ( Royapoorum station, Chintadrepettah station, and Black Town
Black Town
station) Mission to Madura
Madura
( Madura
Madura
East station, Madura
Madura
Fort station, Dindiguel East station, Dindiguel West station, Periacoolum station, Tirumungalum station, Pasumalie station, Mandahasalie station, Tirupoovanum station, and Sivagunga station) Mission to Ceylon (Tillipally station, Baticotta station, Oodooville station, Manepy station, Panditeripo
Panditeripo
station, Chavagacherry station, Oodoopitty station, Varany station, and outstations at Caradive, Valany, Poongerdive, Kaits, and Atchoovaley

Eastern Asia[edit]

Mission to Canton (Canton station) Mission to Amoy
Amoy
( Amoy
Amoy
station) Mission to Fuh-Chau
Fuh-Chau
( Fuh-Chau
Fuh-Chau
station) Mission to Shanghai
Shanghai
( Shanghai
Shanghai
station)

North Pacific Ocean[edit]

Mission to Micronesia (Rono Kittie station (Ascension Island), Shalong Point station (Ascension Island), Strong's Island station) Mission to Hawaii
Hawaii
( Kailua station, Kealakekua
Kealakekua
station, Hilo
Hilo
station, Kohala station, and Waimewa station) Mission to Maui
Maui
( Lahaina
Lahaina
station, Lahainaluna
Lahainaluna
station, Wailuku station) Mission to Molokai
Molokai
(Kaluaaha station) Mission to Oahu
Oahu
( Honolulu
Honolulu
station, Punahou
Punahou
station, Ewa station, Waialua
Waialua
station, and Kaneohe
Kaneohe
station) Mission to Kauai
Kauai
(Waimea station, Koloa
Koloa
station, and Waioli station)

North American Indians[edit]

Mission to Choctaws (Stockbridge station, Wheelock station, Pine Ridge station, Good Water station, Good Land station, Bennington station, Mount Pleasant station, Lenox station, and outstations at Mount Zion and Bok Chito Mission to Cherokees (Dwight station, Lee's Creek station, Fairfield station, Park Hill station, and an outstation at Honey Creek) Mission to Dakotas (Yellow Medicine station and New Hope station) Mission to Ojibwas (Bad River station) Mission to Senecas (Upper Cattaraugus station, Lower Cattaraugus station, Upper Alleghany station, Lower Alleghany station, and an outstation at Old Town) Mission to Tuscaroras (Tuscarora station and Mount Hope station) Mission to Abenaquis (St. Francis station)

