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Allahabad
Allahabad
(/əˈlɑːhəbɑːd/ ( listen), local Hindustani pronunciation: [ɪlaːɦˈbaːd̪]), or Prayag
Prayag
(/prəˈjɑːɡ/) is a large metropolitan city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
and the administrative headquarters of Allahabad
Allahabad
District, the most populous district in the state and 13th most populous district in India, and the Allahabad
Allahabad
Division. Allahabad
Allahabad
is the oldest living city in India
India
after Varanasi. The city is the Judicial capital of Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
with Allahabad
Allahabad
High Court being the highest judicial body in the state. As of 2011, Allahabad
Allahabad
is the seventh most populous city in the state, twelfth in the Northern India
India
and thirty-sixth in India, with an estimated population of 1.11 million in the city and 1.21 million in its metropolitan region.[7][8] In 2011 it was ranked the world's 40th fastest-growing city.[9][10] Allahabad, in 2016, was also ranked the third most liveable city in the state (after Noida
Noida
and Lucknow) and sixteen in the country.[11] A 2016 report of the World Health Organization
World Health Organization
found Allahabad
Allahabad
to be the third-most air-polluted city in the world and the second-most polluted city in India.[12] The city's original name – Prayag, or "place of offerings" – comes from its position at the Sangam (confluence) of the Ganga, Yamuna
Yamuna
and Sarasvati rivers. It plays a central role in Hindu
Hindu
scriptures. Allahabad
Allahabad
was originally called Kaushambi (now a separate district) by the Kuru rulers of Hastinapur, who developed it as their capital. Since then, the city has been a political, cultural and administrative centre of the Doab
Doab
region. In the early 17th century, Allahabad
Allahabad
was a provincial capital in the Moghul Empire
Moghul Empire
under the reign of Jahangir.[13] Akbarnama
Akbarnama
mentions that the Mughal emperor
Mughal emperor
Akbar
Akbar
founded a great city in Prayag. `Abd al-Qadir Bada'uni
`Abd al-Qadir Bada'uni
and Nizamuddin Ahmad mention that Akbar
Akbar
laid the foundations of an Imperial City at Prayag
Prayag
which he called Ilahabas.[14] He was said to be impressed by its strategic location and built a fort there, later renaming it Ilahabas by 1584 which was changed to Allahabad
Allahabad
by Shah Jahan. It is also thought to have been named after the legendary Alha.[15] Other accounts attribute the renaming to Jahangir, to having been named after ilaha (the gods) instead of Allah
Allah
or both.[16] In 1580, Akbar
Akbar
created the " Subah of Ilahabas".[17] mid-1600, Salim had made abortive attempt to seize Agra's treasury and came to Allahabad, seizing its treasury and setting himself up as a virtually independent ruler.[18] He was howver reconciled with Akbar
Akbar
and returned to Allahabad
Allahabad
where he stayed before returning to the royal court in 1604.[19] In 1833 it became the seat of the Ceded and Conquered Provinces
Ceded and Conquered Provinces
region before its capital was moved to Agra
Agra
in 1835.[20][better source needed] Allahabad
Allahabad
became the capital of the North-Western Provinces
North-Western Provinces
in 1858, and was the capital of India for a day.[21] The city was the capital of the United Provinces from 1902[21] to 1920[22] and remained at the forefront of national importance during the struggle for Indian independence.[23] Located in southern Uttar Pradesh, the city's metropolitan area covers 70.5 km2 (27.22 sq miles).[24] Although the city and its surrounding area are governed by several municipalities, a large portion of Allahabad District
Allahabad District
is governed by the Allahabad
Allahabad
City Council. The city is home to colleges, research institutions and 2 dozen central and state government offices. Allahabad
Allahabad
has hosted cultural and sporting events, including Kumbh Mela
Kumbh Mela
and the Indira Marathon. Although the city's economy was built on tourism, most of its income now derives from real estate and financial services.This is 2nd most revenue providing district in Uttar Pradesh.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Antiquity 1.2 Early medieval period 1.3 Mughal rule 1.4 Nawabs of Awadh 1.5 British rule 1.6 Post-independence

2 Triveni Sangam
Triveni Sangam
at Allahabad 3 Geography

3.1 Cityscape

3.1.1 Ghats

3.2 Topography 3.3 Climate 3.4 Biodiversity

4 Demographics 5 Administration and politics

5.1 General Administration 5.2 Police Administration 5.3 Infrastructure and Civic Administration 5.4 Politics

6 Economy 7 Transportation and utilities

7.1 Air Transport 7.2 Railways 7.3 Roads 7.4 Allahabad
Allahabad
Metro

8 Smart City 9 Projects 10 Education 11 Culture

11.1 Literature 11.2 Entertainment and recreation 11.3 Media 11.4 Sports

12 See also 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of Allahabad See also: Timeline of Allahabad history

Allahabad
Allahabad
Fort, built by Akbar
Akbar
in 1575

Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
at a January 1940 Congress Working Committee
Congress Working Committee
meeting with Vallabhbhai Patel
Vallabhbhai Patel
and Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit
Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit
at Anand Bhavan
Anand Bhavan
in Allahabad

