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Agra
Agra
(/ˈɑːɡrə/ ( listen); Urdu: آگرہ‬‎ Āgrā) is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna
Yamuna
in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India.[4] It is 378 kilometres (235 mi) west of the state capital, Lucknow, 206 kilometres (128 mi) south of the national capital New Delhi, 58 kilometres (31 mi) south of Mathura
Mathura
and 125 kilometres (78 mi) north of Gwalior. Agra
Agra
is one of the most populous cities in Uttar Pradesh, and the 24th most populous in India.[5] Agra
Agra
is a major tourist destination because of its many Mughal-era buildings, most notably the Tāj Mahal, Agra Fort
Agra Fort
and Fatehpūr Sikrī, all of which are UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites.[4] Agra
Agra
is included on the Golden Triangle tourist circuit, along with Delhi
Delhi
and Jaipur; and the Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Heritage Arc, tourist circuit of UP state, along Lucknow
Lucknow
and Varanasi. Agra
Agra
falls within the Braj
Braj
cultural region. The city was first mentioned in the epic Mahābhārata, where it was called Agrevaṇa (derived from Sanskrit (अग्रेवण) meaning "the border of the forest").[6] However, the 11th century Persian poet Mas'ūd Sa'd Salmān writes of a desperate assault on the fortress of Agra, then held by the Shāhī King Jayapala, by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni.[7] It was mentioned for the first time in 1080 AD when a Ghaznavide force captured it. Sultan Sikandar Lodī (1488–1517) was the first to move his capital from Delhi
Delhi
to Agra
Agra
in 1506. He governed the country from here and Agra assumed the importance of the second capital. He died in 1517 and his son, Ibrāhīm Lodī, remained in power there for nine more years and several palaces, wells and a mosque were built by him in the fort during his period, finally being defeated at the Battle of Panipat
Panipat
in 1526.[8] Between 1540 and 1556, Afghans, beginning with Sher Shah Suri ruled the area. It was the capital of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
from 1556 to 1658.

Contents

1 Climate 2 Population

2.1 Demographics 2.2 Religion

3 History

3.1 Origins 3.2 Mughal era 3.3 Later periods 3.4 Legacies

4 Administration and politics

4.1 Administration

4.1.1 General administration 4.1.2 Police administration 4.1.3 Infrastructure and civic administration

4.2 Politics

5 Transport

5.1 Air 5.2 Rail

5.2.1 Railway stations 5.2.2 Agra- Delhi
Delhi
Semi-High Speed Train — Gatimaan Express

5.3 Road 5.4 Local transport 5.5 City Low Floor Buses 5.6 e-Rickshaw and Ola Cabs 5.7 Agra
Agra
Metro Rail Transport

6 Monumental Mughal legacy

6.1 Tāj Mahal 6.2 Agra
Agra
Fort 6.3 Fatehpur Sikri 6.4 I'timād-Ud-Daulah 6.5 Akbar's Tomb, Sikandra 6.6 Jamā Masjid 6.7 Chīnī kā Rauza 6.8 Rām Bāgh 6.9 Mariam's Tomb 6.10 Mehtāb Bāgh 6.11 Keetham Lake 6.12 Mughal Heritage Walk

7 Other places of interest

7.1 Mankameshwar Temple 7.2 Indrabhan Girls' Inter College 7.3 Gurudwara
Gurudwara
Guru ka Taal 7.4 The Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception 7.5 Paliwal Park
Paliwal Park
(Hewitt Park) 7.6 Chaat Gali Sadar Bazar

8 Economy

8.1 Property 8.2 Future projects 8.3 Completed Projects In 2017

9 Development 10 Education

10.1 Universities and colleges

11 Media

11.1 Radio stations

12 Fairs and festivals

12.1 Taj Mahotsav 12.2 Ram Barat 12.3 Taj Literature Festival 12.4 Kailash Fair 12.5 Gangaur Fair 12.6 Taj Municipal Museum in Paliwal Park
Paliwal Park
Agra 12.7 Balloon Festival

13 Notable individuals 14 See also 15 References 16 Further reading 17 External links

Climate[edit] Main article: Climate of Agra Agra
Agra
features a semiarid climate that borders on a humid subtropical climate. The city features mild winters, hot and dry summers and a monsoon season. However the monsoons, though substantial in Agra, are not quite as heavy as the monsoon in other parts of India. This is a primary factor in Agra
Agra
featuring a semiarid climate as opposed to a humid subtropical climate.

Climate data for Agra, India

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 33.0 (91.4) 35.6 (96.1) 42.8 (109) 46.5 (115.7) 48.6 (119.5) 48.5 (119.3) 46.5 (115.7) 43.0 (109.4) 41.4 (106.5) 41.1 (106) 36.1 (97) 31.0 (87.8) 48.6 (119.5)

Average high °C (°F) 22.3 (72.1) 25.2 (77.4) 32.0 (89.6) 38.5 (101.3) 41.6 (106.9) 40.7 (105.3) 35.2 (95.4) 33.7 (92.7) 34.4 (93.9) 34.3 (93.7) 29.7 (85.5) 24.0 (75.2) 32.6 (90.7)

Daily mean °C (°F) 15.1 (59.2) 17.8 (64) 24.0 (75.2) 30.5 (86.9) 34.0 (93.2) 34.6 (94.3) 31.1 (88) 29.6 (85.3) 29.4 (84.9) 27.0 (80.6) 21.7 (71.1) 16.6 (61.9) 26.0 (78.8)

Average low °C (°F) 8.0 (46.4) 10.4 (50.7) 15.9 (60.6) 22.3 (72.1) 26.4 (79.5) 28.5 (83.3) 26.8 (80.2) 25.8 (78.4) 24.4 (75.9) 19.9 (67.8) 13.7 (56.7) 9.1 (48.4) 19.3 (66.7)

Record low °C (°F) −2.2 (28) −1.7 (28.9) 5.6 (42.1) 10.0 (50) 14.0 (57.2) 12.0 (53.6) 14.5 (58.1) 12.0 (53.6) 13.0 (55.4) 9.4 (48.9) 2.8 (37) −0.6 (30.9) −2.2 (28)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 13.2 (0.52) 17.6 (0.693) 9.3 (0.366) 6.3 (0.248) 11.3 (0.445) 55.7 (2.193) 203.3 (8.004) 243.2 (9.575) 129.7 (5.106) 24.8 (0.976) 4.3 (0.169) 6.1 (0.24) 724.8 (28.535)

Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.1 2.0 4.7 13.6 13.7 6.5 1.5 0.6 0.8 49.2

Average relative humidity (%) 64 55 45 35 34 46 72 77 67 54 56 64 56

Source #1: NOAA (1971–1990),[9] World Meteorological Organization (precipitation 1901–2000)[10]

Source #2: India
India
Meteorological Department (records)[11]

Population[edit] Demographics[edit] See also: List of cities in Uttar Pradesh As of 2011[update] India
India
census,[1][12] Agra
Agra
city has a population of 1,585,704, while the population of Agra
Agra
cantonment is 53,053. The urban agglomeration of Agra
Agra
has a population of 1,760,285.[12] Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Agra
Agra
city has an average literacy rate of 75.11%, above the national average of 74%.[12] Literacy rate of males is considerably higher than that of women. The sex ratio in the city was 875 females per thousand males while child sex ratio stood at 857.[12] Agra district
Agra district
literacy rate is 62.56%.[13] According to the 2011 census, Agra district
Agra district
has a population of 4,380,793,[14] roughly equal to the nation of Moldova[15] or the US state of Kentucky.[16] This gives it a ranking of 41st in India
India
(out of a total of 640).[14] The district has a population density of 1,084 inhabitants per square kilometre (2,810/sq mi) .[14] 52.5% of Agra's population is in the 15–59 years age category. Around 11% of the population is under 6 years of age.