Recruitment efforts[edit] Orthodox, Trinitarian and evangelical in their theology, speakers to the annual meetings of the Board challenged their audiences to give of their time, talent and treasure in moving forward the global project of spreading Christianity. At first reflective of late colonial "occasional" sermons, the annual meeting addresses gradually took on the quality of "anniversary" sermons. The optimism and cooperation of post-millennialism held a major place in the scheme of the Board sermons. After having listened to such sermons and been influenced at colleges, college and seminary students prepared to proclaim the gospel in foreign cultures. Their short dissertations and pre-departure sermons reflected both the outlook of annual Board sermons and sensitivity to host cultures. Once the missionaries entered the field, optimism remained yet was tempered by the realities of pioneering mission work in a different milieu. Many of the Board agents sought—through eclectic dialogue and opportunities as they presented themselves, as well as itinerant preaching—to bring the cultures they met, observed, and lived in to bear upon the message they shared. The missionaries found the audiences to be similar to Americans in their responses to the gospel message. Some rejected it outright, others accepted it, and a few became Christian
Christian
proclaimers themselves. Other North American Missions to the Indians[edit] Among the North American missions of the ABCFM north or west of the displaced Southeast tribes were the 1823 Mackinaw Mission (Mackinac Island and Northern Michigan), the Green Bay mission (Michigan Territory at Green Bay), the Dakota mission (Michigan Territory/Iowa Territory/Minnesota Territory primarily along the Mississippi and the Minnesota (St. Peters) Rivers), the Ojibwe mission (Michigan Territory/Wisconsin Territory/Minnesota Territory/ Wisconsin at La Pointe and Odanah, Yellow Lake, Pokegama Lake, Sandy Lake, Fond du Lac, and Red Lake), and the Whitman mission in Oregon. Missionaries of the Dakota mission experienced the explosion of Dakota violence in August 1862 at the start of the U.S.-Dakota War. Some of them attended the imprisoned Dakota and accompanied the exiled Dakota when they were forced out of Minnesota in 1863, especially those of the Williamson and Riggs families. The Dakota mission translated the Bible
Bible
into Dakota and produced a dictionary and a schoolbook. The Ojibwe mission translated the New Testament into Ojibwe and produced a number of schoolbooks, but used a now-abandoned notation style to do so. Both were among the first to render these languages in print. Work with indigenous preachers[edit] Indigenous preachers associated with the Board proclaimed an orthodox message, but they further modified the presentation beyond how the missionaries had developed subtle differences with the home leaders. Drawing upon the positive and negative aspects of their own cultures, the native evangelists steeped their messages in Biblical texts and themes. At times, indigenous workers had spectacular or unexpected results. On many occasions, little fruit resulted from their labors. Whatever the response, the native preachers worked on—even in the midst of persecution—until martyrdom or natural death took them. Native preachers and other indigenous people assisted Board missionaries in Bible
Bible
translation efforts. The act of translating the Scriptures into a mother tongue reflected a sensitivity to culture and a desire to work within the host society. Second only to the verbal proclamation of the Gospel, Bible
Bible
translation took place in all sorts of settings: among ancient Christian
Christian
churches, such as the Armenians and the Assyrian [Nestorian] church; cultures with a written language and a written religious heritage, such as the Marathi; and creating written languages in cultures without them, such as among the animistic people in Hawaii. Educational, social, and medical roles served by ABCFM missionaries[edit] Printing and literacy played crucial roles in the process of Bible translation. Similarly, the press runs and literacy presentations contributed significantly to the social involvement exhibited by the Board. To a greater or lesser extent, education, medicine, and social concerns supplemented the preaching efforts by missionaries. Schools provided ready-made audiences for preachers. Free, or Lancasterian, schools provided numerous students. Boarding students in missionary homes allowed them to witness Christian
Christian
life in the intimacy of the family. Education empowered indigenous people. Mostly later than 1840, it enabled them to develop their own church leaders and take a greater role in their communities. Board missionaries established some form of education at every station. A number of Board missionaries also received some medical training before leaving for the field. Some, like Ida Scudder, were trained as physicians but ordained as missionaries and concentrated on the task of preaching. Others, such as Peter Parker, sought to practice both the callings of missionary and medical practitioner. ABCFM in China[edit] After the London Missionary Society
London Missionary Society
and the Netherlands Missionary Society, the Americans were the next to venture into the mission field of China. The Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, representing the Congregational Churches of the United States, sent out Revs. David Abeel
David Abeel
and Elijah Coleman Bridgman
Elijah Coleman Bridgman
in 1829. They were received in February 1830 by Dr. Robert Morrison. These men worked first among the Chinese and Malays of the Straits Settlements. From 1842 to his death in 1846, Mr. Abeel devoted himself to establishing a mission in Amoy
Amoy
(modern Xiamen).

View of ABCFM compound in Fuzhou, ca.1911-1918

The American Board followed with many other appointments in rapid succession. Revs. Ira Tracy and Samuel Wells Williams (1812–1884), followed in 1833, settling at Singapore
Singapore
and Macau. In the same year Revs. Stephen Johnson (missionary) and Samuel Munson went to Bangkok and Sumatra. There were four great centers from which smaller stations were maintained. These were Fuzhou, in connection with which were fifteen churches; North China, embracing Beijing, Kalgan, Tianjin, Tengzhou, and Baoding, with smaller stations in the various districts of the center missions; Hong Kong; and Shanxi, with two stations in the midst of districts filled with opium cultivation and staffed by missionaries of the Oberlin Band of Oberlin College. At Tengzhou missionaries established a college, over which Dr. Calvin Mateer presided. Tengzhou was one of the centers for Chinese literary competitive examinations. Mateer believed that the light of modern science shown in contrast with "superstition" would prove effective. He and his wife taught astronomy, mathematics, natural philosophy, and history. He trained young men to be teachers all over North China. The young men whom he had trained in Biblical instruction began native ministry. Drs. John Livingstone Nevius
John Livingstone Nevius
and Hunter Corbett (1862–1918) co-operated in this latter work, by giving a theological education to candidates for ministry during a portion of each year at Yantai. At its principal stations in China, the Society maintained large medical dispensaries and hospitals, boarding schools for boys and girls, colleges for native students, and other agencies for effecting the purposes of the mission. It also helped create the Canton Hospital. As of 1890 it had twenty-eight missionaries, sixteen lady agents, ten medical missionaries, four ordained native ministers, one hundred and five unordained native helpers, nearly one thousand communicants, and four hundred and fifty pupils in its schools.[33] ABCFM in the Middle East[edit] The ABCFM founded many colleges and schools in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and the Balkans.[34] ABCFM-sponsored missionaries[edit]

