AMARTYA KUMAR SEN, CH (Bengali: ; born 3 November 1933) is an Indian
economist and philosopher, who since 1972 has taught and worked in the
United Kingdom and the United States. Sen has made contributions to
welfare economics , social choice theory , economic and social justice
, economic theories of famines , and indexes of the measure of
well-being of citizens of developing countries.
He is currently the Thomas W. Lamont University Professor at Harvard
University and member of faculty at
Harvard Law School
Harvard Law School . He was
Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 1998 and
Bharat Ratna in 1999 for his work in welfare economics. In
2017, Sen was awarded the
Johan Skytte Prize in Political Science
for most valuable contribution to Political Science.
* 1 Early life and education
* 2 Research work
* 3 Professional career
* 3.1 Nalanda Project
* 4 Membership and associations
* 5 Media and culture
* 6 Controversies
* 7 Personal life and beliefs
* 8 Awards and honours
* 9 Bibliography
* 9.1 Books
* 9.2 Chapters in books
* 9.3 Journal articles
* 9.4 Lecture transcripts
* 9.5 Papers
* 9.6 Selected works in Persian
* 9.7 Other
* 10 See also
* 11 References
* 12 Further reading
* 13 External links
EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATION
Sen was born in a
Bengali Kayastha family in
Santiniketan in West
Bengal, India, on the campus on Rabindranath Tagore's Viswa-Bharati
University, to Ashutosh Sen and Amita Sen.
Rabindranath Tagore gave
Amartya Sen his name (Bengali অমর্ত্য ômorto, lit.
"immortal"). Sen's family was from Wari and Manikganj ,
Dhaka , both
Bangladesh . His father Ashutosh Sen was a professor of
Dhaka University who moved with his family to West Bengal
in 1945 and worked at various government institutions, including the
West Bengal Public Service Commission (of which he was the chairman),
Union Public Service Commission . Sen's mother Amita Sen was
the daughter of Kshiti Mohan Sen , a well-known scholar of ancient and
India and close associate of Rabindranath Tagore. He served
Vice Chancellor of
Visva-Bharati University for some years.
Sen began his high-school education at St Gregory\'s School in Dhaka
in 1940. From fall 1941, Sen studied at
Patha Bhavana , Santiniketan.
The school had many progressive features: at the school, any focus on
examinations or competitive testing was deeply frowned upon. In
addition, the school stressed cultural diversity, and embraced
influences from the rest of the world. In 1951, he went to Presidency
College, Kolkata , where he earned a B.A. in Economics with First
Class, with a minor in Mathematics, as a graduating student of the
University of Calcutta
University of Calcutta . While at Presidency, Sen was diagnosed with
oral cancer, and given a 15% chance of living five years. With
radiation treatment, he survived, and in 1953 he moved to Trinity
College, Cambridge , where he earned a second B.A. in Pure Economics
in 1955 with a First Class, topping the list as well. He was elected
President of the Cambridge Majlis. While Sen was officially a Ph.D
student at Cambridge (though he had finished his research in 1955-6),
he was offered the position of Professor and Head of the Economics
Department of the newly created
Jadavpur University in
Calcutta , and
he became the youngest chairman to head the Department of Economics.
He served in that position, starting the new Economics Department,
during 1956 to 1958.
Meanwhile, Sen was elected to a Prize Fellowship at Trinity College,
which gave him four years of freedom to do anything he liked; he made
the radical decision to study philosophy . Sen explained: "The
broadening of my studies into philosophy was important for me not just
because some of my main areas of interest in economics relate quite
closely to philosophical disciplines (for example, social choice
theory makes intense use of mathematical logic and also draws on moral
philosophy , and so does the study of inequality and deprivation), but
also because I found philosophical studies very rewarding on their
own". His interest in philosophy, however, dates back to his college
days at Presidency, where he read books on philosophy and debated
In Cambridge, there were major debates between supporters of
Keynesian economics on the one hand, and the "neo-classical"
economists skeptical of Keynes, on the other. However, because of a
lack of enthusiasm for social choice theory in both Trinity and
Cambridge, Sen had to choose a different subject for his Ph.D. thesis,
which was on "The Choice of Techniques " in 1959, though the work had
been completed much earlier (except for some valuable advice from his
adjunct supervisor in India, Professor
A.K. Dasgupta , given to Sen
while teaching and revising his work at Jadavpur) under the
supervision of the "brilliant but vigorously intolerant"
Joan Robinson .
Quentin Skinner notes that Sen was a
member of the secret society
Cambridge Apostles during his time at
Sen's work on 'Choice of Technique' complemented that of Maurice
Dobb. In a Developing country, the Dobb-Sen strategy relied on
maximising investible surpluses, maintaining constant real wages and
using the entire increase in labour productivity, due to technological
change, to raise the rate of accumulation. In other words, workers
were expected to demand no improvement in their standard of living
despite having become more productive. Sen's papers in the late 1960s
and early 1970s helped develop the theory of social choice , which
first came to prominence in the work by the American economist Kenneth
Arrow . Arrow, while working at the
RAND Corporation , had most
famously shown that when voters have three or more distinct
alternatives (options), any ranked order voting system will in at
least some situations inevitably conflict with what many assume to be
basic democratic norms. Sen's contribution to the literature was to
show under what conditions Arrow\'s impossibility theorem applied,
as well as to extend and enrich the theory of social choice, informed
by his interests in history of economic thought and philosophy.