Religions in Agra[12]

Religion

Percent

Hindus

80.68%

Muslims

15.37%

Not Stated

1.66%

Jains

1.04%

Sikh

0.62%

Christian

0.42%

Buddhist

0.19%

Others

0.02%

Distribution of religions

Religion[edit] Hindus are 80.68% while Muslims are 15.37% of the population in Agra district.[17] Hinduism, Islam
Islam
and Jainism
Jainism
are the major religions in Agra
Agra
city with 80.68%, 15.37% viz. 1.04% of the population adhering to them; others are 1.5%. The Catholic minority is served by its own Metropolitan Archdiocese of Agra. History[edit] Origins[edit] It is generally accepted that Agra
Agra
was both an ancient city from the times of the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
(see above) and yet nevertheless Sultan Sikandar Lodī, the Muslim ruler of the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate, founded Agra in the year 1504. After the Sultan's death, the city passed on to his son, Sultan Ibrāhīm Lodī. He ruled his Sultanate from Agra
Agra
until he fell fighting to Mughal Badshah
Badshah
Bābar in the First battle of Panipat fought in 1526. Mughal era[edit]

The Red fort, Agra, c. 1820

The golden age of the city began with the Mughals. It was known then as Akbarabād and remained the capital of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
under the Badshahs Akbar, Jahāngīr and Shāh Jahān. Akbar
Akbar
made it the eponymous seat of one of his original twelve subahs (imperial top-level provinces), bordering (Old) Delhi, Awadh (Oudh), Allahabad, Malwa and Ajmer
Ajmer
subahs. Shāh Jahān later shifted his capital to Shāhjahānabād in the year 1649. Since Akbarabād was one of the most important cities in India
India
under the Mughals, it witnessed a lot of building activity. Babar, the founder of the Mughal dynasty, laid out the first formal Persian garden on the banks of river Yamuna. The garden is called the Arām Bāgh or the Garden of Relaxation. His grandson Akbar
Akbar
the Great raised the towering ramparts of the Great Red Fort, besides making Agra
Agra
a centre for learning, arts, commerce and religion. Akbar
Akbar
also built a new city on the outskirts of Akbarabād called Fatehpūr Sikrī. This city was built in the form of a Mughal military camp in stone.

Kos Minar#793 at 12 mile on Agra- Fatehpur Sikri
Fatehpur Sikri
Road section of National Highway 21

His son Jahāngīr had a love of flora and fauna and laid many gardens inside the Red Fort or Lāl Qil'a. Shāh Jahān, known for his keen interest in architecture, gave Akbarabād its most prized monument, the Tāj Mahal. Built in loving memory of his wife Mumtāz Mahal, the mausoleum was completed in 1653. Shāh Jahān later shifted the capital to Delhi
Delhi
during his reign, but his son Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
moved the capital back to Akbarabād, usurping his father and imprisoning him in the Fort there. Akbarabād remained the capital of India
India
during the rule of Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
until he shifted it to Aurangabad in the Deccan in 1653. Later periods[edit] After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the city came under the influence of Marathas
Marathas
and was called Agra, before falling into the hands of the British Raj
British Raj
in 1803.

Agra, Main Street, c.1858

Map of the city, ca 1914

In 1835 when the Presidency of Agra was established by the British, the city became the seat of government, and just two years later it was witness to the Agra
Agra
famine of 1837–38. During the Indian rebellion of 1857 British rule across India
India
was threatened, news of the rebellion had reached Agra
Agra
on 11 May and on 30 May two companies of native infantry, the 44th and 67th regiments, rebelled and marched to Delhi. The next morning native Indian troops in Agra
Agra
were forced to disarm, on 15 June Gwalior
Gwalior
(which lies south of Agra) rebelled. By 3 July, the British were forced to withdraw into the fort. Two days later a small British force at Sucheta were defeated and forced to withdraw, this led to a mob sacking the city. However, the rebels moved onto Delhi
Delhi
which allowed the British to restore order by 8 July. Delhi
Delhi
fell to the British in September, the following month rebels who had fled Delhi
Delhi
along with rebels from Central India
India
marched on Agra but were defeated. After this British rule was again secured over the city until the independence of India
India
in 1947.[18] Legacies[edit] Agra
Agra
is the birthplace of the religion known as Dīn-i Ilāhī, which flourished during the reign of Akbar
Akbar
and also of the Radhaswami Faith, which has around two million followers worldwide. Agra
Agra
has historic linkages with Shauripur of Jainism
Jainism
and Runukta of Hinduism, of 1000 BC. The Tāj Mahal, Agra Fort
Agra Fort
and Fatehpur Sikri
Fatehpur Sikri
are all UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites. Administration and politics[edit] Administration[edit] General administration[edit] Agra division
Agra division
which consists of four districts, and is headed by the Divisional Commissioner
Divisional Commissioner
of Agra, who is an IAS officer, the Commissioner is the head of local government institutions (including Municipal Corporations) in the division, is in charge of infrastructure development in his division, and is also responsible for and is also responsible for maintaining law and order in the division.[19][20][21][22][23] The District Magistrate
District Magistrate
of Agra
Agra
reports to the Divisional Commissioner. The current Commissioner is K. Ram Mohan Rao.[24][25][26] Agra district
Agra district
administration is headed by the District Magistrate
District Magistrate
of Agra, who is an IAS officer. The DM is in charge of property records and revenue collection for the central government and oversees the elections held in the city. The DM is also responsible for maintaining law and order in the city, hence the SSP of Agra
Agra
also reports to the DM of Agra.[19][27][28][29][30] The DM is assisted by a Chief Development Officer (CDO), six Additional District Magistrates (ADM) (Finance/Revenue, City, Administration, Land Acquisition, Civil Supply, Protocol), one City Magistrate (CM) and three Additional City Magistrates (ACM).[26] The district has six tehsils viz. Sadar, Etmadapur, Kirawali, Fatehabad, Khairagarh and Bah, each headed by a Sub-Divisional Magistrate.[26] The current DM is Gaurav Dayal .[24][25][26] Police administration[edit] Agra district
Agra district
comes under the Agra
Agra
Police Zone and Agra
Agra
Police Range, Agra
Agra
Zone is headed by an Additional Director General ranked IPS officer, and the Agra
Agra
Range is headed Inspector General ranked IPS officer. The current ADG, Agra
Agra
Zone is Ajay Anand,[31] and IG, Agra Range is Mutha Ashok Jain.[32] The district police is headed by a Senior Superintendent of Police (SSP), who is an IPS officer, and is assisted by six Superintendents of Police (SP)/Additional Superintendents of Police (Addl. SP) (City, East, West, Crime, Traffic, and Protocol), who are either IPS officers or PPS officers.[33] Each of the several police circles is headed by a Circle Officer (CO) in the rank of Deputy Superintendent of Police.[33] The current SSP is Amit Pathak .[33] Infrastructure and civic administration[edit] The development of infrastructure in the city is overseen by Agra Development Authority (ADA), which comes under the Housing Department of Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
government. The Divisional Commissioner
Divisional Commissioner
of Agra
Agra
acts as the ex-officio Chairman of ADA, whereas a Vice Chairman, a government-appointed IAS officer, looks after the daily matters of the authority.[34] The current Vice-Chairman of Agra
Agra
Development Authority is Anil Dhingra .[35][36] The Agra
Agra
Municipal Corporation
Municipal Corporation
oversees the city's civic infrastructure under the Agra
Agra
Metropolitan Region. The head of the corporation is the Mayor, but the executive and administration of the corporation is the responsibility of the Municipal Commissioner, who is a Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
government-appointed Provincial Civil Service (PCS) officer of high seniority. The current Mayor of Agra
Agra
is Naveen Jain from BJP, whereas the Municipal Commissioner is Arun Prakash.[37][38] Politics[edit] Agra district
Agra district
has two Loksabha viz. Agra
Agra
and Fatehpur-Sikri, and nine Vidhansabha constituencies in it. The current Member of Parliament from Agra
Agra
is Ram Shankar, and the current Member of Parliament from Fatehpur-Sikri is Babulal Chaudhary. Transport[edit] Air[edit] Air India
India
flies to Agra airport
Agra airport
on the following route: Delhi
Delhi
Varanasi
Varanasi
Agra
Agra
– Khajuraho – Varanasi
Varanasi
– Delhi Rail[edit] Main article: Railways in Agra