William Scott Ament
William Scott Ament
(1851–1909), controversial missionary to China (1851–1909) Lorrin Andrews
Lorrin Andrews
(1795–1868), Lahaina, Hawaii Richard Armstrong (1805–1860), Maui
Maui
and Oahu Hiram Bingham I
Hiram Bingham I
(1789–1869), Honolulu, Hawaii Dan Beach Bradley
Dan Beach Bradley
(1804–1873), Siam Elijah Coleman Bridgman, first US missionary to China Theresa Robinson Buck (1912-65), American nurse missionary in Southern Rhodesia Mary Frances Buckhout McVay (1910-2010) Wen Shan Girls School, IngTai (Yongtai), China
China
1939-1941 Caroline C. Bush (1847-1919) Harpoot, Turkey Daniel Sabin Butrick (Buttrick), missionary to Cherokee
Cherokee
Nation 1810s-50s Thomas Davidson Christie (1843–1931) Missionary-Educator to Central Turkey
Turkey
(1877–1920) Titus Coan
Titus Coan
(1801–1882), Haili Church, Hilo, Hawaii Cynthia Farrar 1795–1862, missionary to India, 1827–1862 William Montague Ferry
William Montague Ferry
(1796-1867), Michigan Territory Mary Louise Graffam
Mary Louise Graffam
(1871 - 1921), Sivas, Ottoman Empire William Goodell Sidney Lewis Gulick (1860–1945) Gordon Hall Asa Hemenway and Lucia Hunt Hemenway (1810–1892 and 1810–1864), Siam
Siam
from 1832 to 1842 Charles McEwen Hyde
Charles McEwen Hyde
(1832–1899), Honolulu Adoniram Judson
Adoniram Judson
(August 9, 1788–April 12, 1850), first US missionary to Burma Jonas King David Belden Lyman
David Belden Lyman
(1803–1884), Haili Church, Hilo, Hawaii Lorenzo Lyons
Lorenzo Lyons
(1807–1886), Imiola Church, Hawaii Justin Perkins, Persia Stephen Return Riggs (1812-1883), Missionary to the Dakota James Hudson Roberts (1851–1945), author, Beijing, Zhangjiakou (China). John Scudder, Sr., patriarch of the Scudder family of missionaries in India Rev. Benjamin Schneider, D.D. Near East Mission (Turkey), Broosa (1834–1849) and Aintab Corinna Shattuck
Corinna Shattuck
(1848-1910), missionary teacher at Urfa Arthur Henderson Smith
Arthur Henderson Smith
(1845–1932), Author, 54 years in China Betsey Stockton
Betsey Stockton
(About 1798–October 24, 1865) Asa Thurston
Asa Thurston
(1787–1868), Kailua-Kona, Hawaii Clarence Ussher
Clarence Ussher
( 1870
1870
- 1955), Van, Ottoman Empire Daniel Vrooman
Daniel Vrooman
(1818–1895) missionary to Canton, China
China
(1852–1866) Cephas Washburn, Arkansas Territory George E. White, Marsovan, Ottoman Empire Marcus Whitman
Marcus Whitman
(September 4, 1802–November 29, 1847) William Cullen Wilcox, South Africa, now a National hero Miron Winslow (1789–1864), Sri Lanka Samuel Worcester, missionary to Cherokee
Cherokee
Nation 1820s-50s Mary Louisa Matthews, Monastir, Macedonia Girls' School, Turkey
Turkey
in Europe, 1888–1920 Charles Daniel Tenney, (1857-1930), Missionary to China

Indigenous workers affiliated with the Board[edit]

Babajee (b. 1791) Liang Fa David Malo Henry ʻŌpūkahaʻia (c. 1792–1818) sometimes spelled "Henry Obookiah" Puaaiki Asaad Shidiak Reverend Joel Hulu Mahoe (1830–1890) Hawaiian Missionary known as "Mahoe", "Noble Missionary", and "The Gallant Pastor of Tarawa". Graduate of Lahainaluna
Lahainaluna
Theological School in 1854 and second pure Hawaiian to be ordained. Henry Blatchford of the Ojibwe mission did translations and lay preaching beginning at Pokegama (Minnesota) in 1836, was ordained eventually and worked at the Odanah mission until he died in the late 19th century.

