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Allah
Allah
(/ˈælə, ˈɑːlə, əlˈlɑː/;[1][2] Arabic: الله‎, translit. Allāh, pronounced [ɑɫˈɫɑː(h)] ( listen)) is the Arabic word for God
God
in Abrahamic religions. In the English language, the word generally refers to God
God
in Islam.[3][4][5] The word is thought to be derived by contraction from al-ilāh, which means "the god", and is related to El and Elah, the Hebrew and Aramaic
Aramaic
words for God.[6][7] The word Allah
Allah
has been used by Arabic
Arabic
people of different religions since pre-Islamic times.[8] More specifically, it has been used as a term for God
God
by Muslims (both Arab and non-Arab) and Arab Christians.[9] It is also often, albeit not exclusively, used in this way by Bábists, Bahá'ís, Mandaeans, Indonesian and Maltese Christians, and Mizrahi Jews.[10][11][12][13] Similar usage by Christians and Sikhs
Sikhs
in West Malaysia
West Malaysia
has recently led to political and legal controversies.[14][15][16][17]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Usage

2.1 Pre-Islamic Arabians 2.2 Christianity 2.3 Islam

3 As a loanword

3.1 English and other European languages 3.2 Malaysian and Indonesian language 3.3 In other scripts and languages

4 Typography

4.1 Unicode

5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links

Etymology

The Arabic
Arabic
components that build up the word "Allah":