Agra Cantt
Agra Cantt
Railway Station

Agra
Agra
City Comes Under the Jurisdiction Of Agra
Agra
Division Of North Central Railways Zone Of the Indian Railways . Agra
Agra
is on the Central Train line between Delhi
Delhi
(Station Code: NDLS) and Bombay (Station Code: CSTM) and between Delhi
Delhi
and Madras
Madras
(Station Code: MAS) and many trains like Bhopal
Bhopal
Shatabdi, Taj Express, Gatiman Express, Bhopal Express, Malwa Express, Gondwana Express, Jabalpur
Jabalpur
- Jammutawi Express, Shreedham Express, Garib Rath, Tamil Nadu Express, Chennai Rajdhani, Agra
Agra
Mathura
Mathura
Express etc. connect Agra
Agra
with all major Indian cities like New Delhi, Hyderabad, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Visakhapatnam, Bengaluru, Pune, Bhopal, Indore, Kochi, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Ujjain, Jaipur, Aligarh, Mathura, Alwar, Lucknow, Thiruvananthapuram
Thiruvananthapuram
etc. every day. Some east-bound trains from Delhi also travel via Agra, so direct connections to points in Eastern India (including Calcutta are also available. There are close to 20 trains to New Delhi
Delhi
and Gwalior
Gwalior
Junction every day, and at least three or four to Bhopal, Indore, Nagpur, Bombay and Madras. There are three main railway stations in Agra. Railway stations[edit] Railway Stations served by the Agra
Agra
Division, North Central Railways network at Agra
Agra
are:

Agra
Agra
Cantonment Railway Station, Agra Agra Fort
Agra Fort
Railway Station, Agra Agra
Agra
City Railway Station, Agra Raja Ki Mandi Railway Station, Agra Idgah Railway Station, Agra Yamuna
Yamuna
Bridge Railway Station, Agra Billochpura Railway Station, Agra Fatehpur Sikri
Fatehpur Sikri
Railway Station, Agra Etmadpur
Etmadpur
Railway Station, Agra Keetham Railway Station,Agra Bhandai Junction Railway Station, Agra Shamshabad Railway Station, District Agra

Agra
Agra
Cantt. Railway Station

Agra- Delhi
Delhi
Semi-High Speed Train — Gatimaan Express[edit] In July 2014, a trial run of a "semi-high speed train" with 10 coaches and 2 generators reached a speed of 160 km/h (99 mph) between New Delhi
Delhi
and Agra. The railways plan to introduce such trains commercially from November 2014. New Delhi
Delhi
Agra
Agra
Shatabdi Express is the same type of train, which takes 2 hours to complete its journey. A new semi-high speed train Gatimaan Express that reduces travel time between Delhi
Delhi
and Agra
Agra
to 100 minutes has been started from 5 April 2016. Road[edit]

Inner Ring Road, Agra

Idgah Bus Stand, Taj Depot, Fort Depot and Inter State Bus Terminal (I.S.B.T.) are the major bus stands in Agra, connecting Agra
Agra
to most of the bigger cities in North India. It is a major junction of highways with 3 national highways and 2 expressway ( Yamuna
Yamuna
Expressway & Agra
Agra
Lucknow
Lucknow
Expressway) originating from Agra. Another national highway passes through the city bringing the total highway outlet to 7.

From Delhi: NH 19 (old number: NH 2), a modern divided highway, connects the 200 km (124 mi) distance from Delhi
Delhi
to Agra. The drive is about 4 hours. The primary access to the highway is along Mathura
Mathura
Road in Delhi
Delhi
but, if coming from South Delhi
Delhi
or Delhi Airport, it is easier to take Aurobindo Marg (Mehrauli Road) and then work up to NH2 via Tughlakabad. From Delhi
Delhi
/ Noida: Yamuna
Yamuna
Expressway, a modern access controlled highway connects the 200 km (124 mi) distance from Delhi
Delhi
to Agra. The drive is about 2 hours. This highway has junction to Aligarh and Mathura
Mathura
via state highways. Yamuna
Yamuna
Expressway (formerly Taj Expressway) is a 6-lane (extendable to 8 lanes), 165 km (103 mi) long, controlled-access expressway, that connects New Delhi
Delhi
with Agra
Agra
via Greater Noida
Noida
and Mathura
Mathura
in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. NH 509 (old number: NH 93) is a National Highway that connects Agra
Agra
to Moradabad
Moradabad
via Aligarh Agra
Agra
Lucknow
Lucknow
Expressway is a 6 - lane (extendable to 8 lanes), 302 km (188 mi) long, controlled-access expressway, that connects Lucknow
Lucknow
with Agra
Agra
via Kannauj
Kannauj
and Etawah
Etawah
in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Agra
Agra
Mumbai
Mumbai
Highway: It connects Agra
Agra
to Mumbai
Mumbai
Via Gwalior, Jhansi With Four Lane Road Agra
Agra
Inner Ring Road: It Connects Kuberpur to Fatehabad road near Ramada plaza, It also connects Yamuna
Yamuna
expressway & Agra
Agra
Lucknow Expressway New By-pass Road Agra

This Road helps Delhi
Delhi
And Gwalior
Gwalior
Drivers to Skip Agra. This is Toll Road with Four Lanes. Local transport[edit] City Low Floor Buses[edit] Bus services are run by the Agra
Agra
Municipal Corporation. Other para-transit modes include rickshaws and autorickshaws. Polluting vehicles are not allowed near the Tāj Mahal. e-Rickshaw and Ola Cabs[edit] Electric Rickshaws have been increasing in the city. Ola Cabs also operates its services in the city round the clock which can be availed using Ola App. Agra
Agra
Metro Rail Transport[edit] Rail India
India
Technical and Economic Service (RITES) has proposed 30 stations, 11 underground and 19 elevated, for two corridors of the Metro Rail in the city. The two routes are Sikandra to Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
East gate via Agra Fort
Agra Fort
and Agra Cantt
Agra Cantt
to Kalindi Vihar. On 24 March 2017, State Chief Minister Aditya Nath Yogi approved the project. In December 2017, Cabinet Of UP Government Approved the DPR as per New Metro Policy . Work Expected to Commence in March 2018 . Monumental Mughal legacy[edit]

Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
from Agra
Agra
fort.

Tāj Mahal[edit] Main article: Taj Mahal The Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
is one of the most famous buildings in the world, the mausoleum of Shah Jahan's favourite wife, Mumtaz Mahal. It is one of the New Seven Wonders
New Seven Wonders
of the world, and one of the three World Heritage Sites in Agra. Agra
Agra
is commonly identified as the "City of Taj".[39]

Tombs of Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
and his beloved wife, Mumtaz Mahal.