Antiquity[edit] The city was earlier known as Prayāga, a name still commonly used. Prayāga existed during the Vedic period, and is mentioned in the Veda as the location where Brahma
Brahma
(the Hindu
Hindu
creator of the universe) attended a ritual sacrifice.[25] Excavations have revealed Northern Black Polished Ware dating to 600–700 BCE.[25] The Puranas
Puranas
record that Yayati
Yayati
left Prayaga and conquered the region of Saptha Sindhu.[26] His five sons (Yadu, Druhyu, Puru, Anu and Turvashu) founded the main tribes of the Rigveda.[27] Lord Rama, the protagonist of the Ramayana, spent time at the Ashram of Sage Bharadwaj
Bharadwaj
before travelling to nearby Chitrakoot.[28] When the Aryans first settled in what they called the Āryāvarta
Āryāvarta
(or Madhyadesha), Allahabad
Allahabad
(then Kaushambi) was an important part of their territory.[29] The Kurus, rulers of Hastinapur
Hastinapur
(near present-day Delhi), established the town of Kaushambi near Allahabad.[30] They shifted their capital to Kaushambi when Hastinapur
Hastinapur
was destroyed by floods.[29] The Doab
Doab
region, which includes Allahabad, was controlled by a succession of empires and dynasties.[31] The area became part of the Maurya and Gupta Empires from the east and the Kushan Empire
Kushan Empire
from the west before being governed by Kannauj
Kannauj
during the 15th century.[29] The city was the site of Maratha
Maratha
incursions before India
India
was colonised.[31] Early medieval period[edit] Xuanzang
Xuanzang
described Prayag
Prayag
as a large city between two branches of the river. He adds that there was a large Deva temple and before its hall was a great tree, near which human bones of people who used to commit suicide by jumping from it in belief of going to heaven. Alexander Cunningham believes the tree described by him was the Akshayavat
Akshayavat
tree and probably still existed at the time of Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
who called it the "tree of Prayag", with the practice of jumping from it to commit suicide still continuing by his time. The rest of Prayag's history up to the Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Akbar
Akbar
isn't much known.[32] In contrast to the account of Xuanzang, the Muslim
Muslim
historians mention the tree to be located at the confluence of the rivers. The historian Dr. D. B. Dubey states that it appears that between this period, the sandy plain was washed away by the Ganga, to an extent that the temple and tree seen by the Chinese traveller too was washed away, with the river later changing its course to the east and the confluence shifting to the place where Akbar
Akbar
laid the foundations of his fort.[33] As the majority of the houses would have been mud-walled, a flood could easily destroy them. Cunningham's conclusion in his reports on the Archaeological Survey also supports the assumption, "I infer that during the long period that intervened between the time of Hiuen Tsang and that of Akbar, the two rivers gradually carried away the whole of the sandy plain. Long before this time, the old city had, no doubt, been deserted, for we know that the fort of Allahabad
Allahabad
was founded on its site."[34] Dilip Kumar Chakrabarti
Dilip Kumar Chakrabarti
however disagrees. While he states that there is no way modern Prayag
Prayag
is ancient, but the city site of Jhusi
Jhusi
located opposite of the confluence was the ancient settlement of Prayag.[35] Henry Miers Elliot
Henry Miers Elliot
believed that a town existed before Allahabad
Allahabad
was founded. He adds that after Mahmud of Ghazni
Mahmud of Ghazni
captured Asní near Fatehpur, he couldn't have crossed into Bundelkhand
Bundelkhand
without visiting Prayag
Prayag
had there been a city worth plundering. He further adds that its capture should have been heard when Muhammad of Ghor
Muhammad of Ghor
captured Benares. However, Ghori's historians never noticed it. Akbarnama mentions that the Mughal emperor
Mughal emperor
Akbar
Akbar
founded a great city in Prayag. `Abd al-Qadir Bada'uni
`Abd al-Qadir Bada'uni
and Nizamuddin Ahmad mention that Akbar
Akbar
laid the foundations of an Imperial City at Prayag
Prayag
which he called Ilahabas.[14] Mughal rule[edit] Between 1574 and 1583, Akbar's fort was built. Akbarnama
Akbarnama
states that, "For a long time [Akbar's] desire was to found a great city in the town of Piyag, where the rivers Ganges
Ganges
and Jamna join, and which is regarded by the people of India
India
with great reverence, and which is a place of pilgrimage for ascetics of that country, and to build a choice fort there." He had been impressed with its strategic position, as it sat on the confluence of Ganga
Ganga
and Yamuna, with the fort allowing for any movement along both. Other writers also attribute it to the facilitate the collection of pilgrimage tax from those visiting Triveni, though this appears unlikely as he had already abolished it in 1563.[36] It is said that Akbar
Akbar
was so impressed by its strategic site after visiting it in 1575 that he ordered that a fort be costructed and renamed it Ilahabas or "Abode of God" by 1584, later changed to Allahabad
Allahabad
under Shah Jahan. Speculations regarding its name however exist. Because of the surrounding people calling it Alhabas, has led to some people holding the view that it was named after Alha
Alha
from Alha's story and was renamed by Akbar
Akbar
in the interest of Islam.[15] James Forbes' account of early 1800s claims that it was renamed Allahabad
Allahabad
or "abode of God" by Jahangir
Jahangir
after he failed to destroy the Akshayabat tree. The name however predates him, with Ilahabas and Ilahabad mentioned on coins minted in the city since Akbar's rule, the latter name became predominant after the emperor's death. It has also been thought to not have been named after Allah
Allah
but ilaha (the gods). Shaligram Shrivastv claimed in Prayag
Prayag
Pradip that the name was deliberately given by Akbar
Akbar
to be construed as both Hindu
Hindu
("ilaha") and Muslim
Muslim
("Allah").[16] In 1580, Akbar
Akbar
reorganized his empire into 12 divisions, per Ain-i-Akbari, "to each of which he gave the name Subah and distinguished them by the appelation of the tract of country or its capital city." He combined the provinces of Jaunpur, Kara-Manikpur and territory of Bandhogarh into the " Subah of Ilahabas".[17] Akbar deputed his son Salim to carry on the war against Mewar
Mewar
while leaving to campaign in Deccan. The latter however tried to seize Agra's treasury in mid-1600 and came here after his failure. Upon reaching Allahabad, he seized its treasury and set himself up as a virtually independent ruler while raising an army.[18] In May 1602, Salim had his name read in Friday prayers and his name minted on coins in Allahabad. Abu'l Fazl was sent to deal with him but the prince had him assassinated. Akbar
Akbar
then reconciled with him and Salim returned to Allahabad, where he spent his time drinking and taking opium before returning to the royal court in 1604.[19] A unique artefact associated with Jahangir's reign found in Allahabad is a large jade terrapin, now in the British Museum's collection.[37] In 1720, the Sayyid brothers
Sayyid brothers
negotiated the surrender of the rebellious governor Girdhar Bahadur, under the condition of him being made the governor of Awadh, being able to appoint all civil and military officers in the province and being given 30 lakh rupees from Bengal's treasury.[38] Nawabs of Awadh[edit] The fort was coveted by the East India
India
Company for the same reasons Akbar
Akbar
built it. British troops were first stationed at Allahabad
Allahabad
fort in 1765 as part of the Treaty of Allahabad
Treaty of Allahabad
signed by Lord Robert Clive, Mughal emperor
Mughal emperor
Shah Alam II, and Awadh's Nawab Shuja-ud-Daula.[36] The combined forces of Bengal's Nawab Mir Qasim, Shuja and Shah Alam were defeated by the English at Buxar
Buxar
in October 1764 and at Kora in May 1765. Alam who was abandoned by Shuja after the defeats, surrendered to the English and was lodged at the fort, as they captured Allahabad, Benares
Benares
and Chunar
Chunar
in his name. The territories of Allahabad
Allahabad
and Kora were given to the emperor after the treaty was signed in 1765. He spent six years there and after the takeover of Delhi
Delhi
by the Marathas, left for his capital in 1771.[39] Upon realizing the Maratha
Maratha
intent of territorial encroachment however, Shah Alam ordered his general Najaf Khan to drive them out. Tukoji Rao Holkar and Visaji Krushna Biniwale in return attacked Delhi
Delhi
and defeated his forces in 1772. The Marathas were granted an imperial sanad for Kora and Allahabad. They turned their attention to Oudh to gain these two territories. Shuja was however unwilling to give them up and made appeals to the English and the Marathas did not fare well at the battle of Ramghat.[40] In August and September 1773, Warren Hastings met Shuja and concluded a treaty, under which Kora and Allahabad
Allahabad
were ceded to the Nawab for a payment of 50 lakh rupees.[41] Saadat Ali Khan II
Saadat Ali Khan II
after being made the Nawab by John Shore, enteres into a treaty with the Company and gave the fort to the British in 1798.[42] Lord Wellesley after threatening to annexing the entire Awadh, concluded a treaty with Saadat on abolishing the independent Awadhi army, imposing a larger subsidiary force and annexing Rohilkhand, Gorakhpur
Gorakhpur
and the Doab
Doab
in 1801.[43] British rule[edit] Acquired in 1801, Allahabad
Allahabad
asides from its importance as a pilgrimage center, it was a stepping stone to the agrarian track upcountry and the Grand Trunk Road. It also potentially offered sizeable revenues to the Company. Initial revenue settlements began in 1803.[44] Allahabad was a participant in the 1857 Indian Mutiny,[45] when Maulvi Liaquat Ali unfurled the banner of revolt.[46] During the rebellion Allahabad, with a number of European troops,[47] was the scene of a massacre.[13] After the mutiny, the British established a high court, a police headquarters and a public-service commission in Allahabad,[48] making the city an administrative centre.[49] They truncated the Delhi
Delhi
region of the state, merging it with the Punjab and moving the capital of the North-Western Provinces
North-Western Provinces
to Allahabad
Allahabad
(where it remained for 20 years).[22] In January 1858, Earl Canning
Earl Canning
departed Calcutta
Calcutta
for Allahabad.[50] That year he read Queen Victoria's proclamation, transferring control of India
India
from the East India
India
Company to the British Crown
British Crown
(beginning the British Raj), in Minto Park.[51][52] In 1877 the provinces of Agra
Agra
and Awadh
Awadh
were merged to form the United Provinces,[53] with Allahabad
Allahabad
its capital until 1920.[22] The 1888 session of the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
was held in the city,[54] and by the turn of the 20th century Allahabad
Allahabad
was a revolutionary centre.[55] Nityanand Chatterji became a household name when he hurled a bomb at a European club.[56] In Alfred Park
Alfred Park
in 1931, Chandrashekhar Azad
Chandrashekhar Azad
died when surrounded by British police.[57] The Nehru family homes, Anand Bhavan
Anand Bhavan
and Swaraj Bhavan, were centres of Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
activity.[58] During the years before independence Allahabad
Allahabad
was home to thousands of satyagrahis led by Purushottam Das Tandon, Bishambhar Nath Pande, Narayan Dutt Tiwari and others.[23] The first seeds of the Pakistani nation were sown in Allahabad.[59] On 29 December 1930, Allama Muhammad Iqbal's presidential address to the All- India
India
Muslim
Muslim
League proposed a separate Muslim
Muslim
state for the Muslim-majority regions of India.[60] Post-independence[edit] Allahabad
Allahabad
is known as the City of Prime Ministers because seven out of 15 prime ministers of India
India
since independence have connections to Allahabad
Allahabad
(Jawaharlal Nehru, Lal Bahadur Shastri, Indira Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi, Gulzarilal Nanda, Vishwanath Pratap Singh
Vishwanath Pratap Singh
and Chandra Shekhar). All seven leaders were either born in Allahabad, were alumni of Allahabad University
Allahabad University
or were elected from an Allahabad constituency.[2] Triveni Sangam
Triveni Sangam
at Allahabad[edit]

Pilgrims at the Triveni Sangam, the confluence of the Ganges
Ganges
and the Yamuna
Yamuna
rivers in Allahabad.