alif hamzat waṣl (همزة وصل) lām lām shadda (شدة) dagger alif (ألف خنجرية) hāʾ

The etymology of the word Allāh has been discussed extensively by classical Arab philologists.[18] Grammarians of the Basra school regarded it as either formed "spontaneously" (murtajal) or as the definite form of lāh (from the verbal root lyh with the meaning of "lofty" or "hidden").[18] Others held that it was borrowed from Syriac or Hebrew, but most considered it to be derived from a contraction of the Arabic definite article
Arabic definite article
al- "the" and ilāh "deity, god" to al-lāh meaning "the deity", or "the God".[18] The majority of modern scholars subscribe to the latter theory, and view the loanword hypothesis with skepticism.[19] Cognates
Cognates
of the name "Allāh" exist in other Semitic languages, including Hebrew and Aramaic.[20] The corresponding Aramaic
Aramaic
form is Elah (אלה), but its emphatic state is Elaha (אלהא). It is written as ܐܠܗܐ (ʼĔlāhā) in Biblical Aramaic
Aramaic
and ܐܲܠܵܗܵܐ (ʼAlâhâ) in Syriac as used by the Assyrian Church, both meaning simply "God".[21] Biblical Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew
mostly uses the plural (but functional singular) form Elohim
Elohim
(אלהים‬), but more rarely it also uses the singular form Eloah
Eloah
(אלוהּ‬). Usage Pre-Islamic Arabians Main article: Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia Regional variants of the word Allah
Allah
occur in both pagan and Christian pre-Islamic inscriptions.[8][22] Different theories have been proposed regarding the role of Allah
Allah
in pre-Islamic polytheistic cults. Some authors have suggested that polytheistic Arabs
Arabs
used the name as a reference to a creator god or a supreme deity of their pantheon.[23][24] The term may have been vague in the Meccan religion.[23][25] According to one hypothesis, which goes back to Julius Wellhausen, Allah
Allah
(the supreme deity of the tribal federation around Quraysh) was a designation that consecrated the superiority of Hubal (the supreme deity of Quraysh) over the other gods.[8] However, there is also evidence that Allah
Allah
and Hubal were two distinct deities.[8] According to that hypothesis, the Kaaba
Kaaba
was first consecrated to a supreme deity named Allah
Allah
and then hosted the pantheon of Quraysh
Quraysh
after their conquest of Mecca, about a century before the time of Muhammad.[8] Some inscriptions seem to indicate the use of Allah
Allah
as a name of a polytheist deity centuries earlier, but we know nothing precise about this use.[8] Some scholars have suggested that Allah
Allah
may have represented a remote creator god who was gradually eclipsed by more particularized local deities.[26][27] There is disagreement on whether Allah
Allah
played a major role in the Meccan religious cult.[26][28] No iconic representation of Allah
Allah
is known to have existed.[28][29] Muhammad's father's name was ʿAbd-Allāh meaning "the slave of Allāh".[25] Christianity The Aramaic
Aramaic
word for "God" in the language of Assyrian Christians
Assyrian Christians
is ʼĔlāhā, or Alaha. Arabic-speakers of all Abrahamic faiths, including Christians and Jews, use the word "Allah" to mean "God".[10] The Christian Arabs
Arabs
of today have no other word for "God" than "Allah".[30] (Even the Arabic-descended Maltese language
Maltese language
of Malta, whose population is almost entirely Roman Catholic, uses Alla for "God".) Arab Christians, for example, use the terms Allāh al-ab (الله الأب) for God
God
the Father, Allāh al-ibn (الله الابن) for God
God
the Son, and Allāh al-rūḥ al-quds (الله الروح القدس) for God
God
the Holy Spirit. (See God
God
in Christianity for the Christian concept of God.) Arab Christians
Arab Christians
have used two forms of invocations that were affixed to the beginning of their written works. They adopted the Muslim bismillāh, and also created their own Trinitized bismillāh as early as the 8th century.[31] The Muslim
Muslim
bismillāh reads: "In the name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful." The Trinitized bismillāh reads: "In the name of Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, One God." The Syriac, Latin
Latin
and Greek invocations do not have the words "One God" at the end. This addition was made to emphasize the monotheistic aspect of Trinitarian belief and also to make it more palatable to Muslims.[31] According to Marshall Hodgson, it seems that in the pre-Islamic times, some Arab Christians
Arab Christians
made pilgrimage to the Kaaba, a pagan temple at that time, honoring Allah
Allah
there as God
God
the Creator.[32] Some archaeological excavation quests have led to the discovery of ancient pre-Islamic inscriptions and tombs made by Arab Christians
Arab Christians
in the ruins of a church at Umm el-Jimal
Umm el-Jimal
in Northern Jordan, which contained references to Allah
Allah
as the proper name of God, and some of the graves contained names such as "Abd Allah" which means "the servant/slave of Allah".[33][34][35] The name Allah
Allah
can be found countless times in the reports and the lists of names of Christian martyrs in South Arabia, as reported by antique Syriac documents of the names of those martyrs from the era of the Himyarite
Himyarite
and Aksumite
Aksumite
kingdoms.[36][37] A Christian leader named Abd Allah
Allah
ibn Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
was martyred in Najran in 523, as he had worn a ring that said " Allah
Allah
is my lord".[36][38] In an inscription of Christian martyrion dated back to 512, references to Allah
Allah
can be found in both Arabic
Arabic
and Aramaic, which called him "Allah" and "Alaha", and the inscription starts with the statement "By the Help of Allah".[36][39][40] In pre-Islamic Gospels, the name used for God
God
was "Allah", as evidenced by some discovered Arabic
Arabic
versions of the New Testament written by Arab Christians
Arab Christians
during the pre-Islamic era in Northern and Southern Arabia.[41][42][43] Pre-Islamic Arab Christians
Arab Christians
have been reported to have raised the battle cry "Ya La Ibad Allah" (O slaves of Allah) to invoke each other into battle.[44] "Allah" was also mentioned in pre-Islamic Christian poems by some Ghassanid
Ghassanid
and Tanukhid poets in Syria
Syria
and Northern Arabia.[45][46][47] Islam Main article: God
God
in Islam See also: Names of God
God
in Islam

Medallion showing " Allah
Allah
Jalla Jalaluhu" in the Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, Turkey.

Allah
Allah
script outside Eski Cami (The Old Mosque) in Edirne, Turkey.