Completed in 1653, the Tāj Mahal
Tāj Mahal
was built by the Mughal king Shah Jahan as the final resting place for his beloved wife, Mumtāz Mahal. Finished in marble, it is perhaps India's most beautiful monument and is set amidst landscaped gardens. Built by the Persian architect, Ustād 'Īsā, the Tāj Mahal
Tāj Mahal
is on the south bank of the Yamuna River. It can be observed from Agra Fort
Agra Fort
from where Emperor Shāh Jahān gazed at it for the last eight years of his life, a prisoner of his son Aurangzeb. Verses of the Quran
Quran
are inscribed on it and at the top of the gate are twenty-two small domes, signifying the number of years the monument took to build. The Tāj Mahal
Tāj Mahal
was built on a marble platform that stands above a sandstone one. The most elegant dome of the Tāj Mahal
Tāj Mahal
has a diameter of 60 feet (18 m), and rises to a height of 80 feet (24 m); directly under this dome is the tomb of Mumtāz Mahal. Shah Jahān's tomb was erected next to hers by his son Aurangzeb. The interiors are decorated with fine inlay work, incorporating semi-precious stones.

A panoramic view of Taj Mahal, Agra

Agra
Agra
Fort[edit] Main article: Agra
Agra
Fort

Amar Singh Gate, one of two entrances into Agra's Red Fort

Agra Fort
Agra Fort
(sometimes called the Red Fort), was commissioned by the conquering Mughal Emperor Akbar
Akbar
the Great in 1565, and is another of Agra's World Heritage Sites. A stone tablet at the gate of the Fort states that it had been built before 1000 but was later renovated by Akbar. The red sandstone fort was converted into a palace during Shāh Jahān's time, and reworked extensively with marble and pietra dura inlay. Notable buildings in the fort include the Pearl Mosque or Motī Masjid, the Dīwān-e-'Ām and Dīwān-e-Khās (halls of public and private audience), Jahāngīr's Palace, Khās Mahal, Shīsh Mahal (mirrored palace), and the Musamman Burj.[citation needed] The forbidding exteriors of this fort conceal an inner paradise. The fort is crescent shaped, flattened on the east with a long, nearly straight wall facing the river. It has a total perimeter of 2.4 kilometres (1.5 mi), and is ringed by double castellated ramparts of red sandstone punctuated at regular intervals by bastions. A moat 9 metres (30 ft) wide and 10 metres (33 ft) deep surrounds the outer wall. Chhatrapati
Chhatrapati
Shīvajī visited the Agra
Agra
Fort, as a result of the conditions of the Treaty of Purandar entered into with Mirzā Rājā Jaisingh to meet Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
in the Dīwān-i-Khās ( Special
Special
Audience Chamber). In the audience he was deliberately placed behind men of lower rank. An insulted Shīvajī stormed out of the imperial audience and was confined to Jai Sing's quarters on 12 May 1666. Fearing the dungeons and execution he escaped on 17 August 1666. The fort is a typical example of Mughal architecture, effectively showing how the North Indian style of fort construction differed from that of the South. In the South, the majority of forts were built on the seabed like the one at Bekal
Bekal
in Kerala.[40] Fatehpur Sikri[edit] Main article: Fatehpur Sikri

Dīwān-i-Khās – Hall of Private Audience

The Mughal Emperor Akbar
Akbar
built Fatehpūr Sikrī about 35 km (22 mi) from Agra, and moved his capital there. Later abandoned, the site displays a number of buildings of significant historical importance. A World Heritage Site, it is often visited by tourists. The name of the place came about after the Mughal Emperor Bābar defeated Rāṇā Sāngā in a battle at a place called Sikrī (about 40 km (25 mi) from Agra). Then the Mughal Emperor Akbar wanted to make Fatehpūr Sikrī his headquarters, so he built a majestic fort; due to shortage of water, however, he had to ultimately move his headquarters to Agra
Agra
Fort. Buland Darwāza or 'the lofty gateway' was built by the great Mughal emperor, Akbar
Akbar
in 1601 CE. at Fatehpūr Sikrī. Akbar
Akbar
built the Buland Darwāza to commemorate his victory over Gujarat. The Buland Darwāza is approached by 52 steps. The Buland Darwāza is 53.63 metres (175.95 feet) high and 35 metres (115 feet) wide. it is made of red and buff sandstone, decorated by carving and black and white marble inlays. An inscription on the central face of the Buland Darwāza demonstrates Akbar's religious broadmindedness, it is a message from Jesus advising his followers not to consider this world as their permanent home. I'timād-Ud-Daulah[edit] Main article: Itmad-Ud-Daulah's Tomb

The Itmad-Ud-Daulah's Tomb
Itmad-Ud-Daulah's Tomb
at Agra

The Empress Nūr Jahān built I'timād-Ud-Daulah's Tomb, sometimes called the "Baby Tāj", for her father, Mirzā Ghiyās Beg, the Chief Minister of the Emperor Jahāngīr. Located on the left bank of the Yamuna
Yamuna
river, the mausoleum is set in a large cruciform garden, criss-crossed by water courses and walkways. The area of the mausoleum itself is about 23 m2 (250 sq ft), and is built on a base that is about 50 m2 (540 sq ft) and about one metre (3.3 feet) high. On each corner are hexagonal towers, about thirteen metres (43 feet) tall. Small in comparison to many other Mughal-era tombs, it is sometimes described as a jewel box. Its garden layout and use of white marble, pietra dura, inlay designs and latticework presage many elements of the Tāj Mahal. The walls are white marble from Rajasthan
Rajasthan
encrusted with semi-precious stone decorations – cornelian, jasper, lapis lazuli, onyx, and topaz in images of cypress trees and wine bottles, or more elaborate decorations like cut fruit or vases containing bouquets. Light penetrates to the interior through delicate jālī screens of intricately carved white marble. Many of Nūr Jahān's relatives are interred in the mausoleum. The only asymmetrical element of the entire complex are the tombs of her father and mother, which have been set side-by-side, a formation replicated in the Taj Mahal.[clarification needed] Akbar's Tomb, Sikandra[edit] Main article: Tomb of Akbar
Akbar
the Great

Tomb of Akbar
Akbar
the Great

Sikandra, the last resting place of the Mughal Emperor Akbar
Akbar
the Great, is on the Delhi- Agra
Agra
Highway, only 13 kilometres (8.1 miles) from the Agra
Agra
Fort. Akbar's tomb reflects the completeness of his personality. The vast, beautifully carved, red-ochre sandstone tomb with deers, rabbits and langurs is set amidst a lush garden. Akbar himself planned his own tomb and selected a suitable site for it. To construct a tomb in one's lifetime was a Turkic custom which the Mughals
Mughals
followed religiously. Akbar's son Jahāngīr completed construction of this pyramidal tomb in 1613. The 99 names of Allah have been inscribed on the tomb. Jamā Masjid[edit] Main article: Jama Masjid (Agra) The Jāma Masjid is a large mosque attributed to Shah Jahan's daughter, Princess Jahanara Begum, built in 1648, notable for its unusual dome and absence of minarets. The inscription at its entrance shows that it cost Rs 5 Lakhs at that time for its completion.

