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Africa
Africa
is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (the first being Asia
Asia
in both categories). At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its total land area.[3] With 1.2 billion[1] people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the north, both the Suez Canal and the Red Sea
Red Sea
along the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
to the northeast, the Indian Ocean
Ocean
to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west. The continent includes Madagascar
Madagascar
and various archipelagos. It contains 54 fully recognised sovereign states (countries), nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition.[4] The majority of the continent and its countries are in the Northern Hemisphere, with a substantial portion and number of countries in the Southern Hemisphere. Africa's average population is the youngest amongst all the continents;[5][6] the median age in 2012 was 19.7, when the worldwide median age was 30.4.[7] Algeria
Algeria
is Africa's largest country by area, and Nigeria
Nigeria
is its largest by population. Africa, particularly central Eastern Africa, is widely accepted as the place of origin of humans and the Hominidae
Hominidae
clade (great apes), as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and their ancestors, as well as later ones that have been dated to around seven million years ago, including Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster—with the earliest Homo sapiens (modern human) found in Ethiopia
Ethiopia
being dated to circa 200,000 years ago.[8] Africa
Africa
straddles the equator and encompasses numerous climate areas; it is the only continent to stretch from the northern temperate to southern temperate zones.[9] Africa
Africa
hosts a large diversity of ethnicities, cultures and languages. In the late 19th century European countries colonised almost all of Africa; most present states in Africa
Africa
originated from a process of decolonisation in the 20th century. African nations cooperate through the establishment of the African Union, which is headquartered in Addis Ababa.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Prehistory 2.2 Early civilizations 2.3 Ninth to eighteenth centuries 2.4 Height of slave trade 2.5 Colonialism
Colonialism
and the "Scramble for Africa" 2.6 Berlin Conference 2.7 Independence struggles 2.8 Post-colonial Africa

3 Geography

3.1 Climate 3.2 Fauna 3.3 Ecology and biodiversity

4 Politics

4.1 The African Union

5 Economy 6 Demographics 7 Languages 8 Culture

8.1 Visual art and architecture 8.2 Music and dance 8.3 Sports

9 Religion 10 Territories and regions 11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

Etymology

Statue representing Africa
Africa
at Palazzo Ferreria, in Valletta, Malta

Afri
Afri
was a Latin
Latin
name used to refer to the inhabitants of Africa, which in its widest sense referred to all lands south of the Mediterranean (Ancient Libya).[10][11] This name seems to have originally referred to a native Libyan tribe; see Terence for discussion. The name is usually connected with Hebrew or Phoenician ʿafar 'dust', but a 1981 hypothesis[12] has asserted that it stems from the Berber ifri (plural ifran) "cave", in reference to cave dwellers.[13] The same word[13] may be found in the name of the Banu Ifran from Algeria
Algeria
and Tripolitania, a Berber tribe originally from Yafran
Yafran
(also known as Ifrane) in northwestern Libya.[14] Under Roman rule, Carthage
Carthage
became the capital of the province of Africa
Africa
Proconsularis, which also included the coastal part of modern Libya.[15] The Latin
Latin
suffix -ica can sometimes be used to denote a land (e.g., in Celtica from Celtae, as used by Julius Caesar). The later Muslim
Muslim
kingdom of Ifriqiya, located in modern-day Tunisia, also preserved a form of the name. According to the Romans, Africa
Africa
lay to the west of Egypt, while "Asia" was used to refer to Anatolia
Anatolia
and lands to the east. A definite line was drawn between the two continents by the geographer Ptolemy (85–165 AD), indicating Alexandria
Alexandria
along the Prime Meridian
Prime Meridian
and making the isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea
Red Sea
the boundary between Asia and Africa. As Europeans came to understand the real extent of the continent, the idea of "Africa" expanded with their knowledge. Other etymological hypotheses have been postulated for the ancient name "Africa":

The 1st-century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus
Flavius Josephus
(Ant. 1.15) asserted that it was named for Epher, grandson of Abraham
Abraham
according to Gen. 25:4, whose descendants, he claimed, had invaded Libya. Isidore of Seville
Isidore of Seville
in his 7th-century Etymologiae
Etymologiae
XIV.5.2. suggests " Africa
Africa
comes from the Latin
Latin
aprica, meaning "sunny". Massey, in 1881, stated that Africa
Africa
is derived from the Egyptian af-rui-ka, meaning "to turn toward the opening of the Ka." The Ka is the energetic double of every person and the "opening of the Ka" refers to a womb or birthplace. Africa
Africa
would be, for the Egyptians, "the birthplace."[16] Michèle Fruyt in 1976 proposed[17] linking the Latin
Latin
word with africus "south wind", which would be of Umbrian origin and mean originally "rainy wind". Robert R. Stieglitz of Rutgers University
Rutgers University
in 1984 proposed: "The name Africa, derived from the Latin
Latin
*Aphir-ic-a, is cognate to Hebrew Ophir."[18]

History Main article: History of Africa Further information: History of North Africa, History of West Africa, History of Central Africa, History of East Africa, and History of Southern Africa Prehistory Main article: Recent African origin of modern humans

Lucy, an Australopithecus afarensis
Australopithecus afarensis
skeleton discovered 24 November 1974 in the Awash Valley
Awash Valley
of Ethiopia's Afar Depression

Africa
Africa
is considered by most paleoanthropologists to be the oldest inhabited territory on Earth, with the human species originating from the continent.[19][20] During the mid-20th century, anthropologists discovered many fossils and evidence of human occupation perhaps as early as 7 million years ago (BP=before present). Fossil
Fossil
remains of several species of early apelike humans thought to have evolved into modern man, such as Australopithecus afarensis
Australopithecus afarensis
(radiometrically dated to approximately 3.9–3.0 million years BP,[21] Paranthropus boisei (c. 2.3–1.4 million years BP)[22] and Homo ergaster
Homo ergaster
(c. 1.9 million–600,000 years BP) have been discovered.[3] After the evolution of Homo sapiens
Homo sapiens
sapiens approximately 150,000 to 100,000 years BP in Africa, the continent was mainly populated by groups of hunter-gatherers.[23][24][25] These first modern humans left Africa
Africa
and populated the rest of the globe during the Out of Africa
Africa
II migration dated to approximately 50,000 years BP, exiting the continent either across Bab-el-Mandeb
Bab-el-Mandeb
over the Red Sea,[26][27] the Strait of Gibraltar
Strait of Gibraltar
in Morocco,[28] or the Isthmus of Suez in Egypt.[29] Other migrations of modern humans within the African continent have been dated to that time, with evidence of early human settlement found in Southern Africa, Southeast Africa, North Africa, and the Sahara.[30] The size of the Sahara
Sahara
has historically been extremely variable, with its area rapidly fluctuating and at times disappearing depending on global climatic conditions.[31] At the end of the Ice ages, estimated to have been around 10,500 BC, the Sahara
Sahara
had again become a green fertile valley, and its African populations returned from the interior and coastal highlands in Sub-Saharan Africa, with rock art paintings depicting a fertile Sahara
Sahara
and large populations discovered in Tassili n'Ajjer dating back perhaps 10 millennia.[32] However, the warming and drying climate meant that by 5000 BC, the Sahara
Sahara
region was becoming increasingly dry and hostile. Around 3500 BC, due to a tilt in the earth's orbit, the Sahara
Sahara
experienced a period of rapid desertification.[33] The population trekked out of the Sahara
Sahara
region towards the Nile Valley
Nile Valley
below the Second Cataract where they made permanent or semi-permanent settlements. A major climatic recession occurred, lessening the heavy and persistent rains in Central and Eastern Africa. Since this time, dry conditions have prevailed in Eastern Africa
Eastern Africa
and, increasingly during the last 200 years, in Ethiopia. The domestication of cattle in Africa
Africa
preceded agriculture and seems to have existed alongside hunter-gatherer cultures. It is speculated that by 6000 BC, cattle were domesticated in North Africa.[34] In the Sahara-Nile complex, people domesticated many animals, including the donkey and a small screw-horned goat which was common from Algeria
Algeria
to Nubia. Around 4000 BC, the Saharan climate started to become drier at an exceedingly fast pace.[35] This climate change caused lakes and rivers to shrink significantly and caused increasing desertification. This, in turn, decreased the amount of land conducive to settlements and helped to cause migrations of farming communities to the more tropical climate of West Africa.[35] By the first millennium BC, ironworking had been introduced in Northern Africa
Northern Africa
and quickly spread across the Sahara
Sahara
into the northern parts of sub-Saharan Africa,[36] and by 500 BC, metalworking began to become commonplace in West Africa. Ironworking was fully established by roughly 500 BC in many areas of East and West Africa, although other regions didn't begin ironworking until the early centuries AD. Copper
Copper
objects from Egypt, North Africa, Nubia, and Ethiopia
Ethiopia
dating from around 500 BC have been excavated in West Africa, suggesting that Trans-Saharan trade
Trans-Saharan trade
networks had been established by this date.[35] Early civilizations Main article: Ancient African history

Colossal statues of Ramesses II
Ramesses II
at Abu Simbel, Egypt, date from around 1400 BC.

