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Amasya
Amasya
(Greek: Ἀμάσεια) is a city in northern Turkey
Turkey
and is the capital of Amasya
Amasya
Province, in the Black Sea
Black Sea
Region. Tokat
Tokat
from east, Tokat
Tokat
and Yozgat
Yozgat
from south, Çorum
Çorum
from west, Samsun
Samsun
from north. The city of Amasya
Amasya
(Turkish pronunciation: [aˈmasja]), the Amaseia
Amaseia
or Amasia of antiquity,[3] stands in the mountains above the Black Sea
Black Sea
coast, set apart from the rest of Anatolia
Anatolia
in a narrow valley along the banks of the Yeşilırmak River. Although near the Black Sea, this area is high above the coast and has an inland climate, well-suited to growing apples, for which Amasya
Amasya
province, one of the provinces in north-central Anatolia
Anatolia
Turkey, is famed. It was the home of the geographer Strabo
Strabo
and the birthplace of the 15th century scholar and physician Amirdovlat Amasiatsi. Located in a narrow cleft of the Yesilirmak (Iris) river, it has a history of 7,500 years which has left many traces still evident today. In antiquity, Amaseia
Amaseia
was a fortified city high on the cliffs above the river. It has a long history as a wealthy provincial capital, producing kings and princes, artists, scientists, poets and thinkers, from the kings of Pontus, through Strabo
Strabo
the geographer, to many generations of the Ottoman imperial dynasty. With its Ottoman-period wooden houses and the tombs of the Pontus kings carved into the cliffs overhead, Amasya
Amasya
is attractive to visitors. In recent years there has been a lot of investment in tourism and more foreign and Turkish tourists visit the city. During the early Ottoman rule, it was customary for young Ottoman princes to be sent to Amasya
Amasya
to govern and gain experience. Amasya
Amasya
was also the birthplace of the Ottoman sultans
Ottoman sultans
Murad I
Murad I
and Selim I. It is thus of great importance in terms of Ottoman history. Traditional Ottoman houses near the Yeşilirmak and the other main historical buildings have been restored; these traditional Yalıboyu houses are now used as cafes, restaurants, pubs and hotels. Behind the Ottoman wooden houses one can see the Rock Tombs of the Pontic kings.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Population 3 Geography 4 Settlements in the district

4.1 Townships 4.2 Villages

5 History

5.1 Antiquity 5.2 Hellenistic period 5.3 Roman-Byzantine period 5.4 Early Turkish rulers 5.5 Ottoman era 5.6 World War I
World War I
and the Turkish War of Independence

6 Ecclesiastical history

6.1 Titular Latin see

7 The legend of Ferhat and Shirin 8 Climate 9 Amasya
Amasya
today

9.1 Tourism 9.2 Economy 9.3 Cuisine

10 Notable natives 11 Twin Cities 12 See also 13 References 14 Sources and external links

Etymology[edit]

Amasya
Amasya
and Yeşilırmak River

According to Strabo
Strabo
the Greek name Ἀμάσεια comes from Amasis, the queen of the Amazons, who were said to have lived here. The name has changed little throughout history: Ἀμάσεια, Amaseia, Amassia and Amasia are all found on ancient Greek and Roman coinage and continue to be used in modern Greek. Armenian: Ամասիա, Ottoman Turkish أماصيا, and modern Turkish Amasya
Amasya
all represent the same pronunciation. Population[edit] In 2012, the permanent population of the city was 91,874. The birth rate of Amasya
Amasya
is low, so its population has been increasing slowly. The population varies seasonally, most people are here during the summer tourist season.

Downtown population

2015 101,800

2014 98,930

2013 96,670

2012 91,874

2011 90,665

2010 99,900

2009 86,667

2008 82,200

2007 85,851

2000 75,393

1997 62,668

1990 57,288

1985 53,431

1980 48,066

1975 41,496

1970 36,646

1965 34,168

1960 28,525

1955 -

1950 14,470

1945 -

1940 -

1935 11,981

1927 -

Y & G

Geography[edit] Situated between the Black Sea
Black Sea
and inner Anatolia
Anatolia
in a region of fertile plains irrigated by the Tersakan, Çekerek
Çekerek
and Yeşilırmak rivers, Amasya
Amasya
lies in a beautiful narrow river valley, bounded by almost vertical cliffs and the high peaks of the Canik
Canik
and Pontus mountains. Despite the mountainous location, it is not far above sea level. This makes its climate more temperate. Five bridges cross the river, and most of the town lies on the southern bank, spread along the river. The climb up to the higher ground is very steep, making the valley walls virtually uninhabitable. The town is shaped like the letter 'v' as it follows a sharp bend in the river. Settlements in the district[edit] Townships[edit]

Aydınca Doğantepe Ezinepazar Uygur Yassıçal Yeşilyenice Ziyaret

Villages[edit]

Abacı Ağılönü Aksalur Aktaş Akyazı Alakadı Albayrak Ardıçlar Avşar Aydoğdu Aydınlık Bayat Bağlarüstü Bağlıca Beke Beldağı Boğaköy Boğazköy Bulduklu