See also[edit]

History
History
of Christian
Christian
missions Haystack Prayer Meeting Protestant missionary societies in China
China
during the 19th Century American Ceylon Mission List of Missionaries to Hawaii List of American Board missionaries in China Oberlin Band (China) Dan Beach Bradley
Dan Beach Bradley
(Siam, 1834, resigned 1847)

References[edit]

^ "American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions archives, 1810-1961: Guide". Houghton Library, Harvard College Library. Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
02138 US. 7 July 2016. Retrieved 25 August 2016. After some secessions due to the slavery issue and the formation by the Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church of its own foreign mission board, the ABCFM was left as a Congregationalist body after 1870.   ^ Maxfield, Charles A. (2001). "THE FORMATION AND EARLY HISTORY of the AMERICAN BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS FOR FOREIGN MISSIONS". Charles A. Maxfield (1995 Dissertation). Retrieved 25 August 2016. "The ABCFM held its first meeting on 5 September 1810, and elected Samuel Worcester corresponding secretary." ... The Prudential Committee (the Executive Committee of the ABCFM)  ^ Maxfield, Charles A. (2001). "THE FORMATION AND EARLY HISTORY of the AMERICAN BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS FOR FOREIGN MISSIONS". Charles A. Maxfield (1995 Dissertation). Retrieved 25 August 2016. Jeremiah Evarts, corresponding secretary of the ABCFM from 1821 to 1831,  ^ The Missionary Herald (Volume XVIII, No. 11 (November 1822) ed.). Boston: Samuel T. Armstrong. 1822. p. 338. Retrieved 9 September 2016. The Board then made choice of the following officers, for the ensuing year...  ^ Maxfield, Charles A. (2001). "THE FORMATION AND EARLY HISTORY of the AMERICAN BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS FOR FOREIGN MISSIONS". Charles A. Maxfield (1995 Dissertation). Retrieved 25 August 2016. Elias Cornelius (1794-1832) accepted the position of corresponding secretary late in December 1831, left almost immediately on a fund raising tour, and died at Hartford, 12 February 1832  ^ Maxfield, Charles A. (2001). "THE FORMATION AND EARLY HISTORY of the AMERICAN BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS FOR FOREIGN MISSIONS". Charles A. Maxfield (1995 Dissertation). Retrieved 25 August 2016.  ^ Maxfield, Charles A. (2001). "THE FORMATION AND EARLY HISTORY of the AMERICAN BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS FOR FOREIGN MISSIONS". Charles A. Maxfield (1995 Dissertation). Retrieved 25 August 2016. From 1835 to 1846 the Board had a period of stable leadership under the direction of Anderson, Greene, and Armstrong. In the division of labor of three co-equal secretaries, Rufus Anderson
Rufus Anderson
was foreign secretary, Benjamin Wisner and then William Armstrong were domestic secretaries, and David Greene was secretary for American Indian missions and editor of the Missionary Herald  ^ "Rev William Jessup
William Jessup
Armstrong". Find a Grave. Retrieved 26 August 2016. Died in the wreck of the Steamer Atlantic, age 50. He labored long in the fields of central Virginia where he gathered a church. Born in Mendham NJ, son of the minister Dr A Armstrong. He died on one of his monthly returns to Boston,  ^ Missionary Herald, Volume 39. 47, Washington Street Boston: Press of Crocker and Brewster. 1843. p. 429. Retrieved 25 August 2016.  ^ The New York State Register, for 1858. No. 333 Broadway, New York City: John Disturnell. 1858. p. 179. Retrieved 9 September 2016. N/A  ^ The Missionary Herald, Volume 62 (Volume 62, Number 7 ed.). Missionary House, 33 Pemberton Square BOSTON: ABCFM. June 1866. p. 2. Retrieved 25 August 2016.  ^ Public Opinion: A Comprehensive Summary of Press Throughout the World on All Important Current Topics, Volume 20 (Volume 20, Number 3 (January 16, 1896) ed.). 13 Astor Place, New York, New York: The Public Opinion Company. 1896. p. 83. In 1866 he was appointed foreign secretary of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, a position which he retained until October, 1894  ^ Ishii, Noriko Kawamura (Mar 1, 2004). American Women Missionaries at Kobe College, 1873-1909. Routledge. pp. 31–36. ISBN 9781135936204. Retrieved 25 August 2016.  ^ "American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions archives, 1810-1961: Guide". Houghton Library, Harvard College Library. Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
02138 US. 7 July 2016. Retrieved 25 August 2016. After some secessions due to the slavery issue and the formation by the Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Church of its own foreign mission board, the ABCFM was left as a Congregationalist body after 1870.   ^ Ishii, Noriko Kawamura (Mar 1, 2004). American Women Missionaries at Kobe College, 1873-1909. Routledge. p. 36. ISBN 9781135936204.  ^ "Barton, James Levi (1855-1936)". History
History
