The name traces back to
* 1 The original
* 1.1 The Neoplatonic
* 2 Ancient and medieval institutions
* 3 Renaissance academies in Italy
* 3.1 15th century accademie * 3.2 16th-century literary-aesthetic academies
* 4 17th- and 18th-century academies in Europe
* 4.1 Literary-philosophical academies * 4.2 Academies of the arts * 4.3 Linguistic academies * 4.4 Academies of sciences * 4.5 Military academies
* 5 Modern use of the term academy
* 5.1 French regional academies overseeing education * 5.2 Russian research academies
* 5.3 English school types
* 5.3.1 Tertiary education * 5.3.2 Primary and secondary education
* 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links
THE ORIGINAL ACADEMY
Before Akademia was a school, and even before
Cimon enclosed its
precincts with a wall, it contained a sacred grove of olive trees
Plato's immediate successors as "scholarch" of Akademia were
Speusippus (347–339 BC),
Xenocrates (339–314 BC), Polemon
(314–269 BC), Crates (ca. 269–266 BC), and
266–240 BC). Later scholarchs include
Lacydes of Cyrene , Carneades
, Clitomachus , and
Philo of Larissa ("the last undisputed head of the
Academy"). Other notable members of Akademia include
THE NEOPLATONIC ACADEMY OF LATE ANTIQUITY
Further information: End of Hellenic Religion
After a lapse during the early Roman occupation, Akademia was
refounded as a new institution of some outstanding Platonists of late
antiquity who called themselves "successors" (diadochoi , but of
Plato) and presented themselves as an uninterrupted tradition reaching
back to Plato. However, there cannot have actually been any
geographical, institutional, economic or personal continuity with the
The last "Greek" philosophers of the revived Akademia in the 6th
century were drawn from various parts of the
The emperor Justinian closed the school in AD 529, a date that is often cited as the end of Antiquity . According to the sole witness, the historian Agathias , its remaining members looked for protection under the rule of Sassanid king Khosrau I in his capital at Ctesiphon , carrying with them precious scrolls of literature and philosophy, and to a lesser degree of science. After a peace treaty between the Persian and the Byzantine empire in 532 guaranteed their personal security (an early document in the history of freedom of religion ), some members found sanctuary in the pagan stronghold of Harran , near Edessa . One of the last leading figures of this group was Simplicius, a pupil of Damascius, the last head of the Athenian school.
It has been speculated that Akademia did not altogether disappear.
After his exile, Simplicius (and perhaps some others), may have
Harran , near Edessa . From there, the students of an
Academy-in-exile could have survived into the 9th century, long enough
to facilitate the Arabic revival of the Neoplatonist commentary
ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL INSTITUTIONS
Main articles: Ancient higher-learning institutions and Medieval university
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RENAISSANCE ACADEMIES IN ITALY
With the Neoplatonist revival that accompanied the revival of humanist studies , accademia took on newly vivid connotations.
15TH CENTURY ACCADEMIE
Florentine Renaissance , Cosimo de\'
Medici took a
personal interest in the new
Platonic Academy that he determined to
re-establish in 1439, centered on the marvellous promise shown by the
Marsilio Ficino . Cosimo had been inspired by the arrival at the
Council of Florence
In Rome, after unity was restored following the
Western Schism ,
humanist circles, cultivating philosophy and searching out and sharing
ancient texts tended to gather where there was access to a library.