∗ Büyükkızılca

Böke Çatalçam Çavuşköy Çengelkayı Çivi Çiğdemlik Dadıköy Damudere Değirmendere Direkli Duruca Eliktekke Eskikızılca Fındıklı Gökdere Gözlek İbecik İlgazi İlyas İpekköy Halifeli Hasabdal Kaleboğazı Kaleköy Kapıkaya Karaali Karaibrahim Karakese Karaköprü Karaçavuş Karsan Kayabaşı Kayacık Keçili Keşlik Kutlu Kuzgeçe Köyceğiz Küçükkızılca Kızseki Kızılca Kızılkışlacık Mahmatlar Meşeliçiftliğiköyü Musaköy Ormanözü Ortaköy Ovasaray Özfındıklı Saraycık Sarayözü Sarıalan Sarıkız Sarılar Sarımeşe Sarıyar Sazköy Selimiye Sevincer Sıracevizler Şeyhsadi Tatar Toklucak Tuzluçal Tuzsuz Ümük Vermiş Yavru Yaylacık Yağcıabdal Yağmur Yeşildere Yeşiltepe Yeşilöz Yolyanı Yuvacık Yuvaköy Yıkılgan Yıldızköy

History[edit]

Ottoman-era houses (foreground) and ancient Pontic tomb (background, left) in Amasya

Antiquity[edit] Archaeological research shows that Amasya
Amasya
was first settled by the Hittites
Hittites
and subsequently by Phrygians, Cimmerians, Lydians, Persians, and Armenians. Hellenistic period[edit] An independent Pontic kingdom with its capital at Amaseia
Amaseia
was established at the end of the 4th century BC in the wake of Alexander's conquests. Superficially Hellenized, the kingdom retained its Persian social structure, with temple priests and Persianized feudal nobles ruling over a heterogeneous village population. In the 1st century BC, it briefly contested Rome's hegemony in Anatolia. By 183 BC, the city was settled by Hellenistic people, eventually becoming the capital of the kings of Pontus from 333 BC to 26 BC. Today, there are prominent ruins including the royal tombs of Pontus in the rocks above the riverbank in the centre of the city. Ancient district in northeastern Anatolia
Anatolia
adjoining the Black Sea. Roman-Byzantine period[edit] Amaseia
Amaseia
was captured by the Roman Lucullus
Lucullus
in 70 BC from Armenia and was quickly made a free city and administrative center of his new province of Bithynia
Bithynia
and Pontus by Pompey. By this time, Amaseia
Amaseia
was a thriving city, the home of thinkers, writers and poets, and one of them, Strabo, left a full description of Amaseia
Amaseia
as it was between 60 BC and 19 AD. Around 2 or 3 BC, it was incorporated into the Roman province
Roman province
of Galatia, in the district of Pontus Galaticus. Around the year 112, the emperor Trajan
Trajan
designated it a part of the province of Cappadocia.[4][5] Later in the 2nd century it gained the titles 'metropolis' and 'first city'. After the division of the Roman Empire by emperor Diocletian
Diocletian
the city became part of the East Roman Empire (the Byzantine Empire). At this time it had a predominantly Greek-speaking population. Saints Theodore of Amasea
Theodore of Amasea
(died by 319), a warrior saint, and the local bishop Asterius of Amasea
Asterius of Amasea
(died c. 410), some of whose polished sermons survive, are notable Christian
Christian
figures from the period. Early Turkish rulers[edit] In 1075, ending 700 years of Byzantine rule, Amasya
Amasya
was conquered by the Turkmen Danishmend
Danishmend
emirs. It served as their capital until it was annexed by the Seljuk ruler Kiliç Arslan II. Under the Seljuks and the Ilkhan, the city became a centre of Islamic culture and produced some notable individuals such as Yaqut al-Musta'simi (1221-1298) calligrapher and secretary of the last Abbasid caliph who was a Greek native of Amasya.[6] Schools, mosques, tombs and other architecture of this period still remain. Ottoman era[edit]

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Amasya
Amasya
during the Ottoman Empire