In Islam, Allah
Allah
is the unique, omnipotent and only deity and creator of the universe and is equivalent to God
God
in other Abrahamic religions.[11][12] According to Islamic belief, Allah
Allah
is the most common word to represent God,[48] and humble submission to his will, divine ordinances and commandments is the pivot of the Muslim
Muslim
faith.[11] "He is the only God, creator of the universe, and the judge of humankind."[11][12] "He is unique (wāḥid) and inherently one (aḥad), all-merciful and omnipotent."[11] The Qur'an declares "the reality of Allah, His inaccessible mystery, His various names, and His actions on behalf of His creatures."[11] In Islamic tradition, there are 99 Names of God
99 Names of God
(al-asmā’ al-ḥusná lit. meaning: 'the best names' or 'the most beautiful names'), each of which evoke a distinct characteristic of Allah.[12][49] All these names refer to Allah, the supreme and all-comprehensive divine name.[50] Among the 99 names of God, the most famous and most frequent of these names are "the Merciful" (al-Raḥmān) and "the Compassionate" (al-Raḥīm).[12][49] Most Muslims use the untranslated Arabic
Arabic
phrase in shā’ Allāh (meaning 'if God
God
wills') after references to future events.[51] Muslim discursive piety encourages beginning things with the invocation of bismillāh (meaning 'in the name of God').[52] There are certain phrases in praise of God
God
that are favored by Muslims, including "Subḥān Allāh" (Holiness be to God), "al-ḥamdu lillāh" (Praise be to God), "lā ilāha illā Allāh" (There is no deity but God) and "Allāhu akbar" ( God
God
is greater) as a devotional exercise of remembering God
God
(dhikr).[53] In a Sufi
Sufi
practice known as dhikr Allah
Allah
(lit. remembrance of God), the Sufi
Sufi
repeats and contemplates on the name Allah
Allah
or other divine names while controlling his or her breath.[54] According to Gerhard Böwering, in contrast with pre-Islamic Arabian polytheism, God in Islam
God in Islam
does not have associates and companions, nor is there any kinship between God
God
and jinn.[48] Pre-Islamic pagan Arabs believed in a blind, powerful, inexorable and insensible fate over which man had no control. This was replaced with the Islamic notion of a powerful but provident and merciful God.[11] According to Francis Edward Peters, "The Qur’ān insists, Muslims believe, and historians affirm that Muhammad
Muhammad
and his followers worship the same God
God
as the Jews (29:46). The Qur’an's Allah
Allah
is the same Creator God
God
who covenanted with Abraham". Peters states that the Qur'an portrays Allah
Allah
as both more powerful and more remote than Yahweh, and as a universal deity, unlike Yahweh
Yahweh
who closely follows Israelites.[55] As a loanword English and other European languages The history of the name Allāh in English was probably influenced by the study of comparative religion in the 19th century; for example, Thomas Carlyle
Thomas Carlyle
(1840) sometimes used the term Allah
Allah
but without any implication that Allah
Allah
was anything different from God. However, in his biography of Muḥammad (1934), Tor Andræ
Tor Andræ
always used the term Allah, though he allows that this "conception of God" seems to imply that it is different from that of the Jewish and Christian theologies.[56] Languages which may not commonly use the term Allah
Allah
to denote God
God
may still contain popular expressions which use the word. For example, because of the centuries long Muslim
Muslim
presence in the Iberian Peninsula, the word ojalá in the Spanish language
Spanish language
and oxalá in the Portuguese language
Portuguese language
exist today, borrowed from Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: إن شاء الله). This phrase literally means 'if God
God
wills' (in the sense of "I hope so").[57] The German poet Mahlmann used the form "Allah" as the title of a poem about the ultimate deity, though it is unclear how much Islamic thought he intended to convey. Some Muslims leave the name "Allāh" untranslated in English.[58] The word has also been applied to certain living human beings as personifications of the term and concept.[59][60] Malaysian and Indonesian language

The first dictionary of Dutch-Malay by A.C. Ruyl, Justus Heurnius, and Caspar Wiltens in 1650 recorded "Allah" as the translation of the Dutch word "Godt"

Main articles: Titular Roman Catholic Archbishop of Kuala Lumpur v. Menteri Dalam Negeri and 2010 attacks against places of worship in Malaysia

Gereja Kalam Kebangunan Allah
Allah
(Word of God
God
Revival Church) in Indonesia. Allah
Allah
is the word for "God" in the Indonesian language
Indonesian language
- even in Alkitab (Christian Bible, from الكتاب al-kitāb = the book) translations, while Tuhan is the word for "Lord".

Christians in Malaysia also use the word Allah
Allah
for "God".