One such Triveni Sangam
Triveni Sangam
(Meeting of three rivers) — Ganges, Yamuna and invisible Saraswati River, which according to Hindu
Hindu
legends, wells up from underground.[61][62] A place of religious importance and the site for historic Kumbh Mela
Kumbh Mela
held every 12 years, over the years it has also been the site of immersion of ashes of several national leaders, including Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
in 1948.[61] It is also believed to be same place where the drops of holy nectar(अमृत) fell. Geography[edit] Cityscape[edit] Allahabad's elevation is over 90 m (295 ft) above sea level. The old part of the city, at the south of Allahabad Junction
Allahabad Junction
Railway Station, consists of neighbourhoods like Chowk, Johnstongunj, Dariyabad, Khuldabad and many more.[63] In the north of the Railway Station, the new city consists of neighbourhoods like Lukergunj, Civil Lines, Georgetown, Tagoretown, Allahpur, Ashok Nagar, Mumfordgunj, Bharadwaj
Bharadwaj
Puram and others which are relatively new and were built during the British rule.[64] Civil Lines is the central business district of the city and is famous for its urban setting, gridiron plan roads[65] and high rise buildings. Built in 1857, it was the largest town-planning project carried out in India
India
before the establishment of New Delhi.[64][65] Allahabad
Allahabad
has many buildings featuring Indo-Islamic and Indo-Saracenic architecture. Although several buildings from the colonial period have been declared "heritage structures", others are deteriorating.[66] Famous landmarks of the city are Allahabad
Allahabad
Museum, New Yamuna
Yamuna
Bridge, Allahabad University, Triveni Sangam, All Saints Cathedral, Anand Bhavan, Alfred Park etc.[67] Ghats[edit]

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Saraswati ghat

The main ghat in Allahabad
Allahabad
is Saraswati Ghat, located on the banks of Yamuna. It is a newly built delightful place. Stairs from three sides descend to the green water of the Yamuna. And above there is a park which is always covered with green grass. There are also facilities for boting here. There are also routes to reach Sangam by boat from here. [68]

Sangam Ghat Balua Ghat Rasulabad Ghat Boat Club ghat Shankar Ghat Gau Ghat Nehru Ghat Bargad Ghat

Apart from these, there are more than 100 raw ghats in Allahabad. Topography[edit]

The Yamuna
Yamuna
in Allahabad
Allahabad
during the rainy season

Allahabad
Allahabad
is in Southern part of Uttar Pradesh, at the confluence of the Ganga
Ganga
and Yamuna
Yamuna
.[69][70] The region was known in antiquity first as the Kuru, then as the Vats country.[71] To the southwest is Bundelkhand, to the east and southeast is Baghelkhand, to the north and northeast is Awadh
Awadh
and to the west is the lower doab (of which Allahabad
Allahabad
is part).[69] The city is divided by a railway line running east-west.[72] South of the railway is the Old Chowk area, and the British-built Civil Lines is north of it. Allahabad
Allahabad
is geographically and culturally strategically located.[73] Geographically part of the Ganga- Yamuna
Yamuna
Doab
Doab
(at the mouth of the Yamuna), culturally it is the terminus of the Indian west.[74] The Indian Standard Time
Indian Standard Time
longitude (25.15°N 82.58°E) is near the city. According to a United Nations Development Programme report, Allahabad
Allahabad
is in a "low damage risk" wind and cyclone zone.[75] In common with the rest of the doab, its soil and water are primarily alluvial.[76] Pratapgarh is north of the city, Bhadohi
Bhadohi
is east, Rewa is south, Chitrakoot (earlier Banda) is west, and Kaushambi, which was till recently a part of Allahabad, is North-West. Climate[edit] Allahabad
Allahabad
has a humid subtropical climate common to cities in the plains of North India, designated Cwa in the Köppen climate classification.[77] The annual mean temperature is 26.1 °C (79.0 °F); monthly mean temperatures are 18–29 °C (64–84 °F).[78] Allahabad
Allahabad
has three seasons: a hot, dry summer, a cool, dry winter and a hot, humid monsoon. Summer lasts from March to September with daily highs reaching up to 48 °C in the dry summer (from March to May) and up to 40 °C in the hot and extremely humid monsoon season (from June to September).[78] The monsoon begins in June, and lasts till August; high humidity levels prevail well into September. Winter runs from December to February,[79] with temperatures rarely dropping to the freezing point. The daily average maximum temperature is about 22 °C (72 °F) and the minimum about 9 °C (48 °F).[80] Allahabad
Allahabad
never receives snow,[81] but experiences dense winter fog due to numerous wood fires, coal fires, and open burning of rubbish—resulting in substantial traffic and travel delays.[79] Its highest recorded temperature is 48 °C (118.4 °F), and its lowest is −2 °C (28 °F).[78][82] Rain from the Bay of Bengal or the Arabian Sea branches of the southwest monsoon[83] falls on Allahabad
Allahabad
from June to September, supplying the city with most of its annual rainfall of 1,027 mm (40 in).[81] The highest monthly rainfall total, 333 mm (13 in), occurs in August.[84] The city receives 2,961 hours of sunshine per year, with maximum sunlight in May.[82]

Climate data for Allahabad

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 32.8 (91) 36.3 (97.3) 42.5 (108.5) 45.8 (114.4) 48.4 (119.1) 48.8 (119.8) 45.6 (114.1) 42.7 (108.9) 39.6 (103.3) 40.6 (105.1) 36.0 (96.8) 31.9 (89.4) 48.8 (119.8)

Average high °C (°F) 23.2 (73.8) 26.7 (80.1) 33.3 (91.9) 39.4 (102.9) 41.6 (106.9) 39.6 (103.3) 34.2 (93.6) 32.9 (91.2) 32.9 (91.2) 32.9 (91.2) 29.6 (85.3) 24.8 (76.6) 32.8 (91)

Average low °C (°F) 8.9 (48) 11.3 (52.3) 16.2 (61.2) 22.2 (72) 26.3 (79.3) 28.0 (82.4) 26.5 (79.7) 25.9 (78.6) 24.7 (76.5) 20.4 (68.7) 14.3 (57.7) 9.9 (49.8) 19.4 (66.9)

Record low °C (°F) 1.1 (34) 1.1 (34) 7.2 (45) 12.7 (54.9) 17.2 (63) 18.7 (65.7) 18.8 (65.8) 21.1 (70) 18.3 (64.9) 11.7 (53.1) 5.6 (42.1) −0.7 (30.7) −0.7 (30.7)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 18.3 (0.72) 15.2 (0.598) 4.2 (0.165) 5.9 (0.232) 11.5 (0.453) 126.6 (4.984) 264.5 (10.413) 279.0 (10.984) 204.3 (8.043) 27.4 (1.079) 9.5 (0.374) 12.1 (0.476) 978.5 (38.524)

Average rainy days 1.8 1.4 0.4 0.7 1.1 5.4 12.7 12.1 9.1 1.8 0.6 0.7 47.9

Average relative humidity (%) 69 57 39 29 33 50 77 81 78 67 61 68 59

Mean monthly sunshine hours 224.9 244.2 263.2 274.1 292.3 206.4 143.3 180.6 184.3 259.7 256.7 244.0 2,773.7