Chīnī kā Rauza

Chīnī kā Rauza[edit] Main article: Chini Ka Rauza Notable for its Persian influenced dome of blue glazed tiles, the Chīnī kā Rauza is dedicated to the Prime Minister of Shāh Jahān, 'Allāma Afzal Khāl Mullā Shukrullāh of Shiraz. Rām Bāgh[edit] Main article: Ram Bagh The oldest Mughal garden
Mughal garden
in India, the Rām Bāgh was built by the Emperor Bābar in 1528 on the bank of the Yamuna. It lies about 2.34 km (1 mi) north of the Tāj Mahal. The pavilions in this garden are designed so that the wind from the Yamuna, combined with the greenery, keeps them cool even during the peak of summer. The original name of the gardens was Ārām Bāgh, or 'Garden of Relaxation', and this was where the Mughal emperor Bābar used to spend his leisure time and where he eventually died. His body was kept here for some time before sending it to Kabul. On Ram Bagh
Ram Bagh
to Tundla road near Etmadpur, there is a famed Yoga Ashram of Mahaprabhu Ramlal ji Maharaja(First Guru Gaddi), Yogeshwar Mulakhraj Ji Maharaja(Second Guru Gaddi) & Yogeshwar DeviDayal Ji Mahadev(Third GuruGaddi) blessed Swami Chandra Mohan Ji Maharaj named Shri Siddha Gufa Sawai. Thousands of devotees and seekers visit this holy place. Mariam's Tomb[edit] Main article: Mariams Tomb Mariams Tomb, is the tomb of Mariam, the wife of great Mughal Emperor Akbar. The tomb is within the compound of the Christian Missionary Society. Mehtāb Bāgh[edit] Main article: Mehtab Bagh

Plan of the Taj complex with the Mehtab Bagh
Mehtab Bagh
gardens to the left

The Mehtāb Bāgh, or 'Moonlight Garden', is on the opposite bank of the River Yamuna
Yamuna
from the Tāj Mahal. Keetham Lake[edit] Main article: Keetham Lake Also known as Sur Sarovar, Keetham Lake
Keetham Lake
is situated about 7 kilometres (4.3 miles) from the Akbar
Akbar
tomb in Agra, within the Surdas Reserved Forest. The lake has an impressive variety of aquatic life and water birds. Mughal Heritage Walk[edit] The Mughal Heritage Walk is a part of community development programme being implemented with support of Agra
Agra
Municipal corporation, USAID and an NGO; Center for Urban and Regional Excellence. It seeks to build sustainable livelihoods for youth and women from low resource communities and improve their living environments through infrastructure services and integration within the city. The Mughal Heritage Walk is a one-kilometre (0.62-mile) loop which connects the agricultural fields with the Rajasthani culture, river bank connected with the ancient village of Kuchhpura, the Heritage Structure of Mehtab Bagh, the Mughal aqueduct system, the Humanyun Mosque and the Gyarah Sidi. Other places of interest[edit] Mankameshwar Temple[edit] Main article: Mankameshwar Temple The Mankameshwar Temple
Mankameshwar Temple
is one of four ancient temples dedicated to Lord Shiva
Shiva
located on the four corners of Agra
Agra
City. It is located near the Jāma Masjid and is about 2.5 kilometres (1.6 miles) from the Tāj Mahal
Tāj Mahal
and less than 1 km (0.6 mi) from Agra
Agra
Fort. Being located in the old city, the temple is surrounded by markets, many of which date back to the Mughal Era. Indrabhan Girls' Inter College[edit] The college is widely considered to be the birthplace of great poet Mirza Ghalib. It is located near the Mankameshwar Temple
Mankameshwar Temple
and is about 3 kilometres (1.9 miles) from the Tāj Mahal
Tāj Mahal
and less than 1 km (0.6 mi) from Agra
Agra
Fort. Being located in the old city, the College is surrounded by markets. Approximately four or five years ago, the birth room of Mirza Ghalib
Mirza Ghalib
was hidden behind the wall by the Management of the college to keep the identity of the place secret.[citation needed] Gurudwara
Gurudwara
Guru ka Taal[edit] Main article: Guru ka Tal Guru ka Tal
Guru ka Tal
was originally a reservoir meant to collect and conserve rainwater built in Agra, near Sikandra, during Jahangir's reign next to the Tomb of I'tibār Khān Khwājasara in 1610. In the 1970s a gurudwara was erected here. Guru ka Tal
Guru ka Tal
is a holy place of worship for the Sikhs. Four of the ten Sikh Gurus are said to have paid it a visit. Enjoying both historical and religious importance, this shrine attracts a large number of devotees and tourists. Boasting elaborate stone carvings and eight of the twelve original towers. It is located by national (Delhi-Agra) highway-2. The Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception[edit] The Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Agra. Paliwal Park
Paliwal Park
(Hewitt Park)[edit] Paliwal Park, during the British Raj
British Raj
was known as Hewitt Park, is now renamed in memory of Shri Krishna Datta Paliwal, who was the first finance minister of Uttar Pradesh, when Shri Govind Ballabh Pant was the Chief Minister of the State. Paliwal Park
Paliwal Park
is located in the heart of Agra, spread over an area of around 70 acres (280,000 m2). It also has a small lake and a vast variety of trees. Paliwal Park
Paliwal Park
links the residential areas of Vijay Nagar Colony & Gandhi Nagar to the financial Hub of the city i.e. Sanjay Place. John's Public Library, also known as the Agra
Agra
Municipal Library, is also located here and one can find rare books on diverse topics here. Many people come here for morning walk, as a result this place is full especially during the summer holidays when youngsters play all sort of different games. Chaat Gali Sadar Bazar[edit] This are is for good quality street food Lovers, Sadar Bazar is a Fashion and Electronic Hub of Agra
Agra
after Sanjay Palace. People's spends 1 to 1:30 hours here. Economy[edit]

A shopping mall situated on the Fatehabad Road

A marble table top in Pietra Dura, a craft practised since the Mughal era in Agra

The Sadar Bazar market

An Agra
Agra
craftsman working with marble stone inlays. The marble is coloured red to give contrast while working.

Malls In Agra

TDI Mall Ashok Cosmos Mall SRK Mall Nand Talkies Sadar Bazar Due to the presence of the Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
and other historic monuments, Agra
Agra
has a booming tourism industry as well as royal crafts like Pietra Dura, marble inlay and carpets. Today 40% of the population depends largely on agriculture, and others on the leather and footwear business and iron foundries. Agra
Agra
is the second most self-employed in India
India
in 2007, behind Varanasi, followed by Bhopal, Indore
Indore
and Patna. According to the National Sample Survey Organization, in 1999–2000, 431 of every 1,000 employed males were self-employed in the city, which grew to 603 per 1,000 in 2004–05.[41] Tourism contributes to the economy of Agra. Agra
Agra
is home to Asia’s largest spa called Kaya Kalp – The Royal Spa, at the Hotel Mughal in Agra.[42] Agra
Agra
has many industries. Uttar Pradesh's first plant biotech company Harihar Biotech is located near the Taj. There are about 7,000 small scale industrial units. Agra
Agra
city is also known for its leather goods, the oldest and famous leather firm Taj Leather World is in Sadar bazar. The carpets, handicrafts, zari and zardozi (embroidery work), marble and stone carving and inlay work. Agra
Agra
is known for its sweets (Petha and Gajak) and snacks (Dalmoth), garment manufacturers and exporters and an automobile industry. Carpet making was introduced to the city by Moghul Emperor Babur
Babur
and since then this art has flourished. The city centre place at Agra
Agra
has jewellery and garments shops. The silver and gold jewellery hub is at Choube Ji Ka Fatak. The Shah Market area is an electronics market while Sanjay Place
Sanjay Place
is the trade centre of Agra. Property[edit] Property is one of the growing sectors of the Agra's economy. There are several malls such as Big Bazzar, TDI Mall, Pacific Mall, Ratan Mall, Omaxe SRK Mall, Ashoka Mall (Sanjay Place). Agra
Agra
is also known as World of Cold storage.there are more than 250 cold storage. One of the biggest coldstorage in Uttar pradesh is of famous businessman and royal Sengar's family named 'THE HERITAGE COLD STORAGE PVT LTD' having 10 chambers with a storage capicity of 1.5 CR packets and also having other large scaled business in agra and overseas. Owner named Mr Jaiveer singh (Ex minister of UP Govt)/ Mr Avdhesh kumar/ Mr Manoj kumar. It's selling communication is within India
India
Mumbai/Kolkata/Bangalore/kerala and outside India Malaysia/Singapore/Greece/Dubai/Germany/Thailand etc. Future projects[edit]

Agra
Agra
International Airport Agra
Agra
Metro Rail [1] Radio Taxi High Court Bench [2] IT Park, Agra

Completed Projects In 2017[edit]

