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Best Picture The Shape of Water

The Academy Awards, also known as the Oscars,[1] are a set of 24 awards for artistic and technical merit in the American film industry, given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), to recognize excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership. The various category winners are awarded a copy of a golden statuette, officially called the "Academy Award of Merit", which has become commonly known by its nickname "Oscar". The sculpture was created by George Stanley.[2] The awards, first presented in 1929 at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel, are overseen by AMPAS.[3][4] The awards ceremony was first broadcast on radio in 1930 and televised for the first time in 1953. It is now seen live in more than 200 countries and can be streamed live online.[5] The Academy Awards ceremony is the oldest worldwide entertainment awards ceremony. Its equivalents – the Emmy Awards
Emmy Awards
for television, the Tony Awards for theater, and the Grammy Awards for music – are modeled after the Academy Awards.[6] The 90th Academy Awards
90th Academy Awards
ceremony, honoring the best films of 2017, was held on 4 March 2018, at the Dolby Theatre, in Los Angeles, California. The ceremony was hosted by Jimmy Kimmel
Jimmy Kimmel
and was broadcast on ABC. A total of 3,072 Oscars have been awarded from the inception of the award through the 90th.[7]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Institutions

2 Oscar statuette

2.1 Other awards presented by the Academy 2.2 Academy Award of Merit (Oscar statuette) 2.3 Naming 2.4 Engraving 2.5 Ownership of Oscar statuettes

3 Nomination

3.1 Voters 3.2 Rules

4 Awards ceremonies

4.1 Telecast 4.2 TV ratings

5 Venues 6 Awards of Merit categories

6.1 Current categories 6.2 Discontinued categories 6.3 Proposed categories

7 Special
Special
categories

7.1 Current special categories 7.2 Discontinued special categories

8 Criticism

8.1 Accusations of commercialism 8.2 Accusations of bias 8.3 Allegations of a lack of diversity 8.4 Symbolism or sentimentalization 8.5 Refusing the award

9 Associated events 10 Presenter and performer gifts 11 Television ratings and advertisement prices 12 Trademark 13 See also 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links

History[edit] The first Academy Awards
Academy Awards
presentation was held on 16 May 1929, at a private dinner function at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel
Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel
with an audience of about 270 people. The post-awards party was held at the Mayfair Hotel.[8] The cost of guest tickets for that night's ceremony was $5 ($71 in 2017 dollars). Fifteen statuettes were awarded, honoring artists, directors and other participants in the film-making industry of the time, for their works during the 1927–28 period. The ceremony ran for 15 minutes. Winners were announced to media three months earlier. That was changed for the second ceremony in 1930. Since then, for the rest of the first decade, the results were given to newspapers for publication at 11:00 pm on the night of the awards.[8] This method was used until an occasion when the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times announced the winners before the ceremony began; as a result, the Academy has, since 1941, used a sealed envelope to reveal the name of the winners.[8] Institutions[edit] The first Best Actor awarded was Emil Jannings, for his performances in The Last Command and The Way of All Flesh. He had to return to Europe before the ceremony, so the Academy agreed to give him the prize earlier; this made him the first Academy Award winner in history. At that time, the winners were recognized for all of their work done in a certain category during the qualifying period; for example, Jannings received the award for two movies in which he starred during that period, and Janet Gaynor
Janet Gaynor
later won a single Oscar for performances in three films. With the fourth ceremony, however, the system changed, and professionals were honored for a specific performance in a single film. For the first six ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned two calendar years.[8] At the 29th ceremony, held on 27 March 1957, the Best Foreign Language Film category was introduced. Until then, foreign-language films had been honored with the Special
Special
Achievement Award. The 74th Academy Awards, held in 2002, presented the first Academy Award for Best Animated Feature. Since 1973, all Academy Awards
Academy Awards
ceremonies have ended with the Academy Award for Best Picture. Traditionally, the previous year's winner for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor present the awards for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress, while the previous year's winner for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress present the awards for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor. Oscar statuette[edit] Other awards presented by the Academy[edit]

See also §  Special
Special
categories (below).

In addition to the Academy Award of Merit (Oscar award), there are nine honorary (non-competitive) awards presented by the Academy from time to time (except for the Academy Honorary Award, the Technical Achievement Award, and the Student Academy Awards, which are presented annually):

Governors Awards:

The Academy Honorary Award (annual) (which may or may not be in the form of an Oscar statuette); The Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award
Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award
(since 1938) (in the form of a bust of Thalberg); The Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award
Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award
(since 1957) (in the form of an Oscar statuette);

The Academy Scientific and Technical Awards:

Academy Award of Merit (non-competitive) (in the form of an Oscar statuette); Scientific and Engineering Award (in the form of a bronze tablet); Technical Achievement Award (annual) (in the form of a certificate); The John A. Bonner Medal of Commendation (since 1978) (in the form of a medal); The Gordon E. Sawyer Award (since 1982); and

The Academy Student Academy Awards (annual).

