HOME
ListMoto - Alabama


--- Advertisement ---



(i) (i) (i)

As of 2010[1]

English 95.1% Spanish 3.1%

Demonym Alabamian[2]

Capital Montgomery

Largest city Birmingham

Largest metro Birmingham metropolitan area

Area Ranked 30th

 • Total 52,419 sq mi (135,765 km2)

 • Width 190 miles (305 km)

 • Length 330 miles (531 km)

 • % water 3.20

 • Latitude 30° 11′ N to 35° N

 • Longitude 84° 53′ W to 88° 28′ W

Population Ranked 24th

 • Total 4,863,300 (2016 est.)[3]

 • Density 94.7 (2011 est.)/sq mi  (36.5 (2011 est.)/km2) Ranked 27th

 • Median household income $44,509[4] (47th)

Elevation

 • Highest point Mount Cheaha[5][6][7] 2,413 ft (735.5 m)

 • Mean 500 ft  (150 m)

 • Lowest point Gulf of Mexico[6] Sea level

Before statehood Alabama
Alabama
Territory

Admission to Union December 14, 1819 (22nd)

Governor Kay Ivey
Kay Ivey
(R)

Lieutenant Governor Vacant

Legislature Alabama
Alabama
Legislature

 • Upper house Senate

 • Lower house House of Representatives

U.S. Senators Richard Shelby
Richard Shelby
(R) Doug Jones (D)

U.S. House delegation 6 Republicans, 1 Democrat (list)

Time zones  

 • most of state Central: UTC −6/−5

 • Phenix City area Eastern: UTC −5/−4

ISO 3166 US-AL

Abbreviations AL, Ala.

Website alabama.gov

Alabama
Alabama
state symbols

The Flag of Alabama

The Seal of Alabama

Living insignia

Amphibian Red Hills salamander

Bird Yellowhammer, wild turkey

Butterfly Eastern tiger swallowtail

Fish Largemouth bass, fighting tarpon

Flower Camellia, oak-leaf hydrangea

Horse breed Racking horse

Insect Monarch butterfly

Mammal American black bear

Reptile Alabama
Alabama
red-bellied turtle

Tree Longleaf pine

Inanimate insignia

Beverage Conecuh Ridge Whiskey

Colors Red, white

Dance Square dance

Food Pecan, blackberry, peach

Fossil Basilosaurus

Gemstone Star blue quartz

Mineral Hematite

Rock Marble

Shell Johnstone's junonia

Slogan Share The Wonder, Alabama
Alabama
the beautiful, Where America finds its voice, Sweet Home Alabama, "Heart of Dixie"

Soil Bama

Song "Alabama"

State route marker

State quarter

Released in 2003

Lists of United States
United States
state symbols

Alabama
Alabama
is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee
Tennessee
to the north, Georgia to the east, Florida and the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
to the south, and Mississippi
Mississippi
to the west. Alabama
Alabama
is the 30th largest by area and the 24th-most populous of the U.S. states. With a total of 1,500 miles (2,400 km) of inland waterways, Alabama
Alabama
has among the most of any state.[8] Alabama
Alabama
is nicknamed the Yellowhammer State, after the state bird. Alabama
Alabama
is also known as the "Heart of Dixie" and the " Cotton
Cotton
State". The state tree is the longleaf pine, and the state flower is the camellia. Alabama's capital is Montgomery. The largest city by population is Birmingham,[9] which has long been the most industrialized city; the largest city by land area is Huntsville. The oldest city is Mobile, founded by French colonists in 1702 as the capital of French Louisiana.[10] From the American Civil War
American Civil War
until World War II, Alabama, like many states in the southern U.S., suffered economic hardship, in part because of its continued dependence on agriculture. Similar to other former slave states, Alabamian legislators employed Jim Crow laws
Jim Crow laws
to disenfranchise and otherwise discriminate against African Americans from the end of the Reconstruction Era
Reconstruction Era
up until at least the 1970s. Despite the growth of major industries and urban centers, white rural interests dominated the state legislature from 1901 to the 1960s. During this time, urban interests and African Americans
African Americans
were markedly under-represented. Following World War II, Alabama
Alabama
grew as the state's economy changed from one primarily based on agriculture to one with diversified interests. The state's economy in the 21st century is based on management, automotive, finance, manufacturing, aerospace, mineral extraction, healthcare, education, retail, and technology.[11]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Pre-European settlement 2.2 European settlement 2.3 Early 19th century

2.3.1 Civil War and Reconstruction

2.4 20th century

3 Geography

3.1 Climate 3.2 Flora
Flora
and fauna

4 Demographics

4.1 Ancestry 4.2 Census-designated and metropolitan areas 4.3 Cities 4.4 Language 4.5 Religion 4.6 Health

5 Economy

5.1 Largest employers 5.2 Agriculture 5.3 Industry 5.4 Tourism 5.5 Healthcare 5.6 Banking 5.7 Electronics 5.8 Construction

6 Law and government

6.1 State government 6.2 Taxes 6.3 County and local governments 6.4 Politics 6.5 Elections

6.5.1 State elections 6.5.2 Local elections 6.5.3 Federal elections

7 Education

7.1 Primary and secondary education 7.2 Colleges and universities

8 Media 9 Culture

9.1 Literature 9.2 Sports

9.2.1 College sports 9.2.2 Professional sports

10 Transportation

10.1 Aviation 10.2 Rail 10.3 Roads 10.4 Ports

11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

Etymology[edit]

One of the entrances to Russell Cave in Jackson County. Charcoal from indigenous camp fires in the cave has been dated as early as 6550 to 6145 BC.

The European-American naming of the Alabama River
Alabama River
and state was derived from the Alabama
Alabama
people, a Muskogean-speaking tribe whose members lived just below the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers on the upper reaches of the river.[12] In the Alabama
Alabama
language, the word for a person of Alabama
Alabama
lineage is Albaamo (or variously Albaama or Albàamo in different dialects; the plural form is Albaamaha).[13] The suggestion that "Alabama" was borrowed from the Choctaw language
Choctaw language
is unlikely.[14][15] The word's spelling varies significantly among historical sources.[15] The first usage appears in three accounts of the Hernando de Soto
Hernando de Soto
expedition of 1540: Garcilaso de la Vega used Alibamo, while the Knight of Elvas and Rodrigo Ranjel wrote Alibamu and Limamu, respectively, in transliterations of the term.[15] As early as 1702, the French called the tribe the Alibamon, with French maps identifying the river as Rivière des Alibamons.[12] Other spellings of the name have included Alibamu, Alabamo, Albama, Alebamon, Alibama, Alibamou, Alabamu, Allibamou.[15][16][17][18] Sources disagree on the word's meaning. Some scholars suggest the word comes from the Choctaw
Choctaw
alba (meaning "plants" or "weeds") and amo (meaning "to cut", "to trim", or "to gather").[15][19][20] The meaning may have been "clearers of the thicket"[19] or "herb gatherers",[20][21] referring to clearing land for cultivation[16] or collecting medicinal plants.[21] The state has numerous place names of Native American origin.[22][23] However, there are no correspondingly similar words in the Alabama
Alabama
language. An 1842 article in the Jacksonville Republican proposed it meant "Here We Rest."[15] This notion was popularized in the 1850s through the writings of Alexander Beaufort Meek.[15] Experts in the Muskogean languages have not found any evidence to support such a translation.[12][15] History[edit] Main article: History of Alabama Pre-European settlement[edit]

The Moundville Archaeological Site
Moundville Archaeological Site
in Hale County. It was occupied by Native Americans of the Mississippian culture
Mississippian culture
from 1000 to 1450 AD.

Indigenous peoples
Indigenous peoples
of varying cultures lived in the area for thousands of years before the advent of European colonization. Trade with the northeastern tribes by the Ohio River
Ohio River
began during the Burial Mound Period (1000 BC–AD 700) and continued until European contact.[24] The agrarian Mississippian culture
Mississippian culture
covered most of the state from 1000 to 1600 AD, with one of its major centers built at what is now the Moundville Archaeological Site
Moundville Archaeological Site
in Moundville, Alabama.[25][26] This is the second-largest complex of the classic Middle Mississippian era, after Cahokia
Cahokia
in present-day Illinois, which was the center of the culture. Analysis of artifacts from archaeological excavations at Moundville were the basis of scholars' formulating the characteristics of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex
Southeastern Ceremonial Complex
(SECC).[27] Contrary to popular belief, the SECC appears to have no direct links to Mesoamerican culture, but developed independently. The Ceremonial Complex represents a major component of the religion of the Mississippian peoples; it is one of the primary means by which their religion is understood.[28] Among the historical tribes of Native American people living in present-day Alabama
Alabama
at the time of European contact were the Cherokee, an Iroquoian language
Iroquoian language
people; and the Muskogean-speaking Alabama (Alibamu), Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Koasati.[29] While part of the same large language family, the Muskogee tribes developed distinct cultures and languages. European settlement[edit] With exploration in the 16th century, the Spanish were the first Europeans to reach Alabama. The expedition of Hernando de Soto
Hernando de Soto
passed through Mabila
Mabila
and other parts of the state in 1540. More than 160 years later, the French founded the region's first European settlement at Old Mobile in 1702.[30] The city was moved to the current site of Mobile in 1711. This area was claimed by the French from 1702 to 1763 as part of La Louisiane.[31] After the French lost to the British in the Seven Years' War, it became part of British West Florida
Florida
from 1763 to 1783. After the United States
United States
victory in the American Revolutionary War, the territory was divided between the United States
United States
and Spain. The latter retained control of this western territory from 1783 until the surrender of the Spanish garrison at Mobile to U.S. forces on April 13, 1813.[31][32] Thomas Bassett, a loyalist to the British monarchy during the Revolutionary era, was one of the earliest white settlers in the state outside Mobile. He settled in the Tombigbee District
Tombigbee District
during the early 1770s.[33] The district's boundaries were roughly limited to the area within a few miles of the Tombigbee River
Tombigbee River
and included portions of what is today southern Clarke County, northernmost Mobile County, and most of Washington County.[34][35] What is now the counties of Baldwin and Mobile became part of Spanish West Florida
Florida
in 1783, part of the independent Republic of West Florida in 1810, and was finally added to the Mississippi
Mississippi
Territory
Territory
in 1812. Most of what is now the northern two-thirds of Alabama
Alabama
was known as the Yazoo lands
Yazoo lands
beginning during the British colonial period. It was claimed by the Province of Georgia
Province of Georgia
from 1767 onwards. Following the Revolutionary War, it remained a part of Georgia, although heavily disputed.[36][37]

Map showing the formation of the Mississippi
Mississippi
and Alabama
Alabama
territories

With the exception of the area around Mobile and the Yazoo lands, what is now the lower one-third Alabama
Alabama
was made part of the Mississippi Territory
Territory
when it was organized in 1798. The Yazoo lands
Yazoo lands
were added to the territory in 1804, following the Yazoo land scandal.[37][38] Spain kept a claim on its former Spanish West Florida
Florida
territory in what would become the coastal counties until the Adams–Onís Treaty officially ceded it to the United States
United States
in 1819.[32] Early 19th century[edit] Before Mississippi's admission to statehood on December 10, 1817, the more sparsely settled eastern half of the territory was separated and named the Alabama
Alabama
Territory. The United States
United States
Congress created the Alabama Territory
Alabama Territory
on March 3, 1817. St. Stephens, now abandoned, served as the territorial capital from 1817 to 1819.[39] Alabama
Alabama
was admitted as the 22nd state on December 14, 1819, with Congress selecting Huntsville as the site for the first Constitutional Convention. From July 5 to August 2, 1819, delegates met to prepare the new state constitution. Huntsville served as temporary capital from 1819 to 1820, when the seat of government moved to Cahaba in Dallas
Dallas
County.[40]

The main house, built in 1833, at Thornhill in Greene County. It is a former Black Belt plantation.

Cahaba, now a ghost town, was the first permanent state capital from 1820 to 1825.[41] Alabama Fever was underway when the state was admitted to the Union, with settlers and land speculators pouring into the state to take advantage of fertile land suitable for cotton cultivation.[42][43] Part of the frontier in the 1820s and 1830s, its constitution provided for universal suffrage for white men.[44] Southeastern planters and traders from the Upper South
Upper South
brought slaves with them as the cotton plantations in Alabama
Alabama
expanded. The economy of the central Black Belt (named for its dark, productive soil) was built around large cotton plantations whose owners' wealth grew mainly from slave labor.[44] The area also drew many poor, disfranchised people who became subsistence farmers. Alabama
Alabama
had an estimated population of under 10,000 people in 1810, but it increased to more than 300,000 people by 1830.[42] Most Native American tribes were completely removed from the state within a few years of the passage of the Indian Removal Act
Indian Removal Act
by Congress in 1830.[45]

Ruins of the former capitol building in Tuscaloosa. Designed by William Nichols, it was built from 1827 to 1829 and was destroyed by fire in 1923.

From 1826 to 1846, Tuscaloosa served as Alabama's capital. On January 30, 1846, the Alabama
Alabama
legislature announced it had voted to move the capital city from Tuscaloosa to Montgomery. The first legislative session in the new capital met in December 1847.[46] A new capitol building was erected under the direction of Stephen Decatur Button
Stephen Decatur Button
of Philadelphia. The first structure burned down in 1849, but was rebuilt on the same site in 1851. This second capitol building in Montgomery remains to the present day. It was designed by Barachias Holt of Exeter, Maine.[47][48] Civil War and Reconstruction[edit] By 1860, the population had increased to 964,201 people, of which nearly half, 435,080, were enslaved African Americans, and 2,690 were free people of color.[49] On January 11, 1861, Alabama
Alabama
declared its secession from the Union. After remaining an independent republic for a few days, it joined the Confederate States of America. The Confederacy's capital was initially at Montgomery. Alabama
Alabama
was heavily involved in the American Civil War. Although comparatively few battles were fought in the state, Alabama
Alabama
contributed about 120,000 soldiers to the war effort.

Union Army
Union Army
troops occupying Courthouse Square in Huntsville, following its capture and occupation by federal forces in 1864.

A company of cavalry soldiers from Huntsville, Alabama, joined Nathan Bedford Forrest's battalion in Hopkinsville, Kentucky. The company wore new uniforms with yellow trim on the sleeves, collar and coat tails. This led to them being greeted with "Yellowhammer", and the name later was applied to all Alabama
Alabama
troops in the Confederate Army.[50] Alabama's slaves were freed by the 13th Amendment in 1865.[51] Alabama was under military rule from the end of the war in May 1865 until its official restoration to the Union in 1868. From 1867 to 1874, with most white citizens barred temporarily from voting and freedmen enfranchised, many African Americans
African Americans
emerged as political leaders in the state. Alabama
Alabama
was represented in Congress during this period by three African-American congressmen: Jeremiah Haralson, Benjamin S. Turner, and James T. Rapier.[52] Following the war, the state remained chiefly agricultural, with an economy tied to cotton. During Reconstruction, state legislators ratified a new state constitution in 1868 that created the state's first public school system and expanded women's rights. Legislators funded numerous public road and railroad projects, although these were plagued with allegations of fraud and misappropriation.[52] Organized insurgent, resistance groups tried to suppress the freedmen and Republicans. Besides the short-lived original Ku Klux Klan, these included the Pale Faces, Knights of the White Camellia, Red Shirts, and the White League.[52] Reconstruction in Alabama
Alabama
ended in 1874, when the Democrats regained control of the legislature and governor's office through an election dominated by fraud and violence. They wrote another constitution in 1875,[52] and the legislature passed the Blaine Amendment, prohibiting public money from being used to finance religious-affiliated schools.[53] The same year, legislation was approved that called for racially segregated schools.[54] Railroad passenger cars were segregated in 1891.[54] After disfranchising most African Americans and many poor whites in the 1901 constitution, the Alabama
Alabama
legislature passed more Jim Crow laws
Jim Crow laws
at the beginning of the 20th century to impose segregation in everyday life. 20th century[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

The developing skyline of Birmingham in 1915

The new 1901 Constitution of Alabama included provisions for voter registration that effectively disenfranchised large portions of the population, including nearly all African Americans
African Americans
and Native Americans, and tens of thousands of poor whites, through making voter registration difficult, requiring a poll tax and literacy test.[55] The 1901 constitution required racial segregation of public schools. By 1903, only 2,980 African Americans
African Americans
were registered in Alabama, although at least 74,000 were literate. This compared to more than 181,000 African Americans
African Americans
eligible to vote in 1900. The numbers dropped even more in later decades.[56] The state legislature passed additional racial segregation laws related to public facilities into the 1950s: jails were segregated in 1911; hospitals in 1915; toilets, hotels, and restaurants in 1928; and bus stop waiting rooms in 1945.[54] While the planter class had persuaded poor whites to vote for this legislative effort to suppress black voting, the new restrictions resulted in their disenfranchisement as well, due mostly to the imposition of a cumulative poll tax.[56] By 1941, whites constituted a slight majority of those disenfranchised by these laws: 600,000 whites vs. 520,000 African-Americans.[56] Nearly all African Americans
African Americans
had lost the ability to vote. Despite numerous legal challenges that succeeded in overturning certain provisions, the state legislature would create new ones to maintain disenfranchisement. The exclusion of blacks from the political system persisted until after passage of federal civil rights legislation in 1965 to enforce their constitutional rights as citizens. The rural-dominated Alabama
Alabama
legislature consistently underfunded schools and services for the disenfranchised African Americans, but it did not relieve them of paying taxes.[44] Partially as a response to chronic underfunding of education for African Americans
African Americans
in the South, the Rosenwald Fund began funding the construction of what came to be known as Rosenwald Schools. In Alabama
Alabama
these schools were designed and the construction partially financed with Rosenwald funds, which paid one-third of the construction costs. The fund required the local community and state to raise matching funds to pay the rest. Black residents effectively taxed themselves twice, by raising additional monies to supply matching funds for such schools, which were built in many rural areas. They often donated land and labor as well.[57]

The former Mount Sinai School
Mount Sinai School
in rural Autauga County, completed in 1919. It was one of the 387 Rosenwald Schools
Rosenwald Schools
built in the state.