Christians in Malaysia and Indonesia
Indonesia
use Allah
Allah
to refer to God
God
in the Malaysian and Indonesian languages (both of them standardized forms of the Malay language). Mainstream Bible
Bible
translations in the language use Allah
Allah
as the translation of Hebrew Elohim
Elohim
(translated in English Bibles
Bibles
as "God").[61] This goes back to early translation work by Francis Xavier
Francis Xavier
in the 16th century.[62][63] The first dictionary of Dutch-Malay by Albert Cornelius Ruyl, Justus Heurnius, and Caspar Wiltens in 1650 (revised edition from 1623 edition and 1631 Latin edition) recorded "Allah" as the translation of the Dutch word "Godt".[64] Ruyl also translated the Gospel of Matthew
Gospel of Matthew
in 1612 into the Malay language
Malay language
(an early Bible
Bible
translation into a non-European language,[65] made a year after the publication of the King James Version[66][67]), which was printed in the Netherlands in 1629. Then he translated the Gospel of Mark, published in 1638.[68][69] The government of Malaysia in 2007 outlawed usage of the term Allah
Allah
in any other but Muslim
Muslim
contexts, but the Malayan High Court in 2009 revoked the law, ruling it unconstitutional. While Allah
Allah
had been used for the Christian God
God
in Malay for more than four centuries, the contemporary controversy was triggered by usage of Allah
Allah
by the Roman Catholic newspaper The Herald. The government appealed the court ruling, and the High Court suspended implementation of its verdict until the hearing of the appeal. In October 2013 the court ruled in favor of the government's ban.[70] In early 2014 the Malaysian government confiscated more than 300 bibles for using the word to refer to the Christian God
God
in Peninsular Malaysia.[71] However, the use of Allah
Allah
is not prohibited in the two Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak.[72][73] The main reason it is not prohibited in these two states is that usage has been long-established and local Alkitab (Bibles) have been widely distributed freely in East Malaysia without restrictions for years.[72] Both states also do not have similar Islamic state laws as those in West Malaysia.[17] In reaction to some media criticism, the Malaysian government has introduced a "10-point solution" to avoid confusion and misleading information.[74][75] The 10-point solution is in line with the spirit of the 18- and 20-point agreements of Sarawak
Sarawak
and Sabah.[17]

In other scripts and languages Allāh in other languages that use Arabic
Arabic
script is spelled in the same way. This includes Urdu, Persian/Dari, Uyghur among others.

Assamese, Bengali: আল্লাহ Allah Bosnian: Allah Chinese (Mandarin): 真主 Zhēnzhǔ (semantic translation as "the true lord"),[76] 安拉 Ānlā, 阿拉 Ālā; or 胡大 Húdà (Khoda, from Farsi: خدا "God") Czech, Slovak: Alláh Greek: Αλλάχ Allách Filipino: Alā or Allah Hebrew: אללה‬ Allah Hindi: अल्लाह Allāh Malayalam: അള്ളാഹ് Aḷḷāh Japanese: アラー Arā, アッラー Arrā, アッラーフ Arrāfu Latvian: Allāhs Maltese: Alla Korean: 알라 Alla Polish: Allah, also archaic Allach or Ałłach Russian, Ukrainian, Bulgarian: Алла́х Allakh Serbian, Belarusian, Macedonian: Алах Alah Spanish, Portuguese: Alá Sylheti: আল্লা Alla Thai: อัลลอฮ์ Anláw Punjabi (Gurmukhi): ਅੱਲਾਹ Allāh, archaic ਅਲਹੁ Alahu (in Sikh scriptures) Turkish: Allah Vietnamese: Thánh A-la

Typography

The word Allah
Allah
written in different writing systems.

The word Allāh is always written without an alif to spell the ā vowel. This is because the spelling was settled before Arabic
Arabic
spelling started habitually using alif to spell ā. However, in vocalized spelling, a small diacritic alif is added on top of the shaddah to indicate the pronunciation. One exception may be in the pre-Islamic Zabad inscription,[77] where it ends with an ambiguous sign that may be a lone-standing h with a lengthened start, or may be a non-standard conjoined l-h:-

الاه: This reading would be Allāh spelled phonetically with alif for the ā. الإله: This reading would be al-Ilāh = 'the god' (an older form, without contraction), by older spelling practice without alif for ā.