The Academy also awards Nicholl Fellowships in Screenwriting. Academy Award of Merit (Oscar statuette)[edit]

See also § Awards of Merit categories (below)

The best known award is the Academy Award of Merit, more popularly known as the Oscar statuette.[9] Made of gold-plated bronze on a black metal base, it is 13.5 in (34.3 cm) tall, weighs 8.5 lb (3.856 kg), and depicts a knight rendered in Art Deco
Art Deco
style holding a crusader's sword standing on a reel of film with five spokes. The five spokes represent the original branches of the Academy: Actors, Writers, Directors, Producers, and Technicians.[10] The model for the statuette is said to be Mexican actor Emilio "El Indio" Fernández.[11] Sculptor George Stanley (who also did the Muse Fountain at the Hollywood Bowl) sculpted Cedric Gibbons' design. The statuettes presented at the initial ceremonies were gold-plated solid bronze. Within a few years the bronze was abandoned in favor of Britannia metal, a pewter-like alloy which is then plated in copper, nickel silver, and finally, 24-karat gold.[12] Due to a metal shortage during World War II, Oscars were made of painted plaster for three years. Following the war, the Academy invited recipients to redeem the plaster figures for gold-plated metal ones.[13] The only addition to the Oscar since it was created is a minor streamlining of the base. The original Oscar mold was cast in 1928 at the C.W. Shumway & Sons Foundry in Batavia, Illinois, which also contributed to casting the molds for the Vince Lombardi Trophy
Vince Lombardi Trophy
and Emmy Award's statuettes. From 1983 to 2015,[14] approximately 50 Oscars in a tin alloy with gold plating were made each year in Chicago by Illinois manufacturer R.S. Owens & Company.[15] It takes between three and four weeks to manufacture 50 statuettes.[11] In 2016, the Academy returned to bronze as the core metal of the statuettes, handing manufacturing duties to Rock Tavern, New York-based Polich Tallix Fine Art Foundry.[16] While based on a digital scan of an original 1929 Oscar, the statuettes retain their modern-era dimensions and black pedestal. Cast in liquid bronze from 3D-printed
3D-printed
ceramic molds and polished, they are then electroplated in 24-karat gold by Brooklyn, New York–based Epner Technology. The time required to produce 50 such statuettes is roughly three months.[17] R.S. Owens is expected to continue producing other awards for the Academy and service existing Oscars that need replating.[18] Naming[edit] The origin of the name Oscar is disputed. One biography of Bette Davis, who was a president of the Academy, claims she named the Oscar after her first husband, band leader Harmon Oscar Nelson.[19] Another claimed origin is the Academy's Executive Secretary, Margaret Herrick, first saw the award in 1931 and made reference to the statuette's reminding her of her "Uncle Oscar" (a nickname for her cousin Oscar Pierce).[20] Columnist Sidney Skolsky was present during Herrick's naming and seized the name in his byline, "Employees have affectionately dubbed their famous statuette 'Oscar'." [21] One of the earliest mentions of the term Oscar dates to a Time magazine article about the 1934 6th Academy Awards.[22] Walt Disney also thanked the Academy for his Oscar as early as 1932.[23] The trophy officially received the name "Oscar" in 1939 by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Engraving[edit] To prevent information identifying the Oscar winners from leaking ahead of the ceremony, Oscar statuettes presented at the ceremony have blank baseplates. Until 2010, winners returned their statuettes to the Academy, and had to wait several weeks to have their names inscribed on their respective Oscars. Since 2010, winners have had the option of having engraved nameplates applied to their statuettes at an inscription-processing station at the Governor's Ball, a party held immediately after the Oscar ceremony. The R.S. Owens company has engraved nameplates made before the ceremony, bearing the name of every potential winner. The nameplates for the non-winning nominees are later recycled.[24][25] Ownership of Oscar statuettes[edit] Since 1950, the statuettes have been legally encumbered by the requirement that neither winners nor their heirs may sell the statuettes without first offering to sell them back to the Academy for US$1. If a winner refuses to agree to this stipulation, then the Academy keeps the statuette. Academy Awards
Academy Awards
not protected by this agreement have been sold in public auctions and private deals for six-figure sums.[26] In December 2011, Orson Welles' 1941 Oscar for Citizen Kane
Citizen Kane
(Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay) was put up for auction, after his heirs won a 2004 court decision contending that Welles did not sign any agreement to return the statue to the Academy.[27] On 20 December 2011, it sold in an online auction for US$861,542.[28] In 1992, Harold Russell
Harold Russell
needed money for his wife's medical expenses. In a controversial decision, he consigned his 1946 Oscar for Best Supporting Actor for The Best Years of Our Lives
The Best Years of Our Lives
to Herman Darvick Autograph Auctions, and on 6 August 1992, in New York City, the Oscar sold to a private collector for $60,500. Since he won the award before 1950, he was not required to offer it to the Academy first. Russell defended his decision, saying, "I don't know why anybody would be critical. My wife's health is much more important than sentimental reasons. The movie will be here, even if Oscar isn't." Harold Russell is the only Academy Award-winning actor to ever sell an Oscar.[29] While the Oscar is owned by the recipient, it is essentially not on the open market.[30] Michael Todd's grandson tried to sell Todd's Oscar statuette to a movie prop collector in 1989, but the Academy won the legal battle by getting a permanent injunction. Although some Oscar sales transactions have been successful, some buyers have subsequently returned the statuettes to the Academy, which keeps them in its treasury.[31] Nomination[edit] Since 2004, Academy Award nomination results have been announced to the public in late January. Prior to that, the results were announced in early February. Voters[edit] The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