Beginning in 1913, the first 80 Rosenwald Schools
Rosenwald Schools
were built in Alabama
Alabama
for African-American children. A total of 387 schools, seven teachers' houses, and several vocational buildings were completed by 1937 in the state. Several of the surviving school buildings in the state are now listed on the National Register of Historic Places.[57] Continued racial discrimination and lynchings, agricultural depression, and the failure of the cotton crops due to boll weevil infestation led tens of thousands of African Americans
African Americans
from rural Alabama
Alabama
and other states to seek opportunities in northern and midwestern cities during the early decades of the 20th century as part of the Great Migration out of the South. Reflecting this emigration, the population growth rate in Alabama
Alabama
(see "historical populations" table below) dropped by nearly half from 1910 to 1920. At the same time, many rural people, both white and African American, migrated to the city of Birmingham to work in new industrial jobs. Birmingham experienced such rapid growth that it was called the "Magic City". By the 1920s, Birmingham was the 19th-largest city in the United States
United States
and had more than 30% of the state's population. Heavy industry and mining were the basis of its economy. Its residents were under-represented for decades in the state legislature, which refused to redistrict after each decennial census according to population changes, as it was required by the state constitution. This did not change until the late 1960s following a lawsuit and court order.

Beginning in the 1940s, when the courts started taking the first steps to recognize the voting rights of black voters, the Alabama legislature took several counter-steps designed to disfranchise black voters. The legislature passed, and the voters ratified [as these were mostly white voters], a state constitutional amendment that gave local registrars greater latitude to disqualify voter registration applicants. Black citizens in Mobile successfully challenged this amendment as a violation of the Fifteenth Amendment. The legislature also changed the boundaries of Tuskegee to a 28-sided figure designed to fence out blacks from the city limits. The Supreme Court unanimously held that this racial "gerrymandering" violated the Constitution. In 1961, ... the Alabama
Alabama
legislature also intentionally diluted the effect of the black vote by instituting numbered place requirements for local elections.[58]

Industrial development related to the demands of World War II
World War II
brought a level of prosperity to the state not seen since before the civil war.[44] Rural workers poured into the largest cities in the state for better jobs and a higher standard of living. One example of this massive influx of workers occurred in Mobile. Between 1940 and 1943, more than 89,000 people moved into the city to work for war-related industries.[59] Cotton
Cotton
and other cash crops faded in importance as the state developed a manufacturing and service base. Despite massive population changes in the state from 1901 to 1961, the rural-dominated legislature refused to reapportion House and Senate seats based on population, as required by the state constitution to follow the results of decennial censuses. They held on to old representation to maintain political and economic power in agricultural areas. In addition, the state legislature gerrymandered the few Birmingham legislative seats to ensure election by persons living outside Birmingham. One result was that Jefferson County, containing Birmingham's industrial and economic powerhouse, contributed more than one-third of all tax revenue to the state, but did not receive a proportional amount in services. Urban interests were consistently underrepresented in the legislature. A 1960 study noted that because of rural domination, "a minority of about 25 per cent of the total state population is in majority control of the Alabama
Alabama
legislature."[60] A class action suit initiated on behalf of plaintiffs in Lowndes County, Alabama, challenged the state legislature's lack of redistricting for congressional seats. In 1962 White v. Crook, Judge Frank M. Johnson ordered the state to redistrict. United States Supreme Court cases of Baker v. Carr
Baker v. Carr
(1962) and Reynolds v. Sims (1964) ruled that the principle of "one man, one vote" needed to be the basis of both houses of state legislatures as well, and that their districts had to be based on population, rather than geographic counties, as Alabama
Alabama
had used for its senate. In 1972, for the first time since 1901, the legislature completed the first congressional redistricting based on the decennial census. This benefited the urban areas that had developed, as well as all in the population who had been underrepresented for more than 60 years.[60] Other changes were made to implement representative state house and senate districts. African Americans
African Americans
continued to press in the 1950s and 1960s to end disenfranchisement and segregation in the state through the civil rights movement, including legal challenges. In 1954, the US Supreme Court ruled in Brown v. Board of Education
Brown v. Board of Education
that public schools had to be desegregated, but Alabama
Alabama
was slow to comply. During the 1960s, under Governor George Wallace, Alabama
Alabama
resisted compliance with federal demands for desegregation. The civil rights movement had notable events in Alabama, including the Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955–56), Freedom Rides
Freedom Rides
in 1961, and 1965 Selma to Montgomery marches. These contributed to Congressional passage and enactment of the Civil Rights Act of 1964[61] and Voting Rights Act of 1965
Voting Rights Act of 1965
by the U.S. Congress. Legal segregation ended in the states in 1964, but Jim Crow
Jim Crow
customs often continued until specifically challenged in court.[62] According to the New York Times, by 2017, many of Alabama's African-Americans were living in Alabama's "cities, particularly Birmingham and Montgomery. In addition, the rural Black Belt (called that for its soil) that stretches across the middle of the state is home to largely poor counties that are predominantly African-American. These counties include Dallas, Lowndes, Marengo and Perry."[63] Despite recommendations of a 1973 Alabama
Alabama
Constitutional Commission, the state legislature did not approve an amendment to establish home rule for counties. There is very limited home rule, but the legislature is deeply involved in passing legislation that applies to county-level functions and policies. This both deprives local residents of the ability to govern themselves and distracts the legislature from statewide issues. Alabama
Alabama
has made some changes since the late 20th century and has used new types of voting to increase representation. In the 1980s, an omnibus redistricting case, Dillard v. Crenshaw County, challenged the at-large voting for representative seats of 180 Alabama
Alabama
jurisdictions, including counties and school boards. At-large voting had diluted the votes of any minority in a county, as the majority tended to take all seats. Despite African Americans
African Americans
making up a significant minority in the state, they had been unable to elect any representatives in most of the at-large jurisdictions. As part of settlement of this case, five Alabama
Alabama
cities and counties, including Chilton County, adopted a system of cumulative voting for election of representatives in multi-seat jurisdictions. This has resulted in more proportional representation for voters. In another form of proportional representation, 23 jurisdictions use limited voting, as in Conecuh County. In 1982, limited voting was first tested in Conecuh County. Together use of these systems has increased the number of African Americans
African Americans
and women being elected to local offices, resulting in governments that are more representative of their citizens.[64] Geography[edit]

A general map of Alabama

Main article: Geography of Alabama See also: List of Alabama counties
List of Alabama counties
and Geology of Alabama Alabama
Alabama
is the thirtieth-largest state in the United States
United States
with 52,419 square miles (135,760 km2) of total area: 3.2% of the area is water, making Alabama
Alabama
23rd in the amount of surface water, also giving it the second-largest inland waterway system in the United States.[65] About three-fifths of the land area is a gentle plain with a general descent towards the Mississippi
Mississippi
River and the Gulf of Mexico. The North Alabama
North Alabama
region is mostly mountainous, with the Tennessee
Tennessee
River cutting a large valley and creating numerous creeks, streams, rivers, mountains, and lakes.[66] Alabama
Alabama
is bordered by the states of Tennessee
Tennessee
to the north, Georgia to the east, Florida
Florida
to the south, and Mississippi
Mississippi
to the west. Alabama
Alabama
has coastline at the Gulf of Mexico, in the extreme southern edge of the state.[66] The state ranges in elevation from sea level[67] at Mobile Bay
Mobile Bay
to over 1,800 feet (550 m) in the Appalachian Mountains
Appalachian Mountains
in the northeast. The highest point is Mount Cheaha,[66] at a height of 2,413 ft (735 m).[68] Alabama's land consists of 22 million acres (89,000 km2) of forest or 67% of total land area.[69] Suburban Baldwin County, along the Gulf Coast, is the largest county in the state in both land area and water area.[70] Areas in Alabama
Alabama
administered by the National Park Service
National Park Service
include Horseshoe Bend National Military Park
Horseshoe Bend National Military Park
near Alexander City; Little River Canyon National Preserve near Fort Payne; Russell Cave National Monument in Bridgeport; Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site
Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site
in Tuskegee; and Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site
Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site
near Tuskegee.[71] Additionally, Alabama
Alabama
has four National Forests: Conecuh, Talladega, Tuskegee, and William B. Bankhead.[72] Alabama
Alabama
also contains the Natchez Trace Parkway, the Selma To Montgomery National Historic Trail, and the Trail Of Tears National Historic Trail. A notable natural wonder in Alabama
Alabama
is "Natural Bridge" rock, the longest natural bridge east of the Rockies, located just south of Haleyville. A 5-mile (8 km)-wide meteorite impact crater is located in Elmore County, just north of Montgomery. This is the Wetumpka
Wetumpka
crater, the site of "Alabama's greatest natural disaster." A 1,000-foot (300 m)-wide meteorite hit the area about 80 million years ago.[73] The hills just east of downtown Wetumpka
Wetumpka
showcase the eroded remains of the impact crater that was blasted into the bedrock, with the area labeled the Wetumpka crater
Wetumpka crater
or astrobleme ("star-wound") because of the concentric rings of fractures and zones of shattered rock that can be found beneath the surface.[74] In 2002, Christian Koeberl with the Institute of Geochemistry University of Vienna published evidence and established the site as the 157th recognized impact crater on Earth.[75] Climate[edit] Main article: Climate of Alabama

Autumn tree in Birmingham

The state is classified as humid subtropical (Cfa) under the Koppen Climate Classification.[76] The average annual temperature is 64 °F (18 °C). Temperatures tend to be warmer in the southern part of the state with its proximity to the Gulf of Mexico, while the northern parts of the state, especially in the Appalachian Mountains in the northeast, tend to be slightly cooler.[77] Generally, Alabama
Alabama
has very hot summers and mild winters with copious precipitation throughout the year. Alabama
Alabama
receives an average of 56 inches (1,400 mm) of rainfall annually and enjoys a lengthy growing season of up to 300 days in the southern part of the state.[77] Summers in Alabama
Alabama
are among the hottest in the U.S., with high temperatures averaging over 90 °F (32 °C) throughout the summer in some parts of the state. Alabama
Alabama
is also prone to tropical storms and even hurricanes. Areas of the state far away from the Gulf are not immune to the effects of the storms, which often dump tremendous amounts of rain as they move inland and weaken. South Alabama
South Alabama
reports many thunderstorms. The Gulf Coast, around Mobile Bay, averages between 70 and 80 days per year with thunder reported. This activity decreases somewhat further north in the state, but even the far north of the state reports thunder on about 60 days per year. Occasionally, thunderstorms are severe with frequent lightning and large hail; the central and northern parts of the state are most vulnerable to this type of storm. Alabama
Alabama
ranks ninth in the number of deaths from lightning and tenth in the number of deaths from lightning strikes per capita.[78]

Tornado damage in Phil Campbell following the statewide April 27, 2011, tornado outbreak.

Alabama, along with Oklahoma, has the most reported EF5 tornadoes of any state, according to statistics from the National Climatic Data Center for the period January 1, 1950, to June 2013.[79] Several long-tracked F5/EF5 tornadoes have contributed to Alabama
Alabama
reporting more tornado fatalities than any other state. The state was affected by the 1974 Super Outbreak
1974 Super Outbreak
and was devastated tremendously by the 2011 Super Outbreak. The 2011 Super Outbreak
2011 Super Outbreak
produced a record amount of tornadoes in the state. The tally reached 62.[80]

Snowfall outside Birmingham City Hall in February 2010

The peak season for tornadoes varies from the northern to southern parts of the state. Alabama
Alabama
is one of the few places in the world that has a secondary tornado season in November and December, along with the spring severe weather season. The northern part of the state—along the Tennessee
Tennessee
Valley—is one of the areas in the U.S. most vulnerable to violent tornadoes. The area of Alabama
Alabama
and Mississippi
Mississippi
most affected by tornadoes is sometimes referred to as Dixie
Dixie
Alley, as distinct from the Tornado Alley
Tornado Alley
of the Southern Plains. Winters are generally mild in Alabama, as they are throughout most of the Southeastern United States, with average January low temperatures around 40 °F (4 °C) in Mobile and around 32 °F (0 °C) in Birmingham. Although snow is a rare event in much of Alabama, areas of the state north of Montgomery may receive a dusting of snow a few times every winter, with an occasional moderately heavy snowfall every few years. Historic snowfall events include New Year's Eve 1963 snowstorm and the 1993 Storm of the Century. The annual average snowfall for the Birmingham area is 2 inches (51 mm) per year. In the southern Gulf coast, snowfall is less frequent, sometimes going several years without any snowfall. Alabama's highest temperature of 112 °F (44 °C) was recorded on September 5, 1925, in the unincorporated community of Centerville. The record low of −27 °F (−33 °C) occurred on January 30, 1966, in New Market.[81]

Monthly normal high and low temperatures for various Alabama
Alabama
cities [°F (°C)]

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Huntsville

Birmingham

Montgomery

Mobile

Cities in Alabama

Huntsville Average high 48.9 (9.4) 54.6 (12.6) 63.4 (17.4) 72.3 (22.4) 79.6 (26.4) 86.5 (30.3) 89.4 (31.9) 89.0 (31.7) 83.0 (28.3) 72.9 (22.7) 61.6 (16.4) 52.4 (11.3) 71.1 (21.7)

Average low 30.7 (-0.7) 34.0 (1.1) 41.2 (5.1) 48.4 (9.1) 57.5 (14.2) 65.4 (18.6) 69.5 (20.8) 68.1 (20.1) 61.7 (16.5) 49.6 (9.8) 40.7 (4.8) 33.8 (1.0) 50.1 (10.1)

Birmingham Average high 52.8 (11.6) 58.3 (14.6) 66.5 (19.2) 74.1 (23.4) 81.0 (27.2) 87.5 (30.8) 90.6 (32.6) 90.2 (32.3) 84.6 (29.2) 74.9 (23.8) 64.5 (18.1) 56.0 (13.3) 73.4 (23.0)

Average low 32.3 (0.2) 35.4 (1.9) 42.4 (5.8) 48.4 (9.1) 57.6 (14.2) 65.4 (18.6) 69.7 (20.9) 68.9 (20.5) 63.0 (17.2) 50.9 (10.5) 41.8 (5.4) 35.2 (1.8) 50.9 (10.5)

Montgomery Average high 57.6 (14.2) 62.4 (16.9) 70.5 (21.4) 77.5 (25.3) 84.6 (29.2) 90.6 (32.6) 92.7 (33.7) 92.2 (33.4) 87.7 (30.9) 78.7 (25.9) 68.7 (20.4) 60.3 (15.7) 77.0 (25.0)

Average low 35.5 (1.9) 38.6 (3.7) 45.4 (7.4) 52.1 (11.2) 60.1 (15.6) 67.3 (19.6) 70.9 (21.6) 70.1 (21.2) 64.9 (18.3) 52.2 (11.2) 43.5 (6.4) 37.6 (3.1) 53.2 (11.8)

Mobile Average high 60.7 (15.9) 64.5 (18.1) 71.2 (21.8) 77.4 (25.2) 84.2 (29.0) 89.4 (31.9) 91.2 (32.9) 90.8 (32.7) 86.8 (30.4) 79.2 (26.2) 70.1 (21.2) 62.9 (17.2) 77.4 (25.2)

Average low 39.5 (4.2) 42.4 (5.8) 49.2 (9.6) 54.8 (12.7) 62.8 (17.1) 69.2 (20.7) 71.8 (22.1) 71.7 (22.0) 67.6 (19.8) 56.3 (13.5) 47.8 (8.8) 41.6 (5.3) 56.2 (13.4)

Source: NOAA[82][83][84][85]

Flora
Flora
and fauna[edit]

A stand of Cahaba lilies (Hymenocallis coronaria) in the Cahaba River, within the Cahaba River
Cahaba River
National Wildlife Refuge.

Main articles: List of amphibians of Alabama, List of mammals of Alabama, List of reptiles of Alabama, and Trees of Alabama Alabama
Alabama
is home to a diverse array of flora and fauna, due largely to a variety of habitats that range from the Tennessee
Tennessee
Valley, Appalachian Plateau, and Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians
Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians
of the north to the Piedmont, Canebrake and Black Belt of the central region to the Gulf Coastal Plain
Gulf Coastal Plain
and beaches along the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
in the south. The state is usually ranked among the top in nation for its range of overall biodiversity.[86][87] Alabama
Alabama
is in the subtropical coniferous forest biome and once boasted huge expanses of pine forest, which still form the largest proportion of forests in the state.[86] It currently ranks fifth in the nation for the diversity of its flora. It is home to nearly 4,000 pteridophyte and spermatophyte plant species.[88] Indigenous animal species in the state include 62 mammal species,[89] 93 reptile species,[90] 73 amphibian species,[91] roughly 307 native freshwater fish species,[86] and 420 bird species that spend at least part of their year within the state.[92] Invertebrates include 97 crayfish species and 383 mollusk species. 113 of these mollusk species have never been collected outside the state.[93][94] Demographics[edit]

Alabama's population density

Main article: Demographics of Alabama

Historical population

Census Pop.