Official Portrait at the
In 1981, Sen published Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement
and Deprivation (1981), a book in which he argued that famine occurs
not only from a lack of food, but from inequalities built into
mechanisms for distributing food. Sen also argued that the Bengal
famine was caused by an urban economic boom that raised food prices,
thereby causing millions of rural workers to starve to death when
their wages did not keep up.
Sen's interest in famine stemmed from personal experience. As a
nine-year-old boy, he witnessed the
Bengal famine of 1943
Bengal famine of 1943 , in which
three million people perished. This staggering loss of life was
unnecessary, Sen later concluded. He presents data that there was an
adequate food supply in Bengal at the time, but particular groups of
people including rural landless labourers and urban service providers
like haircutters did not have the means to buy food as its price rose
rapidly due to factors that include British military acquisition,
panic buying , hoarding, and price gouging , all connected to the war
in the region. In Poverty and Famines, Sen revealed that in many cases
of famine, food supplies were not significantly reduced. In Bengal,
for example, food production, while down on the previous year, was
higher than in previous non-famine years. Thus, Sen points to a number
of social and economic factors, such as declining wages, unemployment,
rising food prices, and poor food-distribution, which led to
starvation. His capabilities approach focuses on positive freedom , a
person's actual ability to be or do something, rather than on negative
freedom approaches, which are common in economics and simply focuses
on non-interference. In the Bengal famine, rural laborers' negative
freedom to buy food was not affected. However, they still starved
because they were not positively free to do anything, they did not
have the functioning of nourishment, nor the capability to escape
In addition to his important work on the causes of famines, Sen's
work in the field of development economics has had considerable
influence in the formulation of the "
Human Development Report ",
published by the
United Nations Development Programme
United Nations Development Programme . This annual
publication that ranks countries on a variety of economic and social
indicators owes much to the contributions by Sen among other social
choice theorists in the area of economic measurement of poverty and
Sen's revolutionary contribution to development economics and social
indicators is the concept of "capability " developed in his article
"Equality of What". He argues that governments should be measured
against the concrete capabilities of their citizens. This is because
top-down development will always trump human rights as long as the
definition of terms remains in doubt (is a "right" something that must
be provided or something that simply cannot be taken away?). For
instance, in the United States citizens have a hypothetical "right" to
vote. To Sen, this concept is fairly empty. In order for citizens to
have a capacity to vote, they first must have "functionings". These
"functionings" can range from the very broad, such as the availability
of education, to the very specific, such as transportation to the
polls . Only when such barriers are removed can the citizen truly be
said to act out of personal choice. It is up to the individual society
to make the list of minimum capabilities guaranteed by that society.
For an example of the "capabilities approach" in practice, see Martha
Nussbaum 's Women and Human Development.
He wrote a controversial article in The New York Review of Books
entitled "More Than 100 Million Women Are Missing" (see Missing women
of Asia ), analyzing the mortality impact of unequal rights between
the genders in the developing world, particularly Asia. Other studies,
including one by
Emily Oster , had argued that this is an
overestimation, though Oster has since then recanted her conclusions.
In 1998, Sen further advanced and redefined the capability approach
in his book
Development as Freedom . Sen argues that development
should be viewed as an effort to advance the real freedoms that
individuals enjoy, rather than simply focusing on metrics such as GDP
or income-per-capita. Sen was inspired by violent acts he had
witnessed as a child leading up to the Partition of
India in 1947. On
one morning, a Muslim laborer named Kader Mia stumbled through the
rear gate of Sen's family home, bleeding from a knife wound in his
back. Because of his extreme poverty, he had come to Sen's primarily
Hindu neighborhood searching for work; his choices were the starvation
of his family or the risk of death in coming to the neighborhood. The
price of Kader Mia's economic unfreedom was his death. This experience
led Sen to begin thinking about economic unfreedom from a young age.
In Development as Freedom, Sen outlines five specific types of
freedoms: political freedoms, economic facilities, social
opportunities, transparency guarantees, and protective security.
Political freedoms, the first of these, refers to the ability of the
people to have a voice in government and to be able to scrutinize the
authorities. Economic facilities concern both the resources within the
market and the market mechanism itself. Any focus on income and wealth
in the country would serve to increase the economic facilities for the
people. Social opportunities deal with the establishments that provide
benefits like healthcare or education for the populace, allowing
individuals to live better lives. Transparency guarantees allow
individuals to interact with some degree of trust and knowledge of the
interaction. Protective security is the system of social safety nets
that prevent a group affected by poverty being subjected to terrible
misery. Before Sen's work, these had been viewed as only the ends of
development; luxuries afforded to countries that focus on increasing
income. However, Sen argues that the increase in real freedoms should
be both the ends and the means of development.