of Missiology. Boston University School of Theology. Retrieved 26 August 2016. He was elected president of Euphrates College, Harpoot, in 1892, but when his wife’s ill health prevented continuing residence in Turkey, Barton became foreign secretary of the ABCFM. First among equals on the board staff, Barton believed that the primary need of indigenous Christian communities was well-trained leadership. Before his retirement in 1927,   ^ The Congregational Year-book. Boston: Congregational sunday School and Publishing Society. 1899. p. 42. Retrieved 25 August 2016.  ^ Shavit, David (1988). The United States in the Middle East: a historical dictionary. Greenwood Press. "Riggs graduated.. and was ordained in 1910... president of Euphrates College from 1910 to 1921, child welfare director of the Near East Relief in 1920-1921; and associate secretary and corresponding secretary of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM) from 1921 to 1932.  ^ Goodsell, Fred Field (1959). You Shall be My Witnesses: An Interpretation of the history of the American Board 1810-1960 (Library of Congress Card Catalog Number 59-15355 ed.). ABCFM. p. viii. Retrieved 26 August 2016. the Board's first Executive Vice-President Dr. Fred Field Goodsell"..."When the Constitution of the Board was revised to provide that among its secretaries one should be first among equals, a sort of Prime Minister... That man was Dr. Goodsell... he was called back to Boston to lead the Board... For nineteen years"  ^ "Goodsell, Fred Field (1880-1976). Papers, 1928-1972 (bulk)". History
History
Matters. Congregational Library & Archives. Retrieved 26 August 2016. In 1930, he moved to Boston where he was made the first Executive Vice-President of the ABCFM. After his retirement in 1948  ^ "Timeline of Mission". Global Ministries. Global Ministries. Retrieved 26 August 2016. 1961 ABCFM merges with Board of International Missions to form the United Church Board for World Ministries (UCBWM)  ^ "RG 30/385 - Carleton Family Papers 1808 (1853-1973) - 1985". Oberlin College
Oberlin College
Archives. Retrieved 26 August 2016. After serving as president of Aleppo
Aleppo
College for seventeen years, Dr. Carleton returned to the United States to serve as executive vice president of the ABCFM. His first major task was to guide the Congregational Church in a merger with the Evangelical and Reformed Church, creating the United Church of Christ. Resulting from this merger, the ABCFM, formerly a branch of the Congregational Church, became the United Church Board of World Ministries. He served as executive vice president of the board from 1954 to 1970.   ^ Finding Aid prepared by: Brigette C. Kamsler, September 2011. "American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions archives, 1810-1961: Guide". Houghton Library, Harvard College Library. Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Retrieved 26 August 2016. On 29 June 1961 the ABCFM was formally concluded, becoming part of the United Church Board for World Ministries (UCBWM), an instrumentality of the new denomination. On 1 July 2000, the UCBWM became Wider Church Ministries, one of the four covenanted ministries of the UCC.  ^ Maxfield, Charles A. (2001). "THE FORMATION AND EARLY HISTORY of the AMERICAN BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS FOR FOREIGN MISSIONS". Charles A. Maxfield (1995 Dissertation). Retrieved 25 August 2016. In 1826 the UFMS and the ABCFM merged; in effect, the UFMS was absorbed by the American Board. At its annual meeting that year, the ABCFM added twenty-six new members to the Board,  ^ "ABCFM 200", Exhibits, Congregational Library . ^ Maxfield, Charles A (1995). "The Formation and Early History
History
of the American Board of Commissioners For Foreign Missions". The 'Reflex Influence' of Missions: The Domestic Operations of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, 1810–1850. Retrieved 2006-06-20.  ^ Andrew, John A., III (1992). From Revivals to Removal: Jeremiah Evarts, the Cherokee
Cherokee
Nation, and the Search for the Soul of America. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press. ISBN 0820314277.  ^ "Did You Know?". Christian
Christian
History
History
& Biography. 90: 3. Spring 2006.  ^ William Buell Sprague, ed. (1857). "Elias Cornelius, D. D. 1816–1832". Annals of the American Pulpit: Trinitarian Congregational. Robert Carter & Brothers. pp. 633–643.  ^ Corr, Donald Philip "The Field Is the World": Proclaiming, Translating and Serving by the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, 1810–40 (Pasadena: William Carey Library Dissertation Series, 2009) ^ Burke Library Archives, Columbia University, http://library.columbia.edu/content/dam/libraryweb/libraries/burke/fa/mrl/ldpd_4492650.pdf, accessed 18 Feb 2013 ^ ABCFM (1855). Missionary Herald Vol 51. Boston: T. R. Marvin. pp. 2–14. Retrieved 11 May 2017.  ^ Townsend (1890), 233-234 ^ American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, The Annual Report, 1917 full text, pp. 62-95.