(AMPAS), a professional honorary organization, maintains a voting membership of 5,783 as of 2012[update].[32] Academy membership is divided into different branches, with each representing a different discipline in film production. Actors constitute the largest voting bloc, numbering 1,311 members (22 percent) of the Academy's composition. Votes have been certified by the auditing firm PricewaterhouseCoopers
PricewaterhouseCoopers
(and its predecessor Price Waterhouse) for the past 83 annual awards ceremonies.[33][34] All AMPAS members must be invited to join by the Board of Governors, on behalf of Academy Branch Executive Committees. Membership eligibility may be achieved by a competitive nomination or a member may submit a name based on other significant contributions to the field of motion pictures. New membership proposals are considered annually. The Academy does not publicly disclose its membership, although as recently as 2007 press releases have announced the names of those who have been invited to join. The 2007 release also stated that it has just under 6,000 voting members. While the membership had been growing, stricter policies have kept its size steady since then.[35] In 2012, the results of a study conducted by the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times were published describing the demographic breakdown of approximately 88% of AMPAS' voting membership. Of the 5,100+ active voters confirmed, 94% were Caucasian, 77% were male, and 54% were found to be over the age of 60. 33% of voting members are former nominees (14%) and winners (19%).[36] In May 2011, the Academy sent a letter advising its 6,000 or so voting members that an online system for Oscar voting would be implemented in 2013.[37] Rules[edit] According to Rules 2 and 3 of the official Academy Awards
Academy Awards
Rules, a film must open in the previous calendar year, from midnight at the start of 1 January to midnight at the end of 31 December, in Los Angeles County, California, and play for seven consecutive days, to qualify (except for the Best Foreign Language Film, Best Documentary Feature, and Best Documentary Short Subject).[38][39] The Best Foreign Language Film award does not require a U.S. release. The Best Documentary Feature award requires week-long releases in both Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County and New York City
New York City
during the previous calendar year.[40] The Best Documentary Short Subject award has noticeably different eligibility rules from most other competitive awards. First, the qualifying period for release does not coincide with a calendar year, instead covering a one-year period starting on 1 September and ending on 31 August of the calendar year before the ceremony. Second, there are multiple methods of qualification. The main method is a week-long theatrical release in either Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County or New York City during the eligibility period. Films also can qualify by winning specified awards at one of a number of competitive film festivals designated by the Academy. Finally, a film that is selected as a gold, silver, or bronze medal winner in the Documentary category of the immediately previous Student Academy Awards is also eligible.[41] For example, the 2009 Best Picture winner, The Hurt Locker, was actually first released in 2008, but did not qualify for the 2008 awards as it did not play its Oscar-qualifying run in Los Angeles until mid-2009, thus qualifying for the 2009 awards. Foreign films must include English subtitles, and each country can submit only one film per year.[42] Rule 2 states that a film must be feature-length, defined as a minimum of 40 minutes, except for short-subject awards, and it must exist either on a 35 mm or 70 mm film
70 mm film
print or in 24 frame/s or 48 frame/s progressive scan digital cinema format with a minimum projector resolution of 2048 by 1080 pixels.[43] Effective with the 90th Academy Awards, presented in 2018, multi-part and limited series will be ineligible for the Best Documentary Feature award. This followed the win of O.J.: Made in America, an eight-hour presentation that was screened in a limited release before being broadcast in five parts on ABC and ESPN, in that category in 2017. The Academy's announcement of the new rule made no direct mention of that film.[44] Producers must submit an Official Screen Credits online form before the deadline; in case it is not submitted by the defined deadline, the film will be ineligible for Academy Awards
Academy Awards
in any year. The form includes the production credits for all related categories. Then, each form is checked and put in a Reminder List of Eligible Releases. In late December ballots and copies of the Reminder List of Eligible Releases are mailed to around 6,000 active members. For most categories, members from each of the branches vote to determine the nominees only in their respective categories (i.e. only directors vote for directors, writers for writers, actors for actors, etc.). In the special case of Best Picture, all voting members are eligible to select the nominees. In all major categories, a variant of the single transferable vote is used, with each member casting a ballot with up to five nominees (ten for Best Picture) ranked preferentially.[45][46][47] In certain categories, including Foreign Film, Documentary and Animated Feature Film, nominees are selected by special screening committees made up of members from all branches. In most categories the winner is selected from among the nominees by plurality voting of all members.[45][47] Since 2009, the Best Picture winner has been chosen by instant runoff voting.[47][48] Since 2013, re-weighted range voting has been used to select the nominees for the Best Visual Effects.[49][50] Film companies will spend as much as several million dollars on marketing to awards voters for a movie in the running for Best Picture, in attempts to improve chances of receiving Oscars and other movie awards conferred in Oscar season. The Academy enforces rules to limit overt campaigning by its members so as to try to eliminate excesses and prevent the process from becoming undignified. It has an awards czar on staff who advises members on allowed practices and levies penalties on offenders.[51] For example, a producer of the 2009 Best Picture nominee The Hurt Locker
The Hurt Locker
was disqualified as a producer in the category when he contacted associates urging them to vote for his film and not another that was seen as the front-runner (The Hurt Locker eventually won). Awards ceremonies[edit] See also: List of Academy Awards
Academy Awards
ceremonies Telecast[edit]

