Alexander Alekhine (Russian: Алекса́ндр
Алекса́ндрович Але́хин, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich
Alekhin; pronounced [ɐlʲɪkˈsandr ɐlʲɪkˈsandrəvʲɪtɕ
ɐˈlʲexʲɪn]; October 31 [O.S. October
19] 1892 – March 24, 1946) was a Russian and French chess
player and the fourth World Chess Champion. He is widely considered to
be one of the greatest chess players of all time.
By the age of 22, Alekhine was already among the strongest chess
players in the world. During the 1920s, he won most of the tournaments
in which he played. In 1921, Alekhine left Soviet Russia and emigrated
to France, which he represented after 1925. In 1927, he became the
fourth World Chess Champion by defeating José Raúl Capablanca.
In the early 1930s, Alekhine dominated tournament play and won two
top-class tournaments by large margins. He also played first board for
France in five Chess Olympiads, winning individual prizes in each
(four medals and a brilliancy prize). Alekhine offered Capablanca a
rematch on the same demanding terms that Capablanca had set for him,
and negotiations dragged on for years without making much progress.
Meanwhile, Alekhine defended his title with ease against Efim
Bogoljubov in 1929 and 1934. He was defeated by
Max Euwe in 1935, but
regained his crown in the 1937 rematch. His tournament record,
however, remained uneven, and rising young stars like Paul Keres,
Reuben Fine, and
Mikhail Botvinnik threatened his title. Negotiations
for a title match with Keres or Botvinnik were halted by the outbreak
of World War II in Europe in 1939. Negotiations with Botvinnik for a
world title match were proceeding in 1946 when Alekhine died in
Portugal, in unclear circumstances. Alekhine is the only World Chess
Champion to have died while holding the title.
Alekhine is known for his fierce and imaginative attacking style,
combined with great positional and endgame skill. He is highly
regarded as a chess writer and theoretician, having produced
innovations in a wide range of chess openings and having given his
Alekhine's Defence and several other opening variations. He
also composed some endgame studies.
1.1 Early life
1.2 Early chess career (1902–1914)
1.3 Top-level grandmaster (1914–1927)
1.3.1 World War I and post-revolutionary Russia
2 World Chess Champion, first reign (1927–1935)
2.1 1927 title match
2.2 Rematch offered, never finalized
2.3 Defeats Bogoljubov twice in title matches
Bolshevik statements, controversy
2.5 Dominates rivals
3 Loss of the World title (1935–1937)
4 World Chess Champion, second reign (1937–1946)
4.2 World War II (1939–1945)
4.3 Final year and death
5.1 Playing strength and style
5.2 Influence on the game
5.3 Accusations of "improving" games
5.4 Accusations of antisemitism
6 Notable games
8 Summary of results in competitions
8.2 Match results
Chess Olympiad results
9 Other information
11 Further reading
12 External links
Alekhine was born into a wealthy family in Moscow, Russia, on October
31, 1892. His father, Alexander Ivanovich Alekhin, was a
landowner and Privy Councilor to the conservative legislative Fourth
Duma. His mother, Anisya Ivanovna Alekhina (born Prokhorova), was
the daughter of a rich industrialist. Alekhine was first introduced to
chess by his mother, an older brother, Alexei, and an older sister,
Early chess career (1902–1914)
Alekhine in 1909
Alekhine's first known game was from a correspondence chess tournament
that began on December 3, 1902, when he was ten years old. He
participated in several correspondence tournaments, sponsored by the
chess magazine Shakhmatnoe Obozrenie ("Chess Review"), in 1902–1911.
In 1907, Alekhine played his first over-the-board tournament, the
Moscow chess club's Spring Tournament. Later that year, he tied for
11th–13th in the club's Autumn Tournament; his older brother,
Alexei, tied for 4th–6th place. In 1908, Alexander won the club's
Spring Tournament, at the age of 15.[unreliable source] In 1909,
he won the All-Russian Amateur
Tournament in Saint Petersburg. For the
next few years, he played in increasingly stronger tournaments, some
of them outside Russia. At first he had mixed results, but by the age
of 16 he had established himself as one of Russia's top players.
He played first board in two friendly team matches: St. Petersburg
Chess Club vs.
Moscow Chess Club in 1911 and
Moscow vs. St. Petersburg
in 1912 (both drew with Yevgeny Znosko-Borovsky). By the end of
1911, Alekhine moved to St. Petersburg, where he entered the Imperial
Law School for Nobles. By 1912, he was the strongest chess player in
the St. Petersburg Chess Society. In March 1912, he won the St.
Petersburg Chess Club Winter Tournament. In April 1912, he won the 1st
Tournament of the St. Petersburg Chess Club. In January
1914, Alekhine won his first major Russian tournament, when he tied
for first place with
Aron Nimzowitsch in the All-Russian Masters
Tournament at St. Petersburg. Afterwards, they drew in a mini-match
for first prize (each won a game). Alekhine also played several
matches in this period, and his results showed the same pattern: mixed
at first but later consistently good.
Top-level grandmaster (1914–1927)
In April–May 1914, another major St. Petersburg 1914 chess
tournament was held in the capital of the Russian Empire, in which
Alekhine took third place behind
Emanuel Lasker and José Raúl
Capablanca. By some accounts,
Tsar Nicholas II conferred the title of
"Grandmaster of Chess" on each of the five finalists (Lasker,
Capablanca, Alekhine, Siegbert Tarrasch, and Frank Marshall). (Chess
historian Edward Winter has questioned this, stating that the earliest
known sources supporting this story are an article by Robert Lewis
Taylor in the June 15, 1940 issue of
The New Yorker
The New Yorker and Marshall's
autobiography My 50 Years of Chess (1942).) Alekhine's
surprising success made him a serious contender for the World Chess
Championship. Whether or not the title was formally awarded to
him, "Thanks to this performance, Alekhine became a grandmaster in his
own right and in the eyes of the audience." In July 1914, Alekhine
tied for first with Marshall in Paris.
World War I and post-revolutionary Russia
In July–August 1914, Alekhine was leading an international Mannheim
tournament, the 19th
DSB Congress (German Chess Federation Congress)
in Mannheim, Germany, with nine wins, one draw and one loss, when
World War I broke out. Alekhine's prize was 1,100 marks (worth about
11,000 euros in terms of purchasing power today). After the
declaration of war against Russia, eleven "Russian" players (Alekhine,
Efim Bogoljubov, Fedor Bogatyrchuk, Alexander Flamberg, N. Koppelman,
Boris Maliutin, Ilya Rabinovich, Peter Romanovsky, Pyotr Saburov,
Alexey Selezniev, and Samuil Weinstein) were interned in Rastatt,
Germany. On September 14, 17, and 29, 1914, four of them (Alekhine,
Bogatyrchuk, Saburov, and Koppelman) were freed and allowed to return
home. Alekhine made his way back to Russia (via Switzerland,
Italy, London, Sweden, and Finland) by the end of October 1914. A
fifth player, Romanovsky, was released in 1915, and a sixth,
Flamberg, was allowed to return to
Warsaw in 1916.
When Alekhine returned to Russia, he helped raise money to aid the
Russian chess players who remained interned in Germany by giving
simultaneous exhibitions. In December 1915, he won the
Club Championship. In April 1916, he won a mini-match against
Alexander Evensohn with two wins and one loss at Kiev, and in summer
he served in the Union of Cities (Red Cross) on the Austrian front. In
September, he played five people in a blindfold display at a Russian
military hospital at Tarnopol. In 1918, he won a "triangular
tournament" in Moscow. In June of the following year, after the
Russians forced the German army to retreat from Ukraine, Alekhine was
charged with links with White counter-intelligence and was briefly
imprisoned in Odessa's death cell by the
Odessa Cheka. Rumors appeared
in the West that he had been killed by the Bolsheviks.[unreliable
When conditions in Russia became more settled, Alekhine proved he was
among Russia's strongest players. For example, in January 1920, he
Moscow City Chess Championship (11/11), but was not declared
Moscow Champion because he was not a resident of the city. Also in
October 1920, he won the All-Russian Championship in Moscow
(+9−0=6); this tournament was retroactively defined as the first
USSR Championship. His brother Alexei took third place in the
tournament for amateurs.[unreliable source]
In March 1920, Alekhine married Alexandra Batayeva. They divorced the
next year. For a short time in 1920–21, he worked as an
interpreter for the Communist International (Comintern) and was
appointed secretary to the Education Department. In this capacity, he
met a Swiss journalist and
Comintern delegate, Anneliese Rüegg, who
was thirteen years older than he was, and they married on March 15,
1921. Shortly after, Alekhine was given permission to leave Russia for
a visit to the West with his wife, from which he never returned. In
June 1921, he abandoned his second wife in Paris and went to
In 1921–1923, Alekhine played seven mini-matches. In 1921, he won
Nikolay Grigoriev (+2−0=5) in Moscow, drew with Richard
Teichmann (+2−2=2) and won against
Friedrich Sämisch (+2−0=0),
both in Berlin. In 1922, he won against
Ossip Bernstein (+1−0=1) and
Arnold Aurbach (+1−0=1), both in Paris, and Manuel Golmayo
(+1−0=1) in Madrid. In 1923, he won against André Muffang
(+2−0=0) in Paris.