After being incorporated into the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
under Sultan Bayezid I, Amasya
Amasya
grew in importance as a centre of learning, the children of the Ottoman rulers being sent here for their education.[7] As part of their preparation for future rule they were given the position and responsibility of governor of Amasya. Future sultans from Beyazid I
Beyazid I
in the late 14th century through to Murat III
Murat III
in the 16th were schooled here and held the position of governor in their youth. Between 1530 and 1545, several travelers documented a blood libel against some of the town's Jews.[8] After the disappearance of a local Christian, several Jews
Jews
living in town were blamed for killing him for ritual reasons. The Jews
Jews
confessed under torture and hanged. When the supposed victim was discovered to still be alive, Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent ordered that all accusations regarding religious rituals should be judged under "royal" and not local court.[8] In 1555, Amasya was also the location for the signing of the Peace of Amasya
Peace of Amasya
with the Safavid dynasty of Persia. The population of Amasya
Amasya
at this time was very different from that of most other cities in the Ottoman Empire, as it was part of their training for the future sultans to learn about every nation of the Empire. Every millet of the Empire was represented in Amasya
Amasya
in a particular village—such as a pontic village, an Armenian village, a Bosnian village, a Tatar village, a Turkish village etc. (see: 1927 Population count data by DİE) In 1914, the Greeks of Amasya
Amasya
and surrounding villages (340 communities and 131,181 inhabitants) was proscribed by the Young Turks. There was an economic boycott to the Greeks, supported by the local authorities. Also, Muslims threatened the Greeks that they will massacre them. Every Friday in the Grand Mosque of Amasya
Amasya
preachers imperatively incited the Turkish hatred against the Greeks. They insisted upon every relation or intercourse with the Christians being put an end to, because the latter had subscribed considerable sums to the Greek fleet, and were consequently the enemies of the country. Same happened to other villages/towns of the area as well, for example in the Grand Mosque of Bafra. The Turkish authorities enforced settlement of Albanian Muslim immigrants from Kosovo
Kosovo
in the purely Greek villages. Some Greek villages tried to resist to the settlement of Albanian Muslim emigrants to their villages, although the Commander of the Gendarmerie, who came from Amasya, ordered them in the name of the Government to receive the Albanian Muslims or otherwise the villages would be destroyed. The Christians, finding that it was no longer possible for them to live with the Muslim Albanians, considered any further resistance useless decided to leave their houses and go to Amasya. The Governor of Amasya, ordered the Turkish gendarmes to shot the defenseless group of men, women and children. Many killed and wounded while others manage to fled to the fields under the fire of the gendarmes. Also, Turkish immigrants were installed in the Greek villages.[9] Towards the end of February, 1915, some villages near Amasya
Amasya
and twenty other villages of the district of Bafra, were burnt down. Many women and children were murdered. The survivors were also deported into the interior and scattered about the Turkish villages, where, yielding to famine and sickness, they died in masses.[9] World War I
World War I
and the Turkish War of Independence[edit] In 1919 Amasya
Amasya
was the location of the final planning meetings held by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Atatürk
for the building of a Turkish army to establish the Turkish republic following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
at the end of the First World War. It was here that Mustafa Kemal made the announcement of the Turkish War of Independence
Turkish War of Independence
in the Amasya Circular. This circular is considered as the first written document putting the Turkish War of Independence
Turkish War of Independence
in motion. The circular, distributed across Anatolia, declared Turkey's independence and integrity to be in danger and called for a national conference to be held in Sivas
Sivas
( Sivas
Sivas
Congress) and before that, for a preparatory congress comprising representatives from the eastern provinces of Anatolia
Anatolia
to be held in Erzurum in July (Erzurum Congress). During the years of World War I
World War I
and the Turkish War of Independence, the Christian
Christian
inhabitants of Amasya
Amasya
(Armenian and Greek) suffered from atrocities. Many Armenian civilians fleeing the massacres sought refuge at the American missionary school Anatolia
Anatolia
College, located in Merzifon
Merzifon
outside Amasya. In 1921, Turkish troops closed down the school, and the local population relocated to Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
after the population exchange between Greece and Turkey.[10] Also, in 1921 there was the Amasya trials
Amasya trials
which were special ad hoc trials, organized by the Turkish National Movement, with the purpose to kill en masse the Greek representatives of Pontus region under a legal pretext.[11] Ecclesiastical history[edit] Amasea became the seat of a Christian
Christian
metropolitan bishop in the Eastern Roman Empire,[12] in particular from the 3rd century AD.[13] As capital of the Late Roman province
Roman province
of Helenopontus, it also became its Metropolitan Archbishopric and included the suffragans of Amisus, Andrapa, Euchaitae, Ibora, Sinope, Zaliche
Zaliche
and Zela. In the 10th century the metropolis ranked 11th among the metropolises of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. From the 12th century the local Christian
Christian
element was reduced due to the Turkish invasions of Anatolia. The Orthodox metropolis of Amasea was active until the Population exchange between Greece and Turkey
Turkey
(1923) and in 1922 counted c. 40,000 Christians, 20,000 of them being Greek speakers. Last active metropolitan bishop was Germanos Karavangelis.[12] No longer being a residential diocese, Amasea is today listed by both the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
and the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
as a titular see.[14] Titular Latin see[edit] Rome suppressed the see formally c. 1600, but immediately transformed it into a titular archbishopric Amasea, of the highest (Metropolitan) rank, which has had the following archiepiscopal incumbents :