3 1st Academy Awards
1st Academy Awards
Presentations, Pantages Theatre, Hollywood, 1959

8 1st Academy Awards
1st Academy Awards
Presentations, Dolby Theatre, Hollywood, 2009

The major awards are presented at a live televised ceremony, commonly in late February or early March following the relevant calendar year, and six weeks after the announcement of the nominees. It is the culmination of the film awards season, which usually begins during November or December of the previous year. This is an elaborate extravaganza, with the invited guests walking up the red carpet in the creations of the most prominent fashion designers of the day. Black tie dress is the most common outfit for men, although fashion may dictate not wearing a bow-tie, and musical performers sometimes do not adhere to this. (The artists who recorded the nominees for Best Original Song quite often perform those songs live at the awards ceremony, and the fact that they are performing is often used to promote the television broadcast.) The Academy Awards
Academy Awards
is the only awards show televised live in all United States time zones (excluding Hawaii; they aired live in Alaska since 2011 for the first time since 1996), Canada, the United Kingdom, and gathers millions of viewers elsewhere throughout the world. The Oscars were first televised in 1953 by NBC, which continued to broadcast the event until 1960, when ABC took over, televising the festivities (including the first color broadcast of the event in 1966) through 1970. NBC
NBC
regained the rights for five years (1971–75), then ABC resumed broadcast duties in 1976 and its current contract with the Academy runs through 2028.[52] The Academy has also produced condensed versions of the ceremony for broadcast in international markets (especially those outside of the Americas) in more desirable local timeslots. The ceremony was broadcast live internationally for the first time via satellite since 1970, but only two South American countries, Chile and Brazil, purchased the rights to air the broadcast. By that time, the television rights to the Academy Awards had been sold in 50 countries. A decade later, the rights were already being sold to 60 countries, and by 1984, the TV rights to the Awards were licensed in 76 countries. The ceremonies were moved up from late March/early April to late February since 2004 to help disrupt and shorten the intense lobbying and ad campaigns associated with Oscar season in the film industry. Another reason was because of the growing TV ratings success coinciding with the NCAA Basketball Tournament, which would cut into the Academy Awards
Academy Awards
audience. (In 1976 and 1977, ABC's regained Oscars were moved from Tuesday to Monday and went directly opposite NBC's NCAA title game.) The earlier date is also to the advantage of ABC, as it now usually occurs during the highly profitable and important February sweeps period. Some years, the ceremony is moved into first Sunday of March in over to avoid clash with the Winter Olympic Games. Another reason for the move to late February and early March is also to avoid the awards ceremony occurring so close to the religious holidays of Passover
Passover
and Easter, which for decades had been a grievance from members and the general public. Advertising is somewhat restricted, however, as traditionally no movie studios or competitors of official Academy Award sponsors may advertise during the telecast. The production of the Academy Awards
Academy Awards
telecast currently holds the distinction of winning the most Emmys in history, with 47 wins and 195 nominations overall since that award's own launch in 1949.[53] After many years of being held on Mondays at 9:00 pm Eastern/6:00 p.m Pacific, since the 1999 ceremonies, it was moved to Sundays at 8:30 pm ET/5:30 pm PT.[54] The reasons given for the move were that more viewers would tune in on Sundays, that Los Angeles rush-hour traffic jams could be avoided, and an earlier start time would allow viewers on the East Coast to go to bed earlier.[55] For many years the film industry opposed a Sunday broadcast because it would cut into the weekend box office.[56] In 2010, the Academy contemplated moving the ceremony even further back into January, citing TV viewers' fatigue with the film industry's long awards season. However, such an accelerated schedule would dramatically decrease the voting period for its members, to the point where some voters would only have time to view the contending films streamed on their computers (as opposed to traditionally receiving the films and ballots in the mail). Furthermore, a January ceremony on Sunday would clash with National Football League
National Football League
playoff games.[57] Originally scheduled for 8 April 1968, the 40th Academy Awards ceremony was postponed for two days, because of the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.. On 30 March 1981, the 53rd Academy Awards was postponed for one day, after the shooting of President Ronald Reagan and others in Washington, D.C. In 1993, an In Memoriam segment was introduced,[58] honoring those who had made a significant contribution to cinema who had died in the preceding 12 months, a selection compiled by a small committee of Academy members.[59] This segment has drawn criticism over the years for the omission of some names. Criticism was also levied for many years regarding another aspect, with the segment having a "popularity contest" feel as the audience varied their applause to those who had died by the subject's cultural impact; the applause has since been muted during the telecast, and the audience is discouraged from clapping during the segment and giving silent reflection instead. In terms of broadcast length, the ceremony generally averages three and a half hours. The first Oscars, in 1929, lasted 15 minutes. At the other end of the spectrum, the 2002 ceremony lasted four hours and twenty-three minutes.[60][61] In 2010, the organizers of the Academy Awards
Academy Awards
announced winners' acceptance speeches must not run past 45 seconds. This, according to organizer Bill Mechanic, was to ensure the elimination of what he termed "the single most hated thing on the show" – overly long and embarrassing displays of emotion.[62] In 2016, in a further effort to streamline speeches, winners' dedications were displayed on an on-screen ticker.[63] During the 2018 ceremony, host Jimmy Kimmel
Jimmy Kimmel
acknowledged how long the ceremony had become, by announcing that he would give a brand-new jet ski to whoever gave the shortest speech of the night (a reward won by Mark Bridges when accepting his Best Costume Design award for Phantom Thread).[64] Although still dominant in ratings, the viewership of the Academy Awards have steadily dropped; the 88th Academy Awards
88th Academy Awards
were the lowest-rated in the past eight years (although with increases in male and 18-49 viewership), while the show itself also faced mixed reception. Following the show, Variety reported that ABC was, in negotiating an extension to its contract to broadcast the Oscars, seeking to have more creative control over the broadcast itself. Currently and nominally, AMPAS is responsible for most aspects of the telecast, including the choice of production staff and hosting, although ABC is allowed to have some input on their decisions.[65] In August 2016, AMPAS extended its contract with ABC through 2028: the contract neither contains any notable changes, nor gives ABC any further creative control over the telecast.[66] TV ratings[edit] Historically, the "Oscarcast" has pulled in a bigger haul when box-office hits are favored to win the Best Picture trophy. More than 57.25 million viewers tuned to the telecast for the 70th Academy Awards in 1998, the year of Titanic, which generated close to US$600 million at the North American box office pre-Oscars.[67] The 76th Academy Awards
Academy Awards
ceremony in which The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (pre-telecast box office earnings of US$368 million) received 11 Awards including Best Picture drew 43.56 million viewers.[68] The most watched ceremony based on Nielsen ratings to date, however, was the 42nd Academy Awards
42nd Academy Awards
(Best Picture Midnight Cowboy) which drew a 43.4% household rating on 7 April 1970.[69] By contrast, ceremonies honoring films that have not performed well at the box office tend to show weaker ratings. The 78th Academy Awards which awarded low-budgeted, independent film Crash (with a pre-Oscar gross of US$53.4 million) generated an audience of 38.64 million with a household rating of 22.91%.[70] In 2008, the 80th Academy Awards telecast was watched by 31.76 million viewers on average with an 18.66% household rating, the lowest rated and least watched ceremony to date, in spite of celebrating 80 years of the Academy Awards.[71] The Best Picture winner of that particular ceremony was another independently financed film (No Country for Old Men). Venues[edit] In 1929, the first Academy Awards
Academy Awards
were presented at a banquet dinner at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel. From 1930 to 1943, the ceremony alternated between two venues: the Ambassador Hotel on Wilshire Boulevard and the Biltmore Hotel in downtown Los Angeles. Grauman's Chinese Theatre
Grauman's Chinese Theatre
in Hollywood then hosted the awards from 1944 to 1946, followed by the Shrine Auditorium
Shrine Auditorium
in Los Angeles
Los Angeles
from 1947 to 1948. The 2 1st Academy Awards
1st Academy Awards
in 1949 were held at the Academy Award Theatre at what was the Academy's headquarters on Melrose Avenue in Hollywood.[72] From 1950 to 1960, the awards were presented at Hollywood's Pantages Theatre. With the advent of television, the awards from 1953 to 1957 took place simultaneously in Hollywood and New York, first at the NBC International Theatre (1953) and then at the NBC
NBC
Century Theatre, after which the ceremony took place solely in Los Angeles. The Oscars moved to the Santa Monica Civic Auditorium
Santa Monica Civic Auditorium
in Santa Monica, California in 1961. By 1969, the Academy decided to move the ceremonies back to Los Angeles, this time to the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion
Dorothy Chandler Pavilion
at the Los Angeles County Music Center. In 2002, the Dolby Theatre
Dolby Theatre
(previously known as the Kodak Theatre) became the presentation's current venue.[73]