At about 3300 BC, the historical record opens in Northern Africa
Northern Africa
with the rise of literacy in the Pharaonic civilization of Ancient Egypt.[37] One of the world's earliest and longest-lasting civilizations, the Egyptian state continued, with varying levels of influence over other areas, until 343 BC.[38][39] Egyptian influence reached deep into modern-day Libya
Libya
and Nubia, and, according to Martin Bernal, as far north as Crete.[40] An independent centre of civilization with trading links to Phoenicia was established by Phoenicians from Tyre on the north-west African coast at Carthage.[41][42][43] European exploration of Africa
European exploration of Africa
began with Ancient Greeks
Ancient Greeks
and Romans.[citation needed] In 332 BC, Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
was welcomed as a liberator in Persian-occupied Egypt. He founded Alexandria
Alexandria
in Egypt, which would become the prosperous capital of the Ptolemaic dynasty after his death.[44] Following the conquest of North Africa's Mediterranean coastline by the Roman Empire, the area was integrated economically and culturally into the Roman system. Roman settlement occurred in modern Tunisia
Tunisia
and elsewhere along the coast. The first Roman emperor
Roman emperor
native to North Africa
Africa
was Septimius Severus, born in Leptis Magna
Leptis Magna
in present-day Libya—his mother was Italian Roman and his father was Punic.[45] Christianity
Christianity
spread across these areas at an early date, from Judaea via Egypt
Egypt
and beyond the borders of the Roman world into Nubia;[46] by AD 340 at the latest, it had become the state religion of the Aksumite Empire. Syro-Greek missionaries, who arrived by way of the Red Sea, were responsible for this theological development.[47] In the early 7th century, the newly formed Arabian Islamic Caliphate expanded into Egypt, and then into North Africa. In a short while, the local Berber elite had been integrated into Muslim
Muslim
Arab
Arab
tribes. When the Umayyad capital Damascus fell in the 8th century, the Islamic centre of the Mediterranean shifted from Syria to Qayrawan
Qayrawan
in North Africa. Islamic North Africa
North Africa
had become diverse, and a hub for mystics, scholars, jurists, and philosophers. During the above-mentioned period, Islam
Islam
spread to sub-Saharan Africa, mainly through trade routes and migration.[48] Ninth to eighteenth centuries

African horseman of Baguirmi in full padded armour suit

The intricate 9th-century bronzes from Igbo-Ukwu, in Nigeria
Nigeria
displayed a level of technical accomplishment that was notably more advanced than European bronze casting of the same period.[49]

Pre-colonial Africa
Africa
possessed perhaps as many as 10,000 different states and polities[50] characterized by many different sorts of political organization and rule. These included small family groups of hunter-gatherers such as the San people
San people
of southern Africa; larger, more structured groups such as the family clan groupings of the Bantu-speaking peoples of central, southern, and eastern Africa; heavily structured clan groups in the Horn of Africa; the large Sahelian kingdoms; and autonomous city-states and kingdoms such as those of the Akan; Edo, Yoruba, and Igbo people
Igbo people
in West Africa; and the Swahili coastal trading towns of Southeast Africa. By the ninth century AD, a string of dynastic states, including the earliest Hausa states, stretched across the sub-Saharan savannah from the western regions to central Sudan. The most powerful of these states were Ghana, Gao, and the Kanem-Bornu Empire. Ghana
Ghana
declined in the eleventh century, but was succeeded by the Mali Empire
Mali Empire
which consolidated much of western Sudan
Sudan
in the thirteenth century. Kanem accepted Islam
Islam
in the eleventh century. In the forested regions of the West African coast, independent kingdoms grew with little influence from the Muslim
Muslim
north. The Kingdom of Nri was established around the ninth century and was one of the first. It is also one of the oldest kingdoms in present-day Nigeria and was ruled by the Eze Nri. The Nri kingdom is famous for its elaborate bronzes, found at the town of Igbo-Ukwu. The bronzes have been dated from as far back as the ninth century.[51]

Ashanti yam ceremony, nineteenth century by Thomas E. Bowdich

The Kingdom of Ife, historically the first of these Yoruba city-states or kingdoms, established government under a priestly oba ('king' or 'ruler' in the Yoruba language), called the Ooni of Ife. Ife
Ife
was noted as a major religious and cultural centre in West Africa, and for its unique naturalistic tradition of bronze sculpture. The Ife
Ife
model of government was adapted at the Oyo Empire, where its obas or kings, called the Alaafins of Oyo, once controlled a large number of other Yoruba and non-Yoruba city-states and kingdoms; the Fon Kingdom of Dahomey
Dahomey
was one of the non-Yoruba domains under Oyo control. The Almoravids were a Berber dynasty from the Sahara
Sahara
that spread over a wide area of northwestern Africa
Africa
and the Iberian peninsula during the eleventh century.[52] The Banu Hilal
Banu Hilal
and Banu Ma'qil were a collection of Arab
Arab
Bedouin
Bedouin
tribes from the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
who migrated westwards via Egypt
Egypt
between the eleventh and thirteenth centuries. Their migration resulted in the fusion of the Arabs and Berbers, where the locals were Arabized,[53] and Arab
Arab
culture absorbed elements of the local culture, under the unifying framework of Islam.[54]

Ruins of Great Zimbabwe
Great Zimbabwe
(flourished eleventh to fifteenth centuries)

Following the breakup of Mali, a local leader named Sonni Ali (1464–1492) founded the Songhai Empire
Songhai Empire
in the region of middle Niger and the western Sudan
Sudan
and took control of the trans-Saharan trade. Sonni Ali
Sonni Ali
seized Timbuktu
Timbuktu
in 1468 and Jenne in 1473, building his regime on trade revenues and the cooperation of Muslim
Muslim
merchants. His successor Askia Mohammad I
Askia Mohammad I
(1493–1528) made Islam
Islam
the official religion, built mosques, and brought to Gao
Gao
Muslim
Muslim
scholars, including al-Maghili (d.1504), the founder of an important tradition of Sudanic African Muslim
Muslim
scholarship.[55] By the eleventh century, some Hausa states – such as Kano, jigawa, Katsina, and Gobir – had developed into walled towns engaging in trade, servicing caravans, and the manufacture of goods. Until the fifteenth century, these small states were on the periphery of the major Sudanic empires of the era, paying tribute to Songhai to the west and Kanem-Borno to the east.

1803 Cedid Atlas, showing the Africa
Africa
from the perspective of the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans controlled much of Northern Africa between the 14th and 19th centuries, and had vassal arrangements with a number of Saharan states.

Mansa Musa ruled the Mali Empire
Mali Empire
in the 14th century.[56] Height of slave trade See also: Arab
Arab
slave trade and Atlantic slave trade

Arab–Swahili slave traders and their captives along the Ruvuma River (in today's Tanzania
Tanzania
and Mozambique) as witnessed by David Livingstone

Slavery
Slavery
had long been practiced in Africa.[57][58] Between the 7th and 20th centuries, Arab
Arab
slave trade (also known as slavery in the East) took 18 million slaves from Africa
Africa
via trans-Saharan and Indian Ocean routes. Between the 15th and the 19th centuries, the Atlantic slave trade took an estimated 7–12 million slaves to the New World.[59][60][61] More than 1 million Europeans were captured by Barbary pirates
Barbary pirates
and sold as slaves in North Africa
North Africa
between the 16th and 19th centuries.[62] In West Africa, the decline of the Atlantic slave trade
Atlantic slave trade
in the 1820s caused dramatic economic shifts in local polities. The gradual decline of slave-trading, prompted by a lack of demand for slaves in the New World, increasing anti-slavery legislation in Europe
Europe
and America, and the British Royal Navy's increasing presence off the West African coast, obliged African states to adopt new economies. Between 1808 and 1860, the British West Africa
West Africa
Squadron seized approximately 1,600 slave ships and freed 150,000 Africans who were aboard.[63]

Slave being inspected, from Captain Canot; or, Twenty Years of an African Slaver

Action was also taken against African leaders who refused to agree to British treaties to outlaw the trade, for example against "the usurping King of Lagos", deposed in 1851. Anti-slavery treaties were signed with over 50 African rulers.[64] The largest powers of West Africa
Africa
(the Asante Confederacy, the Kingdom of Dahomey, and the Oyo Empire) adopted different ways of adapting to the shift. Asante and Dahomey
Dahomey
concentrated on the development of "legitimate commerce" in the form of palm oil, cocoa, timber and gold, forming the bedrock of West Africa's modern export trade. The Oyo Empire, unable to adapt, collapsed into civil wars.[65] Colonialism
Colonialism
and the "Scramble for Africa" Main article: Colonization
Colonization
of Africa Further information: Scramble for Africa

The Mahdist War
Mahdist War
was a colonial war fought between the Mahdist Sudanese and the British forces.