Many Arabic
Arabic
type fonts feature special ligatures for Allah.[78] Unicode Unicode
Unicode
has a codepoint reserved for Allāh, ﷲ‬ = U+FDF2, in the Arabic
Arabic
Presentation Forms-A block, which exists solely for "compatibility with some older, legacy character sets that encoded presentation forms directly";[79][80] this is discouraged for new text. Instead, the word Allāh should be represented by its individual Arabic
Arabic
letters, while modern font technologies will render the desired ligature. The calligraphic variant of the word used as the Coat of arms of Iran is encoded in Unicode, in the Miscellaneous Symbols range, at codepoint U+262B (☫). See also

Allah
Allah
as moon god Abdullah (name) Ahura Mazda Names of God Jehovah

Notes

^ "Allah". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. ^ " Allah
Allah
- definition of Allah
Allah
in English from the Oxford dictionary". oxforddictionaries.com.  ^ "God". Islam: Empire of Faith. PBS. Archived from the original on 2014-03-27. Retrieved 18 December 2010.  ^ " Islam
Islam
and Christianity", Encyclopedia of Christianity (2001): Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews also refer to God
God
as Allāh. ^ Gardet, L. "Allah". In Bearman, P.; Bianquis, Th.; Bosworth, C.E.; van Donzel, E.; Heinrichs, W.P. Encyclopaedia of Islam
Islam
Online. Brill Online. Retrieved 2 May 2007.  ^ Zeki Saritoprak (2006). "Allah". In Oliver Leaman. The Qur'an: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 34.  ^ Vincent J. Cornell (2005). "God: God
God
in Islam". In Lindsay Jones. Encyclopedia of Religion. 5 (2nd ed.). MacMillan Reference USA. p. 724.  ^ a b c d e f Christian Julien Robin (2012). Arabia
Arabia
and Ethiopia. In The Oxford Handbook of Late Antiquity. OUP USA. pp. 304–305. ISBN 9780195336931.  ^ Merriam-Webster. "Allah". Merriam-Webster. Archived from the original on 2014-04-20. Retrieved 25 February 2012.  ^ a b Columbia Encyclopedia, Allah ^ a b c d e f g "Allah." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica ^ a b c d e Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa, Allah ^ Willis Barnstone, Marvin Meyer The Gnostic Bible: Revised and Expanded Edition Shambhala Publications 2009 ISBN 978-0-834-82414-0 page 531 ^ Sikhs
Sikhs
target of 'Allah' attack, Julia Zappei, 14 January 2010, The New Zealand Herald. Accessed on line 15 January 2014. ^ Malaysia court rules non-Muslims can't use 'Allah', 14 October 2013, The New Zealand Herald. Accessed on line 15 January 2014. ^ Malaysia's Islamic authorities seize Bibles
Bibles
as Allah
Allah
row deepens, Niluksi Koswanage, 2 January 2014, Reuters. Accessed on line 15 January 2014. Archived 16 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b c Idris Jala
Idris Jala
(24 February 2014). "The 'Allah'/ Bible
Bible
issue, 10-point solution is key to managing the polarity". The Star. Retrieved 25 June 2014.  ^ a b c D.B. Macdonald. Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd ed, Brill. "Ilah", Vol. 3, p. 1093. ^ Gerhard Böwering. Encyclopedia of the Quran, Brill, 2002. Vol. 2, p. 318 ^ Columbia Encyclopaedia says: Derived from an old Semitic root referring to the Divine and used in the Canaanite El, the Mesopotamian ilu, and the biblical Elohim
Elohim
and Eloah, the word Allah
Allah
is used by all Arabic-speaking Muslims, Christians, Jews, and other monotheists. ^ The Comprehensive Aramaic
Aramaic
Lexicon – Entry for ʼlh Archived 18 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Hitti, Philip Khouri (1970). History of the Arabs. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 100–101.  ^ a b L. Gardet, Allah, Encyclopaedia of Islam, ed. by Sir H.A.R. Gibb ^ Zeki Saritopak, Allah, The Qu'ran: An Encyclopedia, ed. by Oliver Leaman, p. 34 ^ a b Gerhard Böwering, God
God
and his Attributes, Encyclopedia of the Qur'an, ed. by Jane Dammen McAuliffe ^ a b Jonathan Porter Berkey (2003). The Formation of Islam: Religion and Society in the Near East, 600-1800. Cambridge University Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-521-58813-3.  ^ Daniel C. Peterson (26 February 2007). Muhammad, Prophet of God. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-8028-0754-0.  ^ a b Francis E. Peters (1994). Muhammad
Muhammad
and the Origins of Islam. SUNY Press. p. 107. ISBN 978-0-7914-1875-8.  ^ Irving M. Zeitlin (19 March 2007). The Historical Muhammad. Polity. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-7456-3999-4.  ^ Lewis, Bernard; Holt, P. M.; Holt, Peter R.; Lambton, Ann Katherine Swynford (1977). The Cambridge history of Islam. Cambridge, Eng: University Press. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-521-29135-4.  ^ a b Thomas E. Burman, Religious Polemic and the Intellectual History of the Mozarabs, Brill, 1994, p. 103 ^ Marshall G. S. Hodgson, The Venture of Islam: Conscience and History in a World Civilization, University of Chicago Press, p. 156 ^ James Bellamy, "Two Pre-Islamic Arabic
Arabic
Inscriptions Revised: Jabal Ramm and Umm al-Jimal", Journal of the American Oriental Society, 108/3 (1988) ^ Enno Littmann, Arabic
Arabic
Inscriptions (Leiden, 1949) ^ Rick Brown, Who is "Allah" ? - International Journal of Frontier Missions, (23:2 Summer 2006), page 80. ^ a b c Rick Brown, Who was 'Allah' before Islam? Evidence that the term 'Allah' originated with Jewish and Christian Arabs
Arabs
(2007), page 8. ^ Ignatius Ya`qub III, The Arab Himyarite
Himyarite
Martyrs in the Syriac Documents (1966), Pages: 9-65-66-89 ^ Alfred Guillaume& Muhammad