Welfare economics seeks to evaluate economic policies in terms of
their effects on the well-being of the community. Sen, who devoted his
career to such issues, was called the "conscience of his profession".
His influential monograph Collective Choice and Social Welfare (1970),
which addressed problems related to individual rights (including
formulation of the liberal paradox ), justice and equity, majority
rule, and the availability of information about individual conditions,
inspired researchers to turn their attention to issues of basic
welfare. Sen devised methods of measuring poverty that yielded useful
information for improving economic conditions for the poor. For
instance, his theoretical work on inequality provided an explanation
for why there are fewer women than men in
China despite the
fact that in the West and in poor but medically unbiased countries,
women have lower mortality rates at all ages, live longer, and make a
slight majority of the population. Sen claimed that this skewed ratio
results from the better health treatment and childhood opportunities
afforded boys in those countries, as well as sex-selective abortions .
Governments and international organizations handling food crises were
influenced by Sen's work. His views encouraged policy makers to pay
attention not only to alleviating immediate suffering but also to
finding ways to replace the lost income of the poor—for example
through public works—and to maintain stable prices for food. A
vigorous defender of political freedom, Sen believed that famines do
not occur in functioning democracies because their leaders must be
more responsive to the demands of the citizens. In order for economic
growth to be achieved, he argued, social reforms—such as
improvements in education and public health—must precede economic
In 2009, Sen published a book called
The Idea of Justice . Based on
his previous work in welfare economics and social choice theory, but
also on his philosophical thoughts, he presented his own theory of
justice that he meant to be an alternative to the influential modern
theories of justice of
John Rawls or
John Harsanyi . In opposition to
Rawls but also earlier justice theoreticians
Immanuel Kant ,
Jean-Jacques Rousseau or
David Hume , and inspired by the
philosophical works of
Adam Smith and
Mary Wollstonecraft , Sen
developed a theory that is both comparative and realizations-oriented
(instead of being transcendental and institutional). However, he still
regards institutions and processes as being important. As an
alternative to Rawls's veil of ignorance , Sen chose the thought
experiment of an impartial spectator as the basis of his theory of
justice. He also stressed the importance of public discussion
(understanding democracy in the sense of
John Stuart Mill
John Stuart Mill ) and a
focus on people's capabilities (an approach that he had co-developed),
including the notion of universal human rights, in evaluating various
states with regard to justice.
Sen began his career both as a teacher and a research scholar in the
Department of Economics,
Jadavpur University . Between 1960 and 1961,
Sen was a visiting Professor at
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
in the United States, where he got to know
Paul Samuelson , Robert
Franco Modigliani , and
Norbert Wiener . He was also a
visiting Professor at UC-Berkeley and Cornell . He taught as Professor
of Economics between 1963 and 1971 at the Delhi School of Economics
(where he completed his magnum opus Collective Choice and Social
Welfare in 1969). During this time he was also a frequent visitor to
various other premiere Indian economic schools and centres of
Jawaharlal Nehru University , Indian Statistical
Centre for Development Studies , Gokhale Institute of
Politics and Economics and Centre for Studies in Social Sciences. Sen
was a companion of distinguished economists like Manmohan Singh
Prime Minister of
India and a veteran economist responsible for
liberalizing the Indian economy),
K. N. Raj (Advisor to various Prime
Ministers and a veteran economist who was the founder of Centre for
Development Studies , Trivandrum, which is one of India's premier
think tanks and schools) and
Jagdish Bhagwati (who is known to be one
of the greatest Indian economists in the field of International Trade
and currently teaches at
Columbia University ). This is a period
considered to be a Golden Period in the history of DSE. In 1972, he
London School of Economics
London School of Economics as a Professor of Economics
where he taught until 1977. From 1977 to 1986 he taught at the
University of Oxford
University of Oxford , where he was first a Professor of Economics and
Fellow of Nuffield College , and then the Drummond Professor of
Political Economy and a Fellow of All Souls College from 1980. In
1987, he joined Harvard as the Thomas W. Lamont University Professor
of Economics. In 1998 he was appointed as Master of Trinity College,
Cambridge, becoming the first Asian head of an
Oxbridge college. In
January 2004, Sen returned to Harvard. He also established the Eva
Colorni Trust at the former
London Guildhall University
London Guildhall University in the name of
his deceased wife.
In May 2007, he was appointed as chairman of Nalanda Mentor Group to
examine the framework of international cooperation, and proposed
structure of partnership, which would govern the establishment of
Nalanda International University Project as an international centre of
education seeking to revive the ancient center of higher learning
which was present in
India from the 5th century to 1197.
On 19 July 2012, Sen was named the first chancellor of the proposed
Nalanda University (NU). Teaching began in August 2014. On 20
Amartya Sen withdrew his candidature for a second term.