Vatican Library was not coordinated until 1475 and was never
catalogued or widely accessible: not all popes looked with
satisfaction at gatherings of unsupervised intellectuals. At the head
of this movement for renewal in Rome was
Cardinal Bessarion , whose
house from the mid-century was the centre of a flourishing academy of
Neoplatonic philosophy and a varied intellectual culture. His valuable
Greek as well as Latin library (eventually bequeathed to the city of
The next generation of humanists were bolder admirers of pagan
culture, especially in the highly personal academy of Pomponius Leto ,
the natural son of a nobleman of the
Sanseverino family, born in
16TH-CENTURY LITERARY-AESTHETIC ACADEMIES
The 16th century saw at Rome a great increase of literary and
aesthetic academies, more or less inspired by the Renaissance, all of
which assumed, as was the fashion, odd and fantastic names. We learn
from various sources the names of many such institutes; as a rule,
they soon perished and left no trace. In the 1520s came the Accademia
degl\' Intronati , for the encouragement of theatrical
representations. There were also the
In Florence, the
Medici again took the lead in establishing the
Accademia e Compagnia delle Arti del Disegno in 1563, the first of the
more formally organised art academies that gradually displaced the
medieval artists' guilds , usually known as the
17TH- AND 18TH-CENTURY ACADEMIES IN EUROPE
Gradually academies began to specialize on particular topics (arts, language, sciences) and began to be founded and funded by the kings and other sovereigns (few republics had an academy). And, mainly, since 17th century academies spread throughout Europe.
In the 17th century the tradition of literary-philosophical
academies, as circles of friends gathering around learned patrons, was
continued in Italy; the "Umoristi " (1611), the "Fantastici (1625),
and the "Ordinati ", founded by Cardinal Dati and
Giulio Strozzi .
About 1700 were founded the academies of the "Infecondi ", the
"Occulti ", the "Deboli ", the "Aborigini ", the "Immobili ", the
"Accademia Esquilina ", and others. During the 18th century many
Italian cities established similar philosophical and scientific
academies. In the first half of the 19th century some of these became
the national academies of pre-unitarian states: the
ACADEMIES OF THE ARTS
Académie de peinture et de sculpture in Paris, established by
the monarchy in 1648 (later renamed) was the most significant of the
artistic academies, running the famous Salon exhibitions from 1725.
Artistic academies were established all over Europe by the end of the
18th century, and many, like the
Akademie der Künste in Berlin
(founded 1696), the
Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando in
Madrid (founded 1744), the
Imperial Academy of Arts
A fundamental feature of academic discipline in the artistic academies was regular practice in making accurate drawings from antiquities, or from casts of antiquities, on the one hand, and on the other, in deriving inspiration from the other fount, the human form. Students assembled in sessions drawing the draped and undraped human form , and such drawings, which survive in the tens of thousands from the 17th through the 19th century, are termed ACADéMIES in French.
Similar institutions were often established for other arts: Rome had the Accademia di Santa Cecilia for music from 1585; Paris had the Académie Royale de Musique from 1669 and the Académie Royale d\'Architecture from 1671.
Main article: List of language regulators
Accademia degli Infiammati of
Padova and the Accademia degli
Umidi, soon renamed the
Accademia Fiorentina , of
The first institution inspired by the Crusca was the Fruitbearing Society for German language, which existed from 1617 to 1680.
The Crusca inspired Richelieu to found in 1634 the analogous
Académie française with the task of acting as an official authority
In its turn the state established Académie was the model for the
Real Academia Española (founded in 1713) and the Swedish Academy
(1786), which are the ruling bodies of their respective languages and
editors of major dictionaries. It also was the model for the Russian
ACADEMIES OF SCIENCES
Main article: Academy of Sciences
After the short-lived
Academia Secretorum Naturae of Naples, the
first academy exclusively devoted to sciences was the Accademia dei
Lincei founded in 1603 in Rome, particularly focused on natural
sciences. In 1657 some students of
In 1652 was founded the Academia Naturae Curiosorum by four
physicians. In 1677, Leopold I , emperor of the
Holy Roman Empire
On 28 November 1660, a group of scientists from and influenced by the
In 1666 Colbert gathered a small group of scholars to found a
scientific society in Paris. The first 30 years of the Academy's
existence were relatively informal, since no statutes had as yet been
laid down for the institution. In contrast to
Royal Society , the
Although Prussia was a member of Holy Roman Empire, in 1700
Prince-elector Frederick III of
During the 18th century many European kings followed and founded
their own academy of sciences: in 1714 the
Academy of Sciences of the
This kind of academy lost importance after the university reform begun with the foundation of the University of Berlin , when universities were provided with laboratories and clinics, and were charged with doing experimental research.