From 1921 to 1927, Alekhine won or shared first prize in about
two-thirds of the many tournaments in which he played. His least
successful efforts were a tie for third place at
Vienna 1922 behind
Akiba Rubinstein and Richard Réti, and third place at the New York
1924 chess tournament behind ex-champion
Emanuel Lasker and world
José Raúl Capablanca
José Raúl Capablanca (but ahead of Frank Marshall, Richard
Réti, Géza Maróczy, Efim Bogoljubov, Savielly Tartakower, Frederick
Yates, Edward Lasker, and Dawid Janowski). Technically,
Alekhine's play was mostly better than his competitors'—even
Capablanca's—but he lacked confidence when playing his major
Alekhine's main goal throughout this period was to arrange a match
with Capablanca. He thought the greatest obstacle was not
Capablanca's play, but the requirement under the 1922 "London rules"
(at Capablanca's insistence) that the challenger raise a purse of US
$10,000 (equivalent to about $391,000 in 2006), of which the
defending champion would receive over half even if defeated.
Alekhine in November 1921 and Rubinstein and Nimzowitsch in 1923
challenged Capablanca, but were unable to raise the $10,000.
Raising the money was Alekhine's preliminary objective; he even went
on tour, playing simultaneous exhibitions for modest fees day after
day. In New York on April 27, 1924, he broke the world record for
simultaneous blindfold play when he played twenty-six opponents (the
previous record was twenty-five, set by Gyula Breyer), winning sixteen
games, losing five, and drawing five after twelve hours of play. He
broke his own world record on February 1, 1925 by playing twenty-eight
games blindfold simultaneously in Paris, winning twenty-two, drawing
three, and losing three.[unreliable source]
In 1924, he applied for the first time for a residence privilege in
France and for French citizenship while pursuing his studies in the
Sorbonne Faculty of
Law to obtain a PhD. Although sources differ about
whether he completed his studies there, he was known as "Dr. Alekhine"
in the 1930s.[unreliable source] His thesis was on the
Chinese prison system. "He received a degree in law in Saint
Petersburg in 1914 but never practiced."
His French citizenship application was postponed because of his
frequent travels abroad to play chess and because he was reported once
in April 1922, shortly after his arrival in France, as a "bolshevist
charged by the Soviets of a special mission in France". Later in 1927,
French Chess Federation
French Chess Federation asked the Ministry of Justice to intervene
in Alekhine's favor to have him lead the French team in the first
Nation tournament to be held in London in July 1927. Nevertheless,
Alekhine had to wait for a new law on naturalization which was
published on 10 August 1927. The decree granting him French
citizenship (among hundreds of other citizens) was signed on 5
November 1927 and published in the Official Gazette of the French
Republic on 14–15 November 1927, while Alekhine was playing
Capablanca for the World title in Buenos Aires.
In October 1926, Alekhine won in Buenos Aires. From December 1926 to
January 1927, he beat
Max Euwe 5½–4½ in a match. In 1927, he
married his third wife, Nadiezda Vasiliev (née Fabritzky), another
older woman, the widow of the Russian general V. Vasiliev.
World Chess Champion, first reign (1927–1935)
1927 title match
In 1927, Alekhine's challenge to Capablanca was backed by a group of
Argentine businessmen and the president of Argentina, who guaranteed
the funds, and organized by the Club Argentino de Ajedrez
(Argentine Chess Club) in Buenos Aires. In the World Chess
Championship match played from September to November 1927 at Buenos
Aires, Alekhine won the title, scoring +6−3=25. This was the
longest formal World Championship match until the contest in 1984
Anatoly Karpov and Garry Kasparov. Alekhine's victory
surprised almost the entire chess world, since he had never previously
won a single game from Capablanca. After Capablanca's death
Alekhine expressed surprise at his own victory, since in 1927 he did
not think he was superior to Capablanca, and he suggested that
Capablanca had been overconfident. Capablanca entered the match
with no technical or physical preparation, while Alekhine got
himself into good physical condition and had thoroughly studied
Capablanca's play. According to Kasparov, Alekhine's research
uncovered many small inaccuracies, which occurred because Capablanca
was unwilling to concentrate intensely.
Vladimir Kramnik has
commented that this was the first contest in which Capablanca had no
Rematch offered, never finalized
Immediately after winning the match, Alekhine announced that he was
willing to give Capablanca a return match, on the same terms that
Capablanca had required as champion: the challenger must provide a
stake of US $10,000, of which more than half would go to the defending
champion even if he was defeated. Negotiations dragged on for
several years, often breaking down when agreement seemed in sight.
Their relationship became bitter, and Alekhine demanded much higher
appearance fees for tournaments in which Capablanca also played.
The rematch never took place. After Capablanca's death in 1942,
Alekhine wrote that Capablanca's demand for a $10,000 stake had been
an attempt to avoid challenges.
Grandmaster Robert Byrne wrote that Alekhine consciously sought lesser
opponents for his subsequent championship matches, rather than give
Capablanca another chance.
Defeats Bogoljubov twice in title matches
Alekhine (left) vs.
Efim Bogoljubov (right);
Emanuel Lasker (sitting,
center) and others looking on
Although he never agreed terms for a rematch against Capablanca,
Alekhine played two world title matches with Efim Bogoljubov, an
official "Challenger of FIDE", in 1929 and 1934, winning handily both
times. The first was held at Wiesbaden, Heidelberg, Berlin,
The Hague, and
Amsterdam from September through November 1929.
Alekhine retained his title, scoring +11−5=9. From April to June
1934, Alekhine faced Bogoljubov again in a title match held in twelve
German cities, defeating him by five games (+8−3=15). In 1929,
Bogoljubov was forty years old and perhaps already past his peak.
Bolshevik statements, controversy
After the world championship match, Alekhine returned to Paris and
spoke against Bolshevism. Afterwards, Nikolai Krylenko, president of
the Soviet Chess Federation, published an official memorandum stating
that Alekhine should be regarded as an enemy of the Soviets. The
Soviet Chess Federation broke all contact with Alekhine until the end
of the 1930s. His older brother Alexei, with whom Alexander Alekhine
had had a very close relationship, publicly repudiated him and his
anti-Soviet utterances shortly after, but Alexei may have had little
choice about this decision. In August 1939, Alexei was murdered in
Russia, probably due to his open support of the Nazis.
Alexander Alekhine dominated chess into the mid-1930s. His most
famous tournament victories were at the San Remo 1930 chess tournament
(+13=2, 3½ points ahead of Nimzowitsch) and the
Bled 1931 chess
tournament (+15=11, 5½ points ahead of Bogoljubov). He won most of
his other tournaments outright, shared first place in two, and the
first tournament in which he placed lower than first was Hastings
1933–34 (shared second place, ½ point behind Salo Flohr). In 1933,
Alekhine also swept an exhibition match against Rafael Cintron in San
Juan (+4−0=0), but only managed to draw another match with Ossip
Bernstein in Paris (+1−1=2).
From 1930 to 1935, Alekhine played first board for France at four
Chess Olympiads, winning the first brilliancy prize at
1930, gold medals for board one at
Prague in 1931 and Folkestone
in 1933, and the silver medal for board one at
1935. His loss to Latvian master
Hermanis Matisons at
1931 was his first loss in a serious chess event since winning the
world championship.[unreliable source]
In the early 1930s, Alekhine travelled the world giving simultaneous
exhibitions, including Hawaii, Tokyo, Manila, Singapore, Shanghai,
Hong Kong, and the Dutch East Indies. In July 1933, he played
thirty-two people blindfold simultaneously (a new world record) in
Chicago, winning nineteen, drawing nine and losing four games.