1800 1,250

1810 9,046

623.7%

1820 127,901

1,313.9%

1830 309,527

142.0%

1840 590,756

90.9%

1850 771,623

30.6%

1860 964,201

25.0%

1870 996,992

3.4%

1880 1,262,505

26.6%

1890 1,513,401

19.9%

1900 1,828,697

20.8%

1910 2,138,093

16.9%

1920 2,348,174

9.8%

1930 2,646,248

12.7%

1940 2,832,961

7.1%

1950 3,061,743

8.1%

1960 3,266,740

6.7%

1970 3,444,165

5.4%

1980 3,893,888

13.1%

1990 4,040,587

3.8%

2000 4,447,100

10.1%

2010 4,779,745

7.5%

Est. 2017 4,874,747

2.0%

Sources: 1910–2010[95] 2015 estimate[96]

The United States
United States
Census Bureau estimates that the population of Alabama
Alabama
was 4,858,979 on July 1, 2015,[96] which represents an increase of 79,243, or 1.66%, since the 2010 Census.[97] This includes a natural increase since the last census of 121,054 people (that is 502,457 births minus 381,403 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 104,991 people into the state.[98] Immigration from outside the U.S. resulted in a net increase of 31,180 people, and migration within the country produced a net gain of 73,811 people.[98] The state had 108,000 foreign-born (2.4% of the state population), of which an estimated 22.2% were undocumented (24,000). The center of population of Alabama
Alabama
is located in Chilton County, outside the town of Jemison.[99] Ancestry[edit] According to the 2010 Census, Alabama
Alabama
had a population of 4,779,736. The racial composition of the state was 68.5% White (67.0% Non-Hispanic White
Non-Hispanic White
and 1.5% Hispanic White), 26.2% Black or African American, 3.9% Hispanic or Latino of any race, 1.1% Asian, 0.6% American Indian and Alaska
Alaska
Native, 0.1% Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
and Other Pacific Islander, 2.0% from Some Other Race, and 1.5% from Two or More Races.[100] In 2011, 46.6% of Alabama's population younger than age 1 were minorities.[101] The largest reported ancestry groups in Alabama
Alabama
are: African (26.2%), English (23.6%), Irish (7.7%), German (5.7%), and Scots-Irish (2.0%).[102][103][104] Those citing "American" ancestry in Alabama
Alabama
are generally of English or British ancestry; many Anglo-Americans identify as having American ancestry because their roots have been in North America for so long, in some cases since the 1600s. Demographers estimate that a minimum of 20–23% of people in Alabama
Alabama
are of predominantly English ancestry and that the figure is likely higher. In the 1980 census, 41% of the people in Alabama
Alabama
identified as being of English ancestry, making them the largest ethnic group at the time.[105][106][107][108][109]

Alabama
Alabama
racial population breakdown

Racial composition 1990[110] 2000[111] 2010[112]

White 73.6% 71.1% 68.5%

Black 25.3% 26.0% 26.2%

Asian 0.5% 0.7% 1.1%

Native 0.4% 0.5% 0.6%

Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
and other Pacific Islander – – 0.1%

Other race 0.1% 0.6% 2.0%

Two or more races – 1.0% 1.5%

Based on historic migration and settlement patterns in the southern colonies and states, demographers estimated there are more people in Alabama
Alabama
of Scots-Irish origins than self-reported.[113] Many people in Alabama
Alabama
claim Irish ancestry because of the term Scots-Irish but, based on historic immigration and settlement, their ancestors were more likely Protestant
Protestant
Scots-Irish coming from northern Ireland, where they had been for a few generations as part of the English colonization.[114] The Scots-Irish were the largest non-English immigrant group from the British Isles before the American Revolution, and many settled in the South, later moving into the Deep South as it was developed.[115] In 1984, under the Davis–Strong Act, the state legislature established the Alabama
Alabama
Indian Affairs Commission.[116] Native American groups within the state had increasingly been demanding recognition as ethnic groups and seeking an end to discrimination. Given the long history of slavery and associated racial segregation, the Native American peoples, who have sometimes been of mixed race, have insisted on having their cultural identification respected. In the past, their self-identification was often overlooked as the state tried to impose a binary breakdown of society into white and black. The state has officially recognized nine American Indian tribes in the state, descended mostly from the Five Civilized Tribes
Five Civilized Tribes
of the American Southeast. These are:[117]

Poarch Band of Creek Indians (who also have federal recognition), MOWA Band of Choctaw
Choctaw
Indians, Star Clan of Muscogee Creeks, Echota Cherokee
Cherokee
Tribe of Alabama, Cherokee
Cherokee
Tribe of Northeast Alabama, Cher-O-Creek Intra Tribal Indians, Ma-Chis Lower Creek Indian Tribe, Piqua Shawnee
Shawnee
Tribe, and Ani-Yun-Wiya Nation.

The state government has promoted recognition of Native American contributions to the state, including the designation in 2000 for Columbus Day to be jointly celebrated as American Indian Heritage Day.[118] Census-designated and metropolitan areas[edit] Main article: List of metropolitan areas of Alabama

Birmingham, largest city and largest metropolitan area

Montgomery, second-largest city and fourth-largest metropolitan area

Huntsville, third-largest city and second-largest metropolitan area

Mobile, fourth-largest city and third-largest metropolitan area

Combined statistical areas[119]

Rank Combined statistical area Population (2016 estimate) Population (2010 Census)

1 Birmingham–Hoover–Talladega 1,361,299 1,302,283

2 Chattanooga–Cleveland–Dalton[CSA 1] 954,228 923,460

3 Huntsville–Decatur–Albertville 768,033 664,441

4 Mobile–Daphne–Fairhope 623,399 595,257

5 Columbus–Auburn–Opelika[CSA 2] 501,589 469,327

6 Dothan–Enterprise–Ozark 248,286 245,838

^ In Alabama, only Jackson County (2016 population: 52,138; 2010 population: 53,227) is included in the Chattanooga CSA) ^ In Alabama, only Lee, Russell, and Chambers Counties (total 2016 population: 251,006; total 2010 population: 227,409) are included in the Columbus CSA)

Metropolitan areas[120]

Rank Metropolitan area Population (2016 estimate) Population (2010 Census)

1 Birmingham–Hoover 1,147,417 1,128,047

2 Huntsville 449,720 417,593

3 Mobile 414,836 412,992

4 Montgomery 373,922 374,536

5 Tuscaloosa 241,378 230,162

6 Daphne–Fairhope–Foley 208,563 182,265

7 Decatur 152,256 153,829

8 Dothan 147,834 145,639

9 Auburn–Opelika 158,991 140,247

10 Florence–Muscle Shoals 146,534 147,137

11 Anniston–Oxford–Jacksonville 114,611 118,572

12 Gadsden 102,564 104,430

Cities[edit] Main article: List of cities and towns in Alabama

Largest cities[121]

Rank City Population (2016 census estimates) County

1 Birmingham 212,157 Jefferson Shelby

2 Montgomery 200,022 Montgomery

3 Huntsville 193,079 Madison Limestone

4 Mobile 192,904 Mobile

5 Tuscaloosa 99,543 Tuscaloosa

6 Hoover 84,978 Jefferson Shelby

7 Dothan 68,468 Houston

8 Auburn 63,118 Lee

9 Decatur 55,072 Morgan Limestone

10 Madison 47,959 Madison Limestone

11 Florence 39,959 Lauderdale

12 Phenix City 37,132 Russell

13 Gadsden 35,837 Etowah

14 Prattville 35,606 Autauga

15 Vestavia Hills 34,688 Jefferson Shelby

Language[edit] 95.1% of all Alabama
Alabama
residents five years old or older spoke only English at home in 2010, a minor decrease from 96.1% in 2000. Alabama English is predominantly Southern,[122] and is related to South Midland speech which was taken across the border from Tennessee. In the major Southern speech region, there is the decreasing loss of the final /r/, for example the /boyd/ pronunciation of 'bird'. In the northern third of the state, there is a South Midland 'arm' and 'barb' rhyming with 'form' and 'orb'. Unique words in Alabama
Alabama
English include: redworm (earthworm), peckerwood (woodpecker), snake doctor and snake feeder (dragonfly), tow sack (burlap bag), plum peach (clingstone), French harp (harmonica), and dog irons (andirons).[122]

Top non-English languages spoken in Alabama

Language Percentage of population (as of 2010[update])[123]

Spanish 2.2%

German 0.4%

French (incl. Patois, Cajun) 0.3%

Chinese, Vietnamese, Korean, Arabic, African languages, Japanese, and Italian (tied) 0.1%

Religion[edit]

Highlands United Methodist Church
United Methodist Church
in Birmingham, part of the Five Points South Historic District

Temple B'Nai Sholom in Huntsville, established in 1876. It is the oldest synagogue building in continuous use in the state.

The Islamic Center of Tuscaloosa, one of the Islamic centers that contain a mosque and facilities for the cultural needs of Muslims in the state.

In the 2008 American Religious Identification Survey, 86% of Alabama respondents reported their religion as Christian, including 6% Catholic, and 11% as having no religion.[124] The composition of other traditions is 0.5% Mormon, 0.5% Jewish, 0.5% Muslim, 0.5% Buddhist, and 0.5% Hindu.[125]

Religious affiliation in Alabama
Alabama
(2014)[126]

Affiliation % of population

Christian 86 86  

Protestant 78 78  

Evangelical Protestant 49 49  

Mainline Protestant 13 13  

Black church 16 16  

Catholic 7 7  

Mormon 1 1  

Jehovah's Witnesses 0.1 0.1  

Eastern Orthodox 0.1 0.1  

Other Christian 0.1 0.1  

Unaffiliated 12 12  

Nothing in particular 9 9  

Agnostic 1 1  

Atheist 1 1  

Non-Christian faiths 1 1  

Jewish 0.2 0.2  

Muslim 0.2 0.2  

Buddhist 0.2 0.2  

Hindu 0.2 0.2  

Other Non-Christian faiths 0.2 0.2  

Don't know/refused answer 1 1  

Total 100 100  

Further information on Christianity
Christianity
in Alabama: History of Baptists in Alabama, List of Baptist churches in Alabama, Episcopal Diocese of Alabama, Episcopal Diocese of the Central Gulf Coast, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Mobile, Roman Catholic
Catholic
Diocese of Birmingham in Alabama, and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Alabama Alabama
Alabama
is located in the middle of the Bible Belt, a region of numerous Protestant
Protestant
Christians. Alabama
Alabama
has been identified as one of the most religious states in the United States, with about 58% of the population attending church regularly.[127] A majority of people in the state identify as Evangelical Protestant. As of 2010[update], the three largest denominational groups in Alabama
Alabama
are the Southern Baptist Convention, The United Methodist Church, and non-denominational Evangelical Protestant.[128] In Alabama, the Southern Baptist Convention
Southern Baptist Convention
has the highest number of adherents with 1,380,121; this is followed by the United Methodist Church with 327,734 adherents, non-denominational Evangelical Protestant
Protestant
with 220,938 adherents, and the Catholic
Catholic
Church with 150,647 adherents. Many Baptist and Methodist congregations became established in the Great Awakening
Great Awakening
of the early 19th century, when preachers proselytized across the South. The Assemblies of God
Assemblies of God
had almost 60,000 members, the Churches of Christ
Churches of Christ
had nearly 120,000 members. The Presbyterian churches, strongly associated with Scots-Irish immigrants of the 18th century and their descendants, had a combined membership around 75,000 (PCA – 28,009 members in 108 congregations, PC(USA)
PC(USA)
– 26,247 members in 147 congregations,[129] the Cumberland Presbyterian Church
Cumberland Presbyterian Church
– 6,000 members in 59 congregations, the Cumberland Presbyterian Church in America
Presbyterian Church in America
– 5,000 members and 50 congregations plus the EPC and Associate Reformed Presbyterians with 230 members and 9 congregations).[130] In a 2007 survey, nearly 70% of respondents could name all four of the Christian Gospels. Of those who indicated a religious preference, 59% said they possessed a "full understanding" of their faith and needed no further learning.[131] In a 2007 poll, 92% of Alabamians reported having at least some confidence in churches in the state.[132][133] Although in much smaller numbers, many other religious faiths are represented in the state as well, including Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, the Bahá'í Faith, and Unitarian Universalism.[130] Jews have been present in what is now Alabama
Alabama
since 1763, during the colonial era of Mobile, when Sephardic Jews
Sephardic Jews
immigrated from London.[134] The oldest Jewish
Jewish
congregation in the state is Congregation Sha'arai Shomayim in Mobile. It was formally recognized by the state legislature on January 25, 1844.[134] Later immigrants in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries tended to be Ashkenazi Jews from eastern Europe. Jewish
Jewish
denominations in the state include two Orthodox, four Conservative, ten Reform, and one Humanistic synagogue.[135] Muslims have been increasing in Alabama, with 31 mosques built by 2011, many by African-American converts.[136] Several Hindu
Hindu
temples and cultural centers in the state have been founded by Indian immigrants and their descendants, the best-known being the Shri Swaminarayan Mandir in Birmingham, the Hindu
Hindu
Temple and Cultural Center of Birmingham in Pelham, the Hindu
Hindu
Cultural Center of North Alabama
North Alabama
in Capshaw, and the Hindu
Hindu
Mandir and Cultural Center in Tuscaloosa.[137][138] There are six Dharma centers and organizations for Theravada Buddhists.[139] Most monastic Buddhist
Buddhist
temples are concentrated in southern Mobile County, near Bayou La Batre. This area has attracted an influx of refugees from Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam during the 1970s and thereafter.[140] The four temples within a ten-mile radius of Bayou La Batre, include Chua Chanh Giac, Wat Buddharaksa, and Wat Lao Phoutthavihan.[141][142][143] The first community of adherents of the Baha'i Faith
Baha'i Faith
in Alabama
Alabama
was founded in 1896 by Paul K. Dealy, who moved from Chicago to Fairhope. Baha'i Centers in Alabama
Alabama
exist in Birmingham, Alabama, Huntsville, Alabama, and Florence, Alabama.[144] Health[edit] A Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
study in 2008 showed that obesity in Alabama
Alabama
was a problem, with most counties having over 29% of adults obese, except for ten which had a rate between 26% and 29%.[145] Residents of the state, along with those in five other states, were least likely in the nation to be physically active during leisure time.[146] Alabama, and the southeastern U.S. in general, has one of the highest incidences of adult onset diabetes in the country, exceeding 10% of adults.[147][148] Economy[edit] See also: Alabama
Alabama
locations by per capita income The state has invested in aerospace, education, health care, banking, and various heavy industries, including automobile manufacturing, mineral extraction, steel production and fabrication. By 2006, crop and animal production in Alabama
Alabama
was valued at $1.5 billion. In contrast to the primarily agricultural economy of the previous century, this was only about 1% of the state's gross domestic product. The number of private farms has declined at a steady rate since the 1960s, as land has been sold to developers, timber companies, and large farming conglomerates.[149] Non-agricultural employment in 2008 was 121,800 in management occupations; 71,750 in business and financial operations; 36,790 in computer-related and mathematical occupation; 44,200 in architecture and engineering; 12,410 in life, physical, and social sciences; 32,260 in community and social services; 12,770 in legal occupations; 116,250 in education, training, and library services; 27,840 in art, design and media occupations; 121,110 in healthcare; 44,750 in fire fighting, law enforcement, and security; 154,040 in food preparation and serving; 76,650 in building and grounds cleaning and maintenance; 53,230 in personal care and services; 244,510 in sales; 338,760 in office and administration support; 20,510 in farming, fishing, and forestry; 120,155 in construction and mining, gas, and oil extraction; 106,280 in installation, maintenance, and repair; 224,110 in production; and 167,160 in transportation and material moving.[11] According to the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, the 2008 total gross state product was $170 billion, or $29,411 per capita. Alabama's 2012 GDP increased 1.2% from the previous year. The single largest increase came in the area of information.[150] In 2010, per capita income for the state was $22,984.[151] The state's seasonally adjusted unemployment rate was 5.8% in April 2015.[152] This compared to a nationwide seasonally adjusted rate of 5.4%.[153] Alabama
Alabama
has no state minimum wage and uses the federal minimum wage of $7.25. In February 2016, the state passed legislation that prevents Alabama
Alabama
municipalities from raising the minimum wage in their locality. The legislation voids a Birmingham city ordinance that was to raise the city's minimum wage to $10.10.[154] Largest employers[edit]

The Space Shuttle Enterprise
Space Shuttle Enterprise
being tested at Marshall Space Flight Center in 1978.