6. See Putney, Clifford (writer of introduction and editor with Burlin, Paul), The Role of the American Board in the World: Bicentennial Reflections on the Organization's Missionary Work, 1810–2010 (Eugene, Or: Wipf and Stock, 2012)https://wipfandstock.com/store/The_Role_of_the_American_Board_in_the_World_Bicentennial_Reflections_on_the_Organizations_Missionary_Work_18102010 Further reading[edit]

Bliss, Edwin Munsell, ed. The Encyclopaedia of missions. Descriptive, historical, biographical, statistical. With a full assortment of maps, a complete bibliography, and lists of Bible
Bible
version, missionary societies, mission stations, and a general index online vol 1 1891, 724pp; online vol 2 1891, 726pp Phillips, Clifton Jackson. Protestant America and the pagan world: the first half century of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, 1810-1860 ( Harvard University
Harvard University
Press, 1969) Putney, Clifford, and Paul T. Burlin, eds. The Role of the American Board in the World: Bicentennial Reflections on the Organization's Missionary Work, 1810-2010 (2012). Strong, William Ellsworth. The Story of the American Board (1910) online[ Varg, Paul A. Missionaries, Chinese, and Diplomats: The American Protestant Missionary Movement in China, 1890-1952 (Princeton UP, 1958).

Publications[edit]

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions
(1838). Report, Volume 29. s.n. Retrieved 24 April 2014.  American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions
(1836). Annual Report, Volumes 27-31. Retrieved 24 April 2014.  American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions
(1840). Annual Report - American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, Volumes 31-33. Retrieved 24 April 2014.  İdris YÜCEL, "An Overview of Religious Medicine in the Near East: Mission Hospitals of the American in Asia Minor (1880-1923)", Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies, Vol 14, Issue 40, Spring 2015. http://jsri.ro/ojs/index.php/jsri/article/view/759 İdris YÜCEL, “A Missionary Society at the Crossroad: American Missionaries during the Collapse of the Ottoman Empire”, Journal of Modern Turkish History, Vol 8 Issue 15, Spring 2012.

External links[edit]

Yale Library note Ricci Institute page on the ABCFM in China Bilkent University ABCFM project ABCFM records at Nebraska State Historical Society American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, ABC 1-91, at Houghton Library, Harvard University. ABCFM Collection overview at Congregational Library and Archives Santee Normal Training School, Woonspe Wankantu, 1881, 1882, 1884, 1885 from the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions.