MEMBERSHIP AND ASSOCIATIONS
He has served as president of the
Econometric Society (1984), the
International Economic Association (1986–1989), the Indian Economic
Association (1989) and the
American Economic Association (1994). He
has also served as President of the Development Studies Association
Human Development and Capability Association . He serves as
the honorary director of the Academic Advisory Committee of the Center
for Human and Economic Development Studies at
Peking University in
Sen has been called "the Conscience of the profession" and "the
Mother Teresa of Economics" for his work on famine, human
development theory , welfare economics , the underlying mechanisms of
poverty, gender inequality , and political liberalism . However, he
denies the comparison to Mother Teresa, saying that he has never tried
to follow a lifestyle of dedicated self-sacrifice.
Amartya Sen also
added his voice to the campaign against the anti-gay Section 377 of
the Indian Penal Code .
Sen is also a member of the
Berggruen Institute 's 21st Century
MEDIA AND CULTURE
A 57-minute documentary named Amartya Sen: A Life Re-examined
Suman Ghosh details his life and work.
A 2001 portrait of Sen by Annabel Cullen is in Trinity College's
collection. A 2003 portrait of Sen hangs in the National Portrait
Gallery in London.
In 2011, he was present at the Rabindra Utsab ceremony at Bangabandhu
International Conference Centre (BICC),
Bangladesh . He unveiled the
cover of Sruti Gitobitan , a Rabindrasangeet album comprising all the
Tagore songs , brought out by
Rezwana Chowdhury Bannya ,
principal of Shurer Dhara School of Music .
Amartya Sen was critical of Indian
Narendra Modi when
he was announced as the prime ministerial candidate by the
BJP . In
April 2014, he said that Modi would not make a good Prime Minister.
But later in December 2014, he changed his views and said that
Narendra Modi did give people a sense of faith that things can happen.
In February 2015, Sen opted out of seeking a second term for the
chancellor post of
Nalanda University stating that the Government of
India was not keen on him continuing in the post.
PERSONAL LIFE AND BELIEFS
Sen has been married three times. His first wife was Nabaneeta Dev
Sen , an Indian writer and scholar, by whom he had two daughters:
Antara , a journalist and publisher, and Nandana , a Bollywood
actress. Their marriage broke up shortly after they moved to London in
1971. In 1978 Sen married Eva Colorni, an Italian economist, and the
couple had two children, a daughter Indrani, who is a journalist in
New York, and a son Kabir, a hip hop artist, MC, and music teacher at
Shady Hill School . Eva died of cancer in 1985. In 1991, Sen married
Emma Georgina Rothschild
Emma Georgina Rothschild , who serves as the Jeremy and Jane Knowles
Professor of History at Harvard University.
The Sens have a house in Cambridge ,
Massachusetts , which is the
base from which they teach during the academic year. They also have a
home in Cambridge, England, where Sen is a Fellow of Trinity College,
Cambridge, and Rothschild is a Fellow of Magdalene College . He
usually spends his winter holidays at his home in
Santiniketan in West
Bengal , India, where he used to go on long bike rides until recently.
Asked how he relaxes, he replies: "I read a lot and like arguing with
Sen is an atheist and holds that this can be associated with one of
the atheist schools in Hinduism , the Lokayata . In an interview
for the magazine California, which is published by the University of
California, Berkeley , he noted:
In some ways people had got used to the idea that
India was spiritual
and religion-oriented. That gave a leg up to the religious
interpretation of India, despite the fact that
Sanskrit had a larger
atheistic literature than exists in any other classical language .
Madhava Acharya , the remarkable 14th century philosopher, wrote this
rather great book called Sarvadarshansamgraha, which discussed all the
religious schools of thought within the Hindu structure. The first
chapter is “Atheism”—a very strong presentation of the argument
in favor of atheism and materialism .
AWARDS AND HONOURS
Sen has received over 90 honorary degrees from universities around
Adam Smith Prize , 1954
* Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and
Sciences , 1981
* Honorary fellowship by the
Institute of Social Studies , 1984
Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences , 1998
Bharat Ratna , the highest civilian award in India, 1999
* Honorary citizenship of
Bangladesh , 1999
* Order of
Companion of Honour
Companion of Honour , UK, 2000
* Leontief Prize, 2000
* Eisenhower Medal for Leadership and Service , 2000
* 351st Commencement Speaker of
Harvard University , 2001
* International Humanist Award from the International Humanist and
Ethical Union , 2002
* Lifetime Achievement Award by the Indian Chamber of Commerce, 2004
* Life Time Achievement award by Bangkok-based United Nations
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP)
* Honorary degree,
University of Pavia , 2005
National Humanities Medal , 2011
Order of the Aztec Eagle , 2012
Chevalier of the French
Legion of Honour
Legion of Honour , 2013
* 25 Greatest Global Living Legends In
India by NDTV, 2013
* Top 100 thinkers who have defined our century by The New Republic
John Maynard Keynes
John Maynard Keynes Prize, 2015
Johan Skytte Prize in Political Science , 2017
* Sen, Amartya (1960). Choice of Techniques: An Aspect of the Theory
of Planned Economic Development. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
* Sen, Amartya (1997) . On Economic Inequality (expanded ed.).