Areas of Africa
Africa
under the sovereignty or influence of the colonial powers in 1913, along with modern borders.   Belgium   Germany   Spain   France   United Kingdom   Italy   Portugal   independent

In the late 19th century, the European imperial powers engaged in a major territorial scramble and occupied most of the continent, creating many colonial territories, and leaving only two fully independent states: Ethiopia
Ethiopia
(known to Europeans as "Abyssinia"), and Liberia. Egypt
Egypt
and Sudan
Sudan
were never formally incorporated into any European colonial empire; however, after the British occupation of 1882, Egypt
Egypt
was effectively under British administration until 1922. Berlin Conference The Berlin Conference
Berlin Conference
held in 1884–85 was an important event in the political future of African ethnic groups. It was convened by King Leopold II of Belgium, and attended by the European powers that laid claim to African territories. The Berlin Conference
Berlin Conference
sought to end the European powers' Scramble for Africa, by agreeing on political division and spheres of influence. They set up the political divisions of the continent, by spheres of interest, that exist in Africa
Africa
today. Independence struggles Imperial rule by Europeans would continue until after the conclusion of World War II, when almost all remaining colonial territories gradually obtained formal independence. Independence movements in Africa
Africa
gained momentum following World War II, which left the major European powers weakened. In 1951, Libya, a former Italian colony, gained independence. In 1956, Tunisia
Tunisia
and Morocco
Morocco
won their independence from France.[66] Ghana
Ghana
followed suit the next year (March 1957),[67] becoming the first of the sub-Saharan colonies to be granted independence. Most of the rest of the continent became independent over the next decade. Portugal's overseas presence in Sub-Saharan Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa
(most notably in Angola, Cape Verde, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau
Guinea-Bissau
and São Tomé
São Tomé
and Príncipe) lasted from the 16th century to 1975, after the Estado Novo regime was overthrown in a military coup in Lisbon. Rhodesia unilaterally declared independence from the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in 1965, under the white minority government of Ian Smith, but was not internationally recognized as an independent state (as Zimbabwe) until 1980, when black nationalists gained power after a bitter guerrilla war. Although South Africa
South Africa
was one of the first African countries to gain independence, the state remained under the control of the country's white minority through a system of racial segregation known as apartheid until 1994. Post-colonial Africa

Mobutu Sese Seko, Zaire's longtime dictator, embezzled over $5 billion from his country.

Today, Africa
Africa
contains 54 sovereign countries, most of which have borders that were drawn during the era of European colonialism. Since colonialism, African states have frequently been hampered by instability, corruption, violence, and authoritarianism. The vast majority of African states are republics that operate under some form of the presidential system of rule. However, few of them have been able to sustain democratic governments on a permanent basis, and many have instead cycled through a series of coups, producing military dictatorships. Great instability was mainly the result of marginalization of ethnic groups, and graft under these leaders. For political gain, many leaders fanned ethnic conflicts, some of which had been exacerbated, or even created, by colonial rule. In many countries, the military was perceived as being the only group that could effectively maintain order, and it ruled many nations in Africa
Africa
during the 1970s and early 1980s. During the period from the early 1960s to the late 1980s, Africa
Africa
had more than 70 coups and 13 presidential assassinations. Border and territorial disputes were also common, with the European-imposed borders of many nations being widely contested through armed conflicts.

South African paratroops on a raid in Angola
Angola
during the South African Border War

Cold War
Cold War
conflicts between the United States and the Soviet Union, as well as the policies of the International Monetary Fund,[citation needed] also played a role in instability. When a country became independent for the first time, it was often expected to align with one of the two superpowers. Many countries in Northern Africa
Northern Africa
received Soviet military aid, while others in Central and Southern Africa
Southern Africa
were supported by the United States, France
France
or both. The 1970s saw an escalation of Cold War
Cold War
intrigues, as newly independent Angola
Angola
and Mozambique
Mozambique
aligned themselves with the Soviet Union, and the West and South Africa
South Africa
sought to contain Soviet influence by supporting friendly regimes or insurgency movements. In Rhodesia, Soviet and Chinese-backed leftist guerrillas of the Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Patriotic Front waged a brutal guerrilla war against the country's white government. There was a major famine in Ethiopia, when hundreds of thousands of people starved. Some claimed that Marxist economic policies made the situation worse.[68][69][70] The most devastating military conflict in modern independent Africa
Africa
has been the Second Congo War; this conflict and its aftermath has killed an estimated 5.5 million people.[71] Since 2003 there has been an ongoing conflict in Darfur
Darfur
which has become a humanitarian disaster. Another notable tragic event is the 1994 Rwandan Genocide
Rwandan Genocide
in which an estimated 800,000 people were murdered. AIDS in post-colonial Africa
Africa
has also been a prevalent issue. In the 21st century, however, the number of armed conflicts in Africa has steadily declined. For instance, the civil war in Angola
Angola
came to an end in 2002 after nearly 30 years. This has coincided with many countries abandoning communist-style command economies and opening up for market reforms. The improved stability and economic reforms have led to a great increase in foreign investment into many African nations, mainly from China,[72] which has spurred quick economic growth in many countries, seemingly ending decades of stagnation and decline. Several African economies are among the world's fastest growing as of 2016. A significant part of this growth, which is sometimes referred to as Africa
Africa
Rising, can also be attributed to the facilitated diffusion of information technologies and specifically the mobile telephone.[73] Geography Main article: Geography of Africa

Satellite photo of Africa. The Sahara
Sahara
Desert
Desert
in the north can be clearly seen.

A composite satellite image of Africa
Africa
(centre) with North America (left) and Eurasia
Eurasia
(right), to scale

Africa
Africa
is the largest of the three great southward projections from the largest landmass of the Earth. Separated from Europe
Europe
by the Mediterranean Sea, it is joined to Asia
Asia
at its northeast extremity by the Isthmus of Suez (transected by the Suez Canal), 163 km (101 mi) wide.[74] (Geopolitically, Egypt's Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
east of the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
is often considered part of Africa, as well.)[75] From the most northerly point, Ras ben Sakka in Tunisia
Tunisia
(37°21' N), to the most southerly point, Cape Agulhas
Cape Agulhas
in South Africa
South Africa
(34°51'15" S), is a distance of approximately 8,000 km (5,000 mi);[76] from Cape Verde, 17°33'22" W, the westernmost point, to Ras Hafun
Ras Hafun
in Somalia, 51°27'52" E, the most easterly projection, is a distance of approximately 7,400 km (4,600 mi).[77] The coastline is 26,000 km (16,000 mi) long, and the absence of deep indentations of the shore is illustrated by the fact that Europe, which covers only 10,400,000 km2 (4,000,000 sq mi) – about a third of the surface of Africa
Africa
– has a coastline of 32,000 km (20,000 mi).[77] Africa's largest country is Algeria, and its smallest country is Seychelles, an archipelago off the east coast.[78] The smallest nation on the continental mainland is The Gambia. Geologically, Africa
Africa
includes the Arabian Peninsula; the Zagros Mountains of Iran and the Anatolian Plateau
Anatolian Plateau
of Turkey mark where the African Plate
African Plate
collided with Eurasia. The Afrotropic ecozone
Afrotropic ecozone
and the Saharo-Arabian desert to its north unite the region biogeographically, and the Afro-Asiatic language family unites the north linguistically. Climate Main article: Climate of Africa

Africa
Africa
map of Köppen climate classification

The climate of Africa
Africa
ranges from tropical to subarctic on its highest peaks. Its northern half is primarily desert, or arid, while its central and southern areas contain both savanna plains and dense jungle (rainforest) regions. In between, there is a convergence, where vegetation patterns such as sahel and steppe dominate. Africa
Africa
is the hottest continent on earth and 60% of the entire land surface consists of drylands and deserts.[79] The record for the highest-ever recorded temperature, in Libya
Libya
in 1922 (58 °C (136 °F)), was discredited in 2013.[80][81] Fauna Main article: Fauna of Africa

Savanna
Savanna
at Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania

Africa
Africa
boasts perhaps the world's largest combination of density and "range of freedom" of wild animal populations and diversity, with wild populations of large carnivores (such as lions, hyenas, and cheetahs) and herbivores (such as buffalo, elephants, camels, and giraffes) ranging freely on primarily open non-private plains. It is also home to a variety of "jungle" animals including snakes and primates and aquatic life such as crocodiles and amphibians. In addition, Africa has the largest number of megafauna species, as it was least affected by the extinction of the Pleistocene megafauna. Ecology and biodiversity

Tropical beach in Trou-aux-Biches, Mauritius

Africa
Africa
has over 3,000 protected areas, with 198 marine protected areas, 50 biosphere reserves, and 80 wetlands reserves. Significant habitat destruction, increases in human population and poaching are reducing Africa's biological diversity and arable land. Human encroachment, civil unrest and the introduction of non-native species threaten biodiversity in Africa. This has been exacerbated by administrative problems, inadequate personnel and funding problems.[79] Deforestation
Deforestation
is affecting Africa
Africa
at twice the world rate, according to the United Nations
United Nations
Environment Programme (UNEP).[82] According to the University of Pennsylvania African Studies Center, 31% of Africa's pasture lands and 19% of its forests and woodlands are classified as degraded, and Africa
Africa
is losing over four million hectares of forest per year, which is twice the average deforestation rate for the rest of the world.[79] Some sources claim that approximately 90% of the original, virgin forests in West Africa
West Africa
have been destroyed.[83] Over 90% of Madagascar's original forests have been destroyed since the arrival of humans 2000 years ago.[84] About 65% of Africa's agricultural land suffers from soil degradation.[85] See also: Afrotropic ecozone
Afrotropic ecozone
and Palearctic ecozone Politics See also: List of political parties in Africa
Africa
by country There are clear signs of increased networking among African organizations and states. For example, in the civil war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo
(former Zaire), rather than rich, non-African countries intervening, neighbouring African countries became involved (see also Second Congo War). Since the conflict began in 1998, the estimated death toll has reached 5 million. The African Union