Source #1: India
India
Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)[85][86]

Source #2: NOAA (humidity, sun 1971–1990)[87]

Biodiversity[edit]

A typical Indian peacock, found in Allahabad
Allahabad
on a large scale

The Ganga-Jamuna Doab, of which Allahabad
Allahabad
is a part, is on the western Indus-Gangetic Plain
Indus-Gangetic Plain
region. The doab (including the Terai) is responsible for the city's unique flora and fauna.[88][89] Since the arrival of humans, nearly half of city's vertebrates have become extinct. Others are endangered or have had their range severely reduced. Associated changes in habitat and the introduction of reptiles, snakes and other mammals led to the extinction of bird species, including large birds such as eagles.[90] The Allahabad Museum, one of four national museums in India, is documenting the flora and fauna of the Ganga
Ganga
and the Yamuna.[91] In order to protect the rich aquatic biodiversity of river Ganga
Ganga
from escalating anthropogenic pressures, development of a Turtle
Turtle
sanctuary in Allahabad
Allahabad
along with a River Biodiversity Park at Sangam have been approved under Namami Gange programme. The most common birds found in the city are doves, peacocks, junglefowl, black partridge, house sparrows, songbirds, blue jays, parakeets, quails, bulbuls, and comb ducks.[92] Large numbers of Deer are found in Trans Yamuna
Yamuna
area of Allahabad. India's first conservation reserve for black buck is being created in Allahabad's Meja Forest Division. Other animals in the state include reptiles such as lizards, cobras, kraits, and gharials.[88] During winter, large numbers of Siberian birds are reported in the sangam and nearby wetlands.[93] Demographics[edit]

Others include Buddhism, Jainism, other religions and no particular religion (0.63%)

Religion in Allahabad[94]

Religion

Percent

Hinduism

76.03%

Islam

21.94%

Christianity

0.68%

Sikhism

0.28%

Others

1.07%

Allahabad
Allahabad
population growth

Census Total %±

1981 642,200 25.2%

1991 792,900 23.5%

2001 990,298 24.9%

2011 1,117,094 12.8%

Source: Census of India[94][95][96]

The 2011 census reported a population of 1,117,094 in Allahabad city.[97] Provisional data suggest a density of 1,086 people per km2 in 2011 for Allahabad
Allahabad
district, compared to 901 in 2001.[97] Natives of Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
form the majority of Allahabad's population. With regards to Houseless Census in Allahabad, total 5,672 families live on footpath or without any roof cover. This approx 0.38% of total population of Allahabad
Allahabad
district. The sex ratio of Allahabad
Allahabad
is 901 per 1000 males and child sex ratio of girls is 893 per 1000 boys, lower than the national average.[97] Hindi, the official state language, is the dominant language in Allahabad. Urdu
Urdu
and other languages are spoken by a sizable minority. Hindus form the majority of Allahabad's population; Muslims compose a large minority. According to provisional results of the 2011 national census, Hinduism
Hinduism
is majority religion in Allahabad
Allahabad
city with 76.03% followers. Islam
Islam
is second most popular religion in city of Allahabad with approximately 21.94% following it. Christianity
Christianity
is followed by 0.68%, Jainism
Jainism
by 0.10%, Sikhism
Sikhism
by 0.28% and Buddhism
Buddhism
by 0.28%. Around 0.02% stated 'Other Religion', approximately 0.90% stated 'No Particular Religion'. Allahabad's literacy rate of 86.50 percent is the highest in the region.[98] Male
Male
literacy is 90.21 percent and female literacy 82.17 percent.[99] Among 35 major Indian cities, Allahabad
Allahabad
reported the highest rate of violations of special and local laws to the National Crime Records Bureau.[100] Administration and politics[edit] General Administration[edit] Allahabad division
Allahabad division
which consists of four districts, and is headed by the Divisional Commissioner
Divisional Commissioner
of Allahabad, who is an IAS officer of high seniority, the Commissioner is the head of local government institutions (including Municipal Corporations) in the division, is in charge of infrastructure development in his division, and is also responsible for maintaining law and order in the division.[101][102][103][104][105] The District Magistrate
District Magistrate
of Allahabad
Allahabad
reports to the Divisional Commissioner. The current Commissioner is Ashish Kumar Goel.[106][107][108][109] Allahabad district
Allahabad district
administration is headed by the District Magistrate of Allahabad, who is an IAS officer. The DM are in charge of property records and revenue collection for the central government and oversee the elections held in the city. The DM is also responsible for maintaining law and order in the city, hence the SSP of Allahabad
Allahabad
also reports to the DM of Allahabad.[101][110][111][112][113] The DM is assisted by a Chief Development Officer (CDO), five Additional District Magistrates (ADM) (Finance/Revenue, City, Rural Area, Land Acquisition, Civil Supply), one Chief Revenue Officer (CRO) one City Magistrate (CM), and three Additional City Magistrates (ACM).[108][109] The district has eight teshils viz. Sadar, Soraon, Phulpur, Handia, Karchhana, Bara, Meja and Kuraon, each headed by a Sub Divisional magistrate.[108] The current DM is Suhas LY.[106][107][108][109] Police Administration[edit] Allahabad district
Allahabad district
comes under the Allahabad
Allahabad
Police Zone and Allahabad Police Range, Allahabad
Allahabad
Zone is headed by an Additional Director General ranked IPS officer, and the Allahabad
Allahabad
Range is headed Inspector General ranked IPS officer. The current ADG, Allahabad
Allahabad
Zone is Satya Narain Sabat,[114] and IG, Allahabad
Allahabad
Range is Ramit Sharma.[115] The district police is headed by a Senior Superintendent of Police (SSP), who is an IPS officer, and is assisted by eight Superintendents of Police (SP)/Additional Superintendents of Police (Addl. SP) (City, Ganga
Ganga
Par, Yamuna
Yamuna
Par, Crime, Traffic, Modern Control Room, Protocol and Security), who are either IPS officers or PPS officers.[116] Each of the several police circles is headed by a Circle Officer (CO) in the rank of Deputy Superintendent of Police.[116] The current SSP is Aakash kulhari.[116] Infrastructure and Civic Administration[edit] The development of infrastructure in the city is overseen by Allahabad Development Authority (ADA), which comes under the Housing Department of Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
government. The Divisional Commissioner
Divisional Commissioner
of Allahabad acts as the ex-officio Chairman of ADA, whereas a Vice Chairman, a government-appointed IAS officer, looks after the daily matters of the authority.[117] The current Vice Chairman of ADA is Bhanu Chandra Goswami.[118] The Allahabad
Allahabad
Nagar Nigam (ANN), also called Allahabad
Allahabad
Municipal Corporation (AMC), oversees the city's civic infrastructure under the Allahabad
Allahabad
Metropolitan Region. The corporation originated in 1864, when the Lucknow
Lucknow
Municipal Act was passed by the Government of India.[119] Allahabad
Allahabad
is divided into 80 wards, with one member (or corporator) elected from each ward to form the Municipal Committee. The head of the corporation is the Mayor, but the executive and administration of the corporation are the responsibility of the Municipal Commissioner, who is a Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
government-appointed Provincial Civil Service (PCS) officer of high seniority. The current Mayor of Allahabad
Allahabad
is Abhilash Gupta, whereas the Municipal Commissioner is Harikesh Chaurasia.[120][121]

The Allahabad High Court
Allahabad High Court
is India's fourth-oldest high court