Oxford New York: Clarendon Press Oxford University Press. ISBN
* Sen, Amartya (1982). Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement
and Deprivation. Oxford New York: Clarendon Press Oxford University
Press. ISBN 9780198284635 .
* Sen, Amartya; Williams, Bernard (1982). Utilitarianism and beyond.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780511611964 .
* Sen, Amartya (1983). Choice, Welfare, and Measurement. Oxford:
Basil Blackwell. ISBN 9780631137962 .
Reprinted as: Sen, Amartya (1999). Choice, Welfare, and
Measurement. Cambridge, Massachusetts:
Harvard University Press. ISBN
9780674127784 . Reviewed in the Social Scientist: Sanyal, Amal
(October 1983). ""Choice, welfare and measurement" by Amartya Sen".
Social Scientist. 11 (10): 49–56. doi :10.2307/3517043 .
* Sen, Amartya (1970). Collective Choice and Social Welfare (1st
ed.). San Francisco, California: Holden-Day. ISBN 9780816277650 .
Reprinted as: Sen, Amartya (1984). Collective Choice and Social
Welfare (2nd ed.). New York, NY: North-Holland Sole distributors for
the U.S.A. and Canada,
Elsevier Science Publishing Co. ISBN
* Sen, Amartya (1997). Resources, Values, and Development.
Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674765269
* Sen, Amartya (1985). Commodities and Capabilities (1st ed.). New
York, NY: North-Holland Sole distributors for the U.S.A. and Canada,
Elsevier Science Publishing Co. ISBN 9780444877307 .
Reprinted as: Sen, Amartya (1999). Commodities and Capabilities
(2nd ed.). Delhi New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195650389
. Reviewed in The Economic Journal.
* Sen, Amartya; McMurrin, Sterling M. (1986). The Tanner lectures on
human values. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press. ISBN
* Sen, Amartya (1987). On Ethics and Economics. New York, NY: Basil
Blackwell. ISBN 9780631164012 .
* Sen, Amartya; Drèze, Jean (1989). Hunger and public action.
Oxford England New York: Clarendon Press Oxford University Press. ISBN
* Sen, Amartya (1992). Inequality Reexamined. New York Oxford New
York: Russell Sage Foundation Clarendon Press Oxford University Press.
ISBN 9780198289289 .
Also printed as: Sen, Amartya (November 2003). "Inequality
Reexamined". Oxford Scholarship Online. Oxford University Press. doi
:10.1093/0198289286.001.0001 . Extract 1. (Via Ian Stoner, lecturer,
Department of Philosophy, University of Minnesota, readings.) Extract
* Sen, Amartya; Nussbaum, Martha (1993). The Quality of Life. Oxford
England New York: Clarendon Press Oxford University Press. ISBN
* Sen, Amartya; Foster, James E. (1997). On economic inequality.
Radcliffe Lectures. Oxford New York: Clarendon Press Oxford University
Press. ISBN 9780198281931 .
* Sen, Amartya; Drèze, Jean (1998). India, economic development and
social opportunity. Oxford England New York: Clarendon Press Oxford
University Press. ISBN 9780198295280 .
* Sen, Amartya; Suzumura, Kōtarō ; Arrow, Kenneth J. (1996).
Social Choice Re-examined: Proceedings of the IEA conference held at
Schloss Hernstein, Berndorf, near Vienna, Austria. 2 (1st ed.). New
York, NY: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 9780312127398 .
* Sen, Amartya (1999).
Development as Freedom . New York: Oxford
University Press. ISBN 9780198297581 .
Review in Asia Times.
* Sen, Amartya (2000). Freedom, Rationality, and Social Choice: The
Arrow Lectures and Other Essays. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN
* Sen, Amartya (2002). Rationality and Freedom. Cambridge, MA:
Belknap Press. ISBN 9780674013513 .
* Sen, Amartya; Suzumura, Kōtarō ; Arrow, Kenneth J. (2002).
Handbook of social choice and welfare. Amsterdam Boston: Elsevier.
ISBN 9780444829146 .
Chapter-preview links – 1. Chapter-preview links – 2.
* Sen, Amartya (2005). The Argumentative Indian: Writings on Indian
History, Culture, and Identity. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
ISBN 9780312426026 .
Review The Guardian. Review The Washington Post.
* Sen, Amartya (2006). Identity and Violence: The Illusion of
Destiny. Issues of our time. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. ISBN
* Sen, Amartya (31 December 2007). Imperial Illusions. Washington
D.C. / Online:
The New Republic
The New Republic .
Extract: "Imperial illusions: India, Britain, and the wrong
* Sen, Amartya; Zamagni, Stefano ; Scazzieri, Roberto (2008).
Markets, money and capital: Hicksian economics for the twenty-first
century. Cambridge, UK New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN
* Sen, Amartya (2010).
The Idea of Justice . London: Penguin. ISBN
* Sen, Amartya; Stiglitz, Joseph E. ; Fitoussi, Jean-Paul (2010).