(Giovanni) Battista Agucchia (1623.10.23 – death 1632.01.01), papal diplomat Fausto Poli
Fausto Poli
(1633.03.14 – 1643.07.13), later created Cardinal-Priest of S. Crisogono (1643.08.31 – death 1653.10.07), Bishop of Orvieto (Italy) (1644.05.23 – 1653.10.07) Egidio Colonna, Cassinese Benedictine Congregation
Cassinese Benedictine Congregation
(O.S.B. Cas.) (1643.12.19 – 1671.01.19); later Titular Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem (1636 – death 1637) Francesco Marini (1671.01.19 – 1686.04.27), former Bishop of Albenga (Italy) (1655.08.11 – 1666.03.29), Bishop of Molfetta (Italy) (1666.03.29 – 1670.10.06); later Titular Archbishop of Theodosia (see) (1686.04.27 – ?) Ferdinando d'Adda
Ferdinando d'Adda
(1687.03.03 – 1690.02.13), the papal representative to King James II of England, ?later created Cardinal-Priest
Cardinal-Priest
of S. Clemente
S. Clemente
(1690.04.10 – 1696.01.02), transferred repeatedly Cardinal-Priest
Cardinal-Priest
of S. Balbina (1696.01.02 – 1714.04.16), Prefect of Sacred Congregation of Rites (1701? – ?), Cardinal-Priest
Cardinal-Priest
of S. Pietro in Vincoli (1714.04.16 – 1715.01.21), promoted Cardinal-Bishop
Cardinal-Bishop
of Albano (1715.01.21 – death 1719.01.27) Agostino Cusani (1696.04.02 – 1711.10.14), Apostolic Nuncio
Apostolic Nuncio
(papal ambassador) to France (1706.05.22 – 1711.10.14), Bishop of Diocese of Pavia (Italy) (1711.10.14 – 1724.07.12), created Cardinal-Priest of S. Maria del Popolo
S. Maria del Popolo
(1713.01.30 – death 1730.12.27) Fabritius Aurelius de Agostini (1712.10.05 – 1712.12.06) Giovanni Crisostomo Battelli (1716.10.05 – 1725.07.30) Giovanni Battista Gamberucci (1725.09.05 – 1738.11.28)

On 1742.02.15 it was united (as a mere title) with the residential Diocese of Pavia (Italy). Since 1819.11.19 it is again suppressed as such and restored nominally as Metropolitan Titular archbishopric (highest rank, again). It is vacant for decades, having had the following archiepiscopal incumbents since :

Jean-Paul-Gaston de Pins (1824.05.03 – 1850.11.30) József Krivinai Lonovics (1861.03.29 – 1866.11.27) Jean-Baptiste-François Pompallier, Marists
Marists
(S.M.) (1869.04.19 – 1871.12.21) Silvestre Guevara y Lira (1877.01.09 – 1882.02.20) Giuseppe Macchi (1889.04.09 – 1897.08.19) Paul Rubian (1900.02.24 – 1911.04.16) Bertram Orth (1908.10.01 – 1931.02.10) Frantisek Kordác (1931.07.21 – 1934.04.26) Gustavo Testa (1934.06.04 – 1959.12.14) as Apostolic Delegate
Apostolic Delegate
(papal diplomatic envoy) to Egypt and Arabia (1934.06.04 – 1945), later created Cardinal-Priest
Cardinal-Priest
of S. Girolamo dei Croati (1959.12.17 – death 1969.02.28), Pro-President of Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See (1961.10.04 – 1969.02.28), Secretary of Sacred Congregation for the Oriental Churches (1962.08.02 – 1965), promoted Pro-Prefect of Sacred Congregation for the Oriental Churches (1965 – 1967.08.15), and next Prefect of Sacred Congregation for the Oriental Churches (1967.08.15 – retired 1968.01.13) Gaetano Malchiodi (1960.01.26 – 1965.01.22) James Patrick Carroll (1965.10.15 – 1995.01.14) [15][16][17][18][19][20]

The legend of Ferhat and Shirin[edit] In its Turkish version, this classic tale of oriental folklore is held to have taken place in Amasya. The nearby mountain Ferhat is named for Farhad (Turkish spelling Ferhat), the hero of the legend, who for love of the princess Shirin
Shirin
(Turkish spelling Şirin) tried to win her father's favour and permission by tunnelling through the mountain to bring spring water to his palace. Sadly, while he was working he was sent the false information that Shirin
Shirin
had died; upon which he threw himself onto the rocks in his grief. And his beloved princess died soon after. The story has since become a play by Nazim Hikmet, a novel by Talip Apaydın, and an opera by Arif Melikov. Climate[edit] Amasya
Amasya
has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Csa) under Köppen classification and a hot summer oceanic climate (Doa) under the Trewartha classification. Also, Amasya
Amasya
is warmer than central Anatolia, and its weather is not as cold in winter months. It has a transitional climate between the oceanic climate of the Black Sea
Black Sea
and a continental and Mediterranean climate. However, this narrow valley causes Amasya
Amasya
to have a temperate climate. This effect is due to the Yeşilirmak river that moderates its climate.