Hyundai Motor Manufacturing Alabama
Hyundai Motor Manufacturing Alabama
in Montgomery in 2010

Shelby Hall, School of Computing, at the University of South Alabama in Mobile

The five employers that employed the most employees in Alabama
Alabama
in April 2011 were:[155]

Employer Employees

Redstone Arsenal 25,373

University of Alabama at Birmingham
University of Alabama at Birmingham
(includes UAB Hospital) 18,750

Maxwell Air Force Base 12,280

State of Alabama 9,500

Mobile County Public School System 8,100

The next twenty largest employers, as of 2011[update], included:[156]

Employer Location

Anniston Army Depot Anniston

AT&T Multiple

Auburn University Auburn

Baptist Medical Center South Montgomery

Birmingham City Schools Birmingham

City of Birmingham Birmingham

DCH Health System Tuscaloosa

Huntsville City Schools Huntsville

Huntsville Hospital System Huntsville

Hyundai Motor Manufacturing Alabama Montgomery

Infirmary Health System Mobile

Jefferson County Board of Education Birmingham

Marshall Space Flight Center Huntsville

Mercedes-Benz U.S. International Vance

Montgomery Public Schools Montgomery

Regions Financial Corporation Multiple

Boeing Multiple

University of Alabama Tuscaloosa

University of South Alabama Mobile

Walmart Multiple

Agriculture[edit] Alabama's agricultural outputs include poultry and eggs, cattle, fish, plant nursery items, peanuts, cotton, grains such as corn and sorghum, vegetables, milk, soybeans, and peaches. Although known as "The Cotton State", Alabama
Alabama
ranks between eighth and tenth in national cotton production, according to various reports,[157][158] with Texas, Georgia and Mississippi
Mississippi
comprising the top three. Industry[edit] Alabama's industrial outputs include iron and steel products (including cast-iron and steel pipe); paper, lumber, and wood products; mining (mostly coal); plastic products; cars and trucks; and apparel. In addition, Alabama
Alabama
produces aerospace and electronic products, mostly in the Huntsville area, the location of NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center
Marshall Space Flight Center
and the U.S. Army Materiel Command, headquartered at Redstone Arsenal.

Mercedes-Benz U.S. International
Mercedes-Benz U.S. International
in Tuscaloosa County was the first automotive facility to locate within the state.

A great deal of Alabama's economic growth since the 1990s has been due to the state's expanding automotive manufacturing industry. Located in the state are Honda Manufacturing of Alabama, Hyundai Motor Manufacturing Alabama, Mercedes-Benz U.S. International, and Toyota Motor Manufacturing Alabama, as well as their various suppliers. Since 1993, the automobile industry has generated more than 67,800 new jobs in the state. Alabama
Alabama
currently ranks 4th in the nation for vehicle exports.[159] Automakers accounted for approximately a third of the industrial expansion in the state in 2012.[160] The eight models produced at the state's auto factories totaled combined sales of 74,335 vehicles for 2012. The strongest model sales during this period were the Hyundai Elantra compact car, the Mercedes-Benz GL-Class
Mercedes-Benz GL-Class
sport utility vehicle and the Honda Ridgeline
Honda Ridgeline
sport utility truck.[161]

Airbus
Airbus
Mobile Engineering Center at the Brookley Aeroplex in Mobile

Steel producers Outokumpu, Nucor, SSAB, ThyssenKrupp, and U.S. Steel have facilities in Alabama
Alabama
and employ over 10,000 people. In May 2007, German steelmaker ThyssenKrupp
ThyssenKrupp
selected Calvert in Mobile County for a 4.65 billion combined stainless and carbon steel processing facility.[162] ThyssenKrupp's stainless steel division, Inoxum, including the stainless portion of the Calvert plant, was sold to Finnish stainless steel company Outokumpu
Outokumpu
in 2012.[163] The remaining portion of the ThyssenKrupp
ThyssenKrupp
plant had final bids submitted by ArcelorMittal
ArcelorMittal
and Nippon Steel
Nippon Steel
for $1.6 billion in March 2013. Companhia Siderúrgica Nacional
Companhia Siderúrgica Nacional
submitted a combined bid for the mill at Calvert, plus a majority stake in the ThyssenKrupp
ThyssenKrupp
mill in Brazil, for $3.8 billion.[164] In July 2013, the plant was sold to ArcelorMittal
ArcelorMittal
and Nippon Steel.[165] The Hunt Refining Company, a subsidiary of Hunt Consolidated, Inc., is based in Tuscaloosa and operates a refinery there. The company also operates terminals in Mobile, Melvin, and Moundville.[166] JVC America, Inc. operates an optical disc replication and packaging plant in Tuscaloosa.[167] The Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company
Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company
operates a large plant in Gadsden that employs about 1,400 people. It has been in operation since 1929. Construction of an Airbus A320 family
Airbus A320 family
aircraft assembly plant in Mobile was formally announced by Airbus
Airbus
CEO Fabrice Brégier from the Mobile Convention Center on July 2, 2012. The plans include a $600 million factory at the Brookley Aeroplex for the assembly of the A319, A320 and A321 aircraft. Construction began in 2013, with plans for it to become operable by 2015 and produce up to 50 aircraft per year by 2017.[168][169] The assembly plant is the company's first factory to be built within the United States.[170] It was announced on February 1, 2013, that Airbus
Airbus
had hired Alabama-based Hoar Construction
Hoar Construction
to oversee construction of the facility.[171] Tourism[edit]

Alabama's beaches are one of the state's major tourist destinations.

An estimated 20 million tourists visit the state each year. Over 100,000 of these are from other countries, including from Canada, the United Kingdom, Germany and Japan.[citation needed] In 2006, 22.3 million travellers spent $8.3 billion providing an estimated 162,000 jobs in the state.[172][173][not in citation given] Some of the most popular areas include the Rocket City of Huntsville, the beaches along the Gulf, and the state's capitol in Montgomery.[174] Healthcare[edit] UAB Hospital
UAB Hospital
is the only Level I trauma center in Alabama.[175][176] UAB is the largest state government employer in Alabama, with a workforce of about 18,000.[177] Banking[edit]

Regions-Harbert Plaza, Regions Center, and Wells Fargo
Wells Fargo
Tower in Birmingham's financial district.

Alabama
Alabama
has the headquarters of Regions Financial Corporation, BBVA Compass, Superior Bancorp and the former Colonial Bancgroup. Birmingham-based Compass Banchshares was acquired by Spanish-based BBVA
BBVA
in September 2007, although the headquarters of BBVA
BBVA
Compass remains in Birmingham. In November 2006, Regions Financial completed its merger with AmSouth Bancorporation, which was also headquartered in Birmingham. SouthTrust Corporation, another large bank headquartered in Birmingham, was acquired by Wachovia
Wachovia
in 2004 for $14.3 billion. The city still has major operations for Wachovia
Wachovia
and its now post-operating bank Wells Fargo, which includes a regional headquarters, an operations center campus and a $400 million data center. Nearly a dozen smaller banks are also headquartered in the Birmingham, such as Superior Bancorp, ServisFirst and New South Federal Savings Bank. Birmingham also serves as the headquarters for several large investment management companies, including Harbert Management Corporation. Electronics[edit] Telecommunications provider AT&T, formerly BellSouth, has a major presence in Alabama
Alabama
with several large offices in Birmingham. The company has over 6,000 employees and more than 1,200 contract employees. Many commercial technology companies are headquartered in Huntsville, such as network access company ADTRAN, computer graphics company Intergraph, and IT infrastructure company Avocent. Cinram manufactures and distributes 20th Century Fox DVDs and Blu-ray Discs out of its Huntsville plant. Construction[edit] Rust International has grown to include Brasfield & Gorrie, BE&K, Hoar Construction
Hoar Construction
and B.L. Harbert International, which all routinely are included in the Engineering News-Record lists of top design, international construction, and engineering firms. (Rust International was acquired in 2000 by Washington Group International, which was in turn acquired by San-Francisco based URS Corporation
URS Corporation
in 2007.)

Law and government[edit] State government[edit]

The State Capitol Building in Montgomery, completed in 1851

Main article: Government of Alabama The foundational document for Alabama's government is the Alabama Constitution, which was ratified in 1901. At almost 800 amendments and 310,000 words, it is by some accounts the world's longest constitution and is roughly forty times the length of the United States Constitution.[178][179][180][181] There has been a significant movement to rewrite and modernize Alabama's constitution.[182] Critics argue that Alabama's constitution maintains highly centralized power with the state legislature, leaving practically no power in local hands. Most counties do not have home rule. Any policy changes proposed in different areas of the state must be approved by the entire Alabama
Alabama
legislature and, frequently, by state referendum. One criticism of the current constitution claims that its complexity and length intentionally codify segregation and racism.

The Heflin-Torbert Judicial Building in Montgomery. It houses the Supreme Court of Alabama, Alabama
Alabama
Court of Civil Appeals, and Alabama Court of Criminal Appeals.

Alabama's government is divided into three coequal branches. The legislative branch is the Alabama
Alabama
Legislature, a bicameral assembly composed of the Alabama
Alabama
House of Representatives, with 105 members, and the Alabama
Alabama
Senate, with 35 members. The Legislature
Legislature
is responsible for writing, debating, passing, or defeating state legislation. The Republican Party currently holds a majority in both houses of the Legislature. The Legislature
Legislature
has the power to override a gubernatorial veto by a simple majority (most state Legislatures require a two-thirds majority to override a veto). Until 1964, the state elected state senators on a geographic basis by county, with one per county. It had not redistricted congressional districts since passage of its constitution in 1901; as a result, urbanized areas were grossly underrepresented. It had not changed legislative districts to reflect the decennial censuses, either. In Reynolds v. Sims
Reynolds v. Sims
(1964), the US Supreme Court implemented the principle of "one man, one vote", ruling that congressional districts had to be reapportioned based on censuses (as the state already included in its constitution but had not implemented.) Further, the court ruled that both houses of bicameral state legislatures had to be apportioned by population, as there was no constitutional basis for states to have geographically based systems. At that time, Alabama
Alabama
and many other states had to change their legislative districting, as many across the country had systems that underrepresented urban areas and districts. This had caused decades of underinvestment in such areas. For instance, Birmingham and Jefferson County taxes had supplied one-third of the state budget, but Jefferson County received only 1/67th of state services in funding. Through the legislative delegations, the Alabama
Alabama
legislature kept control of county governments.

Governor Kay Ivey
Kay Ivey
is the current and second female Governor of Alabama. She is the only Republican female Governor in the state's history.

The executive branch is responsible for the execution and oversight of laws. It is headed by the Governor of Alabama. Other members of executive branch include the cabinet, the Attorney General of Alabama, the Alabama
Alabama
Secretary of State, the Alabama
Alabama
State Treasurer, and the State Auditor of Alabama. The current governor of the state is Republican Kay Ivey. The office of lieutenant governor is currently vacant. The members of the Legislature
Legislature
take office immediately after the November elections. Statewide officials, such as the governor, lieutenant governor, attorney general, and other constitutional officers, take office the following January.[183] The judicial branch is responsible for interpreting the Constitution and applying the law in state criminal and civil cases. The state's highest court is the Supreme Court of Alabama. Alabama
Alabama
uses partisan elections to select judges. Since the 1980s judicial campaigns have become increasingly politicized.[184] The current chief justice of the Alabama
Alabama
Supreme Court is Republican Lyn Stuart. All sitting justices on the Alabama
Alabama
Supreme Court are members of the Republican Party. There are two intermediate appellate courts, the Court of Civil Appeals and the Court of Criminal Appeals, and four trial courts: the circuit court (trial court of general jurisdiction), and the district, probate, and municipal courts.[184] Some critics believe that the election of judges has contributed to an exceedingly high rate of executions.[185] Alabama
Alabama
has the highest per capita death penalty rate in the country. In some years, it imposes more death sentences than does Texas, a state which has a population five times larger.[186] Some of its cases have been highly controversial; the Supreme Court has overturned[187] 24 convictions in death penalty cases.[citation needed] It was the only state to allow judges to override jury decisions in whether or not to use a death sentence; in 10 cases judges overturned sentences of life imprisonment without parole (LWOP) that were voted unanimously by juries.[186] This judicial authority was removed in April 2017.[188] Taxes[edit] Alabama
Alabama
levies a 2, 4, or 5 percent personal income tax, depending upon the amount earned and filing status. Taxpayers are allowed to deduct their federal income tax from their Alabama
Alabama
state tax, and can do so even if taking the standard deduction. Taxpayers who file itemized deductions are also allowed to deduct the Federal Insurance Contributions Act tax (Social Security and Medicare tax). The state's general sales tax rate is 4%.[189] Sales tax rates for cities and counties are also added to purchases.[190] For example, the total sales tax rate in Mobile is 10% and there is an additional restaurant tax of 1%, which means that a diner in Mobile would pay an 11% tax on a meal. As of 1999[update], sales and excise taxes in Alabama
Alabama
account for 51% of all state and local revenue, compared with an average of about 36% nationwide.[191] Alabama
Alabama
is one of seven states that levy a tax on food at the same rate as other goods, and one of two states (the other being neighboring Mississippi) which fully taxes groceries without any offsetting relief for low-income families. (Most states exempt groceries from sales tax or apply a lower tax rate.)[192] Alabama's income tax on poor working families is among the highest in the United States.[191] Alabama
Alabama
is the only state that levies income tax on a family of four with income as low as $4,600, which is barely one-quarter of the federal poverty line.[191] Alabama's threshold is the lowest among the 41 states and the District of Columbia with income taxes.[191] The corporate income tax rate is currently 6.5%. The overall federal, state, and local tax burden in Alabama
Alabama
ranks the state as the second least tax-burdened state in the country.[193] Property taxes are the lowest in the U.S. The current state constitution requires a voter referendum to raise property taxes. Since Alabama's tax structure largely depends on consumer spending, it is subject to high variable budget structure. For example, in 2003, Alabama
Alabama
had an annual budget deficit as high as $670 million. County and local governments[edit]

Alabama
Alabama
counties (clickable map)

See also: List of counties in Alabama

Treemap
Treemap
of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election.

Alabama
Alabama
has 67 counties. Each county has its own elected legislative branch, usually called the county commission. It also has limited executive authority in the county. Because of the constraints of the Alabama
Alabama
Constitution, which centralizes power in the state legislature, only seven counties (Jefferson, Lee, Mobile, Madison, Montgomery, Shelby, and Tuscaloosa) in the state have limited home rule. Instead, most counties in the state must lobby the Local Legislation Committee of the state legislature to get simple local policies approved, ranging from waste disposal to land use zoning. The state legislature has retained power over local governments by refusing to pass a constitutional amendment establishing home rule for counties, as recommended by the 1973 Alabama
Alabama
Constitutional Commission.[194] Legislative delegations retain certain powers over each county. United States
United States
Supreme Court decisions in Baker v. Carr (1964) required that both houses have districts established on the basis of population, and redistricted after each census, in order to implement the principle of "one man, one vote". Before that, each county was represented by one state senator, leading to under-representation in the state senate for more urbanized, populous counties. The rural bias of the state legislature, which had also failed to redistrict seats in the state house, affected politics well into the 20th century, failing to recognize the rise of industrial cities and urbanized areas. "The lack of home rule for counties in Alabama
Alabama
has resulted in the proliferation of local legislation permitting counties to do things not authorized by the state constitution. Alabama's constitution has been amended more than 700 times, and almost one-third of the amendments are local in nature, applying to only one county or city. A significant part of each legislative session is spent on local legislation, taking away time and attention of legislators from issues of statewide importance."[194] Alabama
Alabama
is an alcoholic beverage control state, meaning that the state government holds a monopoly on the sale of alcohol. The Alabama Alcoholic Beverage Control Board controls the sale and distribution of alcoholic beverages in the state. Twenty-five of the 67 counties are "dry counties" which ban the sale of alcohol, and there are many dry municipalities even in counties which permit alcohol sales.[195]