In 1934 Alekhine married his fourth wife, Grace Freeman (née
Wishaar), sixteen years his senior. She was the American-born widow of
a British tea-planter in Ceylon, who retained her British citizenship
to the end of her life and remained Alekhine's wife until his
Reuben Fine noticed that Alekhine was drinking increasing
amounts of alcohol.
Hans Kmoch wrote that Alekhine first drank
heavily during the tournament at
Bled in 1931, and drank heavily
through the 1934 match with Bogoljubov.
Loss of the World title (1935–1937)
Max Euwe took Alekhine's world title in 1935 but lost it in their 1937
In 1933, Alekhine challenged
Max Euwe to a championship match.[dubious
– discuss] Euwe, in the early 1930s, was regarded as one of three
credible challengers (the others were
José Raúl Capablanca
José Raúl Capablanca and Salo
Flohr). Euwe accepted the challenge for October 1935. Earlier that
year, Dutch radio sports journalist
Han Hollander asked Capablanca for
his views on the forthcoming match. In the rare archival film footage
where Capablanca and Euwe both speak, Capablanca replies: "Dr.
Alekhine's game is 20% bluff. Dr. Euwe's game is clear and
straightforward. Dr. Euwe's game—not so strong as Alekhine's in some
respects—is more evenly balanced." Then Euwe gives his assessment in
Dutch, explaining that his feelings alternated from optimism to
pessimism, but in the previous ten years, their score had been evenly
matched at 7–7.
On October 3, 1935 the world championship match began in Zandvoort,
the Netherlands. Although Alekhine took an early lead, from game
thirteen onwards Euwe won twice as many games as Alekhine. The
challenger became the new champion on December 15, 1935 with nine
wins, thirteen draws, and eight losses. This was the first world
championship match that officially had seconds: Alekhine had the
services of Salo Landau, and Euwe had Géza Maróczy. Euwe's win
was a major upset. Kmoch wrote that Alekhine drank no alcohol for
the first half the match, but later took a glass before most
games. However, Salo Flohr, who also assisted Euwe, thought
overconfidence caused more problems than alcohol did for Alekhine in
this match, and Alekhine himself had previously said he would win
easily. Later World Champions Vasily Smyslov, Boris Spassky,
Anatoly Karpov and
Garry Kasparov analyzed the match for their own
benefit and concluded that Euwe deserved to win and that the standard
of play was worthy of a world championship.
According to Kmoch, Alekhine abstained from alcohol altogether for
five years after the 1935 match. In the eighteen months
after losing the title, Alekhine played in ten tournaments, with
uneven results: tied for first with
Paul Keres at
Bad Nauheim in May
1936; first place at
Dresden in June 1936; second to Flohr at
Poděbrady in July 1936; sixth, behind Capablanca, Mikhail Botvinnik,
Reuben Fine, Samuel Reshevsky, and Euwe at
Nottingham in August 1936;
third, behind Euwe and Fine, at
Amsterdam in October 1936; tied for
Salo Landau at
Amsterdam (Quadrangular), also in October
1936; in 1936/37 he won at the Hastings New Year tournament, ahead of
Fine and Erich Eliskases; first place at
Nice (Quadrangular) in March
1937; third, behind Keres and Fine, at
Margate in April 1937; tied for
fourth with Keres, behind Flohr, Reshevsky and Vladimirs Petrovs, at
Kemeri in June–July 1937; tied for second with Bogoljubow, behind
Bad Nauheim (Quadrangular) in July 1937.
World Chess Champion, second reign (1937–1946)
Max Euwe was quick to arrange a return match with Alekhine, something
José Raúl Capablanca
José Raúl Capablanca had been unable to obtain after Alekhine won
the world title in 1927. Alekhine regained the title from Euwe in
December 1937 by a large margin (+10−4=11). In this match, held in
the Netherlands, Euwe was seconded by Fine, and Alekhine by Erich
Eliskases. The match was a real contest initially, but Euwe collapsed
near the end, losing four of the last five games. Fine
attributed the collapse to nervous tension, possibly aggravated by
Euwe's attempts to maintain a calm appearance. Alekhine played no more
title matches, and thus held the title until his death.
1938 began well for Alekhine, who won the
Montevideo 1938 chess
tournament at Carrasco (in March) and at
Margate (in April), and tied
for first with Sir
George Alan Thomas
George Alan Thomas at
Plymouth (in September). In
November, however, he only tied for 4th–6th with Euwe and Samuel
Reshevsky, behind Paul Keres, Reuben Fine, and Mikhail Botvinnik,
ahead of Capablanca and Flohr, at the
AVRO tournament in the
Netherlands. This tournament was played in each of several Dutch
cities for a few days at a time; it was therefore perhaps not
surprising that rising stars took the first three places, as the older
players found the travel very tiring, though Fine was dismissive of
this explanation because the distances were short.
Immediately after the AVRO tournament, Botvinnik, who had finished in
third place, challenged Alekhine to a match for the world
championship. They agreed on a prize fund of US $10,000 with
two-thirds going to the winner, and that if the match were to take
place in Moscow, Alekhine would be invited at least three months in
advance so that he could play in a tournament to get ready for the
match. Other details had not been agreed when World War II interrupted
negotiations, which the two players resumed after the war.
Keres, who had won the
AVRO tournament on tiebreak over Fine, also
challenged Alekhine to a world championship match. Negotiations were
proceeding in 1939 when they were disrupted by World War II. During
the war Keres' home country, Estonia, was invaded first by the USSR,
then by Germany, then again by the USSR. At the end of the war, the
Soviet government prevented Keres from continuing the negotiations, on
the grounds that he had collaborated with the Germans during their
Estonia (by Soviet standards).
Alekhine was representing France at first board in the 8th Chess
Buenos Aires 1939 when World War II broke out in Europe.
The assembly of all team captains, with leading roles played by
Savielly Tartakower (Poland), and Albert Becker
(Germany), plus the president of the Argentine Chess Federation,
Augusto de Muro, decided to go on with the Olympiad.
Alekhine won the individual silver medal (nine wins, no losses, seven
draws), behind Capablanca (only results from finals A and
B—separately for both sections—counted for best individual
scores). Shortly after the Olympiad, Alekhine swept tournaments in
Montevideo (7/7) and
At the end of August 1939, both Alekhine and Capablanca wrote to
Augusto de Muro regarding a possible world championship rematch.
Whereas the former spoke of a rematch as a virtual certainty, even
stating that the Cuban was remaining in
Buenos Aires until it came
about, the latter referred at length to the financial burden in the
aftermath of the Olympiad. Supported by Latin-American financial
pledges, José R. Capablanca challenged
Alexander Alekhine to a world
title match in November. Tentative plans not, however, actually backed
by a deposit of the required purse ($10,000 in gold), led to a virtual
agreement to play at Buenos Aires, Argentina beginning April 14, 1940.
World War II (1939–1945)
Unlike many participants in the 1939 Chess Olympiad, Alekhine
returned to Europe in January 1940. After a short stay in
Portugal, he enlisted in the French army as a sanitation
After the fall of France (June 1940), he fled to Marseille. Alekhine
tried to go to America by traveling to
Lisbon and applying for an
American visa. In October 1940, he sought permission to enter Cuba,
promising to play a match with Capablanca. This request was
denied.[unreliable source] To protect his wife,
Grace Alekhine and
her French assets (a castle at Saint Aubin-le-Cauf, near Dieppe, which
the Nazis looted), he agreed to cooperate with the Nazis. Alekhine
took part in chess tournaments in Munich, Salzburg, Kraków/Warsaw,
and Prague, organised by Ehrhardt Post, the chief executive of the
Nazi-controlled Grossdeutscher Schachbund ("Greater Germany Chess
Federation")—Keres, Bogoljubov, Gösta Stoltz, and several other
strong masters in Nazi-occupied Europe also played in such events.
In 1941, he tied for second-third with
Erik Lundin in the
chess tournament (Europaturnier in September, won by Stoltz), shared
Paul Felix Schmidt at Kraków/
Warsaw (the 2nd General
Government-ch, in October) and won in
Madrid (in December). The
following year he won in the
Salzburg 1942 chess tournament (June
1942) and in
Munich (September 1942; the Nazis named this the
Europameisterschaft, which means "European Championship").
Later in 1942 he won at Warsaw/Lublin/
Kraków (the 3rd GG-ch; October
1942) and tied for first with
Klaus Junge in
Prague (Duras Jubileé;
December 1942). In 1943, he drew a mini-match (+1−1) with Bogoljubov
Warsaw (March 1943), he won in
Prague (April 1943) and tied for
first with Keres in
Salzburg (June 1943).