Member states of the African Union

Main article: African Union The African Union
African Union
(AU) is a 55-member federation consisting of all of Africa's states. The union was formed, with Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, as its headquarters, on 26 June 2001. The union was officially established on 9 July 2002[86] as a successor to the Organisation of African Unity (OAU). In July 2004, the African Union's Pan-African Parliament (PAP) was relocated to Midrand, in South Africa, but the African Commission on Human
Human
and Peoples' Rights remained in Addis Ababa. There is a policy in effect to decentralize the African Federation's institutions so that they are shared by all the states. The African Union, not to be confused with the AU Commission, is formed by the Constitutive Act of the African Union, which aims to transform the African Economic Community, a federated commonwealth, into a state under established international conventions. The African Union has a parliamentary government, known as the African Union Government, consisting of legislative, judicial and executive organs. It is led by the African Union
African Union
President and Head of State, who is also the President of the Pan-African Parliament. A person becomes AU President by being elected to the PAP, and subsequently gaining majority support in the PAP. The powers and authority of the President of the African Parliament derive from the Constitutive Act and the Protocol of the Pan-African Parliament, as well as the inheritance of presidential authority stipulated by African treaties and by international treaties, including those subordinating the Secretary General of the OAU Secretariat (AU Commission) to the PAP. The government of the AU consists of all-union (federal), regional, state, and municipal authorities, as well as hundreds of institutions, that together manage the day-to-day affairs of the institution. Political associations such as the African Union
African Union
offer hope for greater co-operation and peace between the continent's many countries. Extensive human rights abuses still occur in several parts of Africa, often under the oversight of the state. Most of such violations occur for political reasons, often as a side effect of civil war. Countries where major human rights violations have been reported in recent times include the Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Sudan, Zimbabwe, and Côte d'Ivoire.

Euler diagram
Euler diagram
showing the relationships between various multinational African entities v • d • e

Economy

Map of the African Economic Community.   CEN-SAD   COMESA   EAC   ECCAS   ECOWAS   IGAD   SADC   UMA

Satellite image of city lights in Africa
Africa
showing the lack of modern development on the continent during the mid-1990s.

Main articles: Economy of Africa, List of African countries by GDP (nominal), and List of African countries by GDP (PPP) See also: Economy of the African Union

Rank Country GDP (PPP, 2014) millions of USD

1  Nigeria 1,052,937

2  Egypt 946,591

3  South Africa 707,097

4  Algeria 551,596

5  Morocco 259,240

6  Angola 177,264

7  Sudan 160,189

8  Ethiopia 145,100

9  Kenya 133,015

10  Tanzania 128,158

Rank Country GDP (nominal, 2014) millions of USD

1  Nigeria 573,999

2  South Africa 350,082

3  Egypt 286,538

4  Algeria 214,063

5  Angola 131,401

6  Morocco 110,009

7  Sudan 74,766

8  Kenya 60,937

9  Ethiopia 54,809

10  Tanzania 49,115

Although it has abundant natural resources, Africa
Africa
remains the world's poorest and most underdeveloped continent, the result of a variety of causes that may include corrupt governments that have often committed serious human rights violations, failed central planning, high levels of illiteracy, lack of access to foreign capital, and frequent tribal and military conflict (ranging from guerrilla warfare to genocide).[87] According to the United Nations' Human
Human
Development Report in 2003, the bottom 24 ranked nations (151st to 175th) were all African.[88] Poverty, illiteracy, malnutrition and inadequate water supply and sanitation, as well as poor health, affect a large proportion of the people who reside in the African continent. In August 2008, the World Bank[89] announced revised global poverty estimates based on a new international poverty line of $1.25 per day (versus the previous measure of $1.00). 80.5% of the Sub-Saharan Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa
population was living on less than $2.50 (PPP) per day in 2005, compared with 85.7% for India.[90] Sub-Saharan Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa
is the least successful region of the world in reducing poverty ($1.25 per day); some 50% of the population living in poverty in 1981 (200 million people), a figure that rose to 58% in 1996 before dropping to 50% in 2005 (380 million people). The average poor person in sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
is estimated to live on only 70 cents per day, and was poorer in 2003 than in 1973,[91] indicating increasing poverty in some areas. Some of it is attributed to unsuccessful economic liberalization programmes spearheaded by foreign companies and governments, but other studies have cited bad domestic government policies more than external factors.[92][93][94] From 1995 to 2005, Africa's rate of economic growth increased, averaging 5% in 2005. Some countries experienced still higher growth rates, notably Angola, Sudan
Sudan
and Equatorial Guinea, all of which had recently begun extracting their petroleum reserves or had expanded their oil extraction capacity. The continent is believed to hold 90% of the world's cobalt, 90% of its platinum, 50% of its gold, 98% of its chromium, 70% of its tantalite,[95] 64% of its manganese and one-third of its uranium.[96] The Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo (DRC) has 70% of the world's coltan, a mineral used in the production of tantalum capacitors for electronic devices such as cell phones. The DRC also has more than 30% of the world's diamond reserves.[97] Guinea is the world's largest exporter of bauxite.[98] As the growth in Africa
Africa
has been driven mainly by services and not manufacturing or agriculture, it has been growth without jobs and without reduction in poverty levels. In fact, the food security crisis of 2008 which took place on the heels of the global financial crisis pushed 100 million people into food insecurity.[99] In recent years, the People's Republic
Republic
of China
China
has built increasingly stronger ties with African nations and is Africa's largest trading partner. In 2007, Chinese companies invested a total of US$1 billion in Africa.[72] A Harvard University study led by professor Calestous Juma showed that Africa
Africa
could feed itself by making the transition from importer to self-sufficiency. "African agriculture is at the crossroads; we have come to the end of a century of policies that favoured Africa's export of raw materials and importation of food. Africa
Africa
is starting to focus on agricultural innovation as its new engine for regional trade and prosperity."[100] During US President Barack Obama's visit to Africa
Africa
in July 2013, he announced a US$7 billion plan to further develop infrastructure and work more intensively with African heads of state. He also announced a new programme named Trade Africa, designed to boost trade within the continent as well as between Africa
Africa
and the US.[101] Demographics Main article: Demographics of Africa

Woman from Benin

Africa's population has rapidly increased over the last 40 years, and consequently, it is relatively young. In some African states, more than half the population is under 25 years of age.[102] The total number of people in Africa
Africa
increased from 229 million in 1950 to 630 million in 1990.[103] As of 2016, the population of Africa
Africa
is estimated at 1.2 billion[1]. Africa's total population surpassing other continents is fairly recent; African population surpassed Europe in the 1990s, while the Americas
Americas
was overtaken sometime around the year 2000; Africa's rapid population growth is expected to overtake the only two nations currently larger than its population, at roughly the same time – India
India
and China's 1.4 billion people each will swap ranking around the year 2022.[104]

San Bushman man from Botswana

Speakers of Bantu languages
Bantu languages
(part of the Niger–Congo family) are the majority in southern, central and southeast Africa. The Bantu-speaking peoples from The Sahel
Sahel
progressively expanded over most of Sub-Saharan Africa.[105] But there are also several Nilotic
Nilotic
groups in South Sudan and East Africa, the mixed Swahili people
Swahili people
on the Swahili Coast, and a few remaining indigenous Khoisan ("San" or "Bushmen") and Pygmy peoples in southern and central Africa, respectively. Bantu-speaking Africans also predominate in Gabon
Gabon
and Equatorial Guinea, and are found in parts of southern Cameroon. In the Kalahari Desert
Desert
of Southern Africa, the distinct people known as the Bushmen
Bushmen
(also "San", closely related to, but distinct from "Hottentots") have long been present. The San are physically distinct from other Africans and are the indigenous people of southern Africa. Pygmies are the pre-Bantu indigenous peoples of central Africa.[106] The peoples of West Africa
West Africa
primarily speak Niger–Congo languages, belonging mostly to its non-Bantu branches, though some Nilo-Saharan and Afro-Asiatic speaking groups are also found. The Niger–Congo-speaking Yoruba, Igbo, Fulani, Akan and Wolof ethnic groups are the largest and most influential. In the central Sahara, Mandinka or Mande groups are most significant. Chadic-speaking groups, including the Hausa, are found in more northerly parts of the region nearest to the Sahara, and Nilo-Saharan
Nilo-Saharan
communities, such as the Songhai, Kanuri and Zarma, are found in the eastern parts of West Africa
Africa
bordering Central Africa. The peoples of North Africa
North Africa
consist of three main indigenous groups: Berbers in the northwest, Egyptians in the northeast, and Nilo-Saharan-speaking peoples in the east. The Arabs who arrived in the 7th century AD introduced the Arabic language
Arabic language
and Islam
Islam
to North Africa. The Semitic Phoenicians (who founded Carthage) and Hyksos, the Indo-Iranian Alans, the Indo- European Greeks, Romans, and Vandals settled in North Africa
North Africa
as well. Significant Berber communities remain within Morocco
Morocco
and Algeria
Algeria
in the 21st century, while, to a lesser extent, Berber speakers are also present in some regions of Tunisia and Libya.[107] The Berber-speaking Tuareg and other often-nomadic peoples are the principal inhabitants of the Saharan interior of North Africa. In Mauritania, there is a small but near-extinct Berber community in the north and Niger–Congo-speaking peoples in the south, though in both regions Arabic and Arab
Arab
culture predominates. In Sudan, although Arabic and Arab
Arab
culture predominate, it is mostly inhabited by groups that originally spoke Nilo-Saharan, such as the Nubians, Fur, Masalit and Zaghawa, who, over the centuries, have variously intermixed with migrants from the Arabian peninsula. Small communities of Afro-Asiatic-speaking Beja nomads can also be found in Egypt
Egypt
and Sudan.[citation needed]