Rank County Population (2010 Census) Seat Largest city

1 Jefferson 658,466 Birmingham Birmingham

2 Mobile 412,992 Mobile Mobile

3 Madison 334,811 Huntsville Huntsville

4 Montgomery 229,363 Montgomery Montgomery

5 Shelby 195,085 Columbiana Hoover (part) Alabaster

6 Tuscaloosa 194,656 Tuscaloosa Tuscaloosa

7 Baldwin 182,265 Bay Minette Daphne

8 Lee 140,247 Opelika Auburn

9 Morgan 119,490 Decatur Decatur

10 Calhoun 118,572 Anniston Anniston

11 Etowah 104,303 Gadsden Gadsden

12 Houston 101,547 Dothan Dothan

13 Marshall 93,019 Guntersville Albertville

14 Lauderdale 92,709 Florence Florence

15 St. Clair 83,593 Ashville & Pell City Pell City

Politics[edit] During Reconstruction following the American Civil War, Alabama
Alabama
was occupied by federal troops of the Third Military District
Third Military District
under General John Pope. In 1874, the political coalition of white Democrats known as the Redeemers
Redeemers
took control of the state government from the Republicans, in part by suppressing the black vote through violence, fraud and intimidation. After 1890, a coalition of White Democratic politicians passed laws to segregate and disenfranchise African American
African American
residents, a process completed in provisions of the 1901 constitution. Provisions which disenfranchised blacks resulted in excluding many poor Whites. By 1941 more Whites than Blacks had been disenfranchised: 600,000 to 520,000. The total effects were greater on the black community, as almost all of its citizens were disfranchised and relegated to separate and unequal treatment under the law. From 1901 through the 1960s, the state did not redraw election districts as population grew and shifted within the state during urbanization and industrialization of certain areas. As counties were the basis of election districts, the result was a rural minority that dominated state politics through nearly three-quarters of the century, until a series of federal court cases required redistricting in 1972 to meet equal representation. Alabama
Alabama
state politics gained nationwide and international attention in the 1950s and 1960s during the civil rights movement, when whites bureaucratically, and at times violently, resisted protests for electoral and social reform. Governor George Wallace, the state's only four-term governor, was a controversial figure who vowed to maintain segregation. Only after passage of the federal Civil Rights Act of 1964[61] and Voting Rights Act of 1965
Voting Rights Act of 1965
did African Americans
African Americans
regain the ability to exercise suffrage, among other civil rights. In many jurisdictions, they continued to be excluded from representation by at-large electoral systems, which allowed the majority of the population to dominate elections. Some changes at the county level have occurred following court challenges to establish single-member districts that enable a more diverse representation among county boards. In 2007, the Alabama
Alabama
Legislature
Legislature
passed, and Republican Governor Bob Riley signed a resolution expressing "profound regret" over slavery and its lingering impact. In a symbolic ceremony, the bill was signed in the Alabama
Alabama
State Capitol, which housed Congress of the Confederate States of America.[196] In 2010, Republicans won control of both houses of the legislature for the first time in 136 years, after a nearly complete realignment of political parties, who represent different visions in the 21st century. As of December 2017, there are a total of 3,326,812 registered voters, with 2,979,576 active, and the others inactive in the state.[197] Elections[edit] Main article: Elections in Alabama State elections[edit] With the disfranchisement of Blacks in 1901, the state became part of the "Solid South", a system in which the Democratic Party operated as effectively the only viable political party in every Southern state. For nearly 100 years, local and state elections in Alabama
Alabama
were decided in the Democratic Party primary, with generally only token Republican challengers running in the General Election. Since the mid to late 20th century, however, there has been a realignment among the two major political parties, and white conservatives started shifting to the Republican Party. In Alabama, majority-white districts are now expected to regularly elect Republican candidates to federal, state and local office. Members of the nine seats on the Supreme Court of Alabama[198] and all ten seats on the state appellate courts are elected to office. Until 1994, no Republicans held any of the court seats. In that general election, the then-incumbent Chief Justice, Ernest C. Hornsby, refused to leave office after losing the election by approximately 3,000 votes to Republican Perry O. Hooper, Sr.. Hornsby sued Alabama
Alabama
and defiantly remained in office for nearly a year before finally giving up the seat after losing in court. This ultimately led to a collapse of support for Democrats at the ballot box in the next three or four election cycles. The Democrats lost the last of the nineteen court seats in August 2011 with the resignation of the last Democrat on the bench. In the early 21st century, Republicans hold all seven of the statewide elected executive branch offices. Republicans hold six of the eight elected seats on the Alabama
Alabama
State Board of Education. In 2010, Republicans took large majorities of both chambers of the state legislature, giving them control of that body for the first time in 136 years. The last remaining statewide Democrat, who served on the Alabama
Alabama
Public Service Commission was defeated in 2012.[199][200][201] Only two Republican Lieutenant Governors have been elected since the end of Reconstruction, when Republicans generally represented Reconstruction government, including the newly emancipated freedmen who had gained the franchise. The two GOP Lt. Governors were Steve Windom (1999–2003) and Kay Ivey
Kay Ivey
(2011-2017). Local elections[edit] Many local offices (County Commissioners, Boards of Education, Tax Assessors, Tax Collectors, etc.) in the state are still held by Democrats. Many rural counties have voters who are majority Democrats, resulting in local elections being decided in the Democratic primary. Similarly many metropolitan and suburban counties are majority-Republican and elections are effectively decided in the Republican Primary, although there are exceptions.[202][203] Alabama's 67 County Sheriffs are elected in partisan, at-large races, and Democrats still retain the narrow majority of those posts. The current split is 35 Democrats, 31 Republicans, and one Independent Fayette.[204] However, most of the Democratic sheriffs preside over rural and less populated counties. The majority of Republican sheriffs have been elected in the more urban/suburban and heavily populated counties.[citation needed] As of 2015[update], the state of Alabama has one female sheriff, in Morgan County, Alabama, and ten African-American sheriffs.[204] Federal elections[edit]

Presidential elections results

Year Republican Democratic

2016 62.08% 1,318,255 34.36% 729,547

2012 60.55% 1,255,925 38.36% 795,696

2008 60.32% 1,266,546 38.80% 813,479

2004 62.46% 1,176,394 36.84% 693,933

2000 56.47% 944,409 41.59% 695,602

1996 50.12% 769,044 43.16% 662,165

1992 47.65% 804,283 40.88% 690,080

1988 59.17% 815,576 39.86% 549,506

1984 60.54% 872,849 38.28% 551,899

1980 48.75% 654,192 47.45% 636,730

1976 42.61% 504,070 55.73% 659,170

1972 72.43% 728,701 25.54% 256,923

1968* 13.99% 146,923 18.72% 196,579

1964 69.45% 479,085 30.55% 210,732

1960 42.16% 237,981 56.39% 318,303

*State won by George Wallace of the American Independent Party, at 65.86%, or 691,425 votes

The state's two U.S. senators are Republican Richard C. Shelby and Democrat Doug Jones. Shelby was originally elected to the Senate as a Democrat in 1986 and re-elected in 1992, but switched parties immediately following the November 1994 general election. In the U.S. House of Representatives, the state is represented by seven members, six of whom are Republicans: (Bradley Byrne, Mike D. Rogers, Robert Aderholt, Morris J. Brooks, Martha Roby, and Gary Palmer) and one Democrat: Terri Sewell
Terri Sewell
who represents the Black Belt as well as most of the predominantly black portions of Birmingham, Tuscaloosa and Montgomery. Further information: United States
United States
presidential election in Alabama, 2016 Education[edit] Main article: Education in Alabama Primary and secondary education[edit]

Vestavia Hills High School
Vestavia Hills High School
in the suburbs of Birmingham

Public primary and secondary education in Alabama
Alabama
is under the purview of the Alabama State Board of Education as well as local oversight by 67 county school boards and 60 city boards of education. Together, 1,496 individual schools provide education for 744,637 elementary and secondary students.[205] Public school funding is appropriated through the Alabama
Alabama
Legislature through the Education Trust Fund. In FY 2006–2007, Alabama appropriated $3,775,163,578 for primary and secondary education. That represented an increase of $444,736,387 over the previous fiscal year. In 2007, over 82 percent of schools made adequate yearly progress (AYP) toward student proficiency under the National No Child Left Behind law, using measures determined by the state of Alabama. While Alabama's public education system has improved in recent decades, it lags behind in achievement compared to other states. According to U.S. Census data (2000), Alabama's high school graduation rate—75%—is the fourth lowest in the U.S. (after Kentucky, Louisiana
Louisiana
and Mississippi).[206] The largest educational gains were among people with some college education but without degrees.[207] Although unusual in the West, school corporal punishment is not uncommon in Alabama, with 27,260 public school students paddled at least one time, according to government data for the 2011–2012 school year.[208][209] The rate of school corporal punishment in Alabama
Alabama
is surpassed only by Mississippi
Mississippi
and Arkansas.[209] Colleges and universities[edit] Main article: List of colleges and universities in Alabama

Harrison Plaza at the University of North Alabama
North Alabama
in Florence. The school was chartered as LaGrange College by the Alabama
Alabama
Legislature
Legislature
in 1830.

Alabama's programs of higher education include 14 four-year public universities, two-year community colleges, and 17 private, undergraduate and graduate universities. In the state are four medical schools (as of fall 2015) ( University of Alabama
University of Alabama
School of Medicine, University of South Alabama
University of South Alabama
and Alabama
Alabama
College of Osteopathic Medicine and The Edward Via College of Osteopathic Medicine – Auburn Campus), two veterinary colleges ( Auburn University
Auburn University
and Tuskegee University), a dental school ( University of Alabama
University of Alabama
School of Dentistry), an optometry college ( University of Alabama
University of Alabama
at Birmingham), two pharmacy schools ( Auburn University
Auburn University
and Samford University), and five law schools ( University of Alabama
University of Alabama
School of Law, Birmingham School of Law, Cumberland School of Law, Miles Law School, and the Thomas Goode Jones School of Law). Public, post-secondary education in Alabama
Alabama
is overseen by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education and the Alabama
Alabama
Department of Postsecondary Education. Colleges and universities in Alabama
Alabama
offer degree programs from two-year associate degrees to a multitude of doctoral level programs.[210]

William J. Samford Hall at Auburn University
Auburn University
in Auburn

The largest single campus is the University of Alabama, located in Tuscaloosa, with 37,665 enrolled for fall 2016.[211] Troy University was the largest institution in the state in 2010, with an enrollment of 29,689 students across four Alabama
Alabama
campuses (Troy, Dothan, Montgomery, and Phenix City), as well as sixty learning sites in seventeen other states and eleven other countries. The oldest institutions are the public University of North Alabama
North Alabama
in Florence and the Catholic
Catholic
Church-affiliated Spring Hill College
Spring Hill College
in Mobile, both founded in 1830.[212][213] Accreditation of academic programs is through the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS) as well as other subject-focused national and international accreditation agencies such as the Association for Biblical Higher Education (ABHE),[214] the Council on Occupational Education (COE),[215] and the Accrediting Council for Independent Colleges and Schools (ACICS).[216] According to the 2011 U.S. News & World Report, Alabama
Alabama
had three universities ranked in the top 100 Public Schools in America ( University of Alabama
University of Alabama
at 31, Auburn University
Auburn University
at 36, and University of Alabama
Alabama
at Birmingham at 73).[217] According to the 2012 U.S. News & World Report, Alabama
Alabama
had four tier 1 universities (University of Alabama, Auburn University, University of Alabama at Birmingham
University of Alabama at Birmingham
and University of Alabama
University of Alabama
in Huntsville).[218] Media[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2017)

See also: Category: Alabama
Alabama
media and List of newspapers in Alabama Major newspapers include Birmingham News, Mobile Press-Register, and Montgomery Advertiser.[219] Political websites include Alabama
Alabama
Political Reporter, Left in Alabama, and Yellowhammer News.[citation needed] Major television network affiliates in Alabama
Alabama
include: ABC

WGWW 40.2 ABC, Anniston WBMA 58/ WABM
WABM
68.2 ABC, Birmingham WDHN
WDHN
18 ABC, Dothan WAAY 31 ABC, Huntsville WEAR 3 ABC Pensacola/Mobile WNCF
WNCF
32 ABC, Montgomery WDBB
WDBB
17.2 ABC, Tuscaloosa

CBS

WIAT
WIAT
42 CBS, Birmingham WTVY 4 CBS, Dothan WHNT
WHNT
19 CBS, Huntsville WKRG
WKRG
5 CBS, Mobile WAKA
WAKA
8 CBS, Selma/Montgomery

Fox

WBRC
WBRC
6 FOX, Birmingham WZDX
WZDX
54 FOX, Huntsville WALA 10 FOX, Mobile WCOV 20 FOX, Montgomery WDFX 34 FOX, Ozark/Dothan

NBC

WVTM
WVTM
13 NBC, Birmingham WRGX 23 NBC, Dothan WAFF 48 NBC, Huntsville WPMI 15 NBC, Mobile WSFA
WSFA
12 NBC, Montgomery

PBS/ Alabama
Alabama
Public Television

WBIQ 10 PBS, Birmingham WIIQ 41 PBS, Demopolis WDIQ 2 PBS, Dozier WFIQ 36 PBS, Florence WHIQ 25 PBS, Huntsville WGIQ 43 PBS, Louisville[220] WEIQ 42 PBS, Mobile WAIQ 26 PBS, Montgomery WCIQ 7 PBS, Mount Cheaha

The CW

WTTO
WTTO
21, Homewood/Birmingham WTVY 4.3, Dothan WHDF 15, Florence/Huntsville WFNA 55, Gulf Shores/Mobile/Pensacola, FL WDBB
WDBB
17, Tuscaloosa WBMM
WBMM
22, Tuskegee/Montgomery

Viewers in eastern Alabama
Alabama
are served by stations in Atlanta
Atlanta
and Columbus, Georgia. Culture[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2017)

Literature[edit] Main article: Alabama
Alabama
literature Sports[edit] College sports[edit]

Bryant–Denny Stadium
Bryant–Denny Stadium
at the University of Alabama
University of Alabama
in Tuscaloosa

College football is popular in Alabama, particularly the University of Alabama Crimson Tide
Alabama Crimson Tide
and Auburn University
Auburn University
Tigers, rivals in the Southeastern Conference. In the 2013 season, Alabama
Alabama
averaged over 100,000 fans per game and Auburn averaged over 80,000 fans, both numbers among the top 20 in the nation in average attendance.[221] Bryant–Denny Stadium
Bryant–Denny Stadium
is the home of the Alabama
Alabama
football team, and has a seating capacity of 101,821,[222] and is the fifth largest stadium in America.[223] Jordan-Hare Stadium is the home field of the Auburn football team and seats up to 87,451.[224] Legion Field is home for the UAB Blazers
UAB Blazers
football program and the Birmingham Bowl. It seats 71,594.[225] Ladd–Peebles Stadium
Ladd–Peebles Stadium
in Mobile is the home of the University of South Alabama
University of South Alabama
football team, and serves as the home of the NCAA Senior Bowl, Dollar General Bowl (formerly GoDaddy.com Bowl), and Alabama- Mississippi
Mississippi
All Star Classic; the stadium seats 40,646.[226] In 2009, Bryant–Denny Stadium
Bryant–Denny Stadium
and Jordan-Hare Stadium became the homes of the Alabama
Alabama
High School Athletic Association state football championship games, after previously being held at Legion Field in Birmingham.[227] Professional sports[edit] Main article: List of professional sports teams in Alabama

Regions Field
Regions Field
in Birmingham

Hank Aaron Stadium
Hank Aaron Stadium
in Mobile

Alabama
Alabama
has several professional and semi-professional sports teams, including three minor league baseball teams.

Club City Sport League Venue

Birmingham Barons Birmingham Baseball Southern League (AA) Regions Field

Huntsville Havoc Huntsville Ice hockey Southern Professional Hockey League Von Braun Center

Mobile BayBears Mobile Baseball Southern League (AA) Hank Aaron Stadium

Montgomery Biscuits Montgomery Baseball Southern League (AA) Montgomery Riverwalk Stadium

Birmingham Hammers Birmingham Soccer National Premier Soccer League Sicard Hollow Athletic Complex

Tennessee
Tennessee
Valley Tigers Huntsville Football Independent Women's Football League Milton Frank Stadium

The Talladega Superspeedway
Talladega Superspeedway
motorsports complex hosts a series of NASCAR
NASCAR
events. It has a seating capacity of 143,000 and is the thirteenth largest stadium in the world and sixth largest stadium in America. Also, the Barber Motorsports Park
Barber Motorsports Park
has hosted IndyCar Series and Rolex Sports Car Series
Rolex Sports Car Series
races. The ATP Birmingham was a World Championship Tennis tournament held from 1973 to 1980. Alabama
Alabama
has hosted several professional golf tournaments, such as the 1984 and 1990 PGA Championship
PGA Championship
at Shoal Creek, the Barbasol Championship (PGA Tour), the Mobile LPGA Tournament of Champions, Airbus
Airbus
LPGA Classic and Yokohama Tire LPGA Classic
Yokohama Tire LPGA Classic
(LPGA Tour), and The Tradition
The Tradition
(Champions Tour). Transportation[edit]

Terminal at the Montgomery Regional Airport
Montgomery Regional Airport
in Montgomery.

Interstate 59
Interstate 59
(co-signed with Interstate 20) approaching Interstate 65 in downtown Birmingham.

Aerial view of the port of Mobile.