By late 1943, Alekhine was spending all his time in Spain and
Portugal, as the German representative to chess events. This also
allowed him to get away from the onrushing Soviet invasion into
eastern Europe.[unreliable source] In 1944, he narrowly won a
Ramón Rey Ardid in
Zaragoza (+1−0=3; April 1944) and
Gijon (July 1944). The following year, he won at
1945), tied for second place with Antonio Medina at
Gijón (July 1945;
the event was won by Antonio Rico), won at
Sabadell (August 1945), he
tied for first with F. López Núñez in
Almeria (August 1945), won in
Melilla (September 1945) and took second in Caceres, behind Francisco
Lupi (Autumn 1945). Alekhine's last match was with Lupi at Estoril
near Lisbon, Portugal, in January 1946. Alekhine won two games, lost
one, and drew one.
Alekhine took an interest in the development of the chess prodigy
Arturo Pomar and devoted a section of his last book (¡Legado! 1946)
to him. They played at
Gijon 1944, when Pomar, aged 12, achieved a
creditable draw with the champion.
Final year and death
Alexander Alekhine in Paris, France
After World War II, Alekhine was not invited to chess tournaments
outside the Iberian Peninsula, because of his alleged Nazi
affiliation. His original invitation to the London 1946 tournament was
withdrawn when the other competitors protested.
While planning for a World Championship match against Botvinnik,
Alekhine died aged 53 in his hotel room in Estoril, Portugal, on March
24, 1946. The circumstances of his death are still a matter of debate.
It is usually attributed to a heart attack, but a letter in Chess Life
magazine from a witness to the autopsy stated that choking on meat was
the actual cause of death. At autopsy, a three-inch-long piece of
unchewed meat was discovered blocking his windpipe. Some have
speculated that he was murdered by a French "death squad". A few years
later, Alekhine's son, Alexander Alekhine, Jr., said that "the hand of
Moscow reached his father". Canadian Grandmaster Kevin Spraggett,
who has lived in Portugal since the late 1980s, and who has thoroughly
investigated Alekhine's death, favors this possibility. Spraggett
makes a case for the manipulation of the crime scene and the autopsy
by the Portuguese secret police PIDE. He believes that Alekhine was
murdered outside his hotel room, probably by the Soviets.
Alekhine's burial was sponsored by FIDE, and the remains were
transferred to the Cimetière du Montparnasse, Paris, France, in
Playing strength and style
Main article: Comparison of top chess players throughout history
Statistical ranking systems differ sharply in their views of Alekhine.
"Warriors of the Mind" rates him only the 18th strongest player of all
time and comments that victories over players such as Bogoljubov and
Euwe are not a strong basis for an "all time" ranking. But the
website "Chessmetrics" ranks him between the fourth and eighth best of
all time, depending on the lengths of the peak periods being compared,
and concludes that at his absolute peak he was a little stronger than
Emanuel Lasker and Capablanca, although a little weaker than
Botvinnik. Jeff Sonas, the author of the website "Chessmetrics",
rates Alekhine as the sixth highest peak strength, relative to other
players of the same era, of all-time on the basis of comparable
ratings. He also assesses Alekhine's victory at the tournament of
San Remo in 1930 as the sixth best performance ever in
tournaments. In his 1978 book The Rating of Chessplayers, Past and
Arpad Elo gave retrospective Elo ratings to players based on
their performance over the best five-year span of their career. He
concluded that Alekhine (2690) was the joint fifth strongest player of
those surveyed (tied with
Paul Morphy and Vasily Smyslov), behind
Capablanca (2725), Botvinnik (2720),
Emanuel Lasker (2720) and Mikhail
Alekhine's peak period was in the early 1930s, when he won almost
every tournament he played, sometimes by huge margins. Afterward, his
play declined, and he never won a top-class tournament after 1934.
After Alekhine regained his world title in 1937, there were several
new contenders, all of whom would have been serious challengers.
Réti vs. Alekhine,
One of Alekhine's most famous and complicated wins. 31...Ne4 forces
the win of White's knight at b7 in twelve moves.
Alekhine was one of the greatest attacking players and could
apparently produce combinations at will. What set him apart from most
other attacking players was his ability to see the potential for an
attack and prepare for it in positions where others saw nothing.
Rudolf Spielmann, a master tactician who produced many brilliancies,
said, "I can see the combinations as well as Alekhine, but I cannot
get to the same positions." Dr.
Max Euwe said, "Alekhine is a poet
who creates a work of art out of something that would hardly inspire
another man to send home a picture post-card." An explanation
offered by Réti was, "he beats his opponents by analysing simple and
apparently harmless sequences of moves in order to see whether at some
time or another at the end of it an original possibility, and
therefore one difficult to see, might be hidden." John Nunn
commented that "Alekhine had a special ability to provoke
complications without taking excessive risks", and Edward Winter
called him "the supreme genius of the complicated position." Some
of Alekhine's combinations are so complex that even modern champions
and contenders disagree in their analyses of them.
Garry Kasparov said that Alekhine's attacking play was
based on solid positional foundations, and
Harry Golombek went
further, saying that "Alekhine was the most versatile of all chess
geniuses, being equally at home in every style of play and in all
phases of the game." Reuben Fine, a serious contender for the
world championship in the late 1930s, wrote in the 1950s that
Alekhine's collection of best games was one of the three most
beautiful that he knew, and Golombek was equally impressed.
Alekhine's games have a higher percentage of wins than those of any
other World Champion, and his drawn games are on average among the
longest of all champions'. His desire to win extended beyond
formal chess competition. When Fine beat him in some casual games in
1933, Alekhine demanded a match for a small stake. And in table
tennis, which Alekhine played enthusiastically but badly, he would
often crush the ball when he lost.
Bobby Fischer, in a 1964 article, ranked Alekhine as one of the ten
greatest players in history. Fischer, who was famous for the
clarity of his play, wrote of Alekhine:
Alekhine has never been a hero of mine, and I've never cared for his
style of play. There's nothing light or breezy about it; it worked for
him, but it could scarcely work for anyone else. He played gigantic
conceptions, full of outrageous and unprecedented ideas. ... [H]e had
great imagination; he could see more deeply into a situation than any
other player in chess history. ... It was in the most complicated
positions that Alekhine found his grandest concepts.
Alekhine's style had a profound influence on Kasparov, who said:
Alexander Alekhine is the first luminary among the others who are
still having the greatest influence on me. I like his universality,
his approach to the game, his chess ideas. I am sure that the future
belongs to Alekhine chess." In 2012,
Levon Aronian said that he
considers Alekhine the greatest chess player of all time.
Influence on the game
White to move and win
Solution: 1.g5! Kc6 2.Ke5 Kd7 3.Kd5! (3.Kf6? Kxd6 4.Kxf7 Ke5) Kd8
4.Kc6 and White wins.
This example uses algebraic notation.
Several openings and opening variations are named after Alekhine. In
addition to the well-known
Alekhine's Defence (1.e4 Nf6) and the
Albin-Chatard-Alekhine Attack in the "orthodox" Paulsen variation of
the French Defense, there are Alekhine Variations in: the Budapest
Vienna Game, the Exchange Variation of the Ruy
Lopez, the Winawer Variation of the French Defense; the Dragon
Variation of the Sicilian Defense, the Queen's Gambit Accepted, the
Slav Defense, the Queen's Pawn Game, the
Catalan Opening and the Dutch
Defense (where three different lines bear his name). Irving
Chernev commented, "The openings consist of Alekhine's games, with a
Alekhine also composed a few endgame studies, one of which is shown on
the right, a miniature (a study with a maximum of seven pieces).
Alekhine wrote over twenty books on chess, mostly annotated editions
of the games in a major match or tournament, plus collections of his
best games between 1908 and 1937.[unreliable source] Unlike
Wilhelm Steinitz, Emanuel Lasker, Capablanca and Euwe, he wrote no
books that explained his ideas about the game or showed beginners how
to improve their play. His books appeal to expert players rather
than beginners: they contain many long analyses of variations in
critical positions, and "singularities and exceptions were his forte,
not rules and simplifications".