Agra
Agra
Lucknow
Lucknow
Expressway Night Markets in Agra Inner Ring Road Agra New By-Pass Road TajGanj Project

Development[edit] Agra
Agra
ranked fifth on both the financial penetration index, which measures things like the presence of ATMs and bank branches, and on the consumption index, indicating the city’s transformation into an urban town. There are many new buildings, shopping complexes, malls, roads, flyovers and apartments coming up. On the India
India
City Competitiveness Index, the city ranked 26th in 2010,[43] 32nd in 2011[44] and 37th in 2012[45] Education[edit] It was during the advent of the Mughal era
Mughal era
that Agra
Agra
grew as a centre of Islamic education. British people introduced the western concept of education in Agra. In the year 1823, Agra
Agra
College, one of the oldest colleges in India
India
was formed out of a Sanskrit school established by the Scindia rulers. In the British era, Agra
Agra
became a great centre of Hindi literature
Hindi literature
with people like Babu Gulab Rai at the helm. Universities and colleges[edit] Agra
Agra
University was established on 1 July 1927 and catered to colleges spread across the United Provinces, the Rajputana, the Central Provinces and almost to entire North India, at present 10 institutes comprising various departments and around 700 Colleges are affiliated to this university. The historic Agra
Agra
University was later rechristened as Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar University by the then Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, Ms. Mayawati.

Sachdeva Institute of Technology, Also known as SIT, Mathura
Mathura
since 2001.

The Institute of Mental Health and Hospital, formerly known as Agra Lunatic Asylum, was established in September 1859 governed by the State of Uttar Pradesh. It is spread over on extensive and beautiful ground of 172.8 acres (69.9 ha) land and is well known centre for the treatment, training and research on mental disorders in Northern India. The institute was renamed as Mental Hospital, Agra
Agra
in 1925. It was being managed under the provisions of Indian Lunacy Act, 1912 till 1993. Presently all admissions and discharges are being done under the provisions of Mental Health Act, 1987. Following a public writ, the Supreme Court of India
India
in the year 1994, renamed the Institution as Agra
Agra
Mansik Arogyashala, made it an autonomous institution and outlined the objectives to improve treatment and care of mentally ill persons including rehabilitation as well as to develop activities for professional teaching, training and research. In compliance of the order of the Supreme Court, the UP government declared the hospital as an autonomous institution on 31 January 1995. In view of the objectives laid down by the court, it was renamed as Institute of Mental Health and Hospital on 8 February 2001. Central Institute of Hindi, (also known as Kendriya Hindi
Hindi
Sansthan) is an autonomous institute under Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India
India
engaged in teaching Hindi
Hindi
as a foreign and second language. Apart from running residential Hindi language
Hindi language
courses for foreign students, the institute also conducts regular training programmes for teachers of Hindi
Hindi
belonging to non- Hindi
Hindi
states of India. The institute is situated at a 11 acres (4.5 ha) campus on the outskirts of Agra
Agra
city. Headquartered in Agra
Agra
the institute has eight regional centres in Delhi, Hyderabad, Mysore, Shillong, Dimapur, Guwahati, Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
and Bhubneshwar. The institute is the only government run institution in India
India
established solely for research and teaching of Hindi
Hindi
as a foreign and second language. Sarojini Naidu Medical College, is one of the three oldest medical colleges of India. It is located in Agra, Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
state. It is named after the first lady Governess of Uttar Pradesh, poet and freedom fighter, Bharat Kokila Smt. Sarojini Naidu. Agra
Agra
College, is one of the oldest institutions in India. Pandit Gangadhar Shastri, a noted Sanskrit scholar founded the college in 1823. Till 1883 the institute was a government college and after that a Board of Trustees and a Committee of Management managed the college. Agra College produced the first graduate in Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
and the first Law graduate to Northern India. St. John's College, Agra, is a college established in 1850, now part of the Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar University, earlier known as Agra University. It is amongst the oldest and one of the most beautiful Christian colleges in India. The college runs a study centre of Indira Gandhi National Open University (ignou), a central university. Raja Balwant Singh College, Established in 1885 owes its existence to Raja Balwant Singh Ji of Awagarh who enabled the institution to grow as one of the oldest and biggest colleges of Uttar Pradesh. Raja Balwant Singh College is located at Bichpuri, Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India. The college is affiliated to Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Technical University, Lucknow, and Dr. B.R. Ambedkar University, Agra. Dayalbagh
Dayalbagh
Educational Institute, Radhasoami
Radhasoami
Satsang Sabha, started the Radhasoami
Radhasoami
Educational Institute, as a co-educational Middle School, open to all, on 1 January 1917. It became a Degree College in 1947, affiliated to Agra
Agra
University. In 1975, it formulated a programme of undergraduate studies which received approbation from the Government of Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
and the University Grants Commission, as a result of which in 1981 the Ministry of Education, Government of India, conferred the status of an institution deemed to be a University on the Dayalbagh
Dayalbagh
Educational Institute, to implement the new scheme. UEI Global, consecutively ranked among the top management institutes of India
India
by Competition Success Review for year 2013 and 2012. The college has 12 campuses across India
India
and provide programs in Hotel Management and Business Management.

Central Government Schools :

Kendriya Vidyalaya No.1, Air Force Station, Agra Kendriya Vidyalaya No.2 Agra
Agra
Cantt Kendriya Vidyalaya No.3 Agra
Agra
Cantt

Media[edit] Agra
Agra
is home to the Dainik Jagran
Dainik Jagran
newspaper. which is the most read Hindi
Hindi
newspaper in India. Other newspapers that are widely read include Amar Ujala, Aaj, Hindustan,The Sea Express, Deepsheel Bharat, DLA. The English dailies published are The Times of India, Hindustan Times, Economic Times, The Pioneer, etc. The Urdy dailies published are Prabhanjan Sanket, Inksaaf etc. There is also the Hindi
Hindi
and English mixed newspaper tabloid I-NEXT. Morphers Animation Studios LLP is an animation studio in Agra, which caters 3d visualisation services to clients. State-owned All India Radio has a local station in Agra
Agra
which transmits various programs of mass interest. There are four private FM radio stations, 92.7 BIG FM (Reliance Broadcast Network Limited), 93.7 Fever FM, 94.5 Tadka FM and Radio City 91.9 FM.[46] There is a community Radio Station 90.4 FM. Radio stations[edit]

90.4 MHz – Agra
Agra
ki Awaaz 90.8 MHz – Aap ki Awaaz 93.7MHz – Fever FM 91.9 MHz – Radio City 92.7 MHz – Big 92.7 FM 105.6 MHz – IGNOU Gyan Vani 94.5 Tadka FM

Fairs and festivals[edit] Taj Mahotsav[edit]

Taj Mahotsav
Taj Mahotsav
is a cultural festival that was started in year 1992 and has grown since then. The year 2017 is the 26th year of this Mahotsav. This festival also figures in the calendar of events of the Department of Tourism, Government of India. A large number of Indian and foreign tourists coming to Agra
Agra
join this festivity in the month of February(18 to 27). One of the objectives of this craft fair is to provide encouragement to the artisans. It also makes available works of art and craft at reasonable prices that are not inflated by high maintenance cost.