Main article: Transportation in Alabama Aviation[edit] Main article: Aviation in Alabama Major airports with sustained commercial operations in Alabama
Alabama
include Birmingham-Shuttlesworth International Airport
Birmingham-Shuttlesworth International Airport
(BHM), Huntsville International Airport (HSV), Dothan Regional Airport
Dothan Regional Airport
(DHN), Mobile Regional Airport (MOB), Montgomery Regional Airport
Montgomery Regional Airport
(MGM), and Muscle Shoals – Northwest Alabama Regional Airport
Northwest Alabama Regional Airport
(MSL). Rail[edit] For rail transport, Amtrak
Amtrak
schedules the Crescent, a daily passenger train, running from New York to New Orleans
New Orleans
with station stops at Anniston, Birmingham, and Tuscaloosa. Roads[edit] Alabama
Alabama
has six major interstate roads that cross the state: Interstate 65 (I-65) travels north–south roughly through the middle of the state; I-20/I-59 travel from the central west Mississippi
Mississippi
state line to Birmingham, where I-59 continues to the north-east corner of the state and I-20 continues east towards Atlanta; I-85 originates in Montgomery and travels east-northeast to the Georgia state line, providing a main thoroughfare to Atlanta; and I-10 traverses the southernmost portion of the state, traveling from west to east through Mobile. I-22 enters the state from Mississippi and connects Birmingham with Memphis, Tennessee. In addition, there are currently five auxiliary interstate routes in the state: I-165 in Mobile, I-359 in Tuscaloosa, I-459 around Birmingham, I-565 in Decatur and Huntsville, and I-759 in Gadsden. A sixth route, I-685, will be formed when I-85 is rerouted along a new southern bypass of Montgomery. A proposed northern bypass of Birmingham will be designated as I-422. Since a direct connection from I-22 to I-422 will not be possible, I-222 has been proposed, as well. Several U.S. Highways also pass through the state, such as U.S. Route 11 (US-11), US-29, US-31, US-43, US-45, US-72, US-78, US-80, US-82, US-84, US-90, US-98, US-231, US-278, US-280, US-331, US-411, and US-431. There are four toll roads in the state: Montgomery Expressway in Montgomery; Tuscaloosa Bypass in Tuscaloosa; Emerald Mountain Expressway in Wetumpka; and Beach Express in Orange Beach. Ports[edit] The Port of Mobile, Alabama's only saltwater port, is a large seaport on the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
with inland waterway access to the Midwest by way of the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway. The Port of Mobile
Port of Mobile
was ranked 12th by tons of traffic in the United States
United States
during 2009.[228] The newly expanded container terminal at the Port of Mobile
Port of Mobile
was ranked as the 25th busiest for container traffic in the nation during 2011.[229] The state's other ports are on rivers with access to the Gulf of Mexico. Water ports of Alabama, listed from north to south:

Port name Location Connected to

Port of Florence Florence/Muscle Shoals, on Pickwick Lake Tennessee
Tennessee
River

Port of Decatur Decatur, on Wheeler Lake Tennessee
Tennessee
River

Port of Guntersville Guntersville, on Lake Guntersville Tennessee
Tennessee
River

Port of Birmingham Birmingham, on Black Warrior River Tenn-Tom Waterway

Port of Tuscaloosa Tuscaloosa, on Black Warrior River Tenn-Tom Waterway

Port of Montgomery Montgomery, on Woodruff Lake Alabama
Alabama
River

Port of Mobile Mobile, on Mobile Bay Gulf of Mexico

See also[edit]

Alabama
Alabama
portal

Outline of Alabama
Outline of Alabama
– organized list of topics about Alabama Index of Alabama-related articles

References[edit]