Beja bedouins from Northeast Africa

In the Horn of Africa, some Ethiopian and Eritrean groups (like the Amhara and Tigrayans, collectively known as Habesha) speak languages from the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family, while the Oromo and Somali speak languages from the Cushitic
Cushitic
branch of Afro-Asiatic. Prior to the decolonization movements of the post- World War II
World War II
era, Europeans were represented in every part of Africa.[108] Decolonization
Decolonization
during the 1960s and 1970s often resulted in the mass emigration of white settlers – especially from Algeria
Algeria
and Morocco (1.6 million pieds-noirs in North Africa),[109] Kenya, Congo,[110] Rhodesia, Mozambique
Mozambique
and Angola.[111] Between 1975 and 1977, over a million colonials returned to Portugal
Portugal
alone.[112] Nevertheless, white Africans remain an important minority in many African states, particularly Zimbabwe, Namibia, Réunion, and the Republic
Republic
of South Africa.[113] The country with the largest white African population is South Africa.[114] Dutch and British diasporas represent the largest communities of European ancestry on the continent today.[115] European colonization also brought sizable groups of Asians, particularly from the Indian subcontinent, to British colonies. Large Indian communities are found in South Africa, and smaller ones are present in Kenya, Tanzania, and some other southern and southeast African countries. The large Indian community in Uganda
Uganda
was expelled by the dictator Idi Amin
Idi Amin
in 1972, though many have since returned. The islands in the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
are also populated primarily by people of Asian origin, often mixed with Africans and Europeans. The Malagasy people of Madagascar
Madagascar
are an Austronesian people, but those along the coast are generally mixed with Bantu, Arab, Indian and European origins. Malay and Indian ancestries are also important components in the group of people known in South Africa
South Africa
as Cape Coloureds
Cape Coloureds
(people with origins in two or more races and continents). During the 20th century, small but economically important communities of Lebanese and Chinese[72] have also developed in the larger coastal cities of West and East Africa, respectively.[116] Languages Main article: Languages of Africa

Map showing the traditional language families represented in Africa:   Afroasiatic (Semitic-Hamitic)   Austronesian (Malay-Polynesian)   Indo-European   Khoisan Niger-Congo:   Bantu   Central and Eastern Sudanese   Central Bantoid   Eastern Bantoid   Guinean   Mande   Western Bantoid Nilo-Saharan:   Kanuri   Nilotic   Songhai

By most estimates, well over a thousand languages ( UNESCO
UNESCO
has estimated around two thousand) are spoken in Africa.[117] Most are of African origin, though some are of European or Asian origin. Africa
Africa
is the most multilingual continent in the world, and it is not rare for individuals to fluently speak not only multiple African languages, but one or more European ones as well. There are four major language families indigenous to Africa:

The Afroasiatic languages
Afroasiatic languages
are a language family of about 240 languages and 285 million people widespread throughout the Horn of Africa, North Africa, the Sahel, and Southwest Asia. The Nilo-Saharan
Nilo-Saharan
language family consists of more than a hundred languages spoken by 30 million people. Nilo-Saharan
Nilo-Saharan
languages are spoken by ethnic groups in Chad, Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria, Sudan, South Sudan, Uganda, and northern Tanzania. The Niger-Congo language family covers much of Sub-Saharan Africa. In terms of number of languages, it is the largest language family in Africa
Africa
and perhaps the largest in the world. The Khoisan languages
Khoisan languages
number about fifty and are spoken in Southern Africa
Africa
by approximately 400,000 people.[118] Many of the Khoisan languages are endangered. The Khoi and San peoples are considered the original inhabitants of this part of Africa.

Following the end of colonialism, nearly all African countries adopted official languages that originated outside the continent, although several countries also granted legal recognition to indigenous languages (such as Swahili, Yoruba, Igbo and Hausa). In numerous countries, English and French (see African French) are used for communication in the public sphere such as government, commerce, education and the media. Arabic, Portuguese, Afrikaans
Afrikaans
and Spanish are examples of languages that trace their origin to outside of Africa, and that are used by millions of Africans today, both in the public and private spheres. Italian is spoken by some in former Italian colonies in Africa. German is spoken in Namibia, as it was a former German protectorate. Culture

The rock-hewn Church of Saint George in Lalibela, Ethiopia
Ethiopia
is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Main article: Culture of Africa Some aspects of traditional African cultures have become less practised in recent years as a result of neglect and suppression by colonial and post-colonial regimes. For example, African customs were discouraged, and African languages were prohibited in mission schools.[119] Leopold II of Belgium
Leopold II of Belgium
attempted to "civilize" Africans by discouraging polygamy and witchcraft.[119] Obidoh Freeborn posits that colonialism is one element that has created the character of modern African art.[120] According to authors Douglas Fraser and Herbert M. Cole, "The precipitous alterations in the power structure wrought by colonialism were quickly followed by drastic iconographic changes in the art." [121] Fraser and Cole assert that, in Igboland, some art objects "lack the vigor and careful craftsmanship of the earlier art objects that served traditional functions.[121] Author Chika Okeke-Agulu states that "the racist infrastructure of British imperial enterprise forced upon the political and cultural guardians of empire a denial and suppression of an emergent sovereign Africa
Africa
and modernist art." [122] In Soweto, the West Rand Administrative Board established a Cultural Section to collect, read, and review scripts before performances could occur.[123][self-published source] Editors F. Abiola Irele and Simon Gikandi comment that the current identity of African literature had its genesis in the "traumatic encounter between Africa
Africa
and Europe." [124] On the other hand, Mhoze Chikowero believes that Africans deployed music, dance, spirituality, and other performative cultures to (re)asset themselves as active agents and indigenous intellectuals, to unmake their colonial marginalization and reshape their own destinies." [125] There is now a resurgence in the attempts to rediscover and revalue African traditional cultures, under such movements as the African Renaissance, led by Thabo Mbeki, Afrocentrism, led by a group of scholars, including Molefi Asante, as well as the increasing recognition of traditional spiritualism through decriminalization of Vodou and other forms of spirituality. Visual art and architecture African art
African art
and architecture reflect the diversity of African cultures. The region's oldest known beads were made from Nassarius shells and worn as personal ornaments 72,000 years ago.[126] The Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt
Egypt
was the world's tallest structure for 4,000 years, until the completion of Lincoln Cathedral
Lincoln Cathedral
around the year 1300. The stone ruins of Great Zimbabwe
Great Zimbabwe
are also noteworthy for their architecture, as are the monolithic churches at Lalibela, Ethiopia, such as the Church of Saint George.

A musician from South Africa

Music and dance Main article: Music of Africa

The Namibia
Namibia
rugby team

Egypt
Egypt
has long been a cultural focus of the Arab
Arab
world, while remembrance of the rhythms of sub-Saharan Africa, in particular West Africa, was transmitted through the Atlantic slave trade
Atlantic slave trade
to modern samba, blues, jazz, reggae, hip hop, and rock. The 1950s through the 1970s saw a conglomeration of these various styles with the popularization of Afrobeat
Afrobeat
and Highlife
Highlife
music. Modern music of the continent includes the highly complex choral singing of southern Africa
Africa
and the dance rhythms of the musical genre of soukous, dominated by the music of the Democratic Republic
Republic
of Congo. Indigenous musical and dance traditions of Africa
Africa
are maintained by oral traditions, and they are distinct from the music and dance styles of North Africa
North Africa
and Southern Africa. Arab
Arab
influences are visible in North African music and dance and, in Southern Africa, Western influences are apparent due to colonization. Sports Fifty-four African countries have football (soccer) teams in the Confederation of African Football. Egypt
Egypt
has won the African Cup seven times, and a record-making three times in a row. Cameroon, Nigeria, Senegal, Ghana, and Algeria
Algeria
have advanced to the knockout stage of recent FIFA World Cups. South Africa
South Africa
hosted the 2010 World Cup tournament, becoming the first African country to do so. Cricket
Cricket
is popular in some African nations. South Africa
South Africa
and Zimbabwe have Test status, while Kenya
Kenya
is the leading non-test team and previously had One-Day International cricket (ODI) status (from 10 October 1997, until 30 January 2014). The three countries jointly hosted the 2003 Cricket
Cricket
World Cup. Namibia
Namibia
is the other African country to have played in a World Cup. Morocco
Morocco
in northern Africa
Africa
has also hosted the 2002 Morocco
Morocco
Cup, but the national team has never qualified for a major tournament. Rugby is a popular sport in South Africa, Namibia, and Zimbabwe. Religion Main article: Religion in Africa See also: African divination Africans profess a wide variety of religious beliefs, and statistics on religious affiliation are difficult to come by since they are often a sensitive a topic for governments with mixed religious populations.[127][128] According to the World Book
Book
Encyclopedia, Islam is the largest religion in Africa, followed by Christianity. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, 45% of the population are Christians, 40% are Muslims, and 10% follow traditional religions. A small number of Africans are Hindu, Buddhist, Confucianist, Baha'i, or Jewish. There is also a minority of people in Africa
Africa
who are irreligious.