Although Alekhine was declared an enemy of the Soviet Union after his
Bolshevik statement in 1928, he was gradually rehabilitated
by the Soviet chess elite following his death in 1946. Alexander
Kotov's research on Alekhine's games and career, culminating in a
biography, led to a Soviet series of Alekhine Memorial
tournaments. The first of these, at
Moscow 1956, was won jointly by
Botvinnik and Vasily Smyslov. In their book The Soviet School of
Chess Kotov and Yudovich devoted a chapter to Alekhine, called him
"Russia's greatest player" and praised his capacity for seizing the
initiative by concrete tactical play in the opening. Botvinnik
wrote that the Soviet School of chess learned from Alekhine's fighting
qualities, capacity for self-criticism and combinative vision.
Alekhine had written that success in chess required "Firstly,
self-knowledge; secondly, a firm comprehension of my opponent's
strength and weakness; thirdly, a higher aim – ... artistic and
scientific accomplishments which accord our chess equal rank with
Accusations of "improving" games
Famous and much-analyzed position from the "Five Queens" game
Samuel Reshevsky wrote that Alekhine "allegedly made up games against
fictitious opponents in which he came out the victor and had these
games published in various chess magazines." In a recent book
Andy Soltis lists "Alekhine's 15 Improvements". The most famous
example is his game with five queens in
Moscow in 1915. In the actual
game, Alekhine, playing as Black, beat Grigoriev in the
tournament; but in one of his books he presented the "Five Queens"
variation (starting with a move he rejected as Black in the original
game) as an actual game won by the White player in
Moscow in 1915 (he
did not say in the book who was who in this version, nor that it was
in the tournament).
In the position of the diagram, which never arose in real play,
Alekhine claimed that White wins by 24.Rh6, as after some complicated
play Black is mated or goes into an endgame a queen down. Some recent
analyses suggest that this is not the case: if White plays 24.Rh6,
Black can play 24...Bg4+! and White has no mating attack. A later
computer-assisted analysis concludes that White can force a win, but
only by diverging from Alekhine's move sequence at move 20, while
there are only three queens.
Chess historian Edward Winter investigated a game Alekhine allegedly
won in fifteen moves via a queen sacrifice at
Sabadell in 1945.
Some photos of the game in progress were discovered that showed the
players during the game and their chessboard. Based on the position
that the chess pieces had taken on the chessboard in this photo, the
game could never have taken the course that was stated in the
published version. This raised suspicions that the published version
was made up. Even if the published version is a fake, however, there
is no doubt that Alekhine did defeat his opponent in the actual game,
and there is no evidence that Alekhine was the source of the famous
fifteen-move win whose authenticity is doubted.
Accusations of antisemitism
During World War II, Alekhine played in several tournaments held in
Germany or German-occupied territory, as did many strong players in
occupied and neutral countries. In March 1941, a series of
articles appeared under Alekhine's name in the Pariser Zeitung, a
German-language newspaper published in Paris by the occupying German
forces. Among other things, these articles said that Jews had a great
talent for exploiting chess but showed no signs of chess artistry;
described the hypermodern theories of Nimzowitsch and Réti as "this
cheap bluff, this shameless self-publicity", hyped by "the majority of
Anglo-Jewish pseudo-intellectuals"; and described his 1937 match with
Euwe as "a triumph against the Jewish conspiracy". Alekhine was
reported as making further antisemitic statements in interviews for
two Spanish newspapers in September 1941; in one of these it was said
that "Aryan chess was aggressive chess ... on the other hand, the
Semitic concept admitted the idea of pure defence."
Almost immediately after the liberation of Paris, Alekhine publicly
stated that "he had to write two chess articles for the Pariser
Zeitung before the Germans granted him his exit visa ... Articles
which Alekhine claims were purely scientific were rewritten by the
Germans, published and made to treat chess from a racial viewpoint."
He wrote at least two further disavowals, in an open letter to the
organizer of the 1946 London tournament (W. Hatton-Ward) and in his
posthumous book ¡Legado!. These three denials are phrased
Extensive investigations by
Ken Whyld have not yielded conclusive
evidence of the authenticity of the articles. Chess writer Jacques Le
Monnier claimed in a 1986 issue of Europe Échecs that in 1958 he saw
some of Alekhine's notebooks and found, in Alekhine's own handwriting,
the exact text of the first antisemitic article, which appeared in
Pariser Zeitung on March 18, 1941. In his 1973 book 75 parties
d'Alekhine ("75 of Alekhine's games"), however, Le Monnier had written
"It will never be known whether Alekhine was behind these articles or
whether they were manipulated by the editor of the Pariser
British chess historian
Edward G. Winter notes that the articles in
the Pariser Zeitung misspelled the names of several famous chess
masters, which could be interpreted as evidence of forgery or as
attempts by Alekhine to signal that he was being forced to write
things that he did not believe; but these could simply have been
typesetting errors, as Alekhine's handwriting was not easy to read.
The articles contained (probably) incorrect claims that Lionel
Kieseritzky (Kieseritsky in English, Kizierycki in Polish) was a
Polish Jew, although (probably) Kieseritzky was neither Polish nor
Jewish. Winter concludes: "Although, as things stand, it is
difficult to construct much of a defence for Alekhine, only the
discovery of the articles in his own handwriting will settle the
matter beyond all doubt." Under French copyright law, Alekhine's
notebooks did not enter the public domain until January 1, 2017.
There is evidence that Alekhine was not antisemitic in his personal or
chess relationships with Jews. In June 1919, he was arrested by the
Cheka, imprisoned in
Odessa and sentenced to death. Yakov Vilner, a
Jewish master, saved him by sending a telegram to the chairman of the
Ukrainian Council of People's Commissars, who knew of Alekhine and
ordered his release. Alekhine accepted and apparently used chess
Charles Jaffe in his World Championship match against
Capablanca. Jaffe was a Jewish master who lived in New York, where
Alekhine often visited, and upon his return to New York after
defeating Capablanca, Alekhine played a short match as a favour to
Jaffe, without financial remuneration. Alekhine's second for the
1935 match with
Max Euwe was the master Salo Landau, a Dutch Jew. The
American Jewish grandmaster
Arnold Denker wrote that he found Alekhine
very friendly in chess settings, taking part in consultation games and
productive analysis sessions. Denker also wrote that Alekhine treated
the younger and (at that time) virtually unproven Denker to dinner on
many occasions in New York during the 1930s, when the economy was very
weak because of the Great Depression. Denker added that Alekhine,
during the early 1930s, opined that the American Jewish grandmaster
Isaac Kashdan might be his next challenger (this did not in fact take
place). He gave chess lessons to 14-year-old prodigy Gerardo
Budowski, a German Jew, in Paris in spring 1940. Alekhine also
married an American woman who may have had Jewish ancestry, Grace
Wishard, as his fourth wife. Mrs.
Grace Alekhine was the women's
champion of Paris in 1944.
Alekhine vs. Yates,
White to move
1.Rxg7 Rxf6 2.Ke5 and Yates resigned: If either black rook moves to
f8, White mates by 3.Rh7+ Kg8 4.Rcg7#
This example uses algebraic notation.
Alekhine vs Yates, London 1922, Queen's Gambit Declined: Orthodox
Defense. Main Line (D64) 1–0 Alekhine conjures up an attack in the
endgame, and his King joins the fray.
Efim Bogolyubov vs Alexander Alekhine, Hastings 1922, Dutch Defence,
Classical Variation (A91), 0–1 This has been called one of the
greatest games ever played, with some incredibly deep variations as
Black prepares to queen a pawn.
Ernst Gruenfeld vs Alexander Alekhine, Karlsbad 1923, Queen's Gambit
Declined: Orthodox Defense. Rubinstein Attack (D64), 0–1 Gruenfeld
makes no obvious mistakes but his slow build-up lets Alekhine take the
initiative and start squeezing him off the board. Gruenfeld
desperately tries to free his position and is crushed by a series of
sacrifices that forces the win of a piece or checkmate.
Richard Reti vs Alexander Alekhine, Baden Baden 1925, Hungarian
Opening: Reversed Alekhine (A00), 0–1 A tactically complex game in
which Alekhine unleashes a 12-move combination that wins a Knight.
Jose Raul Capablanca vs Alexander Alekhine, World Championship match,
Buenos Aires 1927, Queen's Gambit Declined (D52), 0–1 The game ends
in a position with four queens on the board.
Alexander Alekhine vs Aron Nimzowitsch, San Remo 1930, French Defence,
Winawer Variation (C17), 1–0 One of the shortest games ending in a
zugzwang – by the 26th move, Black is already strategically lost and
has no good moves. This game also spawned the term 'Alekhine's gun'
for the formation in which the queen lines up behind the two rooks.