Climate data for Amasya
Amasya
(1950 - 2014)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 21.3 (70.3) 24.8 (76.6) 31.2 (88.2) 35.8 (96.4) 37.5 (99.5) 41.8 (107.2) 45.0 (113) 42.2 (108) 40.3 (104.5) 36.0 (96.8) 29.7 (85.5) 22.9 (73.2) 45 (113)

Average high °C (°F) 6.9 (44.4) 9.5 (49.1) 14.4 (57.9) 20.2 (68.4) 24.9 (76.8) 28.6 (83.5) 31.0 (87.8) 31.3 (88.3) 27.6 (81.7) 21.7 (71.1) 14.4 (57.9) 8.7 (47.7) 19.93 (67.88)

Daily mean °C (°F) 2.7 (36.9) 4.5 (40.1) 8.4 (47.1) 13.6 (56.5) 17.9 (64.2) 21.6 (70.9) 24.1 (75.4) 24.0 (75.2) 20.0 (68) 14.6 (58.3) 8.6 (47.5) 4.7 (40.5) 13.73 (56.72)

Average low °C (°F) −0.9 (30.4) 0.1 (32.2) 3.0 (37.4) 7.2 (45) 11.0 (51.8) 14.3 (57.7) 16.6 (61.9) 16.5 (61.7) 12.7 (54.9) 8.5 (47.3) 3.8 (38.8) 1.2 (34.2) 7.83 (46.11)

Record low °C (°F) −21.0 (−5.8) −20.4 (−4.7) −15.3 (4.5) −5.1 (22.8) −0.1 (31.8) 4.8 (40.6) 8.5 (47.3) 8.8 (47.8) 3.0 (37.4) −2.9 (26.8) −9.5 (14.9) −12.7 (9.1) −21 (−5.8)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 48.4 (1.906) 38.0 (1.496) 46.6 (1.835) 56.8 (2.236) 51.4 (2.024) 36.9 (1.453) 14.9 (0.587) 9.1 (0.358) 20.6 (0.811) 35.7 (1.406) 45.2 (1.78) 55.4 (2.181) 459 (18.073)

Average precipitation days 12.1 11.0 12.5 13.3 12.7 8.7 3.3 2.6 4.8 8.0 9.5 12.6 111.1

Mean daily sunshine hours 2.1 3.1 4.3 5.5 7.3 9.0 9.5 9.2 7.4 5.6 3.1 2.6 5.72

Source: Turkish State Meteorological Service[21]

Amasya
Amasya
today[edit] The province of Amasya
Amasya
is known for producing high-quality, small, well-flavoured apples. The Amasya- Tokat
Tokat
region the main area of production. The city is not so developed industrial terms, but is attractive and well-preserved, especially when sitting by the river, which has a particular mystique on a winter evening when fog fılls the valley. Tourists (and soldiers from the local base) contribute valuable income to the shopkeepers. The railway line from Sivas
Sivas
to Samsun
Samsun
runs through Amasya, and there is an attractive Ottoman-era railway station. The city of Amasya
Amasya
has some nightlife, mainly bars and cafes for visitors, and some basic restaurants. It is not a very conservative city, unlike other central and eastern Anatolian cities. Social life in this city, partly owing to tourism, becomes more animated especially during the summer period. Many international circus groups visit this city. June 12 is a festival date for Amasya
Amasya
during this time, with many cultural and sporting activities on offer. The local cuisine includes the local specialty toyga çorbası, a soup containing yoghurt, drunk hot or cold. Other specialties include pastries with poppy seeds and tea, served by the riverbank. There is an airport in the district, open for civilian flights since 2008. Previously, it was used only for military purposes. There are daily one-hour flights from/to Istanbul.

Panorama of Amasya

Tourism[edit]

"Ferhat and Şirin" statue.

Tourism has been increasing. In 2011, there were 500,000 tourists, 11,000 foreign; in 2012, 600,000, 22,000 foreign; in 2013, 750,000 total; 1 million are projected for 2014. Foreign tourists are mostly Germans and East Asians, notably Japan and South Korea. In consequence, many hotels, especially boutique hotels, are opening. Many traditional Ottoman wooden houses have been restored and are now used as boutique hotels, cafes, bars. The ruins of the citadel on the rock face of the cleft shelters 2000-year-old water-channels, 1000-year-old bridges, a mental hospital, an OttomanPontus kings, which contribute very much to the attractiveness of the city. At night, when they are illuminated, the view is unforgettable. Palace and a secret underground passageway. On the rock faces there are impressive rock tombs. The city also has many historically and architecturally precious buildings; the Ferhat water channel, the 13th century Seljuk Burmali Mosque, the 15th century Yildirim Beyazit Mosque and Complex; the 14th century Ilhanli Bimarhane Mental Hospital with lovely relieves around its portal, the extraordinary octagonal Kapi Aga Medrese (theological school), the Torumtay Mausoleum and the Gök Medrese. There are traditional Turkish mansions which have been well-preserved showing the best examples of Turkish architecture. The 19th century Hazeranlar Mansion has been restored perfectly and now it is of great interest with an art gallery on its first floor and an ethnographical museum on the second. The Archaeological Museum of Amasya
Archaeological Museum of Amasya
has an interesting collection including the mummies of the Ilhanli rulers of Amasya.