Muhammad
Ibn Ishaq, (2002 [1955]). The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat Rasūl Allāh with Introduction and Notes. Karachi and New York: Oxford University Press, page 18. ^ Adolf Grohmann, Arabische Paläographie II: Das Schriftwesen und die Lapidarschrift (1971), Wien: Hermann Böhlaus Nochfolger, Page: 6-8 ^ Beatrice Gruendler, The Development of the Arabic
Arabic
Scripts: From the Nabatean Era to the First Islamic Century according to Dated Texts (1993), Atlanta: Scholars Press, Page: ^ Rick Brown, Who was 'Allah' before Islam? Evidence that the term 'Allah' originated with Jewish and Christian Arabs
Arabs
(2007), page 10. ^ Frederick Winnett V, Allah
Allah
before Islam-The Moslem World (1938), Pages: 239–248 ^ Michael Macdonald, Personal Names in the Nabataean Realm-Journal of Semitic Studies (1999), Page: 271 ^ Irfan Shahîd, Byzantium and the Arabs
Arabs
in the Fourth Century, Dumbarton Oaks Trustees for Harvard University-Washington DC, page 418. ^ Irfan Shahîd, Byzantium and the Arabs
Arabs
in the Fourth Century, Dumbarton Oaks Trustees for Harvard University-Washington DC, Page: 452 ^ A. Amin and A. Harun, Sharh Diwan Al-Hamasa (Cairo, 1951), Vol. 1, Pages: 478-480 ^ Al-Marzubani, Mu'jam Ash-Shu'araa, Page: 302 ^ a b Böwering, Gerhard, God
God
and His Attributes, Encyclopaedia of the Qurʼān, Brill, 2007. ^ a b Bentley, David (September 1999). The 99 Beautiful Names for God for All the People of the Book. William Carey Library. ISBN 978-0-87808-299-5.  ^ Murata, Sachiko (1992). The Tao of Islam : a sourcebook on gender relationships in Islamic thought. Albany NY USA: SUNY. ISBN 978-0-7914-0914-5.  ^ Gary S. Gregg, The Middle East: A Cultural Psychology, Oxford University Press, p.30 ^ Carolyn Fluehr-Lobban, Islamic Society in Practice, University Press of Florida, p. 24 ^ M. Mukarram Ahmed, Muzaffar Husain Syed, Encyclopaedia of Islam, Anmol Publications PVT. LTD, p. 144 ^ Carl W. Ernst, Bruce B. Lawrence, Sufi
Sufi
Martyrs of Love: The Chishti Order in South Asia and Beyond, Macmillan, p. 29 ^ F.E. Peters, Islam, p.4, Princeton University Press, 2003 ^ William Montgomery Watt, Islam
Islam
and Christianity today: A Contribution to Dialogue, Routledge, 1983, p.45 ^ Islam
Islam
in Luce López Baralt, Spanish Literature: From the Middle Ages to the Present, Brill, 1992, p.25 ^ F. E. Peters, The Monotheists: Jews, Christians, and Muslims in Conflict and Competition, Princeton University Press, p.12 ^ Nation of Islam
Islam
– personification of Allah
Allah
as Detroit peddler W D Fard Archived 13 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "A history of Clarence 13X and the Five Percenters, referring to Clarence Smith as Allah". Finalcall.com. Archived from the original on 2013-10-22. Retrieved 2014-01-14.  ^ Example: Usage of the word "Allah" from Matthew 22:32 in Indonesian bible versions (parallel view) as old as 1733 Archived 19 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ The Indonesian Language: Its History and Role in Modern Society Sneddon, James M.; University of New South Wales Press; 2004 ^ The History of Christianity in India from the Commencement of the Christian Era: Hough, James; Adamant Media Corporation; 2001 ^ Justus Heurnius, Albert Ruyl, Caspar Wiltens. "Vocabularium ofte Woordenboeck nae ordre van den alphabeth, in 't Duytsch en Maleys". 1650:65. Books.google.co.id. 1650. Archived from the original on 2013-10-22. Retrieved 2014-01-14.  ^ But compare: Milkias, Paulos (2011). "Ge'ez Literature (Religious)". Ethiopia. Africa in Focus. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 299. ISBN 9781598842579. Retrieved 2018-02-15. Monasticism played a key role in the Ethiopian literary movement. The Bible
Bible
was translated during the time of the Nine Saints in the early sixth century [...].  ^ Barton, John (2002–12). The Biblical World, Oxford, UK: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-27574-3. ^ North, Eric McCoy; Eugene Albert Nida ((2nd Edition) 1972). The Book of a Thousand Tongues, London: United Bible
Bible
Societies. ^ (in Indonesian) Biography of Ruyl ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica: Albert Cornelius Ruyl". Britannica.com. Archived from the original on 2013-10-19. Retrieved 2014-01-14.  ^ Roughneen, Simon (14 October 2013). "No more 'Allah' for Christians, Malaysian court says". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 14 October 2013.  ^ "BBC News - More than 300 Bibles
Bibles
are confiscated in Malaysia". BBC. 2 January 2014. Archived from the original on 25 January 2014. Retrieved 14 January 2014.  ^ a b "Catholic priest should respect court: Mahathir". Daily Express. 9 January 2014. Archived from the original on 10 January 2014. Retrieved 10 January 2014.  ^ Jane Moh; Peter Sibon (29 March 2014). "Worship without hindrance". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 29 March 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2014.  ^ "Bahasa Malaysia Bibles: The Cabinet's 10-point solution".  ^ "Najib: 10-point resolution on Allah
Allah
issue subject to Federal, state laws". The Star. 24 January 2014. Retrieved 25 June 2014.  ^ Kees Versteegh; Mushira Eid (2005). Encyclopedia of Arabic
Arabic
Language and Linguistics: A-Ed. Brill. pp. 379–. ISBN 978-90-04-14473-6.  ^ "Zebed Inscription: A Pre-Islamic Trilingual Inscription In Greek, Syriac & Arabic
Arabic
From 512 CE". Islamic Awareness. 17 March 2005. Archived from the original on 2013-10-13.  ^