Gideon Stahlberg vs Alexander Alekhine,
Hamburg 1930, 3rd Olympiad,
Nimzo-Indian Defence, Spielmann Variation (E23), 0–1 1st best game
Alexander Alekhine vs Emanuel Lasker, Zurich 1934, Queen's Gambit
Declined, Orthodox Defense, Bd3 line (D67), 1–0 A short game ending
with a queen sacrifice. After the tournament, Lasker said: "Alekhine's
attacking genius has no equal in the history of the game".
Max Euwe vs Alexander Alekhine, World Championship Match, game 4, The
Hague 1935, Grunfeld Defence, Russian Variation (D81), 0–1 Alekhine
sacrifices two rooks, but traps Euwe's King in the centre, wins the
queen, then finishes elegantly.
Alekine wrote over twenty books on chess. Some of the best-known
Alekhine, Alexander (1985). My Best Games of Chess 1908–1937. Dover.
ISBN 0-486-24941-7. Originally published in two volumes as
My Best Games of Chess 1908–1923 and My Best Games of Chess
Alekhine, Alexander (1968). The
Book of the Hastings International
Tournament 1922. Dover. ISBN 0-486-21960-7.
Alekhine, Alexander (1961). The
Book of the New York International
Tournament 1924. Dover. ISBN 0-486-20752-8.
Alekhine, Alexander (1962). The
Book of the
Chess Tournament. Dover. ISBN 0-486-20189-9.
Alekhine, Alexander (1973). The World's Chess Championship, 1937.
Dover. ISBN 0-486-20455-3.
Games analysis published after 1938 were edited by Edward Winter and
published in 1980 in the book:
Alekhine, Alexander; Edward Winter (1992). 107 Great Chess Battles
1939–1945. Dover. ISBN 0-486-27104-8.
Summary of results in competitions
Here are Alekhine's placings and scores in tournaments:[unreliable
Under score, + games won, − games lost, = games drawn
Alexei Alekhine tied for 4-6th
Moscow Chess Club Spring Tournament
16th DSB Congress, A Tournament
Moscow Chess Club Autumn Tournament
All-Russian Amateur Tournament
17th DSB Congress, Schlechter won
First Winter Tournament, lost a game to Vasily Osipovich Smyslov
Second Winter Tournament, lost a game to Boris Koyalovich
8th Nordic Championship, ahead of Spielmann
7th Russian Championship (All-Russian Masters' Tournament), Rubinstein
Quadrangular, tied with Levenfish
ahead of Janowski
8th Russian Championship (All-Russian Masters' Tournament), tied with
Lasker 13½, Capablanca 13, Alekhine 10, Tarrasch 8½, Marshall 8
Cafe Continental Quadrangular, tied with Marshall, third Muffang,
19th DSB Congress, interrupted by the start of World War I
Moscow Chess Club Championship
Moscow City Championship, not declared
Moscow Champion because he was
not a resident of Moscow
later recognised as the 1st
ahead of Bogoljubov
ahead of Grünfeld
ahead of Tartakower
tied with Spielmann, behind Bogoljubov
Capablanca 13, Alekhine 11½, Vidmar 11, Rubinstein 10½
Rubinstein 7, Bogoljubov and Thomas 4½, Tarrasch 4, Yates 2½
tied with Bogoljubov and Maróczy
ahead of Vajda
Lasker 16, Capablanca 14½, Alekhine 12, Marshall 11, Réti 10½.
Maróczy 10, Bogoljubov 9½
ahead of Tartakower
ahead of Rubinstein
tied with Vidmar
Alekhine won a play-off match against Colle 2-0
ahead of Znosko-Borovsky
ahead of Villegas and Illa
Capablanca 14, Alekhine 11½, Nimzowitsch 10½, Vidmar 10, Spielmann
8, Marshall 6
ahead of Nimzowitsch and Steiner
ahead of Lajos Steiner
Nimzowitsch 10½; Rubinstein 10; Bogoljubov 9½; Yates 9
Bogoljubov 15; Nimzowitsch 14; Flohr, Kashdan, Stoltz and Vidmar 13½
Quadrangular, tied with Voellmy and Naegeli
Swiss Championship (title awarded to
Hans Johner and Paul Johner)
ahead of Flohr
ahead of Kashdan
tied with Kashdan
ahead of Tartakower
Flohr 7, Alekhine and
Andor Lilienthal 6½, C.H.O'D. Alexander and
Swiss Championship (title awarded to Hans Johner)
ahead of Lundin
tied with Keres
ahead of Engels
Botvinnik and Capablanca 10; Euwe, Fine and Reshevsky 9½
Euwe and Fine won
Quadrangular, tied with Landau
Fine 7½, Eliskases 5½, Vidmar and Feigins 4½
tied for 1–2 were Keres and Fine
tied for 1–3 were Flohr, Petrovs and Reshevsky
Quadrangular, Euwe won, the other players were Bogoljubov and Sämisch
ahead of Guimard
ahead of Spielmann
AVRO tournament, Keres and Fine 8½; Botvinnik 7½; Alekhine, Euwe and
Reshevsky 7; Capablanca 6
ahead of Golombek
tied with Lundin, behind Stoltz
tied with Schmidt
ahead of Keres
1st European Championship, ahead of Keres
Warsaw, Lublin, Kraków
ahead of Junge
tied with Junge
ahead of Keres
tied with Keres
tied with Medina, behind Rico
tied with Lopez Nunez
Here are Alekhine's results in matches:[unreliable
Under score, + games won, − games lost, = games drawn
Curt von Bardeleben
José Raúl Capablanca
"secret" training match
José Raúl Capablanca
Alekhine became world champion
Wiesbaden, Berlin, Amsterdam
retained world championship
Baden-Baden, Villingen, Pforzheim,
Bayreuth, Kissingen, Berlin
retained world championship
Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht
lost world championship
Rotterdam, Haarlem, Leiden, Zwolle,
Amsterdam, Delft, The Hague
regained world championship
Ramón Rey Ardid
Chess Olympiad results
Here are Alekhine's results in Chess Olympiads. He played top board
for France in all these events.
Under score, + games won, − games lost, = games drawn
Alekhine won the brilliancy prize for his game against Gideon
Ståhlberg (Sweden). He did not win a medal because the medallists
played 17 games each.
Alekhine won the gold medal for 1st board. His loss to Hermanis
Matisons (Latvia) was his first loss in a serious chess event since
winning the world championship.
Alekhine won the gold medal for 1st board. His loss to Savielly
Tartakower (Poland) was his second and last loss in chess
Alekhine won the silver medal for 1st board (
Salo Flohr of
Czechoslovakia took the gold by scoring 13/17).
Alekhine won the silver medal for 1st board (
José Raúl Capablanca
José Raúl Capablanca of
Cuba took the gold by scoring 8½/11). Only games in the final stage
were counted for awarding the medals. The first score is for the final
stage, the one in parentheses is Alekhine's total score.
In the town of Cascais, Portugal, there is a street named after
Alekhine: Rua Alexander Alekhine.
Cascais is near Estoril, where
His book My Best Games of Chess 1924–1937 featured in the classic
1946 film A Matter of Life and Death.
1909 Alekhin was named in honor of Alexander Alekhine.
^ In English his surname would normally be transliterated as
"Alekhin", but when he became a French citizen, the standard French
transliteration "Alekhine" became the correct way to spell his name in
the Latin alphabet. He became angry when Russians sometimes pronounced
the ⟨е⟩ ye of Alekhin as ⟨ё⟩ yo, [ɐˈlʲoxʲɪn], which he
regarded as a
Yiddish distortion of his name, and insisted that the
correct Russian pronunciation was "Al-YEH-khin". See Kmoch, H.
"Grandmasters I Have Known: Alexander Alexandrovich Alekhine" (PDF).
pp. 2, 5. Retrieved 2010-05-30.
^ Official name as French citizen: Alexandre Alekhine (Brazilian visa)
^ "ALEXANDER ALEKHINE (1892–1946) by Bill Wall". Archived from the
original on January 17, 2010. Retrieved 2008-07-24. [unreliable
^ Litmanowicz, Władysław; Giżycki, Jerzy (1986). Szachy od A do Z.
Wydawnictwo Sport i Turystyka, Warszawa. pp. 16 (Polish
^ "Chess Notes Archive 28 - "When was Alekhine born?"". Retrieved
^ Kotov Alexander Alexandrovich (1973). Alexander Alekhine. Fizkultura
i sport. pp. 8 (Russian edition).