^ Stephens, Challen (19 October 2015). "A look at the languages spoken in Alabama
Alabama
and the drop in the Spanish speaking population". AL.com. Retrieved 21 September 2016.  ^ "State of Alabama". The Battle of Gettysburg. Retrieved July 21, 2014.  ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. June 22, 2017. Retrieved June 22, 2017.  ^ "Median Annual Household Income". The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved December 9, 2016.  ^ "Cheehahaw". NGS data sheet. U.S. National Geodetic Survey. Retrieved October 20, 2011.  ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey. 2001. Archived from the original on October 15, 2011. Retrieved October 21, 2011.  ^ Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988. ^ " Alabama
Alabama
Transportation Overview" (PDF). Economic Development Partnership of Alabama. Retrieved 21 January 2017.  ^ "Alabama". QuickFacts. United States
United States
Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 10, 2012. Retrieved September 22, 2012.  ^ Thomason, Michael (2001). Mobile: The New History of Alabama's First City. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama
University of Alabama
Press. pp. 2–21. ISBN 0-8173-1065-7.  ^ a b " Alabama
Alabama
Occupational Projections 2008-2018" (PDF). Alabama Department of Industrial Relations. State of Alabama. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 17, 2013. Retrieved September 22, 2012.  ^ a b c Read, William A. (1984). Indian Place Names in Alabama. University of Alabama
University of Alabama
Press. ISBN 0-8173-0231-X. OCLC 10724679.  ^ Sylestine, Cora; Hardy; Heather; and Montler, Timothy (1993). Dictionary of the Alabama
Alabama
Language. Austin: University of Texas
Texas
Press. ISBN 0-292-73077-2. OCLC 26590560. Archived from the original on October 24, 2008. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ "Alabama, n. and adj.". OED Online. March 2016. Oxford University Press. http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/248152?redirectedFrom=alabama& (accessed April 22, 2016) ^ a b c d e f g h "Alabama: The State Name". All About Alabama. Alabama
Alabama
Department of Archives and History. Archived from the original on June 28, 2007. Retrieved August 2, 2007.  ^ a b Wills, Charles A. (1995). A Historical Album of Alabama. The Millbrook Press. ISBN 1-56294-591-2. OCLC 32242468.  ^ Griffith, Lucille (1972). Alabama: A Documentary History to 1900. University of Alabama
University of Alabama
Press. ISBN 0-8173-0371-5. OCLC 17530914.  ^ and possibly Alabahmu.[citation needed] The use of state names derived from Native American languages is common in the US; an estimated 27 states have names of Native American origin. Weiss, Sonia (1999). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Baby Names. Mcmillan USA. ISBN 0-02-863367-9. OCLC 222611214.  ^ a b Rogers, William W.; Robert D. Ward; Leah R. Atkins; Wayne Flynt (1994). Alabama: the History of a Deep South State. University of Alabama
Alabama
Press. ISBN 0-8173-0712-5. OCLC 28634588.  ^ a b Swanton, John R. (1953). "The Indian Tribes of North America". Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin. 145: 153–174. hdl:2027/mdp.39015005395804. Archived from the original on August 4, 2007. Retrieved August 2, 2007.  ^ a b Swanton, John R. (1937). "Review of Read, Indian Place Names of Alabama". American Speech. 12 (12): 212–215. doi:10.2307/452431. JSTOR 452431.  ^ William A. Read (1994). "Southeastern Indian Place Names in what is now Alabama" (PDF). Indian Place Names in Alabama. Alabama
Alabama
Department of Archives and History. Retrieved October 3, 2011.  ^ Bright, William (2004). Native American placenames of the United States. University of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Press. pp. 29–559. ISBN 0-8061-3576-X.  ^ "Alabama". The New York Times
New York Times
Almanac 2004. August 11, 2006. Archived from the original on October 16, 2013. Retrieved September 23, 2006.  ^ Welch, Paul D. (1991). Moundville's Economy. University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-0512-2. OCLC 21330955.  ^ Walthall, John A. (1990). Prehistoric Indians of the Southeast-Archaeology of Alabama
Alabama
and the Middle South. University of Alabama
Alabama
Press. ISBN 0-8173-0552-1. OCLC 26656858.  ^ Townsend, Richard F. (2004). Hero, Hawk, and Open Hand. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10601-7. OCLC 56633574.  ^ edited by F. Kent Reilly III and James F. Garber ; foreword by Vincas P. Steponaitis. (2004). F. Kent Reilly and James Garber, eds. Ancient Objects and Sacred Realms. University of Texas
Texas
Press. ISBN 978-0-292-71347-5. OCLC 70335213. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ " Alabama
Alabama
Indian Tribes". Indian Tribal Records. AccessGenealogy.com. 2006. Archived from the original on October 12, 2006. Retrieved September 23, 2006.  ^ " Alabama
Alabama
State History". theUS50.com. Archived from the original on August 25, 2006. Retrieved September 23, 2006.  ^ a b " Alabama
Alabama
History Timeline". Alabama
Alabama
Department of Archives and History. Retrieved July 27, 2013.  ^ a b Thomason, Michael (2001). Mobile: The New History of Alabama's First City. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama
University of Alabama
Press. p. 61. ISBN 0-8173-1065-7.  ^ " Alabama
Alabama
Historical Association Marker Program: Washington County". Archives.state.al.us. Archived from the original on August 22, 2011. Retrieved June 1, 2011.  ^ Clark, Thomas D.; John D. W. Guice (1989). The Old Southwest 1795–1830: Frontiers in Conflict. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. pp. 44–65, 210–257. ISBN 0-8061-2836-4.  ^ Hamilton, Peter Joseph (1910). Colonial Mobile: An Historical Study of the Alabama-Tombigbee Basin and the Old South West from the Discovery of the Spiritu Sancto in 1519 until the Demolition of Fort Charlotte in 1821. Boston: Hougthon Mifflin. pp. 241–244. OCLC 49073155.  ^ Cadle, Farris W (1991). Georgia Land Surveying History and Law. Athens, Ga.: University of Georgia Press.  ^ a b Pickett, Albert James (1851). History of Alabama
History of Alabama
and incidentally of Georgia and Mississippi, from the earliest period. Charleston: Walker and James. pp. 408–428.  ^ "The Pine Barrens Speculation and Yazoo Land Fraud". About North Georgia. Retrieved July 27, 2013.  ^ "Old St. Stephens". Encyclopedia of Alabama. Auburn University. Retrieved June 21, 2011.  ^ "Huntsville". The Encyclopedia of Alabama. Alabama
Alabama
Humanities Foundation. Retrieved January 22, 2013.  ^ "Old Cahawba, Alabama's first state capital, 1820 to 1826". Old Cahawba: A Cahawba Advisory Committee Project. Retrieved September 22, 2012.  ^ a b LeeAnna Keith (October 13, 2011). " Alabama
Alabama
Fever". Encyclopedia of Alabama. Auburn University. Retrieved September 22, 2012.  ^ " Alabama
Alabama
Fever". Alabama
Alabama
Department of Archives and History. State of Alabama. Archived from the original on January 17, 2013. Retrieved September 22, 2012.  ^ a b c d "The Black Belt". Southern Spaces Internet Journal. Emory University. April 19, 2004. Retrieved September 23, 2006.  ^ Wayne Flynt (July 9, 2008). "Alabama". Encyclopedia of Alabama. Auburn University. Retrieved September 22, 2012.  ^ "Capitals of Alabama". Alabama
Alabama
Department of Archives and History. Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved July 8, 2011.  ^ Gamble, Robert (1987). The Alabama
Alabama
Catalog: A Guide to the Early Architecture of the State. University, AL: University of Alabama Press. pp. 144, 323–324. ISBN 0-8173-0148-8.  ^ Bowsher, Alice Meriwether (2001). Alabama
Alabama
Architecture. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama
University of Alabama
Press. pp. 90–91. ISBN 0-8173-1081-9.  ^ " Alabama
Alabama
History Timeline". Alabama
Alabama
Department of Archives and History. State of Alabama. Retrieved September 22, 2012.  ^ Official Symbols and Emblems of Alabama, State Bird of Alabama, Yellowhammer. Alabama
Alabama
State Archives ^ "13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Abolition of Slavery (1865)". Historical Documents. HistoricalDocuments.com. 2005. Archived from the original on October 31, 2006. Retrieved September 23, 2006.  ^ a b c d "Reconstruction in Alabama: A Quick Summary". Alabama Moments in American History. Alabama
Alabama
Department of Archives and History. Retrieved September 22, 2012.  ^ "A Blaine Amendment Update (July 00)". Schoolreport.com. Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved June 1, 2011.  ^ a b c " Jim Crow
Jim Crow
Laws in Alabama". Emmett Till, It All Began with a Whistle. Classroomhelp. Retrieved September 22, 2012.  ^ Morgan Kousser. The Shaping of Southern Politics: Suffrage Restriction and the Establishment of the One-Party South, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1974 ^ a b c Glenn Feldman. The Disfranchisement Myth: Poor Whites and Suffrage Restriction in Alabama. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2004, p. 136. ^ a b "The Rosenwald School
Rosenwald School
Building Fund and Associated Buildings MPS" (PDF). "National Register Information System". Retrieved October 3, 2012.  ^ James Blacksher, Edward Still, Nick Quinton, Cullen Brown and Royal Dumas. Voting Rights in Alabama
Alabama
(1982–2006), Renew the VRA.org, July 2006, from discussion in Peyton McCrary, Jerome A. Gray, Edward Still, and Huey L. Perry, "Alabama" in Quiet Revolution in the South, pp. 38-52, Chandler Davidson and Bernard Grofman, eds. 1994. ^ Thomason, Michael. Mobile : The New History of Alabama's First City, pages 213–217. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama
University of Alabama
Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8173-1065-7. ^ a b "George Mason University, United States
United States
Election Project: Alabama
Alabama
Redistricting Summary. Retrieved March 10, 2008". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on October 17, 2007. Retrieved October 24, 2010.  ^ a b "Civil Rights Act of 1964". Finduslaw.com. Archived from the original on October 21, 2010. Retrieved October 24, 2010.  ^ "Voting Rights". Civil Rights: Law and History. U.S. Department of Justice. January 9, 2002. Archived from the original on February 21, 2007. Retrieved September 23, 2006.  ^ Martin, Jonathan; Blinder, Alan (December 12, 2017). " Alabama
Alabama
Senate Race Between Roy Moore and Doug Jones Ends With More Controversy".  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ "Cumulative Elections in Alabama
Elections in Alabama
(2004)"/"Proportional Voting in Alabama", FairVote Archives, accessed January 11, 2015 ^ "GCT-PH1-R. Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density (areas ranked by population): 2000". Geographic Comparison Table. U.S. Census Bureau. 2000. Retrieved September 23, 2006.  ^ a b c "The Geography of Alabama". Geography of the States. NetState.com. August 11, 2006. Archived from the original on September 17, 2006. Retrieved September 23, 2006.  ^ "Elevations and Distances in the United States". U.S. Geological Survey. April 29, 2005. Archived from the original on January 16, 2008. Retrieved November 3, 2006.  ^ "NGS Data Sheet for Cheaha Mountain". U.S. National Geodetic Survey. Retrieved June 8, 2011.  ^ Alabama
Alabama
Forest Owner's Guide to Information Resources, Introduction, Alabamaforests.org Archived April 27, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Alabama
Alabama
County (geographies ranked by total population): 2000". Geographic Comparison Table. U.S. Census Bureau. 2000. Archived from the original on October 11, 2008. Retrieved May 14, 2007.  ^ "National Park Guide". Geographic Search. Washington, D.C: National Park Service – U.S. Department of the Interior. Archived from the original on September 30, 2006. Retrieved September 23, 2006.  ^ "National Forests in Alabama". USDA Forest Service. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on October 7, 2008. Retrieved October 5, 2008.  ^ "Wetumpka". Earth Impact Database. University of New Brunswick. Retrieved August 20, 2009.  ^ "The Wetumpka
Wetumpka
Astrobleme" by John C. Hall, Alabama
Alabama
Heritage, Fall 1996, Number 42. ^ King, David T., Jr. (April 23, 2010). " Wetumpka
Wetumpka
Crater". Encyclopedia of Alabama. Retrieved December 13, 2011.  ^ "Encyclopedia of Alabama: Climate". University of Alabama. August 17, 2007.  ^ a b " Alabama
Alabama
Climate". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved October 24, 2010.  ^ Lightning
Lightning
Fatalities, Injuries and Damages in the United States, 2004–2013 Archived April 27, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.. NLSI. Retrieved April 26, 2014. ^ LIST: States with the most F5/EF5 tornadoes since 1950; Ohio
Ohio
high on list. Retrieved April 26, 2014. ^ Oliver, Mike. "April 27's record tally: 62 tornadoes in Alabama". al.com. Retrieved November 4, 2012.  ^ "Record high and low temperatures for all 50 states". Internet Accuracy Project. accuracyproject.org. Retrieved November 3, 2012.  ^ "Climatography of the United States
United States
No. 20 (1971–2000) - Huntsville Intl AP, AL" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2004. Archived from the original on July 6, 2011. Retrieved July 6, 2011.  ^ "Climatography of the United States
United States
No. 20 (1971–2000) - Birmingham Intl AP, AL" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2004. Archived from the original on July 6, 2011. Retrieved July 6, 2011.  ^ "Climatography of the United States
United States
No. 20 (1971–2000) - Montgomery Dannelly AP, AL" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2004. Archived from the original on July 6, 2011. Retrieved July 6, 2011.  ^ "Climatography of the United States
United States
No. 20 (1971–2000) - Mobile Rgnl AP, AL" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2004. Archived from the original on July 6, 2011. Retrieved July 6, 2011.  ^ a b c Mirarchi, Ralph E. (2004). Alabama
Alabama
Wildlife: Volume One. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: University of Alabama
University of Alabama
Press. pp. 1–3, 60. ISBN 978-0-81735-1304.  ^ " Alabama
Alabama
Wildlife and their Conservation Status". Outdoor Alabama. Alabama
Alabama
Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Archived from the original on October 15, 2012. Retrieved October 16, 2012.  ^ "About the Atlas". Alabama
Alabama
Plant Atlas. Alabama
Alabama
Herbarium Consortium and University of West Alabama. Retrieved October 16, 2012.  ^ "Mammals". Outdoor Alabama. Alabama
Alabama
Department of Conservation and Natural Resources.  ^ "Reptiles". Outdoor Alabama. Alabama
Alabama
Department of Conservation and Natural Resources.  ^ "Amphibians". Outdoor Alabama. Alabama
Alabama
Department of Conservation and Natural Resources.  ^ "Birds". Outdoor Alabama. Alabama
Alabama
Department of Conservation and Natural Resources.  ^ " Alabama
Alabama
Snails and Mussels". Outdoor Alabama. Alabama
Alabama
Department of Conservation and Natural Resources.  ^ "Crayfish". Outdoor Alabama. Alabama
Alabama
Department of Conservation and Natural Resources.  ^ Resident Population Data. "Resident Population Data – 2010 Census". 2010.census.gov. Archived from the original on May 19, 2011. Retrieved January 31, 2017.  ^ a b "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015". U.S. Census Bureau. December 26, 2015. Archived from the original (CSV) on December 23, 2015. Retrieved December 26, 2015.  ^ "2010 Census Interactive Population Search". 2010.census.gov. Retrieved December 29, 2014.  ^ a b "Annual Estimates of the Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original (CSV) on February 5, 2009. Retrieved December 24, 2012.  ^ "Population and Population Centers by State – 2000". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 18, 2008. Retrieved December 3, 2008.  ^ "American FactFinder". Factfinder2.census.gov. October 5, 2010. Archived from the original on May 20, 2011. Retrieved June 1, 2011.  ^ Exner, Rich (June 3, 2012). "Americans under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot". The Plain Dealer.  ^ "Data on selected ancestry groups". Google. Retrieved June 1, 2011.  ^ "1980 United States
United States
Census" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on June 4, 2011. Retrieved June 1, 2011.  ^ " Alabama
Alabama
– Selected Social Characteristics in the United States: 2006–2008". Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved October 24, 2010.  ^ "Ancestry of the Population by State: 1980 – Table 3" (PDF). Retrieved February 10, 2012.  ^ Dominic J. Pulera, Sharing the Dream: White Males in a Multicultural America. ^ Reynolds Farley, "The New Census Question about Ancestry: What Did It Tell Us?", Demography, Vol. 28, No. 3 (August 1991), pp. 414, 421. ^ Stanley Lieberson and Lawrence Santi, "The Use of Nativity Data to Estimate Ethnic Characteristics and Patterns", Social Science Research, Vol. 14, No. 1 (1985), pp. 44–6. ^ Stanley Lieberson and Mary C. Waters, "Ethnic Groups in Flux: The Changing Ethnic Responses of American Whites", Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 487, No. 79 (September 1986), pp. 82–86. ^ Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States Archived December 24, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Population of Alabama
Alabama
- Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map, Demographics, Statistics, Quick Facts - CensusViewer". censusviewer.com. Retrieved July 21, 2015.  ^ Center for New Media and Promotions(C2PO). "2010 Census Data". census.gov. Retrieved July 21, 2015. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ "American FactFinder". Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved February 10, 2012.  ^ Census 2000 Map – Top U.S. Ancestries by County ^ David Hackett Fischer, Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America, New York: Oxford University Press, 1989, pp.361–368 ^ " Alabama
Alabama
Indian Affairs Commission" Archived October 3, 2013, at the Wayback Machine., State of Alabama, accessed September 28, 2013 ^ "AIAC Bylaws". Alabama
Alabama
Indian Affairs Commission. State of Alabama. Archived from the original on September 18, 2012. Retrieved September 22, 2012.  ^ "American Indian Heritage Day", Alabama
Alabama
Indian Affairs Commission, 2000, accessed 28 September 2013 Archived October 3, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016". United States
United States
Census Bureau. Retrieved January 6, 2017.  ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016". United States
United States
Census Bureau. Retrieved December 30, 2017.  ^ 2016 US Census Bureau Estimate ^ a b " Alabama
Alabama
– Languages". city-data.com. Retrieved July 21, 2015.  ^ " Alabama
Alabama
– Languages". city-data.com. Retrieved July 21, 2015.  ^ Barry A. Kosmin; Ariela Keysar (2009). "AMERICAN RELIGIOUS IDENTIFICATION SURVEY (ARIS) 2008" (PDF). Hartford, Connecticut, USA: Trinity College. p. 20. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 7, 2009. Retrieved May 8, 2009.  ^ "Religion in America: U.S. Religious Data, Demographics and Statistics – Pew Research Center". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. May 11, 2015. Retrieved July 21, 2015.  ^ "Religious Landscape Study". May 11, 2015.  ^ "Church or synagogue attendance by state". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Archived from the original on May 13, 2012. Retrieved July 21, 2015.  ^ "State membership Report". The Association of Religion Data Archives. Retrieved November 7, 2013.  ^ "Maps & Reports". The Association of Religion Data Archives. Retrieved July 21, 2015.  ^ a b "State Membership Reports". thearda.com. 2000. Retrieved June 15, 2010.  ^ Campbell, Kirsten (March 25, 2007). " Alabama
Alabama
rates well in biblical literacy". Mobile Register. Advance Publications, Inc. p. A1.  ^ "Confidence in State and Local Institutions Survey" (PDF). Capital Survey Research Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 14, 2007. Retrieved June 2, 2007.  ^ White, David (April 1, 2007). "Poll says we feel good about state Trust in government, unlike some institutions, hasn't fallen". Birmingham News. p. 13A.  ^ a b Zietz, Robert (1994). The Gates of Heaven : Congregation Sha'arai Shomayim, the first 150 years, Mobile, Alabama, 1844-1994. Mobile, Alabama: Congregation Sha'arai Shomayim. pp. 1–7.  ^ "Synagogues in Alabama". Kosher Delight. Retrieved September 8, 2012.  ^ Kay Campbell (February 29, 2012). "Survey: U.S. Muslims grow by 30 percent since 2000". The Huntsville Times. Retrieved September 8, 2012.  ^ " Hindu
Hindu
Temples in the South East: catering to the needs of NRI and Indians in US". GaramChai. Retrieved September 22, 2012.  ^ "History of Hindu
Hindu
Mandir & Cultural Center". Hindu
Hindu
Mandir & Cultural Center. Retrieved September 22, 2012.  ^ "Dharma Centers and Organizations in Alabama". Manjushri Buddhist Community. AcuMaestro. Retrieved September 22, 2012.  ^ Frye Gaillard (December 2007). "After the Storms: Tradition and Change in Bayou La Batre". Journal of American History. Organization of American Historians. Archived from the original on December 1, 2012. Retrieved September 22, 2012.  ^ Roy Hoffman (October 22, 2011). "For Vietnamese Buddhists
Buddhists
In South Alabama, A Goddess Of Mercy Is A Powerful Figure". Press-Register. Retrieved September 22, 2012.  ^ Debbie M. Lord (August 29, 2009). "A Welcome Gateway to the Far East". Press-Register. Retrieved September 22, 2012.  ^ Katherine Sayre (May 17, 2012). " Buddhist
Buddhist
Monk Killed Temple Leader During Argument Over Food, Prosecutor Says". Press-Register. Retrieved September 22, 2012.  ^ "Bahais of the Shoals". shoalsbahais.com. Retrieved July 21, 2015.  ^ "County Level Estimates of Obesity – State Maps". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2008. Archived from the original on March 31, 2014.  ^ "Highest Rates of Leisure-Time Physical Inactivity in Appalachia and South". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2008.  ^ " Alabama
Alabama
- Percentage of Adults(aged 18 years or older) with Diagnosed Diabetes, 1994 - 2010". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2010. Archived from the original on October 18, 2011.  ^ "CDC national chart on diabetes". Apps.nccd.cdc.gov. Archived from the original on October 15, 2011. Retrieved June 1, 2011.  ^ Ijaz, Ahmad; Addy, Samuel N. (July 6, 2009). "Food Production in Alabama". The Encyclopedia of Alabama. Auburn University. Retrieved September 22, 2012.  ^ "GDP by State (2008)". Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Economic Accounts. June 2, 2009. Retrieved October 9, 2009.  full release with tables ^ " United States
United States
Census Bureau". State and County Quick Facts. Archived from the original on February 26, 2012. Retrieved February 25, 2012.  ^ "Local Area Unemployment Statistics – Alabama". Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved June 15, 2013.  ^ "Bureau of Labor Statistics Data". United States
United States
Department of Labor. Retrieved July 6, 2015.  ^ Kasperkevic, Jana (February 26, 2016). " Alabama
Alabama
passes law banning cities and towns from increasing minimum wage" – via The Guardian.  ^ Aneesa McMillan. "Top of the List: Alabama's largest employers" (April 22, 2011). Birmingham Business Journal. ^ "Alabama's Largest Employers". Birmingham Business Journal. American Registry. April 2011. Retrieved September 19, 2012.  ^ " Alabama
Alabama
and CBER: 75 Years of Change" (PDF). Alabama
Alabama
Business. Center for Business and Economic Research, Culverhouse College of Commerce, The University of Alabama. 2005. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 27, 2006. Retrieved September 23, 2006.  ^ "State Highlights for 2004–2005" (PDF). Alabama
Alabama
Cooperative Extension System. USDA, NASS, Alabama
Alabama
Statistical Office. 2005. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 21, 2006. Retrieved September 23, 2006.  ^ "Vehicle Technologies Program: Fact #539: October 6, 2008, Light Vehicle Production by State". .eere.energy.gov. October 6, 2008. Archived from the original on October 6, 2008. Retrieved October 24, 2010.  ^ McCreless, Patrick (October 31, 2012). "Automakers account for about a third of the state's industrial expansion". The Anniston Star. Archived from the original on October 22, 2013. Retrieved June 15, 2013.  ^ Kent, Dawn (April 2, 2013). "U.S. auto sales see gains in March, as Alabama-made models rise 4 percent". AL.com. Retrieved June 15, 2013.  ^ "ThyssenKrupp's Alabama
Alabama
incentive package tops $811 million". Press-Register. May 11, 2007. Archived from the original on July 26, 2011. Retrieved July 22, 2011.  ^ "New owners of ThyssenKrupp
ThyssenKrupp
stainless steel division plan visit in June". Press-Register. May 31, 2012. Retrieved June 15, 2013.  ^ "Report: ThyssenKrupp
ThyssenKrupp
gets final bids for Steel Americas plants". AL.com. March 1, 2013. Retrieved June 15, 2013.  ^ "Alabama: Ende 2014 bei voller Kapazität - stahl-online.de". stahl-online.de. Retrieved July 21, 2015.  ^ "Hunt Refining Company." Linkedin. ^ "Company Overview." JVC
JVC
America, Inc. ^ Melissa Nelson-Gabriel (July 2, 2012). " Airbus
Airbus
to Build 1st US Assembly Plant in Alabama". Associated Press. Retrieved July 2, 2012.  ^ " Airbus
Airbus
confirms its first US factory to build A320 jet". BBC News. July 2, 2012. Retrieved July 2, 2012.  ^ Nicola Clark. "EADS to Build United States
United States
Assembly Line for Airbus A320". The New York Times. Retrieved July 2, 2012.  ^ " Airbus
Airbus
Appoints Program Manager for its Mobile Assembly Line". Airbus. Retrieved February 7, 2013.  ^ Encyclopedia of Alabama. Alabama
Alabama
Tourism Department (ATD) ^ Fahrenthold, David A. (May 2, 2010). "Obama to survey environmental damage in gulf". Washington, DC: Washington Pose. p. A6.  ^ "Planning Your Alabama
Alabama
Visit". alabama.travel.com. Sweet Home Alabama. Retrieved 16 September 2016.  ^ "Verified Trauma Centers". American College of Surgeons, Verified Trauma Centers. December 30, 2010. Retrieved January 9, 2011.  ^ "College Research Data". University of Texas. Archived from the original on April 4, 2012. Retrieved April 18, 2012.  ^ "UAB – Human Resources – Home". uab.edu. Retrieved July 21, 2015.  ^ Tim Lockette, Is the Alabama Constitution the longest constitution in the world?Truth Rating: 4 out of 5, Anniston Star. ^ Campbell Robertson, Alabama
Alabama
Simmers Before Vote on Its Constitution's Racist Language, New York Times, October 10, 2012. ^ Roig-Franzia, Manuel (November 28, 2004). " Alabama
Alabama
Vote Opens Old Racial Wounds". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on December 10, 2012. Retrieved September 22, 2006.  ^ " Constitution of Alabama – 1901". The Alabama
Alabama
Legislative Information System. Archived from the original on September 23, 2006. Retrieved September 22, 2006.  ^ " Alabama
Alabama
Citizens for Constitutional Reform". Constitutionalreform.org. Archived from the original on September 15, 2010. Retrieved October 24, 2010.  ^ Lee, McDowell (2009). "Alabama's Legislative Process". State of Alabama. Archived from the original on January 2, 2011.  ^ a b Judicial Selection in the States: Alabama
Alabama
Archived October 6, 2014, at the Wayback Machine., American Judicature Society. ^ SARA RIMER, "Questions of Death Row Justice For Poor People in Alabama". New York Times, 1 March 2000. Accessed 11 March 2017. ^ a b Rebecca Buckwalter-Poza (2014-07-27). "With Judges Overriding Death Penalty Cases, Alabama
Alabama
Is An Outlier". NPR.org. Retrieved 2016-07-21.  ^ "Supreme Court Reverses Another Alabama
Alabama
Death Penalty Case". EJI. 2016-06-21. Retrieved 2016-08-03.  ^ " Alabama
Alabama
Gov. Kay Ivey
Kay Ivey
signs bill: Judges can no longer override juries in death penalty cases". AL.com. 12 April 2017. Retrieved 13 December 2017.  ^ "Comparison of State and Local Retail Sales Taxes". Archived from the original on May 20, 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-26. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) . taxadmin.org, July 2004, Retrieved December 18, 2013. ^ Sales Tax Brochure Archived December 19, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.. State of Alabama. Retrieved December 18, 2013. ^ a b c d "Reducing Alabama's Income Tax on Working-Poor Families: Two Options". Cbpp.org. April 14, 1999. Retrieved October 24, 2010.  ^ Which States Tax the Sale of Food for Home Consumption in 2009?, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, November 4, 2009. ^ " Alabama
Alabama
State Local Tax Burden Compared to U.S. Average (1970–2007)" (PDF). Tax Foundation. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 5, 2007. Retrieved May 30, 2007.  ^ a b Albert P. Brewer, "Home Rule", Encyclopedia of Alabama, 2007, accessed February 3, 2015 ^ Wet-Dry Map, Alabama
Alabama
Alcoholic Beverage Control Board. ^ Rawls, Phillip (June 1, 2007). " Alabama
Alabama
offers an apology for slavery". The Virginian Pilot. Landmark Communications.  ^ "Elections Data Downloads". Alabama
Alabama
Secretary of State. Retrieved December 12, 2017.  ^ "Sue Bell Cobb considering running for governor". The Birmingham News. May 2, 2009. Retrieved August 7, 2009.  ^ "Commissioners". Psc.state.al.us. Archived from the original on July 18, 2009. Retrieved August 7, 2009.  ^ Special
Special
(November 5, 2008). "Lucy Baxley wins Alabama
Alabama
Public Service Commission presidency, but recount possible". Birmingham News via al.com. Archived from the original on August 2, 2009. Retrieved August 7, 2009.  ^ Jeff Amy. "Public Service Commission: Twinkle Cavanaugh, Terry Dunn join GOP sweep". al.com. Archived from the original on March 6, 2012. Retrieved June 1, 2011.  ^ "2006 Gubernatorial Democratic Primary Election Results – Alabama". Uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved August 7, 2009.  ^ "2006 Gubernatorial Republican Primary Election Results – Alabama". Uselectionatlas.org. February 15, 2007. Retrieved August 7, 2009.  ^ a b " Alabama
Alabama
Sheriffs 2015-2019". www.alabamasheriffs.com.  ^ " Alabama
Alabama
Education Quick Facts 2012-13" (PDF). Retrieved April 29, 2014.  ^ "Educational Attainment : 2000 : Census 2000 Brief" (PDF). Census.gov. Retrieved 2016-12-29.  ^ Education Statistics. CensusScope.org ^ This figure refers to only the number of students paddled, and does not refer to the number of instances of corporal punishment, which would be higher. ^ a b Farrell, Colin (February 2016). "Corporal punishment in US schools". World Corporal Punishment Research. Retrieved April 4, 2016.  ^ "Directory of Alabama
Alabama
Colleges and Universities". Alabama
Alabama
Commission on Higher Education. Archived from the original on October 11, 2013. Retrieved July 28, 2013.  ^ "The University of Alabama". www.ua.edu.  ^ "History in the making". University of North Alabama. Archived from the original on August 21, 2011. Retrieved July 22, 2011.  ^ "The Mission Statement of Spring Hill College: History". Spring Hill College. Archived from the original on August 21, 2011. Retrieved July 22, 2011.  ^ "Members". Association for Biblical Higher Education. Archived from the original on August 21, 2011. Retrieved June 24, 2011.  ^ "Membership Directory" (PDF). Council on Operational Education. November 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 5, 2011. Retrieved August 5, 2011.  ^ "ACICS Website Directory" (PDF). Accrediting Council for Independent Colleges and Schools. July 20, 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 5, 2011. Retrieved August 5, 2011.  ^ "Top Public Schools". U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original on September 18, 2011. Retrieved September 17, 2011.  ^ National University Rankings Top National Universities US News Best Colleges. U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved on July 12, 2013. ^ "Alabama". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 24, 2017.  ^ "APT – WGIQ Channel 43 Television". www.stationindex.com. Retrieved 2017-05-12.  ^ 2013 NATIONAL COLLEGE FOOTBALL ATTENDANCE, NCAA.org. Retrieved August 18, 2014. ^ "Bryant–Denny Stadium". RollTide.com. University of Alabama. Retrieved July 28, 2013.  ^ "Stadium List: 100 000+ Stadiums". World Stadiums. Retrieved February 10, 2012.  ^ "Jordan-Hare Stadium". Auburn Athletics. Auburn University. Retrieved July 28, 2013.  ^ "Legion Field". UABSports.com. University of Alabama
University of Alabama
at Birmingham. Archived from the original on May 25, 2013. Retrieved July 28, 2013.  ^ "Welcome to Ladd Peebles Stadium". Laddpeeblesstadium.com. January 23, 2012. Retrieved February 10, 2012.  ^ "Super 6 leaving Birmingham for Bryant-Denny, Jordan-Hare stadiums al.com". Blog.al.com. Retrieved February 10, 2012.  ^ "Table 1086. Top U.S. Ports by Tons of Traffic: 2009" (PDF). U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Retrieved July 22, 2013.  ^ "U.S. Waterborne Container Traffic by Port/Waterway in 2011 (Loaded and Empty TEUS)". U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Retrieved July 22, 2013. 