The Holy Trinity Cathedral, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

The Great Mosque of Kairouan, founded in 670, is the oldest mosque in North Africa;[129] it is located in Kairouan, Tunisia

Vodun altar in Abomey, Benin

National Church of Nigeria, Abuja

A map showing religious distribution in Africa

Territories and regions Main articles: List of regions of Africa
List of regions of Africa
and List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Africa

Algeria Togo Benin Botswana Cameroon Cent Afr Rep Chad Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo Djibouti Egypt Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Cape* Verde Libya Mali Ghana Sierra Leone Ivory Coast Burkina Faso Mauritania Morocco São Tomé and Príncipe* Gabon Namibia Niger Nigeria Congo Somalia South Africa Sudan South Sudan Tunisia Western Sahara Senegal Gambia Guinea Bissau Guinea Kenya Liberia Madagascar Malawi Mozambique Burundi Rwanda Uganda Tanzania Angola Saint Helena
Saint Helena
(UK)* Lesotho Swaziland Zambia Zimbabwe Mauritius* Réunion* *Comoros Seychelles Atlantic Ocean Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean Strait of Gibraltar Mediterranean Sea Red   Sea

The countries in this table are categorized according to the scheme for geographic subregions used by the United Nations, and data included are per sources in cross-referenced articles. Where they differ, provisos are clearly indicated.

Regions of Africa:   Northern Africa   Western Africa   Central Africa   Eastern Africa   Southern Africa

 

 

Physical map of Africa

Political map of Africa

Arms Flag Name of region[130] and territory, with flag Area (km²) Population[131] Year Density (per km²) Capital

Northern Africa

Algeria 2,381,740 34,178,188 2009 14 Algiers

Canary Islands
Canary Islands
(Spain)[132] 7,492 2,154,905 2017 226 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Santa Cruz de Tenerife

Ceuta
Ceuta
(Spain)[133] 20 85,107 2017 3,575 —

Egypt[134] 1,001,450 82,868,000 2012 83 Cairo

Libya 1,759,540 6,310,434 2009 4 Tripoli

Madeira
Madeira
(Portugal)[135] 797 245,000 2001 307 Funchal

Melilla
Melilla
(Spain)[136] 12 85,116 2017 5,534 —

Morocco 446,550 34,859,364 2009 78 Rabat

Sudan 1,861,484 30,894,000 2008 17 Khartoum

Tunisia 163,610 10,486,339 2009 64 Tunis

Western Sahara[137] 266,000 405,210 2009 2 El Aaiún

Eastern Africa

Burundi 27,830 8,988,091 2009 323 Bujumbura

British Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
Territory – Chagos Archipelago (United Kingdom) 56.13 3,000 2012 53.4 Diego Garcia

Comoros 2,170 752,438 2009 347 Moroni

Djibouti 23,000 828,324 2015 22 Djibouti

Eritrea 121,320 5,647,168 2009 47 Asmara

Ethiopia 1,127,127 84,320,987 2012 75 Addis Ababa

Kenya 582,650 39,002,772 2009 66 Nairobi

Madagascar 587,040 20,653,556 2009 35 Antananarivo

Malawi 118,480 14,268,711 2009 120 Lilongwe

Mauritius 2,040 1,284,264 2009 630 Port Louis

Mayotte
Mayotte
(France) 374 223,765 2009 490 Mamoudzou

Mozambique 801,590 21,669,278 2009 27 Maputo

Réunion
Réunion
(France) 2,512 743,981 2002 296 Saint-Denis

Rwanda 26,338 10,473,282 2009 398 Kigali

Seychelles 455 87,476 2009 192 Victoria

Somalia 637,657 9,832,017 2009 15 Mogadishu

South Sudan 619,745 8,260,490 2008 13 Juba

Tanzania 945,087 44,929,002 2009 43 Dodoma

Uganda 236,040 32,369,558 2009 137 Kampala

Zambia 752,614 11,862,740 2009 16 Lusaka

Zimbabwe 390,580 11,392,629 2009 29 Harare

Central Africa

Angola 1,246,700 12,799,293 2009 10 Luanda

Cameroon 475,440 18,879,301 2009 40 Yaoundé

Central African Republic 622,984 4,511,488 2009 7 Bangui

Chad 1,284,000 10,329,208 2009 8 N'Djamena

Republic
Republic
of the Congo 342,000 4,012,809 2009 12 Brazzaville

Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo 2,345,410 69,575,000 2012 30 Kinshasa

Equatorial Guinea 28,051 633,441 2009 23 Malabo

Gabon 267,667 1,514,993 2009 6 Libreville

São Tomé
São Tomé
and Príncipe 1,001 212,679 2009 212 São Tomé

Southern Africa

Botswana 600,370 1,990,876 2009 3 Gaborone

Lesotho 30,355 2,130,819 2009 70 Maseru

Namibia 825,418 2,108,665 2009 3 Windhoek

South Africa 1,219,912 51,770,560 2011 42 Bloemfontein, Cape Town, Pretoria[138]

Swaziland 17,363 1,123,913 2009 65 Mbabane

Western Africa

Benin 112,620 8,791,832 2009 78 Porto-Novo

Burkina Faso 274,200 15,746,232 2009 57 Ouagadougou

Cape Verde 4,033 429,474 2009 107 Praia

The Gambia 11,300 1,782,893 2009 158 Banjul

Ghana 239,460 23,832,495 2009 100 Accra

Guinea 245,857 10,057,975 2009 41 Conakry

Guinea-Bissau 36,120 1,533,964 2009 43 Bissau

Ivory Coast 322,460 20,617,068 2009 64 Abidjan,[139] Yamoussoukro

Liberia 111,370 3,441,790 2009 31 Monrovia

Mali 1,240,000 12,666,987 2009 10 Bamako

Mauritania 1,030,700 3,129,486 2009 3 Nouakchott

Niger 1,267,000 15,306,252 2009 12 Niamey

Nigeria 923,768 166,629,000 2012 180 Abuja

Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
(United Kingdom) 420 7,728 2012 13 Jamestown

Senegal 196,190 13,711,597 2009 70 Dakar

Sierra Leone 71,740 6,440,053 2009 90 Freetown

Togo 56,785 6,019,877 2009 106 Lomé

Africa
Africa
Total 30,368,609 1,001,320,281 2009 33

See also

Africa
Africa
portal Geography portal

Book: Africa

Afro-Eurasia Index of Africa-related articles List of African millionaires List of highest mountain peaks of Africa Lists of cities in Africa Outline of Africa Urbanization in Africa