Ram Barat[edit] Ram Barat
Ram Barat
(Hindi: राम बारात) is a part of Ramlila celebration in Agra. It is one of the biggest annual events in North India. Ram Barat
Ram Barat
literally means Baraat Marriage procession of Sri Ram. Every year a new locality is chosen in Agra
Agra
and is elaborately decorated with lights & flowers. The area is given a major face lift befitting the venue for the divine marriage. Taj Literature Festival[edit] Taj Literature Festival saw stars of the literary world manifest themselves on the earth of Agra. The galaxy included the stalwarts, Muzaffar Ali, Shobha De, Prahlad Kakker and Raghu Rai. The stage shone brilliant and the heritage city breathed life. This festival, an attempt to rejuvenate that aesthetic spirit which is a soul of this historically rich city, Agra. The city that nurtured the likes of Ghalib, Tansen, Surdas, Nazeer and many more. Kailash Fair[edit] The Kailash Fair is held in the town of Kailash, about 12 km (7 mi) from Agra, in the month of August/September. It is a major fair celebrated in honour of Lord Shiva
Shiva
who is believed to have appeared here in the form of stone Lingam. Gangaur Fair[edit] Gokulpura / Moti Katra, Agra Taj Municipal Museum in Paliwal Park
Paliwal Park
Agra[edit] The museum-cum-public library is housed in an old heritage structure, built in 1922 and renovated in the 1940s. Queen Victori's bronze statue's are also exposed in this Museum. The other old statues and memories of the Mughal Era are exposed for the attraction of tourists, something new other than usual attraction. Balloon Festival[edit] Agra
Agra
Balloon Festival is organised in February every year. Notable individuals[edit] Abdul Karim (the Munshi), Huzur Shiv Dayal Singh[47] Sahab(Param Purush Puran Dhani Soami Ji Maharaj), Founder Of Radhasoami
Radhasoami
Faith, Hazur Rai Saligram Bahadur[48] (Param Purush Puran Dhani Huzur Maharaj), Second Revered Leader Of Radhasoami
Radhasoami
Faith, Great Poet Soordas, Acharya Pt. Shri Ram Sharma, Abul Fazal, Amrit Lal Nagar, Rangey Raghav, Dr Ramvilas Sharma, Babu Gulab Roy, Rajendra Yadav, Mirza Galib, Mir Taqi Mir, Nazir Akbarabadi Motilal Nehru, Actress Nimmi, Raj Babbar, Prof (Dr) Deoki Nandan. See also[edit]

Nand Ram Ka Tila Runakta

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Further reading[edit]

Cole, Henry Hardy (1873). Illustrations of buildings near Muttra and Agra. India
India
Office.  Agra, Archaeological Society of (1874). Transactions of the Archaeological Society of Agra, Jan–June 1874. Delhi
Delhi
Gazette Press.  Mukerji, Satya Chandra (1892). The Traveller's Guide to Agra. Sen & Co., Delhi.  Fanthome, Frederic (1895). Reminiscences of Agra. Thacker, Spink & Co.  Latif, Muḥammad (1896). Agra, Historical & Descriptive. Calcutta Central Press.  Keene, Henry George (1899). A Handbook for Visitors to Agra
Agra
and Its Neighbourhood (Sixth ed.). Thacker, Spink & Co.  Smith, Edmund W. (1901). Moghul Colour Decoration of Agra, Part I. Govt. Press, Allahabad.  Havell, Ernest Binfield (1904). A Handbook to Agra
Agra
and the Taj, Sikandra, Fatehpur-Sikri, and the Neighbourhood. Longmans, Green & Co., London.  Agranama: The authentic book about the history of Agra
Agra
by Mr. Satish Chandra Chaturvedi Vidhya Society, (2009). Vidhya Society (NGO) is a leading charitable organisation of Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
(India) established under society registration act 21-1860 on the special occasion of World Disable Year 2009. Director Mr. Pavan Upadhyay Ashirbadi Lal Srivastava, History and Culture of Agra
Agra
(Souvenir), 1956

External links[edit]

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Official website of Agra Agra
Agra
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) R. Nath Mughal Architecture Image Collection, images of Agra
Agra
– University of Washington Digital Collections

Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
portal

Links to related articles

v t e

Agra district
Agra district
topics

History

Akbar Mughal empire United Provinces of Agra
Agra
and Oudh

Cities and towns

Achhnera Agra Azizpur Bah Dayalbagh Dhanauli Etmadpur Fatehabad Fatehpur Sikri Jagner Kheragarh Kiraoli Nainana Jat Pinahat Shamsabad Swamibagh

Buildings

Agra
Agra
Fort Buland Darwaza Taj Mahal

Other districts

Aligarh Allahabad Ambedkar Nagar Amethi Amroha Auraiya Azamgarh Badaun Bagpat Bahraich Ballia Balrampur Banda Barabanki Bareilly Basti Bhimnagar Bijnor Bulandshahr Chandauli Chitrakoot Deoria Etah Etawah Faizabad Farrukhabad Fatehpur Firozabad Gautam Buddha Nagar Ghaziabad Ghazipur Gonda Gorakhpur Hamirpur Hardoi Hathras Jalaun Jaunpur Jhansi Kannauj Kanpur
Kanpur
Nagar Kanshi Ram Nagar Kaushambi Kushinagar Lakhimpur Kheri Lalitpur Lucknow Maharajganj Mahoba Mainpuri Mathura Mau Meerut Mirzapur Moradabad Muzaffarnagar Panchsheel Nagar Pilibhit Prabuddhanagar Pratapgarh Raebareli Ramabai Nagar Rampur Saharanpur Sant Kabir Nagar Sant Ravidas Nagar Shahjahanpur Shravasti Siddharthnagar Sitapur Sonbhadra Sultanpur Unnao Varanasi

v t e

State of Uttar Pradesh

Capital: Lucknow

Topics

History Geography Government Economy Culture Achitecture Tourism Demographics Education

Administration

Government Legislative Assembly Chief Ministers Governors High Court Police Seal Political Party

Regions

Western Uttar Pradesh Eastern Uttar Pradesh Central Uttar Pradesh

Divisions

Agra Aligarh Allahabad Azamgarh Bareilly Basti Chitrakoot Devipatan Faizabad Gorakhpur Jhansi Kanpur Lucknow Meerut Mirzapur Moradabad Saharanpur Varanasi

Districts

Agra Aligarh Allahabad Ambedkar Nagar Amethi Amroha Auraiya Azamgarh Badaun Bagpat Bahraich Ballia Balrampur Banda Barabanki Bareilly Basti Bijnor Bulandshahr Chandauli Chitrakoot Devaria Etah Etawah Faizabad Farrukhabad Fatehpur Firozabad Gautam Buddha Nagar Ghaziabad Ghazipur Gonda Gorakhpur Hamirpur Hardoi Hathras Jalaun Jaunpur Jhansi Kannauj Kanpur
Kanpur
Dehat (Akbarpur) Kanpur
Kanpur
Nagar Kanshiram Nagar Kaushambi Kushinagar (Padrauna) Lakhimpur Kheri Lalitpur Lucknow Maharajganj Mahoba Mainpuri Mathura Mau Meerut Mirzapur Moradabad Muzaffarnagar Pilibhit Pratapgarh Raebareli Rampur Saharanpur Sambhal Sant Kabir Nagar Sant Ravidas Nagar (Bhadohi) Shahjahanpur Shamli Shravasti Siddharthnagar Sitapur Sonbhadra Sultanpur Unnao Varanasi

Major cities

Kanpur Lucknow Ghaziabad Agra Varanasi Faizabad Meerut Allahabad Bareilly Aligarh Moradabad Saharanpur Gorakhpur Noida Jhansi Mathura

Villages

Adhkatiya Kala Khas Aharak Ahiran, Pindra Ahirani, Pindra Airla Aitha Ajaipur Akhari Akorha Amaut Amawar Amilo, Varanasi Araji Line Babhanpura Baghirua Baliakheri Bhelupura Chadpur Dabethuwa Deorai Eshipur Harora Aht. Harora Must. Janakpatti Jayapur Kathiraon Khanzadipur Kudi Lamhi Mehdiganj Phoolpur Raghunathpur Rajpur Saifai Tisaura Vyaspur Zafarabad