^ a b c Denker 1995
^ "Biography of Alexander Alekhinen on supreme-chess.com". Archived
from the original on 2 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-23.
^ "Biography of
Alexander Alekhine on chessgames.com". Retrieved
^ a b c d e f g h i j k Wall, W. "
Alexander Alekhine (1892–1946)".
Archived from the original on January 17, 2010. Retrieved
2008-05-20. [unreliable source]
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Reuben Fine, The World's Great
Chess Games, 1952
^ OlimpBase :: the encyclopaedia of team chess
^ "Title Unknown". Archived from the original on
2009-10-25. [unreliable source]
^ a b c d e Khalifman 2002
^ Winter 1999, p.315-316
^ Winter 2003, p.177-178
^ "Chess Note 5144". Archived from the original on 2008-05-09.
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^ Kalendovský 1992, p.122
^ Soltis 1994
^ "Das unvollendete Turnier:
Mannheim 1914". Retrieved
^ "Manheim 1914 The Legend". Archived from the original on December
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^ Romanov, Isaak Zalmanovich (1984). Petr Romanovsky. Fizkultura i
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^ "Short Matches of the 20th Century". Archived from the original on
September 28, 2007. Retrieved 2008-05-20.
^ a b c d e Alekhine 1985
^ Using earnings for the conversion. If consumer prices are used, the
result is about $257,000. "Six Ways to Compute the Relative Value of a
U.S. Dollar Amount, 1774 to Present". Archived from the original on 26
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^ a b c Winter, E. "Capablanca v Alekhine, 1927". Archived from the
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"Al margen del gran match". El Ajedrez Americano: 66. December
Sergeant, P.W. (October 1926). "(unknown title)". British Chess
Magazine: 454. ;
"(unknown title)". La Prensa. September 14, 1927. ;
Immediately after his victory, Alekhine announced his terms for a
rematch, reported in: "(unknown title)". La Prensa. November 30,
^ "Jose Raul Capablanca: Online Chess Tribute". chessmaniac.com.
2007-06-28. Archived from the original on 13 May 2008. Retrieved
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^ a b Cree, G. "1927 World Chess Championship". Archived from the
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^ Byrne, R. (December 21, 1984). "Chess title match to become longest
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Play". Modern chess strategy. Courier Dover. p. 306.
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Kasparov: Part 2" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-06-03.
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^ The Immortal Games of Capablanca, by Fred Reinfeld, Dover
^ Winter, E. "Chess Notes Archive (17)". Archived from the original on
9 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-23.
^ "Alekhine vs Bogoljubov 1934". Retrieved 2008-05-24.
^ Soloviov 2004, p.280
^ a b Lissowski, T. "Alexey, Brother of Alekhine". Archived from the
original on 19 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-20. The main source
is Kotov 1975, p.140
^ a b c Wall, W. "Alekhine and the Nazis". Archived from the original
on 2009-10-21. Retrieved 2008-05-24. [unreliable source]
^ "Alekhine's Results at www.alekhinechess.com". Retrieved
^ a b "3rd Chess Olympiad:
Hamburg 1930". Archived from the original
on 17 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-23.
^ a b "4th Chess Olympiad:
Prague 1931". Archived from the original on
18 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-23.
^ a b "5th Chess Olympiad:
Folkestone 1933". Archived from the
original on 18 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-23.
^ a b "6th Chess Olympiad:
Warsaw 1935". Archived from the original on
18 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-23.
^ "Alekhine's Chess Exhibitions in
Singapore in 1933" (PDF). Archived
(PDF) from the original on 28 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-20.
^ Donaldson 1992, p.35
^ a b c d e Kmoch, H. "Grandmasters I Have Known: Alexander
Alexandrovich Alekhine" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 13
May 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-23.
^ Han interviews Dutchman
Max Euwe and Capablanca, Dutch Public
Broadcasting archives, 18 May 2012
^ "Alekhine vs Euwe 1935". chessgames.com. Retrieved 2008-05-23.
^ Winter, E. "Chess Notes (5202)". Archived from the original on 9 May
2008. Retrieved 2008-05-20.
^ a b
Gennadi Sosonko (2001). "Remembering
Max Euwe Part 1" (PDF). The
Chess Cafe. Retrieved 2008-05-20.
^ Münninghoff 2001
^ "Alekhine vs Euwe 1937". chessgames.com. Retrieved 2008-05-20.
^ a b Khariton, L. (2004-12-29). "Lev Khariton:The Battle That Never
Was". Retrieved 2008-05-23. Based on Botvinnik's memoirs.
^ Kingston, T. "The Keres-Botvinnik Case: A Survey of the Evidence".
Archived from the original on January 26, 2008. Retrieved
^ Gawlikowski, Stanisław (1978). Olimpiady szachowe 1924–1974. Wyd.
Sport i Turystyka. Warszawa. pp. 102 (Polish edition).
^ a b c "8th Chess Olympiad:
Buenos Aires 1939". Archived from the
original on 17 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-23.
^ Chess Notes by Edward Winter
^ Gawlikowski S. (1976). Walka o tron szachowy. Wyd. Sport i
^ Kasparov 2003
^ a b "The
Tournament of 1942". Archived from the original on
May 9, 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-25.
^ "CHESS IN FORMER GERMAN, NOW POLISH TERRITORIES". Archived from the
original on 2012-01-08. Retrieved 2008-07-19.
^ Gillam 2001
^ Barcza, G. (1942). A müncheni sakkmesterverseny Európa
bajnokságáért 1942. Kecskemét.
^ "Birth of the
FIDE World Championship". Archived from the original
on July 19, 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-24.
^ "Linares 2002 - round 6". Archived from the original on 17 May 2008.
^ Donaldson, Norman and Betty (1980). How Did They Die?. Greenwich
House. ISBN 0-517-40302-1.
^ Kasparov Garri (2003). "Alexander the Fourth, Invincible". My Great
Predecessors. Part 1. Everyman Chess. pp. 454 (Polish edition).
^ Kevin Spraggett. "Part 1: Alekhine's death". BlogSpot.com. Archived
from the original on October 9, 2009.
Kevin Spraggett. "Part 2: Alekhine's death". BlogSpot.com. Archived
from the original on 2009-10-09.
^ "Alekhine's death – an unresolved mystery?". Archived from the
original on 5 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-20.
^ Moran 1989
^ Keene 1989
^ Sonas, J. "
Chessmetrics Player Profile: Alexander Alekhine".
^ a b "The Greatest Chess Player of All Time – Part II". Archived
from the original on 26 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-23.
^ Elo 1978
"Arpad Emre Elo – 100th anniversary". Archived from the original on
9 June 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-15.
Max Euwe quotes, biographies & pictures". Archived from the
original on 2008-01-05. Retrieved 2008-05-23.
^ Réti 1923, p.129
^ Goldsby, A.J. (2007). "Reti - Alekhine,
Baden-Baden 1925". Retrieved
^ a b c Kane, P. "A review of 107 Great Chess Battles 1939–1945 by
Alexander Alekhine". Archived from the original on October 22, 2010.
^ a b Müller, K. (2003-11-15). "Alexander Aljechin vs Garry
Kasparov". Retrieved 2008-05-23.
^ a b Golombek 1955
^ Fischer, J. (2004-12-23). "World Champions and Draws". Retrieved
^ a b Fischer, B. (January–February 1964). "The Ten Greatest Masters
in History". Chessworld. pp. 56–61. Archived from the original
on 6 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-01.
^ "Garry Kasparov's Best Games". Archived from the original on 2 June
2008. Retrieved 2008-05-24.
^ "Aronian names Alekhine best player of all time". WhyChess.
^ a b Harold van der Heijden endgame study database (2005).
^ Fine 1943
^ Adam Bozon. "
Budapest Gambit". Archived from the original on
^ Mark Lowery. "ECO Information and Index: A00-A99".
^ "ChessOps - Full Group-List of Openings, Defences, Gambits and
Variations". Retrieved 2008-05-23.
^ Chernev, I. (1995). "Alekhine". Twelve Great Chess Players and Their
Best Games. Dover Publications. pp. 163–64.
ISBN 978-0-486-28674-7. Retrieved 2009-08-14.
^ a b Wall, W. "Alekhine's Writings". Archived from the original on
2009-10-25. Retrieved 2008-05-20. [unreliable source]
^ Kotov 1975
^ "Mosca 1956 Aljechin Memorial". Retrieved 2008-05-23.