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United Nations
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Africa
Exit for Anatomically Modern Humans. WebmedCentral BIOLOGY 2011;2(10):WMC002319, Webmedcentral.com ^ Robin Derricourt, "Getting 'Out of Africa': Sea Crossings, Land Crossings and Culture in the Hominin Migrations", 7 July 2006 ^ Candice Goucher; Linda Walton (2013). World History: Journeys from Past to Present. Routledge. pp. 2–20. ISBN 978-1-134-72354-6.  ^ Jeremy Keenan (2013). The Sahara: Past, Present and Future. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-97001-9.  ^ Mercier, Norbert; et. al. (2012). "OSL dating of quaternary deposits associated with the parietal art of the Tassili-n-Ajjer plateau (Central Sahara)". Quaternary Geochronology. 10: 367–73. doi:10.1016/j.quageo.2011.11.010.  ^ "Sahara's Abrupt Desertification
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Started by Changes in Earth's Orbit, Accelerated by Atmospheric and Vegetation Feedbacks" Archived 2014-03-07 at the Wayback Machine., Science Daily ^ Diamond, Jared. (1999) "Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York:Norton, p. 167 ^ a b c O'Brien, Patrick K. (General Editor). Oxford Atlas of World History. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005, pp. 22–23 ^ Martin and O'Meara, "Africa, 3rd Ed." Archived 2007-10-11 at the Wayback Machine. Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1995 ^ Were Egyptians the first scribes?, BBC
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News Sci/Tech ^ Hassan, Fekri A. (2002) Droughts, Food and Culture, Springer. p. 17. ISBN 0-306-46755-0 ^ McGrail, Sean. (2004) Boats of the World, Oxford University Press. p. 48. ISBN 0-19-927186-0 ^ Shavit, Jacob; Shavit, Yaacov (2001). History in Black: African-Americans in Search of an Ancient Past. Taylor & Francis. p. 77. ISBN 0-7146-8216-0.  ^ Fage, J. D. (1979), The Cambridge History of Africa, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-21592-7 ^ Fage, J. D., et al. (1986), The Cambridge History of Africa, Cambridge University Press. Vol. 2, p. 118 ^ Oliver, Roland and Anthony Atmore (1994), Africa
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Septimius Severus
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– A Survey of Fifty Years of Independence". washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 23 July 2007.  ^ " Igbo-Ukwu
Igbo-Ukwu
(c. 9th century) Thematic Essay Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History The Metropolitan Museum of Art". Metmuseum.org. Retrieved 18 May 2010.  ^ Glick, Thomas F. Islamic And Christian
Christian
Spain
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in the Early Middle Ages. (2005) Brill Academic Publishers, p. 37 ^ " Mauritania
Mauritania
Arab
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Invasions". countrystudies.us.  ^ Nebel, A; et. al. (1 April 2010). "Genetic Evidence
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for the Expansion of Arabian Tribes into the Southern Levant
Levant
and North Africa". American Journal of Human
Human
Genetics. 70 (6): 1594–96. doi:10.1086/340669. PMC 379148 . PMID 11992266.  ^ Ira M. Lapidus, A History of Islamic Societies, Cambridge, 1988 ^ Cambridge History of Africa, Volume 1–5. ^ Historical survey: Slave societies, Encyclopædia Britannica ^ Swahili Coast, National Geographic ^ Welcome to Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to Black History, Encyclopædia Britannica ^ "Focus on the slave trade". bbc.co.uk. BBC
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News – Africa.  ^ Paul E. Lovejoy (2000). Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery
Slavery
in Africa. Cambridge University Press. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-521-78430-6.  ^ Rees Davies, "British Slaves on the Barbary Coast", BBC, 1 July 2003 ^ Jo Loosemore, Sailing against slavery. BBC ^ "The West African Squadron and slave trade". Pdavis.nl. Archived from the original on 10 June 2010. Retrieved 18 May 2010.  ^ Simon, Julian L. (1995) State of Humanity, Blackwell Publishing. p. 175. ISBN 1-55786-585-X ^ Lucien Bély (2001). The History of France. Editions Jean-paul Gisserot. p. 118. ISBN 978-2-87747-563-1.  ^ Ernest Aryeetey; Jane Harrigan; Machiko Nissanke (2000). Economic Reforms in Ghana: The Miracle and the Mirage. Africa
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World Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-86543-844-6.  ^ "BBC: 1984 famine in Ethiopia". BBC
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News. 6 April 2000. Retrieved 1 January 2010.  ^ Robert G. Patman, The Soviet Union
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in the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
1990, ISBN 0-521-36022-6, pp. 295–96 ^ Steven Varnis, Reluctant aid or aiding the reluctant?: U.S. food aid policy and the Ethiopian Famine Relief 1990, ISBN 0-88738-348-3, p. 38 ^ Rayner, Gordon (27 September 2011). "Is your mobile phone helping fund war in Congo?". The Daily Telegraph. London.  ^ a b c Malia Politzer, " China
China
and Africa: Stronger Economic Ties Mean More Migration", Migration Information Source. August 2008 ^ Jenny Aker, Isaac Mbiti, "Mobile Phones and Economic Development in Africa" SSRN ^ Drysdale, Alasdair and Gerald H. Blake. (1985) The Middle East
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and North Africa, Oxford University Press US. ISBN 0-19-503538-0 ^ "Atlas – Xpeditions". National Geographic Society. 2003. Archived from the original on 3 March 2009. Retrieved 1 March 2009.  ^ Lewin, Evans. (1924) Africa, Clarendon press ^ a b (1998) Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary (Index), Merriam-Webster, pp. 10–11. ISBN 0-87779-546-0 ^ Hoare, Ben. (2002) The Kingfisher A–Z Encyclopedia, Kingfisher Publications. p. 11. ISBN 0-7534-5569-2 ^ a b c "Africa: Environmental Atlas, 06/17/08." Archived 2012-01-05 at the Wayback Machine. African Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania. Accessed June 2011. ^ El Fadli, KI; et al. (September 2012). "World Meteorological Organization Assessment of the Purported World Record 58°C Temperature Extreme at El Azizia, Libya
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(13 September 1922)". Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 94 (2): 199. Bibcode:2013BAMS...94..199E. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00093.1.  (The 136 °F (57.8 °C), claimed by 'Aziziya, Libya, on 13 September 1922, has been officially deemed invalid by the World Meteorological Organization.) ^ " World Meteorological Organization
World Meteorological Organization
World Weather / Climate Extremes Archive". Archived from the original on 4 January 2013. Retrieved 10 January 2013.  ^ Deforestation
Deforestation
reaches worrying level – UN Archived December 6, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.. AfricaNews. 11 June 2008 ^ Forests and deforestation in Africa
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(9 July 2002). "Launch of the African Union, 9 July 2002: Address by the chairperson of the AU, President Thabo Mbeki". ABSA Stadium, Durban, South Africa: africa-union.org. Archived from the original on 3 May 2009. Retrieved 8 February 2009.  ^ Richard Sandbrook, The Politics of Africa's Economic Stagnation, Cambridge University Press, 1985 passim ^ " Human
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Updates Poverty Estimates for the Developing World". World Bank. 26 August 2008. Archived from the original on 19 May 2010. Retrieved 18 May 2010.  ^ "The developing world is poorer than we thought, but no less successful in the fight against poverty". World Bank.  ^ Economic report on Africa
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2004: unlocking Africa's potential in the global economy (Substantive session 28 June–23 July 2004), United Nations ^ "Neo-Liberalism and the Economic and Political Future of Africa". Globalpolitician.com. 19 December 2005. Archived from the original on 31 January 2010. Retrieved 18 May 2010.  ^ "Capitalism – Africa
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– Neoliberalism, Structural Adjustment, And The African Reaction". Science.jrank.org. Archived from the original on 20 April 2010. Retrieved 18 May 2010.  ^ "The Number of the Poor Increasing Worldwide while Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
is the Worst of All". Turkish Weekly. 29 August 2008. Archived from the original on 24 September 2008. Retrieved 7 November 2011.  ^ "Africa: Developed Countries' Leverage On the Continent". AllAfrica.com. 7 February 2008 ^ Africa, China's new frontier. Times Online. 10 February 2008 ^ DR Congo poll crucial for Africa. BBC
BBC
News. 16 November 2006 ^ China
China
tightens grip on Africa
Africa
with $4.4bn lifeline for Guinea
Guinea
junta. The Times. 13 October 2009 (subscription required) ^ The African Decade?. Ilmas Futehally. Strategic Foresight Group. ^ " Africa
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Africa
right now". Quartz. Quartz. Retrieved 4 July 2013.  ^ " Africa
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Population Dynamics".  ^ Past and future population of Africa
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Archived 2015-09-24 at the Wayback Machine.. Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2013) ^ Gladstone, Rick (29 July 2015). " India
India
Will Be Most Populous Country Sooner Than Thought, U.N. Says" – via www.nytimes.com.  ^ Luc-Normand Tellier (2009). Urban world history: an economic and geographical perspective. PUQ. p. 204. ISBN 2-7605-1588-5 ^ Pygmies struggle to survive in war zone where abuse is routine. Times Online. 16 December 2004 ^ "Q&A: The Berbers". BBC
BBC
News. 12 March 2004. Retrieved 30 December 2013.  ^ "We Want Our Country" (3 of 10). Time, 5 November 1965 ^ Raimondo Cagiano De Azevedo (1994). Migration and development co-operation.. Council of Europe, p. 25. ISBN 92-871-2611-9 ^ " Jungle
Jungle
Shipwreck". Time 25 July 1960 ^ "Flight from Angola", The Economist , 16 August 1975 ^ Portugal
Portugal
– Emigration, Eric Solsten, ed. Portugal: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1993 ^ Holm, John A. (1989). Pidgins and Creoles: References survey. Cambridge University Press. p. 394. ISBN 0-521-35940-6.  ^ South Africa: People: Ethnic Groups. CIA World Factbook ^ "Africa". World Book
Book
Encyclopedia. Chicago: World Book, Inc. 1989. ISBN 0-7166-1289-5.  ^ Naomi Schwarz, "Lebanese Immigrants Boost West African Commerce", VOANews.com, 10 July 2007 ^ "Africa". UNESCO. 2005. Archived from the original on 2 June 2008. Retrieved 1 March 2009.  ^ "Khoisan Languages". The Language
Language
Gulper. Retrieved 2 January 2017.  ^ a b Pearsonhighered.com Archived 2015-05-01 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "The Crisis of Appropriating Identity for African Art and Artists: The Abayomi Barber School Responsorial Paradigm". quod.lib.umich.edu.  ^ a b Fraser, Douglas; Cole, Herbert M. (1 September 2004). "African Art and Leadership". Univ of Wisconsin Press. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-299-05824-1.  ^ Okeke-Agulu, Chika (9 February 2015). "Postcolonial Modernism: Art and Decolonization
Decolonization
in Twentieth-Century Nigeria". Duke University Press. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-8223-7630-9.  ^ Sirayi, Mzo (26 September 2017). "South African Drama and Theatre from Pre-colonial Times to the 1990s: An Alternative Reading: An Alternative Reading". Xlibris Corporation. p. 123. ISBN 978-1-4771-2082-8.  ^ Universitypublishingonline.org ^ Chikowero, Mhoze (24 November 2015). "African Music, Power, and Being in Colonial Zimbabwe". Indiana University Press – via Google Books.  ^ The Oxford Handbook of African Archaeology (2013, ISBN 0191626147), p. 375 ^ "African Religion on the Internet". Stanford University. Archived from the original on 2006-09-02.  ^ Onishi, Normitsu (1 November 2001). "Rising Muslim
Muslim
Power in Africa Causing Unrest in Nigeria
Nigeria
and Elsewhere". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 March 2009.  ^ Kng, Hans (2006). Hans Kung, Tracing the Way : Spiritual Dimensions of the World Religions. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 248. ISBN 978-0-8264-9423-8. Retrieved 4 October 2014.  ^ Continental regions as per UN categorizations/map. ^ "IDB: Countries Ranked by Population". 28 November 1999. Archived from the original on 28 November 1999. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ The Spanish Canary Islands, of which Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
are Santa Cruz de Tenerife
Santa Cruz de Tenerife
are co-capitals, are often considered part of Northern Africa
Northern Africa
due to their relative proximity to Morocco
Morocco
and Western Sahara; population and area figures are for 2001. ^ The Spanish exclave of Ceuta
Ceuta
is surrounded on land by Morocco
Morocco
in Northern Africa; population and area figures are for 2001. ^ Egypt
Egypt
is generally considered a transcontinental country in Northern Africa
Africa
(UN region) and Western Asia; population and area figures are for African portion only, west of the Suez Canal. ^ The Portuguese Madeira
Madeira
Islands are often considered part of Northern Africa
Africa
due to their relative proximity to Morocco; population and area figures are for 2001. ^ The Spanish exclave of Melilla
Melilla
is surrounded on land by Morocco
Morocco
in Northern Africa; population and area figures are for 2001. ^ The territory of Western Sahara
Sahara
is claimed by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
Republic
and Morocco. The SADR
SADR
is recognized as a sovereign state by the African Union. Morocco
Morocco
claims the entirety of the country as its Southern Provinces. Morocco
Morocco
administers 4/5 of the territory while the SADR
SADR
controls 1/5. Morocco's annexation of this territory has not been recognized internationally. ^ Bloemfontein
Bloemfontein
is the judicial capital of South Africa, while Cape Town is its legislative seat, and Pretoria
Pretoria
is the country's administrative seat. ^ Yamoussoukro
Yamoussoukro
is the official capital of Côte d'Ivoire, while Abidjan
Abidjan
is the de facto seat.