Tombs of the kings of Pontus

On the rock of Harşena above the town is the terraced site of the royal palace and the tombs of the kings of Pontus (illuminated at night) which, although not kept in the best condition, are an impressive sight from the town. There are 5 unit tombs placed at slope of Amasya
Amasya
Castle that all are engraved on the lime stone rocks which rocks extended like a straight wall With the construction and location properties they take attention at the first sight Their surroundings engraved until they completely separated from the main rock, than they reunite to the main rock with stairs There are some ones large and some ones small totally 18 rock tomb units present The famous geographer Strabon (BC 63 - AC 5) whom born at Amasya, delivers an information that Rock tombs was belonged to Pontus Kings. AynalıCave (Rock Tomb) is approximately three kilometres away from city centre, and on the way of Ziyaret district which way separated to the right from surrounding high way towards Samsun
Samsun
It is the best- decorated and completed tomb among other King Rock Tombs. At the vault section there are six pictures on each right and left walls, which figure out 12 disciple And there are some figures that include men and women on the west and east walls, although there is a composition figure contains the Jesus, the Virgin Mary and Disciple on east wall. Harsene Kalesi – A fortification, mentioned by Strabo
Strabo
and largely rebuilt in medieval times also lies in ruins on a rocky outcrop above the town. And in the district of Nerkis lies some remainsN of another castle, Enderun Kalesi. It is placed on precious rocks named Harşane mountain at the west of Yeşilırmak river and city centre There are 4 main gates in castle, which are named Belkıs, Saray (palace), Maydonos and Meydan (Public Square), there is a water well named Cilanbolu in castle too, moreover water hole and dungeon present in castle A laddered under ground way from the castle that reach to 70 meter below river towards the kings tombs dated to the 3rd century BC. The town itself has many historically and architecturally valuable buildings, including the Ferhat aqueduct, the 13th century Seljuk Burmali Mosque, the 14th century Ilkhan
Ilkhan
Bimarhane Mental Hospital with lovely reliefs around its portal, the tomb of 15th century scholar Pir Ilyas and the 15th-century mosque of Yildirim Beyazit. Unfortunately, Amasya
Amasya
is vulnerable to earthquakes which have damaged many monuments (most recently in 1939). There are a number of well-preserved traditional Ottoman Turkish mansions, some of the best examples of Turkish domestic architecture. The 19th century Hazeranlar Konağı has been carefully restored and includes a small art gallery and ethnographical museum. Other wooden houses are being restored as hotels and guest houses. Hazeranlar Mansion Hazeranlar mansion is the most beautiful mansion at Yalı boyu (across the waterside residence) houses series Mansion is one of the most elegant civil architecture samples of Ottoman period Mansion built by Defterdar Hasan Talat Efendi for the name of his sister Hazeran Hanım at the year 1872. The Archaeological Museum of Amasya
Archaeological Museum of Amasya
has a large and interesting collection, of artefacts from many eras of antiquity, including the mummies of the Ilkhanli rulers of Amasya. Saraydüzü Casern, this building reconstructed in 2009 and opened. The importance of Saraydüzü Casern is that, Amasya
Amasya
Circular(genelge) was signed in that historical building on 12 June 1919. Atatürk
Atatürk
wrote here about Amasya
Amasya
Circular. Building was destroyed. Today, Saraydüzü Casern is war of liberation museum and using for conferences, meetings, speeches etc. Basically, it is used as a congress center. A number of tombs of Muslim saints, yatır, said to emanate healing powers. The sick and dying come to breathe the air and drink the waters of nearby springs. FerhatWaterCanal canal was built at the Hellenistic Period to fulfil city's water necessity, it has approximately 75 width and 18 kilometers long It was built with processes of digging canals based on the balance system, carving some tunnels and bounding brick walls at some places. Sultan Bayezıt II Kulliye (Center): Kulliye constructed in the name of Sultan Bayezit II in 1485 - 86; is composed of mosque, theology school, charitable establishment, monument and şadırvan (water tank with a fountain). It is the advanced final sample of the mosque with side place (L planned) architecture, constructed during the last quarter of the 15th century. There are two minarets of the mosque There are theology school at west and charitable establishment and guest - house at east Old plane trees at the level of both minarets, are estimated to be as old as kulliye. Lake Borabay (65 km northeast of Amasya
Amasya
in the district of Taşova) is a crater lake with an impressive view and fresh air. It is a perfect area for fishing (especially trout), picnicking and sports. Other excursion sites from Amasya
Amasya
include Yedikir reservoir and Omarca National Park. Terziköy thermal spring is one of the most important springs of the province Gözlek thermal spring, Hamamözü
Hamamözü
(Arkut Bey) thermal spring and Ilısu thermal spring are the other thermal springs of Amasya. Amasya
Amasya
was also one of the Turkish cities which had the best viewing location for the last total solar eclipse of the 20th century which happened on 11 August 1999. Many visitors came to the city to witness this spectacular event. On 29 March 2006, another total solar eclipse was seen in this city at 14:06pm local time.