Mismeasuring our lives: why GDP doesn't add up: the report. New York:
New Press Distributed by Perseus Distribution. ISBN 9781595585196 .
* Sen, Amartya (2011). Peace and Democratic Society. Cambridge, UK:
Open Book Publishers. ISBN 9781906924393 .
* Drèze, Jean and Sen, Amartya. 2013. An Uncertain Glory: The
Contradictions of Modern India. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 9781846147616
* Sen, Amartya. 2015. The Country of First Boys: And Other Essays.
OUP India. ISBN 0198738188 .
CHAPTERS IN BOOKS
* Sen, Amartya (1980), "Equality of what? (lecture delivered at
Stanford University, 22 May 1979)", in MacMurrin, Sterling M., The
Tanner lectures on human values, 1 (1st ed.), Salt Lake City, Utah:
University of Utah Press, ISBN 9780874801781 .
Reprinted as: Sen, Amartya (2010), "Equality of what?", in
MacMurrin, Sterling M., The Tanner lectures on human values, 4 (2nd
ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 195–220, ISBN
9780521176415 . Pdf version.
* Sen, Amartya (1988), "The concept of development", in Srinivasan,
T.N. ; Chenery, Hollis , Handbook of development economics, 1,
Amsterdam New York New York, N.Y., U.S.A: North-Holland Sole
distributors for the U.S.A. and Canada,
Elsevier Science Publishing
Co., pp. 2–23, ISBN 9780444703378 .
* Sen, Amartya (2004), "Capability and well-being", in Nussbaum,
Martha ; Sen, Amartya, The quality of life, New York: Routledge, pp.
30–53, ISBN 9780415934411 .
* Sen, Amartya (2004), "Development as capability expansion", in
Kumar, A. K. Shiva ; Fukuda-Parr, Sakiko , Readings in human
development: concepts, measures and policies for a development
paradigm, New Delhi New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN
Reprinted in Sen, Amartya (2012), "Development as capability
expansion", in Saegert, Susan ; DeFilippis, James, The community
development reader, New York: Routledge, ISBN 9780415507769 .
* Sen, Amartya (2008), ""Justice" - definition", in Durlauf, Steven
N. ; Blume, Lawrence E., The new Palgrave dictionary of economics (8
volume set) (2nd ed.), Basingstoke, Hampshire New York: Palgrave
Macmillan, ISBN 9780333786765 . See also: The New Palgrave Dictionary
of Economics .
* Sen, Amartya (2008), ""Social choice" - definition", in Durlauf,
Steven N. ; Blume, Lawrence E., The new Palgrave dictionary of
economics (8 volume set) (2nd ed.), Basingstoke, Hampshire New York:
Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 9780333786765 . See also: The New Palgrave
Dictionary of Economics .
* Sen, Amartya (1962). "An aspect of Indian agriculture". Economic
and Political Weekly (formerly The Economic Weekly). Sameeksha Trust.
14: 243–246. Pdf version.
* Sen, Amartya (Jan–Feb 1970). "The impossibility of a paretian
Journal of Political Economy . University of Chicago Press
via JSTOR. 78 (1): 152–157. doi :10.2307/1829633 . Pdf version.
* Sen, Amartya (March 1976). "Poverty: An ordinal approach to
Econometrica . The
Econometric Society via JSTOR. 44
(2): 219–231. doi :10.2307/1912718 . Pdf version.
* Sen, Amartya (September 1979). "Utilitarianism and welfarism". The
Philosophy . Journal of Philosophy, Inc. via JSTOR. 76 (9):
463–489. doi :10.2307/2025934 .
* Sen, Amartya (1986). "Chapter 22
Social choice theory". Handbook
of Mathematical Economics.
Elsevier ScienceDirect. 3: 1073–1181. doi
* Sen, Amartya (20 December 1990). "More than 100 million women are
The New York Review of Books . NY Rev Inc.
* Sen, Amartya (7 March 1992). "Missing women: social inequality
outweighs women\'s survival advantage in Asia and North Africa".
British Medical Journal
British Medical Journal . BMJ. 304 (6827): 587–588. PMC 1881324 .
PMID 1559085 . doi :10.1136/bmj.304.6827.587 . Pdf version.
* Sen, Amartya (May 2005). "The three R\'s of reform". Economic and
Political Weekly . Sameeksha Trust. 40 (19): 1971–1974.
* Sen, Amartya (8 December 1998), The possibility of social choice,
Trinity College, Cambridge, UK (Nobel lecture) (PDF), Sweden: Nobel
Media AB (Nobel Prize).
* Sen, Amartya (1999), Reason before identity, Oxford New York:
Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780199513895 .
News coverage of the 1998 Romanes Lecture in the Oxford University
* Sen, Amartya (February 1986), Food, economics and entitlements
(wider working paper 1), 1986/01, Helsinki: UNU-WIDER.
SELECTED WORKS IN PERSIAN
Also a list of Persian translations of Amartya Sen's work is
* Other Publications on Google Scholar.