Politics[edit] Allahabad
Allahabad
is the seat of Allahabad
Allahabad
High Court, the highest judicial body in the state of Uttar Pradesh. The city is known as the "Prime Minister Capital of India", since seven of fifteen Prime Ministers of India
India
are from the city.[2] Allahabad
Allahabad
is administered by several government agencies. As the seat of the Government of Uttar Pradesh, Allahabad
Allahabad
is home to local governing agencies and the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly (located in the Allahabad
Allahabad
High Court building).[122] The Allahabad district
Allahabad district
elects two representatives to India's lower house, the Lok Sabha, and 12 representatives to the state legislative assembly.[123] Allahabad
Allahabad
is also the headquarters of Central Zonal Council
Central Zonal Council
and of the Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities. See also: Neighborhoods in Allahabad Economy[edit] Overall Allahabad
Allahabad
has a very stable and diverse economy comprising various sectors such as State and Central government offices, education and research institutions, real estate, retail, banking, tourism and hospitality, agriculture based industries, railways, transport and logistics, miscellaneous service sectors, and manufacturing. Average Household Income of the city is US$2,299.[124] The construction sector is a major part of Allahabad's economy.[125] Secondary manufacturers and services may be registered or unregistered;[126] according to the third All India
India
Census for Small Scale Industries, there are more than 10,000 unregistered small-scale industries in the city.[127][128] An integrated industrial township has been proposed for 1,200 acres (490 ha) in Allahabad
Allahabad
by the Dedicated Freight Corridor Corporation of India.[129] The city is also home to glass and wire-based industry.[130] The main industrial areas of Allahabad
Allahabad
are Naini
Naini
and Phulpur, where several public and private sector companies have offices and factories.[131] Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited, India's largest oil company (which is state-owned), is constructing a seven-million-tonnes-per-annum (MTPA) capacity refinery in Lohgara with an investment estimated at ₹62 billion.[132] Allahabad Bank, which began operations in 1865,[127] Bharat Pumps & Compressors and A. H. Wheeler
A. H. Wheeler
and Company have their headquarters in the city. Major companies in the city are Reliance Industries, GE T&D, ITI Limited, BPCL, Dey's Medical, Food Corporation of India, Raymond Synthetics, Triveni Sheet Glass, Triveni Electroplast, EMC Power Ltd, Steel Authority of India, HCL Technologies, Indian Farmers Fertiliser Cooperative (IFFCO), Vibgyor Laboratories, Geep Industries, Hindustan Cable, Indian Oil Corporation Ltd, Baidyanath Ayurved, Hindustan Laboratories and Allahabad
Allahabad
Enterprises.[133][134][135] The city is also headquarters of Central Organisation for Railway Electrification.[136] The primary economic sectors of the district are tourism, fishing and agriculture, and the city is a hub for India's agricultural industry.[137][138] In case of Agriculture crops Paddy has the largest share followed by Bajra, Arhar, Urd & Moong in declining order during the Kharif season. In Rabi, Wheat is pre dominant followed by pulses and oilseed. Among oilseed crops, Mustard has very less area under pure farming and is grown mainly as a mixed crop. Linseed dominates the oilseed scenario of the district and is mainly grown in Jamunapar area. In case of pulses gram has largest area followed by pea and lentil (masoor). There is fairly good acreage under barley.[139] Transportation and utilities[edit]

New Yamuna
Yamuna
Bridge, longest cable-stayed bridge in India

Air Transport[edit] Allahabad
Allahabad
is served by Allahabad Airport
Allahabad Airport
(IATA: IXD, ICAO: VIAL), which began operations in February 1966. The airport is 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) from the city centre and lies in Bamrauli, Allahabad. Air India's regional arm Alliance Air connects Allahabad
Allahabad
to Delhi.[140][141] Other nearby airports are in Varanasi, Lucknow
Lucknow
and Kanpur.[142] Railways[edit] Allahabad Junction
Allahabad Junction
is one of the main railway junctions in northern India
India
and headquarters of the North Central Railway Zone.[143] The Seven major railway stations in Allahabad
Allahabad
are Allahabad
Allahabad
Junction, Subedarganj railway station, Naini
Naini
Railway Station and Cheoki Junction railway station under North Central Railways
North Central Railways
whereas Prayag
Prayag
Junction railway station under Northern Railways
Northern Railways
and Allahabad
Allahabad
City railway station at Rambagh and Daraganj Station under North Eastern Railways.[144] The city is connected to most other Uttar Pradesh cities and major Indian cities such as Kolkata, New Delhi, Hyderabad, Patna, Mumbai, Visakhapatnam, Chennai, Bangalore, Guwahati, Thiruvananthapuram, Pune, Bhopal, Kanpur, Lucknow
Lucknow
and Jaipur.[145] Roads[edit] Buses operated by Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
State Road Transport Corporation (UPSRTC) and Allahabad
Allahabad
City Transport Service are an important means of public transport for travelling to various parts of the city,state and outskirts.[146] Auto Rickshaws have been a popular mode of transportation.[147] Cycle rickshaws are the most economical means of transportation in Allahabad
Allahabad
along with e-rickshaws.[147][148] National Highway 19 (old number: NH 2) connecting to Delhi
Delhi
and Kolkata, National Highway 35 connecting to Mirzapur, Jhansi and Udaipur (old number :NH 76 and 76E merged), National Highway 30 (old number:NH 24B and 27 merged) connecting to Lucknow, Rewa and Southern India
India
and National Highway 330 (old number: NH 96) connecting to Sultanpur-Faizabad runs through the city.[149] India's longest cable-stayed bridge, the New Yamuna
Yamuna
Bridge (built 2001–04), is located in Allahabad
Allahabad
and connects the city to the suburb of Naini across the Yamuna.[150] The Old Naini
Naini
Bridge now accommodates railway and auto traffic.[151][152] A road bridge across the Ganga
Ganga
also connects Allahabad
Allahabad
and Jhusi.[153] National Waterway 1, the longest Waterway in India, connects Allahabad
Allahabad
and Haldia.[154] A Metrorail project for the city covering the entire metropolitan region is also underway.[155][156] The city generates 5,34,760 kg of domestic solid wastes everyday, while per capita generation of waste is 0.40 kg per day. The sewer service areas are divided into nine zones in the city.[24] Allahabad
Allahabad
Municipal Corporation
Municipal Corporation
oversees the solid waste management project.[157] Allahabad
Allahabad
was the first city to get pre-paid meters for electricity bill in Uttar Pradesh.[158][159] The city is equipped with over 40 CCTVs at major crossings and markets.[160] Also Allahabad
Allahabad
was declared as a smart city in the year 2015 and the funds were provided by the United States of America. Allahabad
Allahabad
Metro[edit] The Allahabad Metro is a proposed rapid transit system for the city. The proposed system will consist of two lines, an east-west line from Bamrauli
Bamrauli
to Jhunsi
Jhunsi
and a north-south line from Shantipuram in Phaphamau
Phaphamau
to Naini. Both lines will be about 20 km long. There will be total 39 stations, 20 on the east-west line and 19 on the north-south line. The project is expected to cost ₹8000 crores. Operations are expected to be started by 2023-24 Smart City[edit] A MoU was signed on 25 January 2015 between the United States Trade and Development Agency and the Government of Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
for developing Allahabad
Allahabad
as a smart city.[161][162] The pact came into existence after the bilateral meeting between the Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi
Narendra Modi
and the US President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
in October 2014, wherein it was announced that the US would assist India
India
in developing three smart cities, Allahabad, Ajmer
Ajmer
and Visakhapatnam, in a boost to India's 100 smart city programme.[163] On 27 August 2015 the official list of 98 cities to be developed as smart cities, including Allahabad, was announced by the Government of India.[164] Allahabad
Allahabad
Task Force was set up by the Minister of Urban Development Venkaiah Naidu
Venkaiah Naidu
which consists of Divisional Commissioner
Divisional Commissioner
(Chairman), Secretaries of Town and Country Planning and Municipal Affairs, Government of Uttar Pradesh, District Magistrate, Vice-Chairman, Allahabad
Allahabad
Development Authority, Mayor of the city besides Additional Secretary(Urban Development), Government of India
India
and representatives of Ministry of External Affairs and USTDA.[165][166] The project is being assisted by the U.S.- India
India
Business Council.[167] Projects[edit] IBM
IBM
selected Allahabad
Allahabad
among 16 other global cities for its smart cities programme to help it address challenges like waste management, disaster management, water management and citizen services.[168][169] The company commenced working on solid waste management and power sector in generating renewable energy.[170] As a part of Smart City Project, Civil Lines is being developed on the lines of Lucknow's Hazratganj.A sum of ₹20 crore (US$3,024,000) has been sanctioned to beautify all prominent crossings of the city. As per the plan, the administration proposed uniformity in signage and colour of buildings and a parking lot to be set up to solve traffic congestion.[171] A 1.35 km long riverfront along Yamuna
Yamuna
river would be developed by the Allahabad
Allahabad
Development Authority, irrigation and power departments at a cost of ₹147.36 crore. The riverfront would be developed in two phases. In the first phase, around 650 metres at Arail would be developed along with Yamuna, while in the second phase 700 metres of stretch between New Yamuna
Yamuna
Bridge and Boat Club in Kydganj would be taken up.[172] Education[edit] Main article: List of educational institutions in Allahabad

Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology Allahabad, a public engineering and management school

The Allahabad
Allahabad
educational system is distinct from Uttar Pradesh's other cities, with an emphasis on broad education.[173] Board of High School and Intermediate Education Uttar Pradesh, the world's biggest examining body, is headquartered in the city.[174][175] Although English is the language of instruction in most private schools, government schools and colleges offer Hindi
Hindi
and English-medium education.[176] Schools in Allahabad
Allahabad
follow the 10+2+3 plan. After completing their secondary education, students typically enroll in higher secondary schools affiliated with the Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Board of High School and Intermediate Education, the ICSE or the CBSE.[176] and focus on liberal arts, business or science. Vocational programs are also available.[177] Allahabad
Allahabad
attracts students from throughout India. As of 2017, the city has one central university, one State Universities, three deemed universities and an open university.[178] Allahabad
Allahabad
University, founded in 1876, is the oldest university in the state.[178] Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology Allahabad
Allahabad
is a noted technical institution.[179] Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences is an 'A-grade', deemed university with global standards.[180][181][182] Other notable institutions in Allahabad include the Indian Institute of Information Technology - Allahabad; Motilal Nehru Medical College; Ewing Christian College; Harish-Chandra Research Institute; Govind Ballabh Pant Social Science Institute; Allahabad
Allahabad
State University[183] and Institute of Engineering and Rural Technology. Culture[edit] See also: List of tourist attractions in Allahabad Although Hindu
Hindu
women have traditionally worn saris, the shalwar kameez and Western attire is gaining acceptance among younger women.[184] Western dress is worn more by men, although the dhoti and kurta are seen during festivals. The formal male sherwani is often worn with chooridar on festive occasions.[184] Diwali, holi, Eid and Vijayadasami are the three most popular festivals in Allahabad.[185] Literature[edit]

Anand Bhavan, owned by Indian political leader Motilal Nehru

Allahabad
Allahabad
has a literary and artistic heritage; the former capital of the United Provinces, it was known as Prayag
Prayag
in the Vedas, the Ramayana
Ramayana
and the Mahabharata.[186][187] Allahabad
Allahabad
has been called the "literary capital of Uttar Pradesh",[188] attracting visitors from East Asia;[189] the Chinese travellers Faxian
Faxian
and Xuanzang
Xuanzang
found a flourishing city in the fifth and seventh centuries, respectively.[189][190] The number of foreign tourists, which mostly consisted of Asians, visiting the city was 98,167 in 2010 which subsequently increased to 1,07,141 in 2014.[191] The city has a tradition of political graffiti which includes limericks and caricatures.[55] In 1900, Saraswati first Hindi
Hindi
monthly magazine of India, was started by Chintamani Ghosh. Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi, the doyen of modern Hindi
Hindi
literature, remained its editors from 1903 to 1920.[192] The Anand Bhavan, built during the 1930s as a new home for the Nehru family when the Swaraj Bhavan
Swaraj Bhavan
became the local Indian National Congress headquarters, has memorabilia from the Gandhi-Nehru family.[193]

A procession of pilgrims cross the Ganga
Ganga
during the 2001 Kumbh Mela
Kumbh Mela
in Allahabad

During the 19th and 20th centuries, Hindi
Hindi
literature was modernised by authors such as Mahadevi Varma, Sumitranandan Pant, Suryakant Tripathi 'Nirala' and Harivansh Rai Bachchan.[194] A noted poet was Raghupati Sahay, better known as Firaq Gorakhpuri.[195] Gorakhpuri and Varma have received Jnanpith Awards.[196][197][198] Allahabad
Allahabad
is a publication centre for Hindi
Hindi
literature, including the Lok Bharti, Rajkamal and Neelabh. Persian and Urdu
Urdu
literature are also studied in the city.[199] Akbar
Akbar
Allahabadi is a noted modern Urdu
Urdu
poet, and Nooh Narwi, Tegh Allahabadi, Shabnam Naqvi and Rashid Allahabadi hail from Allahabad.[200] English author and 1907 Nobel laureate Rudyard Kipling was an assistant editor and overseas correspondent for The Pioneer.[201] Entertainment and recreation[edit]

Tomb of Nithar at Khusro bagh

Allahabad
Allahabad
is noted for historic, cultural and religious tourism. Historic sites include Alfred Park, the Victoria and Thornhill Mayne Memorials, Minto Park, Allahabad Fort, the Ashoka Pillar and Khusro Bagh. Religious attractions include the Kumbh Mela, the Triveni Sangam and All Saints Cathedral. The city hosts the Maha Kumbh Mela, the largest religious gathering in the world, every twelve years and the Ardh (half) Kumbh Mela
Kumbh Mela
every six years.[202][203] Cultural attractions include the Allahabad
Allahabad
Museum, the Jawahar Planetarium
Jawahar Planetarium
and the University of Allahabad. North Central Zone Culture Center, under Ministry of Culture (India) and Prayag Sangeet Samiti
Prayag Sangeet Samiti
are nationally renowned centres of Arts, Dance, Music, local Folk Dance and Music, Plays/Theatre etc. and nurture upcoming artists. The city has also hosted International Film Festival of Prayag.[204] Media[edit] The Leader and The Pioneer are two major English-language newspapers that are produced and published from the city;[205][206] All India
India
Radio, the national, state-owned radio broadcaster, has AM radio stations in the city. Allahabad
Allahabad
has seven FM stations, including two AIR stations: Gyan Vani and Vividh Bharti, four private FM channels: BIG FM 92.7, Red FM 93.5, Fever 104 FM and Radio Tadka and one educational FM radio channel Radio Adan 90.4 run by Allahabad Agricultural Institute.[207][208] There is a Doordarshan
Doordarshan
Kendra in the city.[209] Regional TV channels are accessible via cable subscription, direct-broadcast satellite service or Internet-based television.[210] Sports[edit] Cricket
Cricket
and field hockey are the most popular sports in Allahabad,[211] with kabaddi, kho-kho, gilli danda and pehlwani are played in rural areas near the city.[212] Gully cricket, also known as street cricket, is popular among city youth.[211] The famous cricket club Allahabad Cricketers has produced many national and international cricket players. Several sports complexes are used by amateur and professional athletes; these include the Madan Mohan Malviya Stadium, the Amitabh Bachchan Sports Complex and the Boys' High School and College Gymnasium.[213] There is an international-level swimming complex in Georgetown.[214] The National Sports Academy in Jhalwa trains gymnasts for the Commonwealth Games. The Indira Marathon honours the late prime minister Indira Gandhi.[215][216][217] See also[edit]

List of people from Allahabad Centre for Social Forestry and Eco-Rehabilitation

References[edit]

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Allahabad
Allahabad
News

Further reading[edit]

Allahabad: A Study in Urban Geography, by Ujagir Singh. Published by Banaras Hindu
Hindu
University, 1966. Employment and Migration in Allahabad
Allahabad
City, by Maheshchand, Mahesh Chand, India
India
Planning Commission. Research Programmes Committee. Published by Oxford & IBH Pub. Co., 1969. Subah of Allahabad
Allahabad
Under the Great Mughals, 1580–1707: 1580–1707, by Surendra Nath Sinha. Published by Jamia Millia Islamia, 1974. The Local Roots of Indian Politics: Allahabad, 1880–1920, by Christopher Alan Bayly. Published by Clarendon Press, 1975. Triveni: Essays on the Cultural Heritage of Allahabad, by D. P. Dubey, Neelam Singh, Society of Pilgrimage Studies. Published by Society of Pilgrimage Studies, 1996. ISBN 81-900520-2-0. Magha Inscriptions in the Allahabad
Allahabad
Museum, by Siddheshwari Narain Roy. Published by Raka Prakashana for the Museum, 1999. The Last Bungalow: Writings on Allahabad, by Arvind Krishna Mehrotra. Published by Penguin Books, 2007. ISBN 0-14-310118-8. Allahabad
Allahabad
The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 5, p. 226–242.