Economy[edit] The region's valley structure and this valley structure provide a temperate climate for many fruits growing. City has many agricultural production. Other economic activities in the region include mining, textiles and cement manufacture. Most part of the city's economy comes from agriculture and agricultural products likewise, greenstuffes and fruit production are also important incomes for the Amasya's economy. Villages have economically concentrated relations with districts of Amasya. In recent years, electrical machine production and household tools (ankastre, kitchen tools, exhauster, paddle box), algiculture and woodcraft machines, textile and food industry was developed in the Merzifon
Merzifon
district of Amasya. These developments made better city's economy, but still Amasya
Amasya
is not important trade center within the country. Agricultural products of the city mostly consist of those products, apple, cherry, okra, onion, poppy seeds, lentel, bean and peach. In additionally, agro-based industries have an important place for the local economy. Sucrose, dairy products, egg, sunflower oil, provender, flour, yeast are major agro-based industries in Amasya; the industrial products are relatively limited. The most major industries are lime, brick, marble, ankanstre kitchen tools, furniture, lignite coal, metal and plastic industrial products. These products trades domestically and are exported: Marble exporting is considerable for the city's economy. Amasya
Amasya
is the second city in the country in marble exporting. In addition to that, Amasya
Amasya
is under the average of the country which is working in the industry employment. Amasya University was founded in 2006 (before it associated to Samsun University 19 May). It help the city economically develop in a positive way. Amasya
Amasya
is a city on the road of the Europe and Iran international way and it connects Samsun
Samsun
port to the interior regions of the country. Samsun- Sivas
Sivas
railway line passing through downtown of Amasya. Amasya- Merzifon
Merzifon
airport opened up in 2008. In related with that, cultural tourism achieved considerable place. Amasya
Amasya
is the starting point of the Black Sea
Black Sea
tours within the country. Cappadocia
Cappadocia
tours also cover the city of Amasya. Cultural and Tourism Ministry determined 15 cities which is the trademark cities around the country includes Amasya. These developments also influence economy of the city positively because tourism triggers to other sectors but still the city of Amasya
Amasya
is not where it wants.[citation needed] Cuisine[edit] Having served for many civilizations as the capital city, and for the future sultans of the Ottomans as an academy, Amasya, also known as the City of the Shahzadah, has developed a regal cuisine with characteristic taste, looks and quality. An example of the local food is keşkek, which has always been one of the most popular dishes of the region. Bakla dolması (dolma with a filling of meat and broad beans) is another characteristic local specialty. Cream cakes were another indispensable item in the former palace menu. Local varieties of bread include cherry bread, and slices of stale bread are used to make a dessert called Unutma Beni (which means "Forget me not"). Notable natives[edit]

Strabo, ancient geographer and historian (died in 23 AD) St. Theodore Teron, Christian
Christian
Saint (martyred in 306 AD) Amirdovlat of Amasia, 15th century Armenian physician and writer Yavuz Sultan Selim (I.Selim), Ottoman Sultan Uğur Dağdelen, footballer Mahmut Demir, world, Olympic and European champion sports wrestler Serkan Erdoğan, basketball player Hamit Kaplan, world and Olympic champion sports wrestler Adem Ören, basketball player İlkay Özdemir, female performer of stage magic Okan Öztürk, footballer Tahsin Şahinkaya, Turkish Soldier-General Erdem Türetken, basketball player Ahmet Yıldırım, footballer Amasyalı Bayezid Pasha, Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Paşa, an Ottoman military leader and grand vizier Hamdi Apaydın, MP of the first parliament of Turkey Léon Arthur Tutundjian, Armenian painter

Twin Cities[edit]

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Osh, Kyrgyzstan Manisa, Turkey Trabzon, Turkey

See also[edit]

Amasya
Amasya
trials Rûm Province, Ottoman Empire

References[edit]

^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.  ^ "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27.  ^ "Amasya" in The New Encyclopædia Britannica. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 15th edn., 1992, Vol. 1, p. 313. ^ Strabo
Strabo
Geographica, (12.561). ^ Mitchell, Stephen (1996), "Amaseia", in Hornblower, Simon; Spawforth, Anthony, Oxford Classical Dictionary (3rd ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-521693-6  ^ Houtsma, M. Th (1987). E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam 1913-1936, Volume 1. BRILL. p. 1154. ISBN 9789004082656. YAKUT al-MUSTA'SIMI, Djamal al-DIn Auu 'l-Madjd ... some say he was a Greek from Amasia; he was probably carried off on a razzia while still very young. He was a eunuch.  ^ History of Amasya
Amasya
Archived 2012-05-11 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b "AMASIA, AMASIEH - JewishEncyclopedia.com". jewishencyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2017-12-02.  ^ a b Persecution of the Greeks in Turkey, 1914-1918. Constantinople [London, Printed by the Hesperia Press]. 1919.  ^ Carl C. Compton (2008), The Morning Cometh: 45 Years with Anatolia College, pp. 88-98. ^ Hofmann, p. 208 ^ a b Christopoulos, Evanggelos. of the Hellenic World http://asiaminor.ehw.gr/forms/filePage.aspx?lemmaId=7200. Retrieved 13 January 2017.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ Lequien, Oriens Christianus (1740), I, 521–532 ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 821 ^ Amasea (Titular See). [Catholic-Hierarchy] (2011-04-09). Retrieved on 2011-04-16. ^ Pius Bonifacius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae, Leipzig 1931, p. 442 ^ Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, vol. I, coll. 521-532 ^ Konrad Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, vol. 4, p. 80; vol. 5, p. 80; vol. 6, p. 79; vol. 7, p. 69; vol. 8, p. 92 ^ Heinrich Gelzer, Ungedruckte und ungenügend veröffentlichte Texte der Notitiae episcopatuum, in: Abhandlungen der philosophisch-historische classe der bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1901, pp. 529–641 ^ Siméon Vailhé, v. Amasea, in Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie ecclésiastiques, vol. XII, Paris 1953, coll. 964-970 ^ "Meteoroloji" (in Turkish). Retrieved 8 January 2016. 