Further reading

Asante, Molefi (2007). The History of Africa. US: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-77139-0.  Clark, J. Desmond (1970). The Prehistory of Africa. London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-02069-2.  Crowder, Michael (1978). The Story of Nigeria. London: Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-04947-9.  Davidson, Basil (1966). The African Past: Chronicles from Antiquity to Modern Times. Harmondsworth: Penguin. OCLC 2016817.  Gordon, April A.; Donald L. Gordon (1996). Understanding Contemporary Africa. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers. ISBN 978-1-55587-547-3.  Khapoya, Vincent B. (1998). The African experience: an introduction. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-745852-3.  Moore, Clark D., and Ann Dunbar (1968). Africa
Africa
Yesterday and Today, in series, The George School Readings on Developing Lands. New York: Praeger Publishers. Naipaul, V. S.. The Masque of Africa: Glimpses of African Belief. Picador, 2010. ISBN 978-0-330-47205-0 Wade, Lizzie (2015). "Drones and satellites spot lost civilizations in unlikely places". Science. doi:10.1126/science.aaa7864. 

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Al-Andalus Baetic System

Gibraltar Arc Southeastern Mediterranean Crimea Alpide belt

Germanic Celtic Slavic countries Uralic European Plain Eurasian Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe Wild Fields Pannonian Basin

Great Hungarian Plain Little Hungarian Plain Eastern Slovak Lowland

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Regions of North America

Northern

Eastern Canada Western Canada Canadian Prairies Central Canada Northern Canada Atlantic Canada The Maritimes French Canada English Canada Acadia

Acadian Peninsula

Quebec City–Windsor Corridor Peace River Country Cypress Hills Palliser's Triangle Canadian Shield Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Newfoundland (island) Vancouver Island Gulf Islands Strait of Georgia Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Labrador Peninsula Gaspé Peninsula Avalon Peninsula

Bay de Verde Peninsula

Brodeur Peninsula Melville Peninsula Bruce Peninsula Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) Cook Peninsula Gulf of Boothia Georgian Bay Hudson Bay James Bay Greenland Pacific Northwest Inland Northwest Northeast

New England Mid-Atlantic Commonwealth

West

Midwest Upper Midwest Mountain States Intermountain West Basin and Range Province

Oregon Trail Mormon Corridor Calumet Region Southwest

Old Southwest

Llano Estacado Central United States

Tallgrass prairie

South

South Central Deep South Upland South

Four Corners East Coast West Coast Gulf Coast Third Coast Coastal states Eastern United States

Appalachia

Trans-Mississippi Great North Woods Great Plains Interior Plains Great Lakes Great Basin

Great Basin
Great Basin
Desert

Acadia Ozarks Ark-La-Tex Waxhaws Siouxland Twin Tiers Driftless Area Palouse Piedmont Atlantic coastal plain Outer Lands Black Dirt Region Blackstone Valley Piney Woods Rocky Mountains Mojave Desert The Dakotas The Carolinas Shawnee Hills San Fernando Valley Tornado Alley North Coast Lost Coast Emerald Triangle San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area

San Francisco Bay North Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) East Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) Silicon Valley

Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Gulf of Mexico Lower Colorado River Valley Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta Colville Delta Arkansas Delta Mobile–Tensaw River Delta Mississippi Delta Mississippi River Delta Columbia River Estuary Great Basin High Desert Monterey Peninsula Upper Peninsula of Michigan Lower Peninsula of Michigan Virginia Peninsula Keweenaw Peninsula Middle Peninsula Delmarva Peninsula Alaska Peninsula Kenai Peninsula Niagara Peninsula Beringia Belt regions

Bible Belt Black Belt Corn Belt Cotton Belt Frost Belt Rice Belt Rust Belt Sun Belt Snow Belt

Latin

Northern Mexico Baja California Peninsula Gulf of California

Colorado River Delta

Gulf of Mexico Soconusco Tierra Caliente La Mixteca La Huasteca Bajío Valley of Mexico Mezquital Valley Sierra Madre de Oaxaca Yucatán Peninsula Basin and Range Province Western Caribbean Zone Isthmus of Panama Gulf of Panama

Pearl Islands

Azuero Peninsula Mosquito Coast West Indies Antilles

Greater Antilles Lesser Antilles

Leeward Leeward Antilles Windward

Lucayan Archipelago Southern Caribbean

Aridoamerica Mesoamerica Oasisamerica Northern Middle Anglo Latin

French Hispanic

American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Regions of Oceania

Australasia

Gulf of Carpentaria New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

New Zealand

South Island North Island

Coromandel Peninsula

Zealandia New Caledonia Solomon Islands (archipelago) Vanuatu

Kula Gulf

Australia Capital Country Eastern Australia Lake Eyre basin Murray–Darling basin Northern Australia Nullarbor Plain Outback Southern Australia

Maralinga

Sunraysia Great Victoria Desert Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf St Vincent Lefevre Peninsula Fleurieu Peninsula Yorke Peninsula Eyre Peninsula Mornington Peninsula Bellarine Peninsula Mount Henry Peninsula

Melanesia

Islands Region

Bismarck Archipelago Solomon Islands Archipelago

Fiji New Caledonia Papua New Guinea Vanuatu

Micronesia

Caroline Islands

Federated States of Micronesia Palau

Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island

Polynesia

Easter Island Hawaiian Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia

Austral Islands Gambier Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotu

Kermadec Islands Mangareva Islands Samoa Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu

Ring of Fire

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Regions of South America

East

Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado

North

Caribbean South America West Indies Los Llanos The Guianas Amazon basin

Amazon rainforest

Gulf of Paria Paria Peninsula Paraguaná Peninsula Orinoco Delta

South

Tierra del Fuego Patagonia Pampas Pantanal Gran Chaco Chiquitano dry forests Valdes Peninsula

West

Andes

Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range

Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Polar regions

Antarctic

Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula East Antarctica West Antarctica Eklund Islands Ecozone Extreme points Islands

Arctic

Arctic
Arctic
Alaska British Arctic
Arctic
Territories Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic

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Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic
Arctic
Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago
Archipelago
Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea of Åland Sea of Azov Sea of Crete Sea of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique
Mozambique
Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor
Timor
Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China
China
Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China
China
Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

  Book   Category

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Regional economic communities in Africa

Continental

African Union Organization of African Unity
Organization of African Unity
(OAU) African Economic Community
African Economic Community
(AEC)

Inter-regional

Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa
Southern Africa
(COMESA) Community of Sahel-Saharan States
Community of Sahel-Saharan States
(CEN / SAD) Economic Community of Central African States
Economic Community of Central African States
(ECCAS / EEAC)

Southern

Southern African Development Community
Southern African Development Community
(SADC) Southern African Customs Union
Southern African Customs Union
(SACU)

Northern

Arab
Arab
Maghreb
Maghreb
Union (AMU) Greater Arab
Arab
Free Trade Area (GAFTA)

Eastern

East African Community
East African Community
(EAC) Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD)

Western

Economic Community of West African States
Economic Community of West African States
(ECOWAS) West African Monetary Zone
West African Monetary Zone
(WAMZ) West African Economic and Monetary Union
West African Economic and Monetary Union
(UEMOA)

Central

Economic Community of Central African States
Economic Community of Central African States
(ECCAS) Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa
Central Africa
(CEMAC)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 101145857849823021502 LCCN: sh85001531 GND: 4000695-5 SELIBR: 138939 BNF: cb153236036 (d

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