External links[edit]

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Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

Official website Allahabad, the Land of Prime Ministers Allahabad
Allahabad
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) North Western Provinces Allahabad
Allahabad
at Wikimapia – Places, geography, terrain and routes in and around Allahabad, with satellite images

v t e

City of Allahabad

History

History Timeline Treaty of Allahabad Indian Rebellion of 1857 Capital of India Allahabad
Allahabad
Bank Famine of 1896 Allahabad
Allahabad
Address 1954 Kumbh Mela
Kumbh Mela
stampede 2013 Kumbh Mela
Kumbh Mela
stampede

Geography

Ganges
Ganges
River Yamuna
Yamuna
River Sangam Neighborhoods Indian Standard Time Doab Awadh

Buildings and structures

Government

Allahabad
Allahabad
High Court State Police Headquarters

Museums and libraries

Allahabad
Allahabad
Museum Anand Bhavan Thornhill Mayne Memorial

Parks and Gardens

Alfred Park Khusro Bagh Minto Park

Places of worship

All Saints Cathedral St. Joseph’s Cathedral

Shopping centers and Markets

Civil Lines Chowk

Sports

Madan Mohan Malviya Stadium

Structures

Swaraj Bhavan Mayo Memorial Hall Allahabad
Allahabad
Fort

Education and learning

Universities, Colleges, Research Institutes and Schools Jawahar Planetarium Prayag
Prayag
Sangeet Samiti

Media

The Pioneer The Leader A. H. Wheeler

Fests and Events

Kumbh Mela Indira Marathon International Film Festival of Prayag

Transportation

National Highway 2 Allahabad
Allahabad
Bypass Roads and Streets New Yamuna
Yamuna
Bridge Old Naini
Naini
Bridge National Waterway 1 Allahabad
Allahabad
Junction Allahabad
Allahabad
Monorail(Planned) Allahabad
Allahabad
Airport UPSRTC NCR Headquarters

People

List of people

Articles relating to Allahabad

v t e

City of Allahabad

History

History Timeline Treaty of Allahabad Indian Rebellion of 1857 Capital of India Allahabad
Allahabad
Bank Famine of 1896 Allahabad
Allahabad
Address 1954 Kumbh Mela
Kumbh Mela
stampede 2013 Kumbh Mela
Kumbh Mela
stampede

Geography

Ganges
Ganges
River Yamuna
Yamuna
River Sangam Neighborhoods Indian Standard Time Doab Awadh

Buildings and structures

Government

Allahabad
Allahabad
High Court State Police Headquarters

Museums and libraries

Allahabad
Allahabad
Museum Anand Bhavan Thornhill Mayne Memorial

Parks and Gardens

Alfred Park Khusro Bagh Minto Park

Places of worship

All Saints Cathedral St. Joseph’s Cathedral

Shopping centers and Markets

Civil Lines Chowk

Sports

Madan Mohan Malviya Stadium

Structures

Swaraj Bhavan Mayo Memorial Hall Allahabad
Allahabad
Fort

Education and learning

Universities, Colleges, Research Institutes and Schools Jawahar Planetarium Prayag
Prayag
Sangeet Samiti

Media

The Pioneer The Leader A. H. Wheeler

Fests and Events

Kumbh Mela Indira Marathon International Film Festival of Prayag

Transportation

National Highway 2 Allahabad
Allahabad
Bypass Roads and Streets New Yamuna
Yamuna
Bridge Old Naini
Naini
Bridge National Waterway 1 Allahabad
Allahabad
Junction Allahabad
Allahabad
Monorail(Planned) Allahabad
Allahabad
Airport UPSRTC NCR Headquarters

People

List of people

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Cities and towns in Allahabad
Allahabad
district

Allahabad

Allahabad Bharatganj Chak Imam Ali Handia Jhusi Jhusi
Jhusi
Kohna Koraon Lal Gopalganj Nindaura Mau Aima Phulpur Shankargarh Sirsa

Other districts

Agra Aligarh Ambedkar Nagar Amethi Amroha Auraiya Azamgarh Badaun Bagpat Bahraich Ballia Balrampur Banda Barabanki Bareilly Basti Bhimnagar Bijnor Bulandshahr Chandauli Chitrakoot Deoria Etah Etawah Faizabad Farrukhabad Fatehpur Firozabad Gautam Buddha Nagar Ghaziabad Ghazipur Gonda Gorakhpur Hamirpur Hardoi Hathras Jalaun Jaunpur Jhansi Kannauj Kanpur
Kanpur
Nagar Kanshi Ram Nagar Kaushambi Kushinagar Lakhimpur Kheri Lalitpur Lucknow Maharajganj Mahoba Mainpuri Mathura Mau Meerut Mirzapur Moradabad Muzaffarnagar Panchsheel Nagar Pilibhit Prabuddhanagar Pratapgarh Raebareli Ramabai Nagar Rampur Saharanpur Sant Kabir Nagar Sant Ravidas Nagar Shahjahanpur Shravasti Siddharthnagar Sitapur Sonbhadra Sultanpur Unnao Varanasi

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Hindu
Hindu
holy cities

India

Char Dham

Badrinath

Badrinath
Badrinath
Temple

Dwarka

Dwarkadhish Temple

Puri

Jagannath Temple

Rameswaram

Ramanathaswamy Temple

Chota Char Dham

Badrinath

Badrinath
Badrinath
Temple

Kedarnath

Kedarnath
Kedarnath
Temple

Gangotri Yamunotri

Yamunotri
Yamunotri
Temple

Panch Kedar

Kedarnath Tungnath Rudranath Madhyamaheshwar Kalpeshwar

Pancharama Kshetras

Amararama Draksharama Ksheerarama Kumararama Somarama

Six Abodes of Murugan

Palani Swamimalai Thiruttani Pazhamudircholai Thiruchendur Tirupparankunram

Trilinga Kshetras

Draksharama Srisailam Kaleshwaram

Ashtavinayaka

Morgaon

Moreshwar

Lenyadri

Girijatmaj

Pali

Ballaleshwar

Mahad

Varadvinayak

Ranjangaon

Mahaganapati

Siddhatek

Siddhivinayak

Ozar

Vighneswar

Theur

Chintamani

Jyotirlinga

Prabhas Patan

Somnath

Srisailam

Mallikājuna

Ujjain

Mahakaleshwar

Omkareshwar Kedarnath

Kedarnath

Shiradhon

Bhimashankar

Varanasi

Kashi Vishvanath

Trimbak

Trimbakeshwar

Deoghar

Vaidyanath

Dwarka

Nageshvara

Rameswaram

Ramanathaswamy

Ellora Caves

Grishneshwar

Panchabhuta Lingas

Srikalahasti
Srikalahasti
Temple

Srikalahasti

Thillai Nataraja Temple, Chidambaram

Chidambaram

Annamalaiyar Temple

Tiruvannamalai

Ekambareswarar Temple

Kanchi

Jambukeswarar Temple, Thiruvanaikaval

Others

Pushpagiri Temple Complex Shakti Peethas Ahobilam Ambaji Ambalappuzha Arunachala Annavaram Ayodhya Akshardham (Delhi) Akshardham (Gandhinagar) Basar Bhadrachalam Chidambaram Chitrakoot Chottanikkara Dakor Dharmasthala Dakshineswar Kali Temple Ettumanoor Gaya Gokul Guruvayur Haridwar Indraprastha Jageshwar Kalighat Kanchipuram Katra Vaishno Devi Khatu Kollur Kurukshetra Madurai Mangalagiri Mathura Mayapur Nashik Nathdwara Pandharpur Prayag
Prayag
(Triveni Sangam) Pushkar Rishikesh Ryali Sabarimala Sapta Puri Somnath Sringeri Shirdi Simhachalam Temple Sonamukhi Srirangam Sri Kurmam Tirumala Tirunavaya Tripunithura Udupi Jajpur Vrindavan Vijayawada Yadagirigutta