At first such institutions only trained the
Starting at the end of the 16th century in the Holy Roman Empire, France, Poland and Denmark, many Knight academies were established to prepare the aristocratic youth for state and military service. Many of them lately turned into gymnasiums , but some of them were transformed into true military academies.
The École Militaire was founded by Louis XV of France in 1750 with the aim of creating an academic college for cadet officers from poor families. The construction began in 1752, but the school did not open until 1760.
Theresian Military Academy was founded on 14 December 1751 by
Maria Theresa of Austria . Per year the
MODERN USE OF THE TERM ACADEMY
National academies are bodies for scientists, artists or writers that are usually state-funded and often are given the role of controlling much of the state funding for research into their areas, or other forms of funding. Some use different terms in their name - the British Royal Society for example. The membership typically comprises distinguished individuals in the relevant field, who may be elected by the other members, or appointed by the government. They are essentially not schools or colleges, though some may operate teaching arms. The Académie Française was the most influential pattern for these.
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
Because of the tradition of intellectual brilliance associated with
this institution, many groups have chosen to use the word "academy" in
their name, especially specialized tertiary educational institutions.
In the early 19th century "academy" took the connotations that
"gymnasium " was acquiring in German-speaking lands, of school that
was less advanced than a college (for which it might prepare students)
but considerably more than elementary. Early American examples are the
prestigious preparatory schools of
Phillips Andover Academy , Phillips
Mozart organized public subscription performances of his music in Vienna in the 1780s and 1790s, he called the concerts "academies". This usage in musical terms survives in the concert orchestra Academy of St Martin in the Fields and in the Brixton Academy , a concert hall in Brixton, South London.
Academies proliferated in the 20th century until even a three-week
series of lectures and discussions would be termed an "academy". In
addition, the generic term "the academy" is sometimes used to refer to
all of academia, which is sometimes considered a global successor to
FRENCH REGIONAL ACADEMIES OVERSEEING EDUCATION
A map outlining the academies overseeing education in France.
In France, regional academic councils called academies are responsible for supervising all aspects of education in their region. The academy regions are similar to, but not identical to, the standard French administrative regions. the rector of each academy is a revocable nominee of the Ministry of Education. These academies' main responsibility is overseeing primary and secondary education, but public universities are in some respects also answerable to the academy for their region. However, French private universities are independent of the state and therefore independent of the regional academies.
RUSSIAN RESEARCH ACADEMIES
Imperial Russia and
ENGLISH SCHOOL TYPES
Main article: Dissenting academies
From the mid-seventeenth to the 19th centuries, educational
University College London
Primary And secondary Education
Main article: Academy (English school)
In 2000, a form of "independent state schools", called "academies ",
were introduced in
The Queen's Speech, which followed the 2010 general election , included proposals for a bill to allow the Secretary of State for Education to approve schools, both Primary and Secondary, that have been graded "outstanding" by Ofsted , to become academies. This will be through a simplified streamlined process which will not require the sponsors to provide capital funding.
In 2012, the UK government began forcing some schools which had been graded satisfactory or lower into becoming academies, unilaterally removing existing governing bodies and head teachers in some cases. An example was Downhills Primary School in Haringey, where the head teacher refused to turn the school into an academy. OFSTED were called in to assess the school, failed it, and both the head and the governing body were removed and replaced with a Government-appointed board despite opposition from the school and parents.
Plutarch Life of
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article ACADEMIES .
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article ACADEMY, GREEK .
* Alan Cameron, "The last days of the
Look up ACADEMY in Wiktionary, the free