" Alabama
Alabama
- History and Culture." Adventure Tourism – Experiential Travel Guides. Accessed: March 31, 2017.

Further reading[edit]

For a detailed bibliography, see the History of Alabama.

Atkins, Leah Rawls, Wayne Flynt, William Warren Rogers, and David Ward. Alabama: The History of a Deep South State (1994) Flynt, Wayne. Alabama
Alabama
in the Twentieth Century (2004) Owen Thomas M. History of Alabama
History of Alabama
and Dictionary of Alabama
Alabama
Biography 4 vols. 1921. Jackson, Harvey H. Inside Alabama: A Personal History of My State (2004) Mohl, Raymond A. "Latinization in the Heart of Dixie: Hispanics in Late-twentieth-century Alabama" Alabama Review
Alabama Review
2002 55(4): 243–274. ISSN 0002-4341 Peirce, Neal R. The Deep South States of America: People, Politics, and Power in the Seven Deep South States (1974). Information on politics and economics 1960–72. Williams, Benjamin Buford. A Literary History of Alabama: The Nineteenth Century 1979. WPA. Guide to Alabama
Alabama
(1939)

External links[edit]

Find more aboutAlabamaat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

Official website Alabama
Alabama
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Alabama
Alabama
State Guide, from the Library of Congress All About Alabama, at the Alabama
Alabama
Department of Archives and History Code of Alabama
Alabama
1975 – at the Alabama
Alabama
Legislature
Legislature
site USGS real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of Alabama Alabama
Alabama
QuickFacts from the U.S. Census Bureau Alabama
Alabama
State Fact Sheet from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Geographic data related to Alabama
Alabama
at OpenStreetMap

Preceded by Illinois List of U.S. states
List of U.S. states
by date of admission to the Union Admitted on December 14, 1819 (22nd) Succeeded by Maine

Topics related to Alabama The Yellowhammer State, The Heart of Dixie, The Cotton
Cotton
State

v t e

 State of Alabama

Montgomery (capital)

Topics

Index Aviation Climate Delegations Geography Geology Government

Governors

History

National Register of Historic Places

Media

Newspapers Radio TV

People Sports Symbols Transportation

Seal of Alabama

Society

Crime Culture Demographics Economy Education Elections Politics

Regions

North Alabama Central Alabama South Alabama Birmingham District Black Belt Canebrake Cumberland Plateau Eastern Shore Gulf Coastal Plain Piedmont Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians Tennessee
Tennessee
Valley Wiregrass

Flora
Flora
and fauna

Amphibians Gardens Mammals Reptiles Trees

Largest cities

Birmingham Montgomery Mobile Huntsville Tuscaloosa Hoover Dothan Auburn Decatur Madison

Metros

Birmingham–Hoover Huntsville Mobile Montgomery Tuscaloosa Daphne-Fairhope-Foley Decatur Auburn-Opelika Dothan Florence-Muscle Shoals Anniston-Oxford-Jacksonville Gadsden

Counties

Autauga Baldwin Barbour Bibb Blount Bullock Butler Calhoun Chambers Cherokee Chilton Choctaw Clarke Clay Cleburne Coffee Colbert Conecuh Coosa Covington Crenshaw Cullman Dale Dallas DeKalb Elmore Escambia Etowah Fayette Franklin Geneva Greene Hale Henry Houston Jackson Jefferson Lamar Lauderdale Lawrence Lee Limestone Lowndes Macon Madison Marengo Marion Marshall Mobile Monroe Montgomery Morgan Perry Pickens Pike Randolph Russell Shelby St. Clair Sumter Talladega Tallapoosa Tuscaloosa Walker Washington Wilcox Winston

v t e

Mayors of cities with populations exceeding 100,000 in Alabama

Randall Woodfin (D) (Birmingham) Todd Strange (R) (Montgomery) Sandy Stimpson (R) (Mobile) Tommy Battle
Tommy Battle
(R) (Huntsville)

v t e

Protected areas of Alabama

Federal

National Parks and Historic Sites

Horseshoe Bend Tuskegee Airmen Tuskegee Institute

National Monuments

Birmingham Civil Rights Freedom Riders Russell Cave

National Forests

Conecuh Talladega Tuskegee William B. Bankhead

National Wildlife Refuges

Bon Secour Cahaba River Choctaw Eufaula Fern Cave Key Cave Mountain Longleaf Sauta Cave Watercress Darter Wheeler

Wilderness areas

Cheaha Wilderness Dugger Mountain Wilderness Sipsey Wilderness

Other protected areas

Little River Canyon National Preserve Natchez Trace Trail Pinhoti National Recreation Trail Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail Weeks Bay Reserve

State

State Parks

Bladon Springs Blue Springs Buck's Pocket Cathedral Caverns Chattahoochee Cheaha Chewacla Chickasaw DeSoto Florala Frank Jackson Gulf Joe Wheeler Lake Guntersville Lake Lurleen Lakepoint Meaher Monte Sano Oak Mountain Paul M. Grist Rickwood Caverns Roland Cooper Wind Creek

State Forests

Choccolocco Hauss Geneva Little River Macon Weogufka

Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources
Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources
(web)

v t e

Southern United States

Topics

Culture Cuisine Geography Economy Government and Politics History Sports

States

Alabama Arkansas Florida Georgia Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Virginia

Major cities

Atlanta Birmingham Charleston Charlotte Columbia Dallas Fort Worth Greensboro Houston Jacksonville Little Rock Memphis Miami Nashville New Orleans Norfolk Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City Orlando Raleigh Richmond Tampa Tulsa

State capitals

Atlanta Austin Baton Rouge Charleston Columbia Jackson Little Rock Montgomery Nashville Raleigh Richmond Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City Tallahassee

v t e

New Spain
New Spain
(1521–1821)

Conflicts

Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire
Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire
Spanish conquest of Guatemala
Spanish conquest of Guatemala
Spanish conquest of Yucatán
Spanish conquest of Yucatán
Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604)
Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604)
Anglo-Spanish War (1625–30)
Anglo-Spanish War (1625–30)
Dutch Revolt
Dutch Revolt
Anglo-Spanish War (1654–60)
Anglo-Spanish War (1654–60)
Piracy in the Caribbean
Piracy in the Caribbean
Queen Anne's War
Queen Anne's War
War of Jenkins' Ear
War of Jenkins' Ear
Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War
→ Spanish involvement in the American Revolutionary War

Conflicts with indigenous peoples during colonial rule

Mixtón War
Mixtón War
Yaqui Wars
Yaqui Wars
Chichimeca War
Chichimeca War
Philippine revolts against Spain
Philippine revolts against Spain
Acaxee Rebellion
Acaxee Rebellion
Spanish–Moro conflict
Spanish–Moro conflict
Acoma Massacre
Acoma Massacre
Tepehuán Revolt
Tepehuán Revolt
→ Tzeltal Rebellion → Pueblo Revolt
Pueblo Revolt
Pima Revolt
Pima Revolt
→ Spanish American wars of independence

Government and administration

Central government

Habsburg Spain

Charles I Joanna of Castile Philip II Philp III Philip IV Charles II

Bourbon Spain

Philip V (also reigned after Louis I) Louis I Ferdinand VI Charles III Charles IV Ferdinand VII of Spain
Ferdinand VII of Spain
(also reigned after Joseph I)

Viceroys of New Spain

List of viceroys of New Spain

Audiencias

Guadalajara Captaincy General of Guatemala Manila Mexico Santo Domingo

Captancies General

Cuba Guatemala Philippines Puerto Rico Santo Domingo Yucatán Provincias Internas

Intendancy

Havana New Orleans State of Mexico Chiapas Comayagua Nicaragua Camagüey Santiago de Cuba Guanajuato Valladolid Guadalajara Zacatecas San Luis Potosí Veracruz Puebla Oaxaca Durango Sonora Mérida, Yucatán

Politics

Viceroy Gobernaciones Adelantado Captain general Corregidor (position) Cabildo Encomienda

Treaties

Treaty of Tordesillas Treaty of Zaragoza Peace of Westphalia Treaty of Ryswick Treaty of Utrecht Congress of Breda Treaty of Fontainebleau (1762) Treaty of Paris (1783) Treaty of Córdoba Adams–Onís Treaty

Notable cities, provinces, & territories

Cities

Mexico City Veracruz Xalapa Puebla Toluca Cuernavaca Oaxaca Morelia Acapulco Campeche Mérida Guadalajara Durango Monterrey León Guanajuato Zacatecas Pachuca Querétaro Saltillo San Luis Potosí Los Ángeles Yerba Buena (San Francisco) San José San Diego Santa Fe Albuquerque El Paso Los Adaes San Antonio Tucson Pensacola St. Augustine Havana Santo Domingo San Juan Antigua Guatemala Cebu Manila

Provinces & territories

La Florida Las Californias Santa Fe de Nuevo México Alta California Baja California Tejas Nueva Galicia Nueva Vizcaya Nueva Extremadura New Kingdom of León Cebu Bulacan Pampanga

Other areas

Spanish Formosa

Explorers, adventurers & conquistadors

Pre-New Spain explorers

Christopher Columbus Ferdinand Magellan Juan Sebastián Elcano Vasco Núñez de Balboa Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar

Explorers & conquistadors

Hernán Cortés Juan Ponce de León Nuño de Guzmán Bernal Díaz del Castillo Pedro de Alvarado Pánfilo de Narváez Hernando de Soto Francisco Vásquez de Coronado Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo Miguel López de Legazpi Ángel de Villafañe Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Luis de Carabajal y Cueva Juan de Oñate Juan José Pérez Hernández Gaspar de Portolà Manuel Quimper Cristóbal de Oñate Andrés de Urdaneta Ruy López de Villalobos Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (Yucatán conquistador) Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (founder of Nicaragua) Gil González Dávila Francisco de Ulloa Juan José Pérez Hernández Dionisio Alcalá Galiano Bruno de Heceta Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra Alonso de León Ignacio de Arteaga y Bazán José de Bustamante y Guerra José María Narváez Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa Antonio Gil Y'Barbo Alexander von Humboldt Thomas Gage

Catholic
Catholic
Church in New Spain

Spanish missions in the Americas

Spanish missions in Arizona Spanish missions in Baja California Spanish missions in California Spanish missions in the Carolinas Spanish missions in Florida Spanish missions in Georgia Spanish missions in Louisiana Spanish missions in Mexico Spanish missions in New Mexico Spanish missions in the Sonoran Desert Spanish missions in Texas Spanish missions in Virginia Spanish missions in Trinidad

Friars, fathers, priests, & bishops

Pedro de Gante Gerónimo de Aguilar Toribio de Benavente Motolinia Bernardino de Sahagún Juan de Zumárraga Alonso de Montúfar Vasco de Quiroga Bartolomé de las Casas Alonso de Molina Diego Durán Diego de Landa Gerónimo de Mendieta Juan de Torquemada Juan de Palafox y Mendoza Carlos de Sigüenza y Góngora Eusebio Kino Francisco Javier Clavijero Junípero Serra Francisco Palóu Fermín Lasuén Esteban Tápis José Francisco de Paula Señan Mariano Payeras Sebastián Montero Marcos de Niza Francisco de Ayeta Antonio Margil Francisco Marroquín Manuel Abad y Queipo Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla José María Morelos

Other events

Suppression of the Jesuits California
California
mission clash of cultures Cargo system Indian Reductions

Society and culture

Indigenous peoples

Mesoamerican

Aztec Maya Huastec Mixtec P'urhépecha Totonac Pipil Kowoj K'iche' Kaqchikel Zapotec Poqomam Mam

Caribbean

Arawak Ciboney Guanajatabey

California

Mission Indians Cahuilla Chumash Cupeño Juaneño Kumeyaay Luiseño Miwok Mohave Ohlone Serrano Tongva

Southwestern

Apache Coahuiltecan Cocopa Comanche Hopi Hualapai La Junta Navajo Pima Puebloan Quechan Solano Yaqui Zuni

North-Northwest Mexico

Acaxee Chichimeca Cochimi Kiliwa Ópata Tepehuán

Florida
Florida
& other Southeastern tribes

Indigenous people during De Soto's travels Apalachee Calusa Creek Jororo Pensacola Seminole Timucua Yustaga

Filipino people

Negrito Igorot Mangyan Peoples of Palawan Ati Panay Lumad Bajau Tagalog Cebuano

Others

Taiwanese aborigines Chamorro people

Architecture

Spanish Colonial style by country Colonial Baroque style Forts Missions

Trade & economy

Real Columbian Exchange Manila galleon Triangular trade

People & classes

Casta

Peninsulars

Criollo Indios Mestizo Castizo Coyotes Pardos Zambo Negros

People

Juan Bautista de Anza Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo Francis Drake Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla Eusebio Kino La Malinche Fermín Lasuén Limahong Moctezuma II Junípero Serra Hasekura Tsunenaga

New Spain
New Spain
Portal

v t e

  New France
New France
(1534–1763)

Subdivisions

Acadia
Acadia
(1604–1713) Canada (1608–1763) Pays d'en Haut Domaine du roy Louisiana
Louisiana
(1682–1762, 1802–1803) Illinois
Illinois
Country Ohio
Ohio
Country Newfoundland (1662–1713) Île Royale (1713–1763)

Towns

Acadia
Acadia
(Port Royal) Canada

Quebec Trois-Rivières Montreal Détroit

Île Royale

Louisbourg

Louisiana

Mobile Biloxi New Orleans

Newfoundland

Plaisance

List of towns

Forts

Fort Rouillé Fort Michilimackinac Fort de Buade Fort de Chartres Fort Detroit Fort Carillon Fort Condé Fort Duquesne Fortress of Louisbourg Castle Hill Fort St. Louis (Illinois) Fort St. Louis (Texas) List of Forts

Government

Canada

Governor General Intendant Sovereign Council Bishop of Quebec Governor of Trois-Rivières Governor of Montreal

Acadia

Governor Lieutenant-General

Newfoundland

Governor Lieutenant-General

Louisiana

Governor Intendant Superior Council

Île Royale

Governor Intendant Superior Council

Law

Intendancy Superior Council Admiralty court Provostship Officiality Seigneurial court Bailiff Maréchaussée Code Noir

Economy

Seigneurial system Fur trade Company of 100 Associates Crozat's Company Mississippi
Mississippi
Company Compagnie de l'Occident Chemin du Roy Coureur des bois Voyageurs

Society

Population

1666 census

Habitants King's Daughters Casquette girls Métis Amerindians Slavery Plaçage Gens de couleur libres

Religion

Jesuit missions Récollets Grey Nuns Ursulines Sulpicians

War and peace

Military of New France Intercolonial Wars French and Iroquois Wars Great Upheaval Great Peace of Montreal Schenectady massacre Deerfield massacre

Related

French colonization of the Americas French colonial empire History of Quebec History of the Acadians History of the French-Americans French West Indies Carib Expulsion Atlantic slave trade

Category Portal Commons

v t e

Political divisions of the Confederate States (1861–65)

States

Alabama Arkansas Florida Georgia Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia

West Virginia1

States in exile

Kentucky Missouri

Territory

Arizona2

1 Admitted to the Union June 20, 1863. 2 Organized January 18, 1862.

v t e

Political divisions of the United States

States

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

Federal district

Washington, D.C.

Insular areas

American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico U.S. Virgin Islands

Outlying islands

Baker Island Howland Island Jarvis Island Johnston Atoll Kingman Reef Midway Atoll Navassa Island Palmyra Atoll Wake Island

Indian reservations

List of Indian reservations

Coordinates: 32°42′N 86°42′W / 32.7°N 86.7°W / 32.7; -86.7

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 131885589 LCCN: n79027034 ISNI: 0000 0004 0405 8517 GND: 4084839-5 SELIBR: 139062 SUDOC: 176550216 BNF: cb12065837f (data) NLA: 36524757 NDL: 0079

.

Time at 25407608.266667, Busy percent: 30
***************** NOT Too Busy at 25407608.266667 3../logs/periodic-service_log.txt
1440 = task['interval'];
25408741.35 = task['next-exec'];
25407301.35 = task['last-exec'];
daily-work.php = task['exec'];
25407608.266667 Time.

10080 = task['interval'];
25415941.3 = task['next-exec'];
25405861.3 = task['last-exec'];
weekly-work.php = task['exec'];
25407608.266667 Time.

1440 = task['interval'];
25408741.833333 = task['next-exec'];
25407301.833333 = task['last-exec'];
PeriodicStats.php = task['exec'];
25407608.266667 Time.

1440 = task['interval'];
25408741.85 = task['next-exec'];
25407301.85 = task['last-exec'];
PeriodicBuild.php = task['exec'];
25407608.266667 Time.

1440 = task['interval'];
25408741.9 = task['next-exec'];
25407301.9 = task['last-exec'];
cleanup.php = task['exec'];
25407608.266667 Time.

1440 = task['interval'];
25408741.916667 = task['next-exec'];
25407301.916667 = task['last-exec'];
build-sitemap-xml.php = task['exec'];
25407608.266667 Time.