Awards of Merit categories[edit] Current categories[edit]

Best Picture: since 1927/28 Best Director: since 1927/28 Best Actor in a Leading Role: since 1927/28 Best Actor in a Supporting Role: since 1936 Best Actress in a Leading Role: since 1927/28 Best Actress in a Supporting Role: since 1936 Best Animated Feature: since 2001 Best Animated Short Film: since 1930/31 Best Cinematography: since 1927/28 Best Costume Design: since 1948 Best Documentary Feature: since 1943 Best Documentary Short Subject: since 1941 Best Film Editing: since 1934 Best Foreign Language Film: since 1947 Best Live Action Short Film: since 1931/32 Best Makeup and Hairstyling: since 1981 Best Original Score: since 1934 Best Original Song: since 1934 Best Production Design: since 1927/28 Best Sound Editing: since 1963 Best Sound Mixing: since 1929/30 Best Visual Effects: since 1939 Best Adapted Screenplay: since 1927/28 Best Original Screenplay: since 1940

In the first year of the awards, the Best Directing award was split into two categories (Drama and Comedy). At times, the Best Original Score award has also been split into separate categories (Drama and Comedy/Musical). From the 1930s through the 1960s, the Art Direction (now Production Design), Cinematography, and Costume Design awards were likewise split into two categories (black-and-white films and color films). Prior to 2012, the Production Design award was called Art Direction, while the Makeup and Hairstyling award was called Makeup. Discontinued categories[edit]