Portal: Uttar Pradesh

v t e

Agra division
Agra division
topics

General

Doab Braj Saman Sanctuary

Mythology, history

Mathura
Mathura
related

Krishna Krishna Janmashtami

Agra
Agra
related

Mughal Empire United Provinces of Agra
Agra
and Oudh

Places of tourist interest

In and around Agra

Taj Mahal Agra
Agra
Fort Fatehpur Sikri Buland Darwaza Tomb of Akbar
Akbar
the Great I'timād-ud-Daulah's Tomb Chini Ka Rauza Tomb of Mariam Zamani Gyarah Sidi Jama Masjid Moti Masjid Mankameshwar Temple Guru ka Tal Ram Bagh Mehtab Bagh Paliwal Park Taj Mahotsav Tourist attractions in Agra

In and around Mathura

Kesava Deo Temple Vrindavan Chandrodaya Mandir Prem Mandir Banke Bihari Temple Krishna Balaram Mandir

Districts

Agra Firozabad Mainpuri Mathura

Rivers, dams, lakes, canals

Yamuna Keetham Lake Agra
Agra
Canal

Languages, people

Braj
Braj
Bhasa Hindustani Khariboli Standard Hindi Urdu Jatav

Transport

National Highway 2 Grand Trunk Road National Highway 3 National Highway 11 National Highway 93

Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
constituencies

Firozabad Agra Fatehpur Sikri Mathura Mainpuri

See also

Agra district
Agra district
topics Cities and towns in Firozabad district Cities and towns in Mainpuri district Cities and towns in Mathura
Mathura
district Villages in Agra
Agra
district Villages in Firozabad district Villages in Mathura
Mathura
district People from Agra People from Firozabad People from Mainpuri People from Mathura

Other divisions

Aligarh Allahabad Azamgarh Bareilly Basti Chitrakoot Devipatan Faizabad Gorakhpur Jhansi Kanpur Lucknow Meerut Mirzapur Moradabad Saharanpur Varanasi

v t e

Million-plus agglomerations in India

North

Chandigarh Delhi Haryana: Faridabad Jammu and Kashmir: Srinagar Punjab: Ludhiana Amritsar Rajasthan: Jaipur Jodhpur Kota

Central

Chhattisgarh: Raipur Bhilai Madhya Pradesh: Indore Bhopal Jabalpur Gwalior Uttar Pradesh: Kanpur Lucknow Ghaziabad Agra Varanasi Meerut Allahabad

Eastern

Bihar: Patna Jharkhand: Jamshedpur Dhanbad Ranchi West Bengal: Kolkata Asansol

Western

Gujarat: Ahmedabad Surat Vadodara Rajkot Maharashtra: Mumbai Pune Nagpur Nashik Vasai-Virar Aurangabad

Southern

Andhra Pradesh: Visakhapatnam Vijayawada Karnataka: Bangalore Kerala: Kochi Kozhikode Thrissur Malappuram Thiruvananthapuram Kannur Kollam Tamil Nadu: Chennai Coimbatore Madurai Tiruchirappalli Telangana: Hyderabad

v t e

Hindustani-speaking areas of India

See also: Hindi
Hindi
Belt

Bihar

Araria Arwal Aurangabad Banka Begusarai Bhagalpur Bhojpur Buxar Darbhanga East Champaran Gaya Gopalganj Jamui Jehanabad Kaimur Katihar Khagaria Kishanganj Lakhisarai Madhepura Madhubani Munger Muzaffarpur Nalanda Nawada Patna Purnia Rohtas Saharsa Samastipur Saran Sheikhpura Sheohar Sitamarhi Siwan Supaul Vaishali West Champaran

Chhattisgarh

Bastar Bilaspur Dantewada Dhamtari Durg Janjgir-Champa Jashpur Kabirdham Kanker Korba Koriya Mahasamund Narayanpur Raigarh Raipur Rajnandgaon Surguja

Delhi

Central Delhi East Delhi New Delhi North Delhi North East Delhi North West Delhi South Delhi South West Delhi West Delhi

Haryana

Ambala Bhiwani Faridabad Fatehabad Gurgaon Hisar Jhajjar Jind Kaithal Karnal Kurukshetra Mahendragarh Mewat Panchkula Palwal Panipat Rewari Rohtak Sirsa Sonipat Yamuna
Yamuna
Nagar

Himachal Pradesh

Bilaspur Chamba Hamirpur Kangra Kinnaur Kullu Lahul and Spiti Mandi Shimla Sirmaur Solan Una

Jharkhand

Bokaro Chatra Deoghar Dhanbad Dumka East Singhbhum Garhwa Giridih Godda Gumla Hazaribagh Jamtara Khunti Koderma Latehar Lohardaga Pakur Palamu Ramgarh Ranchi Saraikela Kharsawan Simdega Singhbhum Sahebganj

Madhya Pradesh

Anuppur Ashoknagar Balaghat Barwani Betul Bhind Bhopal Burhanpur Chhatarpur Chhindwara Damoh Datia Dewas Dhar Dindori Guna Gwalior Harda Hoshangabad Indore Jabalpur Jhabua Katni Khandwa Khargone Mandla Mandsaur Morena Narsinghpur Neemuch Panna Raisen Rajgarh Ratlam Rewa Sagar Satna Sehore Seoni Shahdol Shajapur Sheopur Shivpuri Sidhi Tikamgarh Ujjain Umaria Vidisha

Rajasthan

Ajmer Alwar Banswara Baran Barmer Bhilwara Bikaner Bharatpur Bundi Chittorgarh Churu Dausa Dholpur Dungarpur Ganganagar Hanumangarh Jaipur Jaisalmer Jalore Jhalawar Jhunjhunu Jodhpur Karauli Kota Nagaur Pali Pratapgarh Rajsamand Sawai Madhopur Sikar Sirohi Tonk Udaipur

Uttar Pradesh

Agra Aligarh Allahabad Ambedkar Nagar Amethi Amroha Auraiya Azamgarh Badaun Bagpat Bahraich Balarampur Ballia Banda Barabanki Bareilly Basti Bijnor Bulandshahr Chandauli Chitrakoot Devaria Etah Etawah Faizabad Farrukhabad Fatehpur Firozabad Ghaziabad Gonda Gorakhpur Gautam Buddha Nagar Ghazipur Hamirpur Hardoi Hathras Jalaun Jaunpur Jhansi Kannauj Kanpur Kanpur
Kanpur
Dehat Kaushambi Kushinagar Khair
Khair
City Lakhimpur Kheri Lalitpur Lucknow Maharajganj Mahoba Mainpuri Mathura Mau Meerut Mirzapur Moradabad Muzaffarnagar Pilibhit Pratapgarh Raebareli Rampur Saharanpur Sant Kabir Nagar Sant Ravidas Nagar Shahjahanpur Shravasti Siddharthnagar Sitapur Sonbhadra Sultanpur Unnao Varanasi

Uttarakhand

Almora Bageshwar Chamoli Champawat Dehradun Haridwar Nainital New Tehri Pauri Pithoragarh Rudraprayag Rudrapur Uttarkashi

v t e

Tourist attractions in Agra

World Heritage Sites

Agra
Agra
Fort Fatehpur Sikri Taj Mahal

Mughal architecture

Chini Ka Rauza Gyarah Sidi Itmad-Ud-Daulah Mariam's Tomb Sikandra

Mosques

Jama Masjid Moti Masjid

Other religious places

Bateshwar Guru ka Tal Mankameshwar Temple Swamibagh

Shopping

Kinari Bazaar Loha Mandi Raja ki mandi Sadar Bazaar Sanjay Place

Gardens

Mehtab Bagh Paliwal Park Ram Bagh

Wildlife sanctuaries

Keetham Lake National Chambal Wildlife Sanctuary Patna
Patna
Bird Sanctuary

Fairs

Ram Barat Taj Mahotsav

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 153574

.