* The equality of autonomy , a concept of equality posed by Sen
Human Development Index
Human Development Index
List of feminist economists
Kerala model , an expression or concept invented and
introduced by Sen
* ^ A B Sen, Amartya (2010). The idea of justice. London: Penguin.
ISBN 9780141037851 .
* ^ Deneulin, Séverine (2009). "Book reviews: Intellectual roots
of Amartya Sen: Aristotle,
Adam Smith and Karl Marx". Journal of Human
Development and Capabilities. Taylor and Francis. 10 (2): 305–306.
doi :10.1080/19452820902941628 .
* ^ "President Obama Awards 2011 National Humanities Medals".
National Endowment for the Humanities
National Endowment for the Humanities . 13 December 2012. Retrieved 16
* ^ "University Professorships - Harvard University". Harvard
University . Retrieved 3 December 2016.
* ^ "Indian Nobel laureate
Amartya Sen honoured in US". The British
Broadcasting Corporation . Retrieved 5 March 2017.
* ^ "
Amartya Sen awarded the 2017 Johan Skytte Prize". Johan Skytte
Prize in Political Science . Retrieved 22 April 2017.
* ^ "
Amartya Sen - Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved
* ^ Al Jazeera English (2010-08-21), One on One - Amartya Sen,
* ^ "
Amartya Sen – Biographical:
Philosophy and economics". The
Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel
1998. Nobel Prize. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
* ^ "
Amartya Sen – Biographical: Cambridge as a battleground".
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred
Nobel 1998. Nobel Prize. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
* ^ Professor
Quentin Skinner and Alan Macfarlane (2 June 2008).
Interview of Professor
Quentin Skinner – part 2 (Video). Cambridge:
YouTube. 57:55 minutes in.
* ^ Benicourt, Emmanuelle (1 September 2002). "Is
Amartya Sen a
post-autistic economist?". Post-Autistic Economics Review.
Post-Autistic Economics PAECON (15): article 4. Retrieved 16 June
* ^ Sachs, Jeffrey (26 October 1998). "The real causes of famine: a
Nobel laureate blames authoritarian rulers". Time Magazine. Retrieved
16 June 2014.
* ^ United Nations Development Programme, UNDP , ed. (2010).
"Overview Celebrating 20 years of human development". Human
Development Report 2010 20th anniversary edition the real wealth
of nations: pathways to human development. New York, NY: United
Nations Development Programme. p. 2. ISBN 9780230284456 . ...the first
HDR called for a different approach to economics and development –
one that put people at the centre. The approach was anchored in a new
vision of development, inspired by the creative passion and vision of
Mahbub ul Haq, the lead author of the early HDRs, and the
ground-breaking work of Amartya Sen. Pdf version.
* ^ Batterbury, Simon; Fernando, Jude (2004), "Amartya Sen", in
Hubbard, Phil; Kitchin, Rob; Valentine, Gill, Key thinkers on space
and place, London: Sage, pp. 251–257, ISBN 9780761949626 . Draft
* ^ Sen, Amartya (2010), "Equality of what?", in MacMurrin,
Sterling M., The Tanner lectures on human values, 4 (2nd ed.),
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 195–220, ISBN
978-0521176415 . Pdf version.
* ^ Nussbaum, Martha (2000). Women and human development: the
capabilities approach. Cambridge New York: Cambridge University Press.
ISBN 9780521003858 .
* ^ Oster, Emily ; Chen, Gang (May 2008), Hepatitis B does not
explain male-biased sex ratios in China, NBER Working Paper No. 13971,
Cambridge, Massachusetts: National Bureau of Economic Research. Pdf
* ^ Sen, Amartya (1998). Development as Freedom. Anchor. ISBN
* ^ Sen, Amartya (27 October – 9 November 2001). "Many Faces of
Gender Inequality". Frontline. The Hindu. 18 (22).
* ^ "
Amartya Sen Indian economist". Encyclopædia Britannica.
* ^ "
Amartya Sen Biographical: opening paragraph". The Sveriges
Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1998.
Nobel Prize. Retrieved 12 June 2012.
* ^ "
Amartya Sen Biographical: Delhi School of Economics". The
Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel
1998. Nobel Prize. Retrieved 12 June 2012.
* ^ "Prof. Amartya Sen". Trinity College, Cambridge. University of
Cambridge. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
* ^ Tonkin, Boyd (5 July 2013). "Amartya Sen: The taste of true
freedom". Retrieved 19 July 2015.
* ^ "Ministry of External Affairs, Press Release: Nalanda
University Bill". Press Information Bureau, Government of India. 11
August 2010. Retrieved 4 January 2012. The University of Nalanda is
proposed to be established under the aegis of the East Asia Summit
(EAS), as a regional initiative. Government of
India constituted a
Nalanda Mentor Group (NMG) in 2007, under the Chairmanship of Prof.
* ^ Ahmad, Faizan (20 July 2012). "
Amartya Sen named Nalanda
University chancellor". The Times Of India. India. Retrieved 16 June
* ^ "People: Key committees 1. Academic Advisory Committee,
Honorary Director: Amartya Sen". Center for Human and Economic
Development Studies (CHEDS), Peking University. Retrieved 19 July
* ^ A B C D Steele, Jonathan (19 April 2001). "The Guardian
Profile: Amartya Sen". London: The Guardian Culture Books.