Best Assistant Director: 1932/33 to 1937 Best Director, Comedy Picture: 1927/28 Best Director, Dramatic Picture: 1927/28 Best Dance Direction: 1935 to 1937 Best Engineering Effects: 1927/28 Best Original Musical or Comedy Score: 1995 to 1998 Best Original Musical: 1984 Best Original Story: 1927/28 to 1956 Academy Award for Best Original Score: 1962 to 1973 Best Short Subject – 1 Reel: 1936 to 1956 Best Short Subject – 2 Reel: 1936 to 1956 Best Short Subject – Color: 1936 to 1937 Best Short Subject – Comedy: 1931/32 to 1935 Best Short Subject – Novelty: 1931/32 to 1935 Best Title Writing: 1927/28 Best Unique and Artistic Picture: 1927/28

Proposed categories[edit] The Board of Governors meets each year and considers new award categories. To date, the following proposed categories have been rejected:

Best Casting: rejected in 1999[74] Best Stunt Coordination: rejected every year from 1991 to 2012[75][76][77][78] Best Title Design: rejected in 1999[74]

Special
Special
categories[edit] The Special
Special
Academy Awards
Academy Awards
are voted on by special committees, rather than by the Academy membership as a whole. They are not always presented on a consistent annual basis. Current special categories[edit]

For a list of all nine awards, see § Other awards presented by the Academy (above)

Academy Honorary Award: since 1929 Academy Scientific and Technical Award (three different awards): since 1931 Gordon E. Sawyer Award: since 1981 Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award: since 1957 Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award: since 1938 Academy Special
Special
Achievement Award: from 1972 to 1995, and again for 2017

Discontinued special categories[edit]

Academy Juvenile Award: 1934 to 1960

Criticism[edit]

This section may lend undue weight to certain ideas, incidents, or controversies. Please help to create a more balanced presentation. Discuss and resolve this issue before removing this message. (April 2016)

Accusations of commercialism[edit] Due to the positive exposure and prestige of the Academy Awards, studios spend millions of dollars and hire publicists specifically to promote their films during what is typically called the "Oscar season". This has generated accusations of the Academy Awards
Academy Awards
being influenced more by marketing than quality. William Friedkin, an Academy Award-winning film director and former producer of the ceremony, expressed this sentiment at a conference in New York in 2009, describing it as "the greatest promotion scheme that any industry ever devised for itself".[79] Tim Dirks, editor of AMC's filmsite.org, has written of the Academy Awards,

Unfortunately, the critical worth, artistic vision, cultural influence and innovative qualities of many films are not given the same voting weight. Especially since the 1980s, moneymaking "formula-made" blockbusters with glossy production values have often been crowd-pleasing titans (and Best Picture winners), but they haven't necessarily been great films with depth or critical acclaim by any measure.[80]

Accusations of bias[edit] Further information: Oscar bait Typical criticism of the Academy Awards
Academy Awards
for Best Picture is that among the winners and nominees there is an over-representation of romantic historical epics, biographical dramas, romantic dramedies, and family melodramas, most of which are released in the U.S. the last three months of the calendar year. The Oscars have been infamously known for selecting specific genres of movies to be awarded. This has led to the coining of the term 'Oscar bait', describing such movies. This has led at times to more specific criticisms that the Academy is disconnected from the audience, e.g., by favoring 'Oscar bait' over audience favorites, or favoring historical melodramas over critically acclaimed movies that depict current life issues.[81] Allegations of a lack of diversity[edit] The Academy Awards
Academy Awards
have long received criticism over its lack of diversity among the nominees.[82][83][84] The 88th awards ceremony became the target of a boycott, based on critics' perception that its all-white acting nominee list reflected bias. In response, the Academy initiated "historic" changes in membership by the year 2020.[85][86] Symbolism or sentimentalization[edit] Acting prizes in certain years have been criticized for not recognizing superior performances so much as being awarded for personal popularity[87] or presented as a "career honor" to recognize a distinguished nominee's entire body of work.[88] Refusing the award[edit] Some winners critical of the Academy Awards
Academy Awards
have boycotted the ceremonies and refused to accept their Oscars. The first to do so was screenwriter Dudley Nichols (Best Writing in 1935 for The Informer). Nichols boycotted the 8th Academy Awards ceremony because of conflicts between the Academy and the Writers' Guild.[89] Nichols eventually accepted the 1935 award three years later, at the 1938 ceremony. Nichols was nominated for three further Academy Awards
Academy Awards
during his career. George C. Scott
George C. Scott
became the second person to refuse his award (Best Actor in 1970 for Patton) at the 43rd Academy Awards
43rd Academy Awards
ceremony. Scott described it as a 'meat parade', saying 'I don't want any part of it."[90][91][92] The third person to refuse the award was Marlon Brando, who refused his award (Best Actor for 1972's The Godfather), citing the film industry's discrimination and mistreatment of Native Americans. At the 45th Academy Awards
45th Academy Awards
ceremony, Brando sent actress and Civil rights activist Sacheen Littlefeather
Sacheen Littlefeather
to read a 15-page speech detailing his criticisms.[89] Associated events[edit] The following events are closely associated with the annual Academy Awards:

César Award Nominees luncheon Governors Awards The 25th Independent Spirit Awards (in 2010), usually held in Santa Monica the Saturday before the Oscars, marked the first time it was moved to a Friday and a change of venue to L.A. Live The annual "Night Before", traditionally held at the Beverly Hills Hotel, begun in 2002 and generally known as the party of the season, benefits the Motion Picture and Television Fund, which operates a retirement home for SAG actors in the San Fernando Valley Elton John AIDS Foundation Academy Award Party
Elton John AIDS Foundation Academy Award Party
airs the awards live at the nearby Pacific Design Center The Governors' Ball is the Academy's official after-party, including dinner (until 2011), and is adjacent to the awards-presentation venue The Vanity Fair after-party, historically at the former Morton's restaurant, since 2009 has been at the Sunset Tower

Presenter and performer gifts[edit] It has become a tradition to give out gift bags to the presenters and performers at the Oscars. In recent years, these gifts have also been extended to award nominees and winners.[93] The value of each of these gift bags can reach into the tens of thousands of dollars. In 2014, the value was reported to be as high as US$80,000.[94] The value has risen to the point where the U.S. Internal Revenue Service
Internal Revenue Service
issued a statement regarding the gifts and their taxable status.[95] Oscar gift bags have included vacation packages to Hawaii
Hawaii
and Mexico and Japan, a private dinner party for the recipient and friends at a restaurant, videophones, a four-night stay at a hotel, watches, bracelets, vacation packages, spa treatments, bottles of vodka, maple salad dressing, and weight-loss gummie candy.[93][96][97] Some of the gifts have even had a "risque" element to them; in 2014, the adult products retailer Adam & Eve had a "Secret Room Gifting Suite". Celebrities visiting the gifting suite included Judith Hoag, Carolyn Hennesy, Kate Linder, Chris Mulkey, Jim O'Heir, and NBA
NBA
player John Salley.[98] Television ratings and advertisement prices[edit] From 2006 onwards, results are Live+SD, all previous years are Live viewing[99]

Year Viewers, millions[99] Ad price,[99][100] USD, millions Adjusted Price, USD, millions

2017 32.9 Not available Not available

2016 34.3 Not available Not available

2015 37.260[101] 1.95[102] 2.01

2014 43.740[103] 1.8 – 1.9[104] 1.86 - 1.96

2013 40.376[105] 1.65 – 1.8[104] 1.73 - 1.89

2012 39.460[106] 1.610 1.72

2011 37.919 1.3684 1.49

2010 41.699 1.1267 1.26

2009 36.310 1.3[104] 1.48

2008 32.006 1.82[104] 2.07

2007 40.172 1.6658 1.97

2006 38.939 1.6468 2.00

2005 42.139 1.503 1.88

2004 43.531 1.5031 1.95

2003 33.043 1.3458 1.79

2002 41.782 1.29 1.76

2001 42.944 1.45 2.00

2000 46.333 1.305 1.85

1999 45.615 1 1.47

1998 55.249 0.95 1.43

1997 40.075 0.85 1.30

1996 44.867 0.795 1.24

1995 48.279 0.7 1.12

1994 45.083 0.6435 1.06

1993 45.735 0.6078 1.03

1992 44.406 Not available Not available

1991 42.727 Not available Not available

1990 40.375 0.45 0.84

1989 42.619 0.375 0.74

1988 42.227 0.36 0.74

1987 37.190 0.335 0.72

1986 37.757 0.32 0.71

1985 38.855 0.315 0.72

1984 42.051 0.275 0.65

1983 53.235 0.245 0.60

1982 46.245 Not available Not available

1981 39.919 Not available Not available

1980 48.978 Not available Not available

1979 46.301 Not available Not available

1978 48.501 Not available Not available

1977 39.719 Not available Not available

1976 46.751 Not available Not available

1975 48.127 Not available Not available

1974 44.712 Not available Not available

Trademark[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (February 2016)

The term "Oscar" is a registered trademark of the AMPAS; however, in the Italian language, it is used generically to refer to any award or award ceremony, regardless of which field.[107][108] See also[edit]

Book: Academy Awards

List of film awards List of actors with Academy Award nominations

Academy Awards
Academy Awards
portal Film in the United States portal Greater Los Angeles
Los Angeles
portal

References[edit]