Indonesia

Prambanan Gebang Gedong Songo Dieng Plateau Sukuh Ceto Temple Penataran Gunung Kawi Cangkuang Penataran
Penataran
Temple Candi Jawi Candi Kidal Candi Singhasari Candi Surawana Balinese temple Tanah Lot Marga Tirtha Empul Temple Denpasar Gianyar Pura Penataran
Penataran
Sasih Pejeng Gianyar Pura Besakih Pura Ulun Danu Bratan Pura Luhur Ulu Watu Pura Ulun Danu Batur

Sri Lanka

Ati Konanayakar Koneswaram Pathirakali Amman Temple Kataragama Munneswaram temple Thambiluvil Sri Kannaki amman temple Thambiluvil Sri Sivalinga Pillayar Temple Thirukkovil Sithira Velayutha Swami Kovil Tenavaram temple

Nepal

Kathmandu Janakpurdham Chataradham

Cambodia

Angkor Wat

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Million-plus agglomerations in India

North

Chandigarh Delhi Haryana: Faridabad Jammu and Kashmir: Srinagar Punjab: Ludhiana Amritsar Rajasthan: Jaipur Jodhpur Kota

Central

Chhattisgarh: Raipur Bhilai Madhya Pradesh: Indore Bhopal Jabalpur Gwalior Uttar Pradesh: Kanpur Lucknow Ghaziabad Agra Varanasi Meerut Allahabad

Eastern

Bihar: Patna Jharkhand: Jamshedpur Dhanbad Ranchi West Bengal: Kolkata Asansol

Western

Gujarat: Ahmedabad Surat Vadodara Rajkot Maharashtra: Mumbai Pune Nagpur Nashik Vasai-Virar Aurangabad

Southern

Andhra Pradesh: Visakhapatnam Vijayawada Karnataka: Bangalore Kerala: Kochi Kozhikode Thrissur Malappuram Thiruvananthapuram Kannur Kollam Tamil Nadu: Chennai Coimbatore Madurai Tiruchirappalli Telangana: Hyderabad

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Hindustani-speaking areas of India

See also: Hindi
Hindi
Belt

Bihar

Araria Arwal Aurangabad Banka Begusarai Bhagalpur Bhojpur Buxar Darbhanga East Champaran Gaya Gopalganj Jamui Jehanabad Kaimur Katihar Khagaria Kishanganj Lakhisarai Madhepura Madhubani Munger Muzaffarpur Nalanda Nawada Patna Purnia Rohtas Saharsa Samastipur Saran Sheikhpura Sheohar Sitamarhi Siwan Supaul Vaishali West Champaran

Chhattisgarh

Bastar Bilaspur Dantewada Dhamtari Durg Janjgir-Champa Jashpur Kabirdham Kanker Korba Koriya Mahasamund Narayanpur Raigarh Raipur Rajnandgaon Surguja

Delhi

Central Delhi East Delhi New Delhi North Delhi North East Delhi North West Delhi South Delhi South West Delhi West Delhi

Haryana

Ambala Bhiwani Faridabad Fatehabad Gurgaon Hisar Jhajjar Jind Kaithal Karnal Kurukshetra Mahendragarh Mewat Panchkula Palwal Panipat Rewari Rohtak Sirsa Sonipat Yamuna
Yamuna
Nagar

Himachal Pradesh

Bilaspur Chamba Hamirpur Kangra Kinnaur Kullu Lahul and Spiti Mandi Shimla Sirmaur Solan Una

Jharkhand

Bokaro Chatra Deoghar Dhanbad Dumka East Singhbhum Garhwa Giridih Godda Gumla Hazaribagh Jamtara Khunti Koderma Latehar Lohardaga Pakur Palamu Ramgarh Ranchi Saraikela Kharsawan Simdega Singhbhum Sahebganj

Madhya Pradesh

Anuppur Ashoknagar Balaghat Barwani Betul Bhind Bhopal Burhanpur Chhatarpur Chhindwara Damoh Datia Dewas Dhar Dindori Guna Gwalior Harda Hoshangabad Indore Jabalpur Jhabua Katni Khandwa Khargone Mandla Mandsaur Morena Narsinghpur Neemuch Panna Raisen Rajgarh Ratlam Rewa Sagar Satna Sehore Seoni Shahdol Shajapur Sheopur Shivpuri Sidhi Tikamgarh Ujjain Umaria Vidisha

Rajasthan

Ajmer Alwar Banswara Baran Barmer Bhilwara Bikaner Bharatpur Bundi Chittorgarh Churu Dausa Dholpur Dungarpur Ganganagar Hanumangarh Jaipur Jaisalmer Jalore Jhalawar Jhunjhunu Jodhpur Karauli Kota Nagaur Pali Pratapgarh Rajsamand Sawai Madhopur Sikar Sirohi Tonk Udaipur

Uttar Pradesh

Agra Aligarh Allahabad Ambedkar Nagar Amethi Amroha Auraiya Azamgarh Badaun Bagpat Bahraich Balarampur Ballia Banda Barabanki Bareilly Basti Bijnor Bulandshahr Chandauli Chitrakoot Devaria Etah Etawah Faizabad Farrukhabad Fatehpur Firozabad Ghaziabad Gonda Gorakhpur Gautam Buddha Nagar Ghazipur Hamirpur Hardoi Hathras Jalaun Jaunpur Jhansi Kannauj Kanpur Kanpur
Kanpur
Dehat Kaushambi Kushinagar Khair
Khair
City Lakhimpur Kheri Lalitpur Lucknow Maharajganj Mahoba Mainpuri Mathura Mau Meerut Mirzapur Moradabad Muzaffarnagar Pilibhit Pratapgarh Raebareli Rampur Saharanpur Sant Kabir Nagar Sant Ravidas Nagar Shahjahanpur Shravasti Siddharthnagar Sitapur Sonbhadra Sultanpur Unnao Varanasi

Uttarakhand

Almora Bageshwar Chamoli Champawat Dehradun Haridwar Nainital New Tehri Pauri Pithoragarh Rudraprayag Rudrapur Uttarkashi

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Allahabad division
Allahabad division
topics

General

Allahabad
Allahabad
High Court University of Allahabad Doab Triveni Sangam Kumbh Mela

1954 Kumbh Mela
Kumbh Mela
stampede 2013 Kumbh Mela
Kumbh Mela
stampede

The Leader ( Allahabad
Allahabad
newspaper) The Pioneer (newspaper) Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences

Mythology, history

History of Allahabad Nehru–Gandhi family Sam Higginbottom

Districts

Allahabad Fatehpur Kaushambi Pratapgarh

Rivers, dams, lakes

Ganges Yamuna

Languages, people

Standard Hindi Awadhi Hindustani Khariboli Urdu

Transport

National Highway 2 Grand Trunk Road Howrah– Delhi
Delhi
main line Allahabad
Allahabad
Monorail Allahabad Bypass
Allahabad Bypass
Expressway

Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
constituencies

Allahabad Phulpur Fatehpur Pratapgarh

See also

Cities and towns in Allahabd district Cities and towns in Fatehpur district Cities and towns in Kaushambi district Cities and towns in Pratapgarh district Villages in Allahabad
Allahabad
district Villages in Fatehpur district Villages in Kaushambi district Villages in Pratapgarh district People from Allahabad Allahabad University
Allahabad University
alumni People from Fatehpur People from Kaushambi People from Pratapgarh

Other divisions

Agra Aligarh Azamgarh Bareilly Basti Chitrakoot Devipatan Faizabad Gorakhpur Jhansi Kanpur Lucknow Meerut Mirzapur Moradabad Saharanpur Varanasi

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 141890377 GND: 4084961-2 BNF:

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