Retrieved 7 January 2012.
* ^ Coy, Peter (25 October 1998). "Commentary: The
Mother Teresa of
economics". New York: Businessweek. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
* ^ Bill, Dunlop (31 August 2010). "Book Festival: Amartya Sen,
Nobel prize-winning welfare economist". Edinburgh: Edinburgh Guide.
Retrieved 16 June 2014.
* ^ Ramesh, Randeep (18 September 2006). "India\'s literary elite
call for anti-gay law to be scrapped". The Guardian. London. Retrieved
16 June 2014.
* ^ "Berggruen Institute".
* ^ Producer/director:
Suman Ghosh Narrator: Victor Banerjee
(2003). Amartya Sen: A Life Reexamined, A Film (DVD). Brooklyn, New
York: First Run/Icarus Films. Icarus Films newsletter.
* ^ Gupta, Aparajita (1 January 2012). "Nobel laureate\'s life on
silver screen". The Times of
India . Retrieved 2 January 2012.
* ^ Artist: Annabel Cullen Subject:
Amartya Sen (2001). Amartya
Sen (b.1933), Master (1998–2004), Economist and Philosopher
(Painting). Trinity College, University of Cambridge:
Paintings Collection: Trinity College, University of Cambridge.
* ^ Artist: Antony Williams Subject:
Amartya Sen (2003). Amartya
Sen (Painting). National Portrait Gallery, London.
* ^ "
Narendra Modi is not a good PM candidate: Amartya Sen". NDTV.
* ^ "
Narendra Modi did give people a sense of faith that things can
happen". Indian Express.
* ^ "
Amartya Sen Quits Nalanda".
* ^ Sen, Amartya (23 November 2001). "A world not neatly divided".
New York: New York Times Opinion. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
* ^ "
Amartya Sen speaks on culture at World Bank". Tokyo: The World
Bank News & Broadcast. 13 December 2000. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
When a Hindu priest begins the puja today, invoking an alternative
calendar and declaring the year 1406, what is he remembering?
Mohamed’s flight from Mecca to Medina, in a mixed lunar and solar
form! ... This is why cultural studies are so important, because it
brings out clearly how non-insular cultures are and their willingness
to accept new influences. Pdf transcript.
* ^ Chanda, Arup (28 December 1998). "Market economy not the
panacea, says Sen". Rediff On The Net. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
Although this is a personal matter... But the answer to your question
is: No. I do not believe in god.
* ^ Bardhan, Pranab (July–August 2006). "The arguing Indian".
California Magazine. Cal Alumni Association UC Berkeley. Retrieved 16
* ^ "Curriculum Vitae: Amartya Sen" (PDF). Harvard University.
January 2013. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
* ^ "Chapter "S"", Members of the American Academy of Arts &
Sciences: 1780–2013, Cambridge, Massachusetts: American Academy of
Arts & Sciences, 2013, p. 498, retrieved 16 June 2014.
* ^ "Professor
Amartya Sen receives awards from the governments of
France and Mexico".
Harvard University Department of Economics
News. 18 December 2012. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
* ^ "
Chevalier de la légion d’honneur à M. Amartya SEN" (Given
by Fabien Fieschi, Consul General of France in the USA). 27 November
2012. Retrieved 24 June 2017.
* ^ Ghosh, Deepshikha (14 December 2013). "If you get an honour you
think you don\'t deserve, it\'s still very pleasant: Amartya Sen". New
Delhi: NDTV. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
* ^ Express, Indian (10 February 2015). "
Amartya Sen wins new UK
award". London: Indian Express. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
* ^ Sugden, Robert (September 1986). ""Commodities and
Capabilities" by Amartya Sen". The Economic Journal. 96 (383):
820–822. doi :10.2307/2232999 .
* ^ Mathur, Piyush (31 October 2003). "Revisiting a classic
"Development as Freedom" by Amartya Sen". Asia Times Online. Retrieved
15 June 2014.
* ^ Mishra, Pankaj (9 July 2005). "In defence of reason (book
review)". London: The Guardian Books. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
* ^ Tharoor, Shashi (16 October 2005). "A passage to India".
Washington Post . Retrieved 10 July 2013.
* ^ Sen, Amartya (17 December 1998). "Reason must always come
before identity, says Sen". University of Oxford. Retrieved 14 June
* Forman-Barzilai, Fonna (2012), "Taking a broader view of humanity:
an interview with Amartya Sen.", in Browning, Gary; Dimova-Cookson,
Maria; Prokhovnik, Raia , Dialogues with contemporary political
theorists, Houndsmill, Basingstoke, Hampshire New York: Palgrave
Macmillan, pp. 170–180, ISBN 9780230303058
* Various (2003). "
Special issue, on Amartya Sen". Feminist
Taylor and Francis
Taylor and Francis . 9 (2–3).
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