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Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
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Academy Awards
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Academy Awards
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Times. Archived from the original on 22 September 2013. Retrieved 13 April 2007.  ^ Friedkin, William (Director) (24 February 2009). Director William Friedkin at the Hudson Union Society. Archived from the original on 10 March 2009. Retrieved 11 March 2009.  ^ " Academy Awards
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– The Oscars". Archived from the original on 20 January 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2009.  ^ Smith, Kyle. "Have the Oscars jumped the shark?". New York Post. Archived from the original on 18 April 2012. Retrieved 24 January 2012.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 26 April 2017. Retrieved 2017-04-25.  ^ diversityhttps://www.theguardian.com/society/2017/feb/24/oscars-diversity-debate-must-include-learning-disability ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 26 April 2017. Retrieved 2017-04-25.  ^ Sims, David (19 January 2016). "Can a Boycott Change the Oscars?". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 26 February 2016. Retrieved 29 February 2016.  ^ Kreps, Daniel (23 January 2016). "Academy Promises 'Historic' Changes to Diversify Membership". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on 26 February 2016. Retrieved 29 February 2016.  ^ "What's the worst Best Actor choice of all time?". Archived from the original on 15 January 2010. Retrieved 4 October 2009.  ^ Levy, Emanuel (2003). All about Oscar: the history and politics of the Academy Awards
Academy Awards
– The Career Oscars. Burns & Oates. ISBN 978-0-8264-1452-6. Retrieved 4 October 2009.  ^ a b "The Oscars Did You Know?". Archived from the original on 23 June 2009. Retrieved 18 June 2009.  ^ "George C Scott: The man who refused an Oscar". BBC News. 23 September 1999. Archived from the original on 11 March 2014.  ^ "Show Business: Meat Parade". Time. 8 March 1971. Archived from the original on 21 December 2008.  ^ "Fast Facts – Did You Know?". Biography.com. 16 May 1929. Archived from the original on 10 February 2010. Retrieved 6 February 2010.  ^ a b Valenti, Catherine. "No Oscar? How About a Gift Bag?". ABC News. Archived from the original on 25 April 2014. Retrieved 11 March 2014.  ^ Peterson, Kim. "Oscars' gift bag has $80,000 worth of swag". CBS News. Archived from the original on 5 March 2014. Retrieved 11 March 2014.  ^ Staff. "IRS Statement on Oscar Goodie Bags". IRS.gov. Archived from the original on 11 March 2014. Retrieved 11 March 2014.  ^ Valiente, Alexa. "What Surprising Freebies Are Inside the 2014 Oscar Nominees' Gift Bags". ABC News. Archived from the original on 11 March 2014. Retrieved 11 March 2014.  ^ Bacardi, Francesca. "Oscar 'Losers' Become Winners with Distinctive Assets Gift Bags". Variety. Archived from the original on 11 March 2014. Retrieved 11 March 2014.  ^ Staff. "Adam & Eve Had Secret Room Gifting Suite for Oscars' Celebs". Adult Video News. Archived from the original on 11 March 2014. Retrieved 11 March 2014.  ^ a b c Bibel, Sara (24 February 2012). "With No Blockbusters Up For Best Picture, Expect 'Academy Awards' Viewership To Fall; Ratings History + Your Guess For This Year (Poll)". TV by the Numbers. Archived from the original on 10 December 2013. Retrieved 4 March 2014.  ^ "Kantar Media Reports On The Advertising Vitality Of The Academy Awards – Historical Advertising Data Showcases Ad Pricing Trends and Top Marketers; Super Bowl Overlap Increases as Sales Rise". Kantar Media. 13 February 2013. Archived from the original on 20 April 2013. Retrieved 20 February 2017.  ^ "Sunday Final Ratings: Oscars Adjusted Up". TVbytheNumbers. Archived from the original on 22 October 2015. Retrieved 27 October 2015.  ^ Mike Ozanian. "The Oscars Beat The Super Bowl In Advertising Premium". Forbes. Archived from the original on 14 October 2015. Retrieved 27 October 2015.  ^ Kissell, Rick (3 March 2014). "Oscars on ABC Draw Largest Audience in 10 Years". Variety. Archived from the original on 8 March 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2014.  ^ a b c d Steinberg, Brian (3 March 2014). "Oscar Ad Prices Hit All-Time High as ABC Sells Out 2014 Telecast (EXCLUSIVE)". Variety. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2014.  ^ Bibel, Sara (12 December 2013). "Tops of 2013: TV and Social Media". TV by the Numbers. Archived from the original on 25 April 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2014.  ^ Kissell, Rick (27 February 2012). "Crystal, social media fuel Oscar ratings". Variety. PMC. Retrieved 26 April 2012.  ^ Court: 'Oscar' may be generic term in Italian - Hollywood Reporter Archived 17 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Court: Oscar may be generic term in Italian Reuters Archived 29 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine.

Further reading[edit]

Brokaw, Lauren (2010). "Wanna see an Academy Awards
Academy Awards
invite? We got it along with all the major annual events surrounding the Oscars". Los Angeles: The Daily Truffle. Cotte, Oliver (2007). Secrets of Oscar-winning animation: Behind the scenes of 13 classic short animations. Focal Press. ISBN 978-0-240-52070-4.  Kinn, Gail; Piazza, Jim (2002). The Academy Awards: The Complete History of Oscar. Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers. ISBN 978-1-57912-240-9.  Levy, Emanuel (2003). All About Oscar: The History and Politics of the Academy Awards. Burns & Oates. ISBN 978-0-8264-1452-6.  Wright, Jon (2007). The Lunacy of Oscar: The Problems with Hollywood's Biggest Night. Thomas Publishing, Inc.

External links[edit]

Look up Academy Awards
Academy Awards
in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

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Official website of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences Academy Awards
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at Curlie (based on DMOZ). "Oscar Greats" at Time magazine.

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‡ Dates and years listed for each ceremony were the eligibility period of film release in Los Angeles
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