Sources and external links[edit]

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Amasya
Amasya
travel guide from Wikivoyage Provincial governorate official website Municipality official website Over 500 pictures of city and sights GCatholic with titular incumbent bio links

v t e

Amasya
Amasya
District

Capital: Amasya

Townships

Aydınca Doğantepe Ezinepazar Uygur Yassıçal Yeşilyenice Ziyaret

Settlements

Abacı Ağılönü Aksalur Aktaş Akyazı Alakadı Albayrak Ardıçlar Avşar Aydınlık Aydoğdu Bağlarüstü Bağlıca Bayat Beke Beldağı Boğaköy Boğazköy Böke Bulduklu Çatalçam Çavuşköy Çengelkayı Çiğdemlik Çivi Dadıköy Damudere Değirmendere Direkli Doğantepe Duruca Eliktekke Eskikızılca Fındıklı Gökdere Gözlek Halifeli Hasabdal İbecik İlgazi İlyas İpekköy Kaleboğazı Kaleköy Kapıkaya Karaali Karaçavuş Karaibrahim Karakese Karaköprü Karsan Kayabaşı Kayacık Keçili Keşlik Kızılca Kızılkışlacık Kızseki Köyceğiz Küçükkızılca Kutlu Kuzgeçe Mahmatlar Meşeliçiftliğiköyü Musaköy Ormanözü Ortaköy Ovasaray Özfındıklı Saraycık Sarayözü Sarıalan Sarıkız Sarılar Sarımeşe Sarıyar Sazköy Selimiye Sevincer Şeyhsadi Sıracevizler Tatar Toklucak Tuzluçal Tuzsuz Ümük Uygur Vermiş Yağcıabdal Yağmur Yavru Yaylacık Yeşildere Yeşilöz Yeşiltepe Yıkılgan Yıldızköy Yolyanı Yuvacık Yuvaköy Ziyaret

Landmarks

Amasya
Amasya
University Archaeological Museum of Amasya Bayezid II Mosque Burmali Minare Mosque Büyük Aga Medrese Farhad and Shirin
Shirin
Monument Harsene Kalesi İstasyon Bridge Seljuk Burmali Mosque Tombs of the kings of Pontus

History

Amasya
Amasya
Circular Amasya
Amasya
Protocol Amasya
Amasya
trials Central Army Peace of Amasya

Notable people

Strabo Amirdovlat Amasiatsi

v t e

Amasya
Amasya
in Amasya Province
Amasya Province
of Turkey

Districts

Amasya Göynücek Gümüşhacıköy Hamamözü Merzifon Suluova Taşova

List of Provinces by Region

Istanbul

Istanbul

West Marmara

Balıkesir Çanakkale Edirne Kırklareli Tekirdağ

Aegean

Afyonkarahisar Aydın Denizli İzmir Kütahya Manisa Muğla Uşak

East Marmara

Bilecik Bolu Bursa Düzce Eskişehir Kocaeli Sakarya Yalova

West Anatolia

Ankara Karaman Konya

Mediterranean

Adana Antalya Burdur Hatay Isparta Kahramanmaraş Mersin Osmaniye

Central Anatolia

Aksaray Kayseri Kırıkkale Kırşehir Nevşehir Niğde Sivas Yozgat

West Black Sea

Amasya Bartın Çankırı Çorum Karabük Kastamonu Samsun Sinop Tokat Zonguldak

East Black Sea

Artvin Giresun Gümüşhane Ordu Rize Trabzon

Northeast Anatolia

Ağrı Ardahan Bayburt Erzincan Erzurum Iğdır Kars

Central East Anatolia

Bingöl Bitlis Elazığ Hakkâri Malatya Muş Tunceli Van

Southeast Anatolia

Adıyaman Batman Diyarbakır Gaziantep Kilis Mardin Siirt Şanlıurfa Şırnak

Metropolitan municipalities are bolded.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 123759

.