Select Annotated Bibliography[edit]

Sections drawn from the conclusion to Donald Philip Corr's dissertation and is used with permission.

v t e

Protestant missions to Africa

People

Roland Allen William Anderson Frederick Stanley Arnot John Arthur Samuel Bill Joseph Booth Daniel Coker Daniel Kumler Flickinger George Grenfell Carl Hugo Hahn Joseph Hardcastle Joseph Crane Hartzell Johannes Ittmann Franz Heinrich Kleinschmidt Johann Ludwig Krapf Margaret Nicholl Laird Christian
Christian
Ignatius Latrobe David Livingstone Mary Livingstone Alexander Murdoch Mackay Joseph Merrick Robert Moffat Andrew Murray Helen Roseveare Hans Paludan Smith Schreuder John Philip Martti Rautanen Orishatukeh Faduma Alfred Saker Heinrich Schmelen William Henry Sheppard Mary Slessor John McKendree Springer Marion Scott Stevenson Charles Studd Hulda Stumpf William Taylor Gottlieb Viehe

Missionary agencies

American Board Africa
Africa
Inland Mission Berlin Missionary Society Bethel Mission BMS World Mission Congo-Balolo Mission Christian
Christian
and Missionary Alliance Church Mission Society Echoes of Service Finnish Missionary Society Heart of Africa
Africa
Mission Livingstone Inland Mission London Missionary Society Mission Africa Mission to the World Paris Evangelical Missionary Society Rhenish Missionary Society USPG WEC International Wycliffe Global Alliance

Pivotal events

Slave Trade Act 1807 Slavery Abolition Act 1833

See also

Christianity
Christianity
in Africa Timeline of Christian
Christian
missions

v t e

Protestant missions to India

Background

Christianity Thomas the Apostle Pantaenus Protestantism Indian history Missions timeline Christianity
Christianity
in India

People

David Oliver Allen Paul Olaf Bodding Edith Mary Brown Nathan Brown Robert Caldwell William Carey Amy Carmichael Arthur Margoschis Robert F. Cook Alexander Duff Anthony Norris Groves Hermann Gundert John Hyde E. Stanley Jones Thomas Jones Richard Knill Hannah Marshman John Clark Marshman Joshua Marshman Henry Martyn Donald McGavran James Mudge Volbrecht Nagel George Uglow Pope Luther Rice John Edward Robinson Clement Daniel Rockey Christian
Christian
Friedrich Schwarz Scudder Family Serampore Trio Lars Olsen Skrefsrud Howard Somervell Graham Staines Alfred Sturge James Mills Thoburn Cecil Tyndale-Biscoe William Ward Bartholomäus Ziegenbalg

Works

Andhra- Christian
Christian
College Eccles Establishment Evangelical Missionary Society of Mayurbhanj Gossner Theological College Madras Christian
Christian
College Serampore College Scottish Church College Scott Christian
Christian
College St. Stephen's College Wilson College

Missionary agencies

London Missionary Society Church of England Zenana Missionary Society United Society Partners in the Gospel Church Mission Society Baptist Missionary Society Scottish General Assembly Mission to the World American Board

Pivotal events

Indian Rebellion of 1857 Indian Republic Interactions with Ayyavazhi

Indian Protestants

Bakht Singh Krishna Mohan Banerjee Pandita Ramabai Sadhu Sundar Singh Jashwant Rao Chitambar A. B. Masilamani Victor Premasagar Y. D. Tiwari P. C. John

Portal: Christianity
Christianity
in India

v t e

Protestant missions to the Middle East

Background

Christianity Protestantism Missions timeline

People

Daniel Bliss Andrew Bonar William Whiting Borden Joseph Cochran Edward Cronin Douglas Dunlop Henry Otis Dwight William Goodell Anthony Norris Groves Cyrus Hamlin Henry Harris Jessup Alma Johansson Samuel M. Jordan Andrew Jukes Henry Martyn William McElwee Miller Eli Smith Johann Wilhelm Ernst Sommer William McClure Thomson Lillian Trasher Lilias Trotter Cornelius Van Allen Van Dyck Samuel Marinus Zwemer

Missionary agencies

London Missionary Society American Board Church Mission Society Baptist Missionary Society Mission to the World

v t e

Protestant missions to Southeast Asia

Background

Christianity Protestantism Missions timeline

People

George Boardman Sarah Hall Boardman Adoniram Judson Ann Hasseltine Judson Francis Mason Eliza Grew Jones John Taylor Jones Emily Chubbuck Dan Beach Bradley Daniel McGilvary Eugenio Kincaid Margaret Landon Justus Vinton Calista Vinton

Missionary agencies

London Missionary Society American Board Church Mission Society Baptist Missionary Society OMF International Borneo Evangelical Mission US Presbyterian
Presbyterian
Mission Mission to the World SEND International

P

.