Arabic
Arabic
fonts and Mac OS X Archived 10 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Programs for Arabic
Arabic
in Mac OS X Archived 6 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine.

^ The Unicode
Unicode
Consortium. FAQ - Middle East Scripts Archived 1 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "'' Unicode
Unicode
Standard 5.0'', p.479, 492" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-04-28. Retrieved 2014-01-14. 

References

The Unicode
Unicode
Consortium, Unicode
Unicode
Standard 5.0, Addison-Wesley, 2006, ISBN 978-0-321-48091-0, About the Unicode
Unicode
Standard Version 5.0 Book

External links

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with Meaning on Website, Flash, and Mobile Phone Software Concept of God
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(Allah) in Islam The Concept of Allāh According to the Qur'an by Abdul Mannan Omar Allah, the Unique Name of God

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Names of God

In Christianity  • In Hinduism  • In Islam
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 • In Judaism  • In Zoroastrianism  • In Chinese religion

Adonai Ahura Mazda The All Allah Brahman Cao Đài El

Elohim El Elyon El Shaddai

God Great Spirit Haneullim Hu Hyang I Am that I Am Ik Onkar Ishvara Jah Khuda Ngai Olodumare The One Parvardigar Shangdi Svayam Bhagavan Tenri-Ō-no-Mikoto Tian Tianzhu Waheguru YHWH

Jehovah Yahweh

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