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Alma mater
Alma mater
(Latin: alma "nourishing/kind", mater "mother"; pl. [rarely used] almae matres) is an allegorical Latin
Latin
phrase for a university or college. In English, this is largely a U.S. usage referring to a school or university from which an individual has graduated or to a song or hymn associated with a school.[1] The phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students.[2] Fine arts will often depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, Alma mater
Alma mater
was an honorific title for various Latin
Latin
mother goddesses, especially Ceres or Cybele,[3] and later in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary. It entered academic usage when the University
University
of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum ("nurturing mother of studies"), which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world[4]. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that literally means a "nursling" or "one who is nourished".[5]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Special
Special
usage 3 Monuments 4 References 5 External links

Etymology[edit]

John Legate's Alma Mater for Cambridge in 1600

Although alma (nourishing) was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele, Venus, and other mother goddesses, it was not frequently used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin.[6] In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess:

Denique caelesti sumus omnes semine oriundi omnibus ille idem pater est, unde alma liquentis umoris guttas mater cum terra recepit (2.991–93)

We are all sprung from that celestial seed, all of us have same father, from whom earth, the nourishing mother, receives drops of liquid moisture

After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary. "Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary.[6] The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University
University
of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press.[7][8] The device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin
Latin
phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia ("nourishing mother Cambridge") is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown.[9][10] In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is often cited in 1710, when an academic mother-figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More
Henry More
by Richard Ward.[11][12] Special
Special
usage[edit] Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin
Latin
translation of their official name. The University
University
of Bologna Latin
Latin
name, Alma Mater Studiorum (nourishing mother of studies), refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, Poland, have similarly used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics. At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts
European Academy of Sciences and Arts
in 2010, uses the term as its official name In the United States, the College
College
of William & Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding.[13] At Queen's University
University
in Kingston, Ontario, and the University
University
of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society. Monuments[edit]

Alma Mater (1929, Lorado Taft), University
University
of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign

The ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant (e.g., at the Palatine Hill
Palatine Hill
in Rome). Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library; the University
University
of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign also has an Alma Mater statue by Lorado Taft. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences. Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, and it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero.[14] References[edit]

^ "Alma mater" at Dictionary.com. Retrieved July 11, 2011. ^ Ayto, John (2005). Word Origins (2nd ed.). London: A&C Black. ISBN 9781408101605. Retrieved 18 May 2015.  ^ Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd edition ^ "Our history - University
University
of Bologna". Unibo.it. Retrieved 8 November 2017.  ^ Cresswell, Julia (2010). Oxford Dictionary of Word Origins. Oxford University
University
Press. p. 12. Retrieved 18 May 2015.  ^ a b Sollors, Werner (1986). Beyond Ethnicity: Consent and Descent in American Culture. Oxford University
University
Press. p. 78. ISBN 9780198020721.  ^ Stokes, Henry Paine (1919). Cambridge stationers, printers, bookbinders, &c. Cambridge: Bowes & Bowes. p. 12. Retrieved 18 May 2015.  ^ Roberts, S. C. (1921). A History of the Cambridge University
University
Press 1521-1921. Cambridge: Cambridge University
University
Press. Retrieved 18 May 2015.  ^ Stubbings, Frank H. (1995). Bedders, Bulldogs and Bedells: A Cambridge Glossary (2nd ed.). p. 39.  ^ Perkins, William (1600). A Golden Chaine: Or, the Description of Theologie, containing the order and causes of salvation and damnation, according to God's word. Cambridge: University
University
of Cambridge. Retrieved 18 May 2015.  ^ Harper, Douglas. "Alma mater". Online Etymological Dictionary. Retrieved 18 May 2015.  ^ Ward, Richard (1710). The Life of the Learned and Pious Dr. Henry More, Late Fellow of Christ's College
College
in Cambridge. London: Joseph Downing. p. 148. Retrieved 18 May 2015.  ^ "William & Mary – History & Traditions". wm.edu.  ^ Cremata Ferrán, Mario. "Dos rostros, dos estatuas habaneras". Opus Habana. Retrieved 21 January 2015. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Alma mater
Alma mater
at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mate

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