^ Kotov 1958
^ Botvinnik 1951
^ Alekhine, A. (September 8, 1929). "New York Times". The New York
Times. Retrieved 2008-05-23.
^ Reshevsky 1976, p.78
^ Soltis 2002
^ The original game, without the five queens, was Grigoriev vs
Moscow 1915, which Alekhine annotated for Alekhine, A.
(February 1916). Shakhmatny Vyestnik. CS1 maint: Untitled
periodical (link) But he presented the "Five Queens" version in a note
to Tarrasch vs Alekhine, St. Petersburg 1914, which is game 26 in
Alekhine 1985. In the same book, Alekhine presented as a note to game
90 (Alekhine vs Teichmann,
Berlin 1921) a 15-move win against O.
Tenner, which Tenner claimed was actually a variation that arose in
their post-game analysis of their 23-move draw.
^ Konsala, Kimmo (1991). Kaksi shakkineroa. Karisto. p. 378.
^ Krabbé, T. (1985). "Alekhine's 5 Queen game". Retrieved
^ "Alekhine - Munoz,
Sabadell 1945". Retrieved 2008-05-24.
^ Winter, E. (2005). "Mysteries at Sabadell, 1945". Retrieved
^ These players included, among others, Keres, Bogoljubov, Stoltz,
Erik Lundin, Bjørn Nielsen, Nicolaas Cortlever, Karel Opočenský,
Jan Foltys, Luděk Pachman, Gedeon Barcza, Mario Napolitano, Braslav
Rabar and Teodor Regedziński.
^ a b c d e "Was Alekhine a Nazi?". Archived from the original on 11
May 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-20. Winter cites many original
Alekhine Nazi Articles, a privately printed booklet edited by Ken
Whyld, that contains an English translation of the Pariser Zeitung
Alekhine's disavowal of these articles in News Review, November 23,
1944, also reported in British Chess Magazine December 1944 and Chess
Alekhine's posthumous book ¡Legado!;
interviews in the September 3, 1941 editions of El Alcázar and
Informaciones, which report Alekhine as making anti-Semitic statements
^ Wall, W. "Russian Chess History". Archived from the original on
2009-10-25. Retrieved 2008-05-20. [unreliable source]
^ Saidy 1974, p.190-191
Gerardo Budowski en Torneo de Ajedrez por Equipos 2005" (in
Spanish). Archived from the original on 6 February 2009. Retrieved
^ "Chess Notes Archive ". Archived from the original on 9 May
2008. Retrieved 2008-05-23.
^ "Alekhine vs. Yates, London 1922". Chessgames.com
^ da Nobrega, A.W.; Goeller, M. (2002). "Frank James Marshall:
Tournament and Match Record". The Frank James Marshall Electronic
Archive and Museum. Archived from the original on 4 July 2008.
^ a b "Alekhine's Results at www.chessclub.demon.co.uk".
chessclub.demon.co.uk. Archived from the original on 9 May 2008.
^ "Alekhine's results at chessmetrics.com". Retrieved
^ "La grande storia degli scacchi". Retrieved 2008-05-23.
^ http://www.geocities.com/al2055Km/index.html RUSBASE. Archived
Alexander Alekhine chess games gives four games won by Alekhine and
published in 1938, the authors write:
Alekhine won this event, but neither the detailed results or the
complete list of participants is known.
Alekhine, Alexander (1980). 107 Great Chess Battles. Oxford University
Press. ISBN 978-0-19-217590-8. This is a collection of
games annotated by Alekhine, published long after his death.
Alekhine, Alexander (1985). My Best Games of Chess 1908–1937. Dover.
ISBN 0-486-24941-7. This 1985 reprint is a merge from two
separate volumes published originally in 1929 and 1937.
Botvinnik, Mikhail M. (1951). One hundred selected games. Bell. ASIN
Chernev, Irving (1995). Twelve Great Chess Players and Their Best
Games. New York: Dover. pp. 163–80.
Donaldson, John W.; Minev, Nikolay (1992). Alekhine in the Americas.
Seattle, Washington: International Chess Enterprises.
Denker, Arnold; Parr, Larry (1995). The
Bobby Fischer I Knew And Other
Stories. Hypermodern Press. ISBN 978-1-886040-18-2.
Elo, Arpad E. (1978). The Rating of Chessplayers, Past and Present.
Batsford. ISBN 978-0-7134-1860-6.
Fine, Reuben (1952). The World's Great Chess Games. Courier Dover
Publications. ISBN 0-486-24512-8.
Gillam, Anthony J.; Swift, A.J. (2001). 1st European championship
Munich 1942. The Chess Player. ISBN 1-901034-46-1.
Hooper, David; Whyld, Kenneth (1984). The Oxford Companion to Chess.
Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-217540-8.
Kalendovský, Jan; Fiala, Vlastimil (1992). Complete Games of
Alekhine: Volume I, 1892–1921. Moravian Chess.
Kasparov, Garry (2003).
Garry Kasparov on My Great Predecessors: Part
1. Everyman Chess. ISBN 1-85744-330-6.
Keene, Raymond; Divinsky, Nathan (1989). Warriors of the Mind.
Batsford. ISBN 978-0-9513757-0-9.
Khalifman, Alexander (2002). Alexander Alekhine: Games 1902–1922.
Chess Direct. ISBN 978-954-8782-21-0.
Khalifman, Alexander (2002). Alexander Alekhine: Games 1923–1934.
Chess Direct. ISBN 954-8782-23-5.
Khalifman, Alexander (2002). Alexander Alekhine: Games 1935–1946.
Chess Stars. ISBN 978-954-8782-25-8.
Kotov, Alexander; Yudovich, Y. (1958). The Soviet School of Chess.
Hardinge Simpole (2002 edition). ISBN 978-1-84382-007-9.
Kotov, Alexander (1975). Alexander Alekhine. R.H.M. Press.
Münninghoff, Alexander (2001). Max Euwe: The Biography. New in Chess.
Maurensig, Paolo: Theory of Shadows, 2015, Trans. 2018 by Anne Milano
Appel. Novel dealing mainly with the days leading up to Alekhine's
death in suspicious circumstances.
Réti, Richard (1923). Modern Ideas in Chess. Hardinge Simpole.
Reinfeld, Fred (1942). The Immortal Games of Capablanca. Dover.
Reshevsky, Samuel (1976). Great Chess Upsets. Arco.
Soloviov, Sergei (2004). Bogoljubow, the Fate of a Chess Player. Chess
Stars. ISBN 978-954-8782-38-8.
Saidy, Anthony; Lessing, Norman (1974). The World of Chess. Random
House. ISBN 0-394-48777-X.
Soltis, Andrew (1994). Frank Marshall, United States Chess Champion.
McFarland. ISBN 978-0-89950-887-0.
Soltis, Andrew (2002). Chess Lists. McFarland.
Winter, Edward (1981). World Chess Champions. Pergamon.
Winter, Edward (1999). Kings, Commoners and Knaves: Further Chess
Explorations. Russell Enterprises. ISBN 1-888690-04-6.
Winter, Edward (2003). A Chess Omnibus. Russell Enterprises.
Tkachenko, Sergei (2018). Alekhine's
Odessa Secrets: Chess, War and
Revolution. LLC Elk and Ruby Publishing House.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alexander Alekhine.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Alexander Alekhine
Alexander Alekhine player profile and games at Chessgames.com
Alekhine rare interview (sound clip)
Hans Kmoch talks about Alekhine
Alekhine's death. An unresolved mystery
Edward Winter, List of Books About Capablanca and Alekhine
José Raúl Capablanca
World Chess Champion
World Chess Champion
Interregnum of World Chess Champions
Title next held by
World Chess Championships
List of World Chess Championships
Chess World Cup
FIDE Grand Prix
Knockout format (1998–2004)
1886, 1889, 1891, 1892 (Steinitz)
1894, 1897, 1907, 1908, 1910 (Jan–Feb), 1910 (Nov–Dec) (Lasker)
1927, 1929, 1934 (Alekhine)
1948, 1951, 1954 (Botvinnik)
1963, 1966 (Petrosian)
1975, 1978, 1981, 1984 (Karpov)
1985, 1986, 1987, 1990 (Kasparov)
1993, 1995 (Kasparov)
2000, 2004 (Kramnik)
1993, 1996, 1998 (Karpov)
2007, 2008, 2010, 2012 (Anand)
2013, 2014, 2016 (Carlsen)
ISNI: 0000 0000 8161 4653
BNF: cb13539564v (data)